Our address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety - All Russian Research Veterinary Institute, 2-Nauchny gorodok, Kazan, 420075, Russia

Tel. / Fax:(843) 239-53-20 (editorial)

E-mail: vetvrach@vnivi.ru

The journal is registered

The journal is registered in Federal Service for Oversight of Mass Media, Telecommunications, and Protection of Cultural Heritage.

The Registration Certificate number is ÏÈ ¹ÔÑ77-29757 

Decision of the Presidium

of the Russian Higher Attestation Committee

The Veterinarny Vrach journal is one of the Russian peer-viewed research journals eligible to publish main research findings and results of theses pending a scientific degree of Doctor or Cadidate of Sciences.

Archive

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

¹ 6, 2023

Ñêà÷àòü íîìåð æóðíàëà â ôîðìàòå .pdf (10,24 ÌÁ)
  Parasitology
   
Title:

ANTIPARASITIC EFFICACY OF THE NEW PHARMACOLOGICAL SUBSTANCE "K-55" IN AVIAN EIMERIOSIS

   
Authors: Ramis R. Gizzatullin, candidate of veterinary sciences, gizzatullin.1987@bk.ru Minsagit K. Lutfullin, doctor of veterinary sciences, parasitology-kazan@mail.ru Danil N. Mingaleev, doctor of veterinary sciences, damin80@mail.ru Ramia R. Gizzatullina, candidate of veterinary sciences, gizzatullina.miya@bk.ru Rosalia R. Timerbayeva, candidate of veterinary sciences, 89033401420@mail.ru
   
Address: Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after N.E. Bauman, Kazan, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract. Aimeriosis is one of the most common diseases of birds caused by protozoa, which leads to a decrease in productivity and economic losses in poultry farming. In this study, the anti-eimeriosis efficacy of the new pharmacological substance "K-55" was studied in the treatment of chickens infected with eimeriosis. Under the guidance of teachers of the Department of Epizootology and Parasitology, an experiment was carried out on 30 chickens of twenty-day age who were infected with a titrated dose of sporulated cocystameria at a dose of 2000 cells per 1 kg of weight. The results of the studies showed that subacute and desquamative catarrhal inflammation was observed in the control groups in the small intestine of chickens experimentally infected with eimeriosis. In some areas of the intestinal wall, the destruction of not only the villi, but also the entire epithelial monolayer of the crypt is noticeable. The hydrographic structure of the small intestine was preserved on the 7th and 14th days after 69
treatment with the pharmacological substance "K-55". In the intestine there were villi with a flattened and wide base. The prisms in the villi were represented by a multitude of goblet-shaped exocrinoids, with signs of increased secretion. No hypersecretion was detected in the apical zone. The dense base of the villi is characterized by hyper- plasia of reticulocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells of blood vessels. Apparently, the muscle layer consisted of a continuous and uneven layer. The study showed that the new pharmacological substance "K-55" is effective in the treatment of avian eimeriosis.
   
Keywords: Keywords: eimeriosis, extens and intensities, chickens, pathomorphological and histochemical changes
   
References:
References
1.   Bakulin, V.A. Diseases of birds. / V.A. Bakulin // St. Petersburg, 2006. - 686 p.
2. Gizzatullin R.R. Clinical and morphological evaluation of the effectiveness of the compound "Degelm-14" in chicken eimeriosis / R.R. Gizzatullin // Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Veterinary Sciences. – Nizhny Novgorod, 2013. - 196 s.
3. 3.Gizzatullin, R.R. Comparative pathomorphological assessment of the effect of the compound "Degelm-14" and the drug amprolium on the liver and small intestine of chickens with eimeriosis / R.R. Gizzatullin, I.N. Zalyalov, M.H. Lutfullin // Scientific notes of the Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after 72
N.E. Bauman, Volume 237. – 2019. - No.1. – pp.48-51. 4.Eliseeva, E.A. Effective means of preventing parasi- tosis of birds / E.A. Eliseeva // Poultry farming. - 2003. - No. 7.- pp. 46-47.
4.   Zhuravleva, A.Z. Comparative effectiveness of maduvit and tsigro in chicken coccidiosis / A.Z. Zhuravleva // Veterinary medicine. - 2012. - No. 10.- pp. 15-16.
5. 6.Zalyalov, I.N. Pathomorphological evaluation of the effectiveness of the compound "Degelm 14 at eimeriosis of chickens / I.N. Zalyalov, R.R. Gizzatullin, and M. Idrisov // Scientific notes of the Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after N.E. Bauman, Vol 227. – 2010. - ¹1. – Pp.42-47.
6.   7.Lutfullin, M.H. Eimeriosis of chickens / M.H. Lutfullin, N.A. Lutfullina, I.N. Zalyalov, R.R. Gizzatullin, I.V. Galkina // Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, – Kazan, 2015.-101c.
7.   8.Lutfullin, M.H. Antiparasitic drugs of a new generation / M.H. Lutfullin, N.A. Lutfullina, A.S. Hasanov // Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, - Kazan, 2017. - 216 p;
8. Mishin, V.S. Adaptation of coccidia of chickens to anticoccidial drugs and methods of its prevention / V.S. Mishin, V.M. Razbitsky, A.N. Kalinin// Mater.dokl. III -International vet. congr. poultry farming. - 2007. - pp. 221-224.
9. Fazlaev, P.P. Pathogenesis of digestion in chickens with eimeriosis / P.P. Fazlaev, R.G. Fazlaev // Modern problems of pathological anatomy, pathogenesis and diagnosis of animal diseases / Collection of scientific pa- pers based on the materials of the 16th All-Russian Scientific and Methodological Conference. - Stavropol, 2007. - pp. 113-114.
10. Fazlaev, P.P. Pathohistological changes in the cecum of chickens during parasitization of Eimeriatenella / P.P. Fazlaev //Theory and practice of combating parasitic diseases / Materials of reports of the All-Russian scientific conference dedicated to the 130th anniversary of the birth of K.I. Scriabin. – Moscow, 2008. - pp. 490-492.
  Radiobiology
   
Title:

LEUKEMIA OF CATTLE AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES ON ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

   
Authors: Arkif R. Mustafayev , candidate of veterinary sciences, mustafaev_arkif@mail.ru Enver A. Ivashov , Ivashev47@mail.ru Magomed O. Baratov , doctor of veterinary sciences, alama500@rambler.ru
   
Address:
1, 3 The Caspian Zonal Veterinary Research Institute is a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific In- stitution "Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of the Republic of Dagestan", Makhachkala, Russia
2 Republican Veterinary Laboratory of the Republic of Dagestan, Makhachkala, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract. The article provides retrospective data on the radiation background. Epizootic analysis of bovine leukemia in the Republic of Dagestan was carried out. In different periods the level of background radiation in the republic changed in different ways. So, in 1986, after the Chernobyl accident, we recorded excess of the permissible content of radioactive isotopes in samples ( Sr in seeded hay (586.7±70 pCi/kg 10-
3
90
12); 137Cs in natural hay (8801±6000 pCi/kg 10-12); 210Pb in meat (cattle) (6,9± 1,3 pCi/kg 10-12). In 1987 the 52
content of radioactive substances in samples in the republic was also at a high level. The indicators for the total beta activity of radionuclides in the samples (in straw - 18.8±2.6 nCi/kg 10-9, etc.) increased several times, and the gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides exceeded the maximum permissible norms until 1990. In 2011-2012, we also recorded a slight excess of radioactive substances in the studied samples ( Sr in meat 
90
(30.3±14.3 pCi/kg 10-12 (2011), 33.7±12.1 pCi/kg 10-12 (2012)); 137Cs in seeded hay (295.7±98.4 pCi/kg 10- 12 (2011), 210.7±52.3 pCi/kg 10-12(2012)), etc. The article presents data on the spread of BLV in the republic among animals in different periods of time. In the period after the Chernobyl accident (1988-1991), the inci- dence of bovine leukemia ranged from 3.4% (1992) to 13.2% (1991), and the percentage of infection with BLV reached from 13.2% (1992) to 32.2% (1988). From 2010 to 2014 the infection rate of BLV ranged from 2.9% (2012) to 23% (2010), and the incidence of bovine leukemia during this period did not fall below 16.7%. Thus, the excess of the content of radioactive isotopes in the samples was noted in different periods of time. During the studied period high level of bovine leukemia was observed in parallel.
   
Keywords: Keywords: leukemia of cattle, seropositivity, radiation background, radioactive isotopes ( Sr, 210 Pb), total β-activity, γ-radiation, Republic of Dagestan. 90 137Cs,
   
References:
References
1.   Fokin, A.D. Agricultural radiology / A.A. Lurie, S.P. Torshin – M.: All-Russian Research Institute of Agricul- tural Radiology, 2005. – 367 p. – 3000 copies. – ISBN 5-7107-7751-X
2. Mikhailovskaya, L.N. Technogenic radionuclides in soils and plants of terrestrial ecosystems in the zone of impact of nuclear enterprises / L.N. Mikhailovskaya, V.P. Guseva, O.V. Rukavishnikova, Z.B. Mikhai- lovskaya // Ecology. – 2020. – No. 2. – P. 110-118.
3.   Fokin, A.D. The role of plants in the spatial differentiation of the state of 137
Cs and   Sr at the aggregate level 
90
/ A.D. Fokin, S.P. Torshin, Yu.M. Bebneva, R.A. Gadjiagaeva, L.A. Toldykina // Soil Science. - 2016. – No. 
4. – P. 448-458.
4. Uchida, S. Comparison of radiocesium concentration changes in leguminous and nonleguminous herbaceous plants observed after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident / S. Uchida, K. Tagami // Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. – 2018.  – T. 186. – P. 3-8.
5.   Zhu, Y.G. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation / Y.G. Zhu, G. Shaw // Chemo- sphere. – 2000. – No 41(1-2). – P. 121-128.
6. Fesenko, S., Justification strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident / S. Fesenko, P. Jacob, A. Ulanovsky, A. Chupov, I. Bogdevich, N. Sanzharova, V. Kashparov, A. Panov, Yu.  Zhuchenko // Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. – 2013. – No 119. – P. 39-47.
7. Kryauchiunas, V.V. The content and features of the distribution of natural and technogenic radionuclides in the soils of the small Arctic city / V.V. Kryauchiunas, I.A. Kuznetsova, E.I. Kotova, S.A. Iglovsky, K.A. Mironenko, S.G. Sukhanov // Human ecology. – 2020. – No. 5. – P. 11-20.
8.   Kalmykov, M.V. Radiation control and monitoring of agricultural products in conditions of global and local radioactive fallout / M.V. Kalmykov // Abstract of the cand. diss. – M., – 2001. – 22 p.
9. Fukasawa, M. Relationship Between Use of Media and Radiation Anxiety Among the Residents of Fuku- shima 5.5 Years After the Nuclear Power Plant Accident / M. Fukasawa, N. Kawakami, Ch. Nakayama, S. Yasumura // Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. – 2019.  – No 15(1). – P. 42-49.
10. Stepanova, Ye.I. Genetic effects in children exposed in prenatal period to ionizing radiation after the Chorno- byl nuclear power plant accident / Ye.I. Stepanova, V.Yu. Vdovenko, Zh.A. Misharina, V.I. Kolos, L.P. Mischenko // Experimental Oncology. – 2016. – No 38(4). – P.  272-275.
11. Yamashita, S. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Acci- dent in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident / S. Yamashita, N. Takamura, A. Ohtsuru, S. Suzuki // Radiation Protection Dosimetry. – 2016. – No 171(1). – P. 41-46.
12. Lukina, L.I. Radioecological monitoring of the radiation state of soils of the Chernobyl exclusion zone / L.I. Lukina, D.V. Moiseev, M.A. Frolova // Electrical installations and technologies. – 2016. – No. 1. – P. 88-92.
13. Konyukhov, G.V. Radionuclides in regions with different ecological situation / G.V. Konyukhov, K.T. Ishmu- khametov, N.B. Tarasova, N.M. Vasilevsky // Veterinarian. – 2017. – No. 3. – P. 51-56.
14. Ramzaev, V.P. Dynamics of decreasing the dose rate of gamma radiation in the air in rural settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident / V.P. Ramzaev, A.N. Barkovsky. // Radiation hygiene. – 2020. – Vol. 13. – No. 1. – P. 38-44.
15. Pakshina, S.M. The removal of 137Cs from the soil by perennial bluegrass grasses in connection with mineral nutrition and availability of soil moisture / S.M. Pakshina, V.F. Shapovalov, S.F. Chesalin, E.V. Smolsky, V.B. Korenev // Agricultural Biology. – 2019. – Vol. 54. – No. 4. – P. 832-841.61
16. Mustafayev, A. R. Dynamics of the incidence of bovine leukemia virus against the background of gamma radiation on the territory of the Republic of Dagestan after the Chernobyl accident / A. R. Mustafayev, E.A. Ivashev // Veterinarian. – 2021. – No. 5. – P. 30-38.
17. Mustafayev, A. R. The influence of radioactive isotopes 90Sr, 137Cs, 210Pb on environmental objects and their relationship with bovine leukemia in ecosystems of the Republic of Dagestan / A. R. Mustafayev, E.A. Ivashev // South of Russia. – 2021. – Vol. 16. – No. 4. – P. 136-145.
18. Data on SanPiN – 2.3.2.1078-01 Electronic resource: https://base.garant.ru / (accessed 25.05.2023).
19. Mustafayev, A. R. Change in the degree of spread of bovine leukemia in recent years in the Republic of Da- gestan / A. R. Mustafayev, Z. M. Dzhambulatov, B. M. Gadzhiev // Problems of development of the agro- industrial complex of the region. – 2020. – ¹ 3(43). – P. 144-149.
20. Mustafayev, A. R. Monitoring of the spread of the bovine leukemia virus in the Republic of Dagestan for 2018 / A. R. Mustafayev, M. I. Gulyukin, Yu. S. Salikhov. // Veterinaria i kormlenie. – 2019. – ¹ 4. – P. 18-21.
21. Mustafayev, A.R. Analysis of the epizootic situation of the bovine leukemia virus in the Republic of Dagestan/ A.R. Mustafayev, M.I. Gulyukin, H.M. Gaidarbekova // Veterinaria i kormlenie. – 2017. – No. 5. – P. 25-27.
22. Olaya-Galan, N.N. Bovine leukemia virus DNA in fresh milk and raw beef for human consumption. Epidemi- ology Infection / N.N. Olaya-Galan, A.P. Corredor-Figueroa, T.C. Guzmon-Garzón, K.S. Ríos-Hernandez, S.P. Salas-Cardenas, M.A. Patarroyo, M.F. Gutierrez // – 2017. – No 145(15). – P. 3125-3130.
23. Zhang, R. Lack of association between bovine leukemia virus and breast cancer in Chinese patients / R. Zhang, J. Jiang, W. Sun // Breast Cancer Res. – 2016.  – No 18(1). – P. 101.
24. Gillet, N. Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human / N. Gillet [et al.] // Retrovirology. – 2007. – Vol. 4. – N. 18. – P. 1-32.
25. Mirsky, M.L. The prevalence of proviral bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at two subclinical stages of infection / M.L. Mirsky, C.A. Olmstead, I. Yes, H.A. Levin // J. Virology. – 1996. – Vol. 70. – No 4. – P. 2178-2183.
26. Nekoei, S. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep / S. Nekoei, T. TaktazHafshejani, A. Doosti, F. Khamesipour // Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. – 2015. – Vol. 18. – No 4. – P. 703-707.
27. Mikhailov, Yu. Ya. Instructive and methodical instructions on radiochemical methods for determining radio- activity in vet supervision facilities / Yu. Ya. Mikhailov // - M. V.V. named after Ya. R. Kovalenko. – 1984. – 47 p.
28. Mikhailov Yu.Ya. Method of determination of caesium – 137 and caesium – 134 in milk, meat and offal by the radiochemical method / Yu.Ya. Mikhailov // – M. V.V. named after Ya.R. Kovalenko. –1987.
29. Methodological guidelines for statistical processing of research results in veterinary radiological departments // Approved. Glav. upr. wind. Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR December 15, 1979 – 41 p.
30. Methodological guidelines for the diagnosis of bovine leukemia // Utv. Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation August 23, 2000
31. Methodological recommendations for epizootological research in bovine leukemia / Gulyukin M.I., Smirnov P. N., Razumovskaya V. V. [et al.]. - M.: RASKHN. Otd. vet. medicine. – 2001. – 28 p.
32. Mustafayev, A.R. Specificity of the bovine leukemia virus depending on the breed, age and type of animal / A.R. Mustafayev // Veterinary medicine and feeding. – 2020. – No. 4. – P. 42-44.
33. Mustafayev, A.R. Epizootic situation on enzootic leukemia of cattle in public and individual farms of the Republic of Dagestan / A.R. Mustafayev // Veterinary medicine today. – 2021. – ¹2(37). – P. 144-150.
   
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF THE RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL COMPOSITIONS

   
Authors: Alexey V. Frolov , doctor of biological sciences, frolov012@list.ru Nikolay M. Vasilevsky , doctor of veterinary sciences, vnickm@list.ru Ekaterina N. Maiorova , candidate of biological sciences, majorovaen83@list.ru Rustam N. Nizamov , candidate of veterinary sciences, rstm1@ya.ru Mikhail I. Medvedev , mr.mixail777@mail.ru
   
Address: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Security, Kazan, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract. In the course of the research, the purpose of which was to develop a feed additive capable of reducing the sensitivity of the animal body to the action of ionizing radiation, the radioprotective effective- ness of experimental variants of feed additives – compositions was evaluated ¹ 2, ¹ 3, ¹ 4, ¹ 5 and No. 7, who showed the most pronounced stimulating effect in the course of previous studies. Experiments were con- ducted on white mice with a live weight of 18-20 g, from which groups of 12 heads were formed. The compo- sitions were given in a mixture with feed in the amount of 2 and 5% of the feed weight. The therapeutic, prophylactic and therapeutic-prophylactic effect of the studied compositions in acute radiation sickness was evaluated, for which the survival rate of animals on 3, 6, 10, 14, 21, 30 a day after irradiation, the average life 
1
2
3
4
563
expectancy of the victims was calculated. The irradiation was carried out on a gamma-ray installation "PUMA" with a source of ionizing radiation 137Cs. In the first experiment, the radiation dose was 7.7 Gy (LD100/30), in the second – 6.6 Gy (LD50/30). The results of the studies have shown that compositions No. 5 and No. 7 increase the average life expectancy of white mice exposed to gamma radiation at a dose of 7.7 Gy, they are most effective for preventive and therapeutic use in an amount of 5% of the feed weight; of the tested prepa- rations, the maximum radioprotective effect on white mice exposed to gamma radiation at a dose of 6.6 G, compositions No. 2, No. 3, No. 5 are shown in an amount of 5% of the feed weight.
   
Keywords: Keywords: radiation sickness, radioprotective composition, prophylactic effect, therapeutic effect, therapeutic and prophylactic effect
   
References:
References
1.   Amelina, R. I. Erakond in the treatment and prevention of human and animal diseases /                 R. I. Amelina // Bulletin of Endocrinology. – 2020. – No. 1-2. – P. 57–58.
2. Vagin, K. N. Designing radioprotective preparations based on substances of microbial, animal and inor- ganic origin / K. N. Vagin // Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference of the Faculty Dedi- cated to the 125th Anniversary of the Birth of V. S. Nemchinov. – Moscow, 2019. – P. 84–87.
3. Zapadnyuk, I. P. Laboratory animals. Breeding, maintenance and use in the experiment /               I. P. Zapadnyuk, V. I. Zapadnyuk, E. A. Zakharia, B. V. Zapadnyuk. – Kyiv: Vishcha school. Head publishing house, 1983. – 383 p.
4. Nizamov, R.N., Shashkarov V.P., Gainutdinov T.R., Guryanova V.A., Idrisov A.M., Use of preparations of natural and microbial origin in the weaving of radioprotective agents N. Mingaleev // Scientific notes of the Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. N. E. Bauman. – 2020. – T. 243 (3). – P. 182-185.
5. Gainutdinov, T. R. Determination of the radioprotective effectiveness of strains of microorganisms inac- tivated by gamma irradiation / T. R. Gainutdinov, A. M. Idrisov, A. V. Frolov, Ya. M. Kurbangaleev, E. M. Plotnikova // Veterinarian. – 2022. – No. 2. – P. 13-20.
6. Papunidi, K. Kh. Combined lesions of animals and the development of means of prevention and treatment / K. Kh. Papunidi, G. V. Konyukhov, R. N. Nizamov, E. I. Semyonov, I. R. Kadikov. – Kazan: FGBNU "FCTRB-VNIVI", 2019. – 247 p.
7. Frolov, A. V. Evaluation of radioprotective efficacy of microbial polyantigen / A. V. Frolov, R. N. Ni- zamov, N. M. Vasilevsky, K. N. Vagin, R. N. Nizamov // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo akademii veterinary medicine named after N.E. Bauman. – 2020. – T. 244 (4). – P. 207-211.
   
   
Title:

THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE USE OF GAMMA RADIATION FOR DISINFECTION OF ANTHRAX BURIALS

   
Authors: Andrey Vitalievich Makarov 1, doctor of biological sciences, Associate Professor, andmak83@yandex.ru Radosvet Dmitrievich Zemlyansky 2, Master, radosvet2001@gmail.com
   
Address:
1 Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
2 Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Omsk, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract: One of the most dangerous diseases for humans and animals, with a high chance of death, is anthrax. The causative agent of anthrax spreads alimentally, contact, when it enters wounds, and there is also the possibility of transmissible transmission of the pathogen. However, all transmission factors are possi- ble only due to the presence of anthrax bacilli spores, as a result of which this microorganism can be in the soil for centuries. One of the main sources of the causative agent of anthrax infection are burials and animal burial grounds, the destruction of which is a difficult task. During the disposal of burials, the absolute decontamina- tion of microbial spores up to 100% is an almost unattainable goal. Gamma radiation is a type of electromag-44
netic radiation, which is a stream of gamma quanta, depending on the energy and isotope, it has a high pene- trating effect, while having the property of disinfecting microorganisms. Gamma radiation is used for disin- fection of wastewater, as well as disinfection of agricultural products.
This article analyzes the theoretical aspects of the use of gamma radiation for disinfection of anthrax burials. The use of gamma radiation for disinfection of vegetative and spore cells of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis – anthrax bacillus is considered. Radioactive isotopes are characterized, the possibility of using which is most appropriate for use for the purpose of neutralization of burials and animal burial grounds. The concept of the possibility of using radioactive isotopes for disinfection of microorganisms is formulated. Some physical characteristics of gamma radiation and properties of some radioactive isotopes are calculated for theoretical justification, possible use of the proposed method of disinfection of burials and animal burial grounds. The constructed model of decontamination of animal burial grounds and anthrax burials.
   
Keywords: Keywords: anthrax, spores, bacteria, animal burial grounds, burials, gamma radiation, radioactive iso- topes, disinfection
   
References:
References
1. Logvin F.V., Kondratenko T.A., Vodyanitskaya S.Yu. Anthrax in the world, CIS countries and the Russian Federation (literature review) // Medical Bulletin of the South of Russia. 2017. No.3. URL: https://cyber- leninka.ru/article/n/sibirskaya-yazva-v-mire-stranah-sng-i-rossiyskoy-federatsii-obzor-literatury (date of refer- ence: 05.03.2023).
2.   The current state of the problem of anthrax / N. A. Shishkova, E. A. Tyurin, L. I. Marinin [et al.] // Bacteriology. – 2017. – Vol. 2, No. 3. – pp. 33-40. – DOI 10.20953/2500-1027-2017-3-33-40. – EDN UQHMOU
3.   Iglovskiy S.A., Kryauchiunas V.V. Siberian ulcer burials - a potential threat when changing the cryolithozone of the European north of RUSSIA // Health risk analysis. 2021. No. 1. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/arti- cle/n/sibireyazvennye-zahoroneniya-potentsialnaya-ugroza-pri-izmenenii-kriolitozony-evropeyskogo-severa- rossii (accessed: 03/05/2023).
4. Simonova E. G., Kartavaya S. A., Loktionova M. N., Ladny V. I. Epidemiological danger of anthrax burials: theoretical and methodological aspects // MvK. 2013. No. 2. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/epidemio- logicheskaya-opasnost-sibireyazvennyh-zahoroneniy-teoretiko-metodologicheskie-aspekty  (accessed: 03/05/2023).
5. Fomina I.K., Davydov A.E., Nikolsky B.B. Algorithms for identifying gamma radiation sources // Software products and systems. 2018. No. 1. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/algoritmy-identifikatsii-istochnikov- gamma-izlucheniya (accessed: 03/05/2023).
6. Kukshinov V.V., Farberova E.A., Tingaeva E.A. Investigation of the effect of direct electric current on the behavior of microorganisms // Bulletin of PNRPU. Chemical technology and biotechnology. 2014. No. 1. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/issledovanie-vozdeystviya-postoyannogo-elektricheskogo-toka-na-povedenie- mikroorganizmov (accessed: 03/05/2023)
7. 7.. Arbuzova N.A. On the issue of radiation disinfection of domestic wastewater // Hygiene and sanitation. 1978. No. 1. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/k-voprosu-o-radiatsionnom-obezzarazhivanii-bytovyh-stochnyh- vod (accessed: 03/05/2023).
8. Pimenov E. P., Pavlov A. N., Kozmin G. V., Spirin E. V., Sanzharova N. I. Investigation of the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of plant raw materials using the gamma radiation installation gur-120 // Radiation and risk (Bulletin of the NRER). 2013. No.4. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/issledovanie-effektivnosti-radi- atsionnoy-sterilizatsii-rastitelnogo-syrya-s-ispolzovaniem-ustanovki-gamma-izlucheniya-gur-120  (accessed: 03/05/2023).
9. Fedotova, A. S. Radiation safety of agricultural landscapes of the forest-steppe zone of the Krasnoyarsk Terri- tory: specialty 03.00.16: abstract of the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Biological Sciences / Fedotova Arina Sergeevna. – Krasnoyarsk, 2009. – 19 p. – EDN NLAKTB.
10. Gritsai S. A., Dobrovolsky V. A., Zaika A. A., Omelchenko A. T. Basic properties, types and sources of radio- active radiation // Science, education and culture. 2016. No.8 (11). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osnov- nye-svoystva-vidy-i-istochniki-radioaktivnyh-izlucheniy (accessed: 03/11/2023).
11. The composition of the atomic nucleus. URL: https://studfile.net/preview/13580273/#:~:text=Than%20 more than%20mass%20number%20atomic, bonds%2C%20in%20in%20nucleon date of reference: 03/11/2023).
12. Kobyalko, V. O. The effect of radiation on microorganisms and the sensitivity of different taxonomic groups to irradiation / V. O. Kobyalko, E. P. Pimenov // Topical issues of agricultural radiobiology: Proceedings of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Radiology and Agroecology" (FGBNU VNIIRAE) / Edited by S.A. Geraskin. Volume Issue 2. – Obninsk: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Radiology and Agroecology", 2019. – pp. 119-130. – EDN GTSLAK.
13. Zhukovsky A. I., Kuten S. A., Khrushchinsky A. A., Tolkachev A. N., Guzov V. D., Kozhemyakin V. A., Chud- akov V.A.Z. Assessment of the area of influence of a contaminated soil site when solving problems of radiation 50
monitoring  by  the  "In  situ"  method  //  Instruments  and  measurement  methods.  2014.  No.  1  (8).  URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/otsenka-oblasti-vliyaniya-zagryaznennogo-uchastka-pochvy-pri-reshenii- zadach-radiatsionnogo-monitoringa-metodom-in-situ (accessed: 03/21/2023).
14. Badavi V. M., Mamikhin S. V. On the study of gamma radiation shielding by sod-medium podzolic soil // Bulletin of the Moscow University. Episode 17. Soil science. 2010. No.3. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/arti- cle/n/k-voprosu-ob-izuchenii-ekranirovaniya-gamma-izlucheniya-dernovo-srednepodzolistoy-pochvoy (date of reference: 03/21/2023).
15. Fedotova, A. S. Assessment of the radiation dose in the locality of the observation zone of the mining and chemical combine / A. S. Fedotova // Bulletin of KrasGAU. – 2016. – ¹ 2(113). – Pp. 61-68. – EDN VQVZTR.
16. Tikhonov, M. N. Radon radiation: sources, doses and unresolved issues / M. N. Tikhonov // Ecology of industrial production. - 2008. – No. 1. – PP. 35-51. – EDN JXRIPH.
17. Yu S Skoblov, A E Korolev, R N Maslova, "Synthesis of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates labelled with radioactive 
REV,       1995,       64       (8), 
phosphorus       isotopes", 
CHEM 
RUSS 
799–807, 
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.1070/RC1995v064n08ABEH000176
18. Popov Yu.S. Tables of specific activities of nuclides Preprint NIIAR-20(379), dishtrovgrad, 1979, pp. 1-34
19. Biothermal  pit  [electronic  resource]  - URL:  https://slovaronline.com/browse/f5cb398b-9edf-3842-9666- 2bae308e6958/%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%D0 %B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D1%8F%D0%BC%D0%B0 (accessed: 03/05/2023)
20. Taylor Jeffrey Analysis of microbial swimming // Rus. J. Nonlin. Dyn., RJND. 2011. No.2. URL: https://cyber- leninka.ru/article/n/analiz-plavaniya-mikroorganizmov (accessed: 04.04.2023).
21. Kazachenko A. S., Shilov P. N. Application of a mass-radial model for calculating atomic radii for isotopes of chemical elements // Scientific journal KubGAU. 2017. ¹131. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/prime- nenie-massovo-radialnoy-modeli-rascheta-atomnyh-radiusov-dlya-izotopov-himicheskih-elementov (accessed: 04.04.2023).
  Biotechnology
   
Title:

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PHAGOLYSATE CONCENTRATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPE OF AN ANTIBACTERIAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCT FOR THE TREATMENT OF OTITIS MEDIA OF DOGS AND CATS

   
Authors: Egor Andreevich Glazunov , candidate of biological sciences, glazunov@micromir.bio Egor Anatolyevich Pustovit , postgraduate student of the Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, egor_pustovit@mail.ru Nikolay Vasilyevich Pimenov , doctor of biological sciences, pimenov-nikolai@yandex.ru Yana Andreevna Yuskevich , researcher
   
Address:
Egor Andreevich Glazunov , candidate of biological sciences, glazunov@micromir.bio
Egor Anatolyevich Pustovit , postgraduate student of the Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, egor_pustovit@mail.ru
Nikolay Vasilyevich Pimenov , doctor of biological sciences, pimenov-nikolai@yandex.ru Yana Andreevna Yuskevich , researcher
   
Abstract: Abstract. Otitis externa is a common pathological condition in dogs and cats that requires antimicrobial therapy. The ubiquitous increasing number of bacteria resistant to antibiotics confirms the need to use alternative antibacterial agents. The search and improvement of technological methods for the isolation of bacteriophages will increase the effectiveness of existing products, expand the possibilities of creating new cosmetic and medicinal products, create a springboard for individual therapy. These studies are devoted to the study of the possibility of using ultrafiltration methods for the search and concentration of viruses in order to improve the process of pharma- ceutical development of drugs based on bacteriophages for the treatment of external otitis in dogs and cats. The effectiveness of ultrafiltration of bacteriophage suspensions to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudo- monas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus was determined in order to concentrate them using ultrafiltration cells with a volume of 400 ml and ultrafiltration discs with a pore diameter of 500, 300 and 100 kDa. At an operating pressure of 3 to 4 bar, viruses pass through filtration membranes with a pore diameter of 500 and 300 kDa, but are delayed at 100 kDa. The research results demonstrate the possibility of using ultrafiltration methods to increase the chance of detecting the bacteriophages in the primary material. According to the results of the research, it was found that the ultrafiltration technique is suitable for searching and concentrating bacteriophages to pathogenic and facultative pathogenic bacterial species of dogs and cats, while the loss of bacteriophages using 
   
Keywords: Keywords: Bacteriophages, ultrafiltration, virus concentration, otitis externa, dogs, cats, veterinary bio- technology.
   
References:
References
1.   Adams M. Bacteriophages. – M.: Publishing House of Foreign Literature, 1961. – 587 p.
2. Nasibulin, I.H. Development of technology for the production of therapeutic and prophylactic preparations of purified concentrated staphylococcal bacteriophage: author. dis. cand. biol. sciences: 03.00.07 / Nasibulin Ildar Khalitovich. – M., 1993. – 25 p.
3.   Singer M., Berg P. Genes and Genomes. - Ì.: Mir, 1998. - 391 ñ.
4.   August J. R. Otitis externa. A disease of multifactorial etiology / August J. R. // Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. — 1988. — ¹ 4. — Ñ. 731-742.
5.   Gordillo Altamirano F.L., Barr J.J. Phage Therapy in the Postantibiotic Era // Clin Microbiol Rev. - 2019. - ¹2. - P. 1-25.
6.   Liu R., Han G., Li Z., Cun S., Hao B., Zhang J., Liu X. Bacteriophage therapy in aquaculture: current status and future challenges // Folia Microbiol. - 2022. - ¹4. - P. 573-590.
7.   Zagaliotis P., Michalik-Provasek J., Gill J.J., Walsh T.J. Therapeutic Bacteriophages for Gram-Negative Bac- terial Infections in Animals and Humans // Pathog Immun. - 2022. - ¹2. - P. 1-45.
  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SPONTANEOUS DERMAL MASTOCYTOMA IN DOGS

   
Authors: Melikova Yulia Nikolaevna, candidate of veterinary sciences, melikovayn@mgupp.ru
   
Address: Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian Biotechnological University", Moscow, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract. The article presents a scientifically based approach to the diagnosis and prognostic analysis of immunohistochemical studies of spontaneous dermal mastocytomas in dogs. The work uses a comprehensive meth- odological approach, including methods of clinical, pathomorphological, instrumental research. The research in- volved 198 dogs with various malignant neoplasms of the skin, of which 64 were mastocytomas, including 42 cases in the area of the facial part of the skull.
It was determined that in dogs mastocytomas in the area of the facial part of the skull, compared with other localizations, have a more unfavorable prognosis in treatment due to difficulties in complying with the rules of surgical intervention. Most often, mastocytomas of the facial part of the skull are localized on the ribs and in the chin area, less often in the eyelid area, on the oral mucosa. When using two immunohistochemical markers CD117 (KIT) and ki-67, a prognostically important relationship was revealed with the degree of malignancy, complexity of treatment and progression of mastocytomas during treatment. It is shown that the interpretation of these markers was reliable in all cases of observation of sick animals. Data analysis revealed a correlation between increased ki- 67 expression, as well as aberrant CD117 immunoexpression (KIT) and morphological malignancy, which is an 11
unfavorable prognostic factor (median survival is decreasing) in dogs with spontaneous dermal mastocytomas. Thus, immunohistochemical studies using CD117 (KIT) and ki67 markers may have prognostic significance and value in addition to other special studies of spontaneous dermal mastocytomas in dogs.
   
Keywords: Keywords: Dog, neoplasm, mastocytoma, morphological studies, immunohistochemical studies, CD117 (KIT), ki-67, prognosis.
   
References:
Ñïèñîê èñòî÷íèêîâ
1.       Withrow and MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 6th Edition by David M. Vail; Douglas Thamm; Julius Liptak and Publisher Saunders. October 2019
2.       Dobson Dzheyn M., Lastselles B., Dunkan K. Onkologiya sobak i koshek. – Moskva, 2017. – S. 419-432
3.       Donald J. Meuten and all. Tumors in Domestic Animals // Set in 9/11pt Minion Pro by SPi Global, Pondicherry, India. – 2017, Ñ. 44-88, 176-203. 
4.       Kiupel M, Webster JD, Bailey KL, et al. Proposal of a 2-tier histologic grading system for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors to more accurately predict biological behavior. Vet Pathol. 2011;48:147-155.
5.       London CA, Seguin B. Mast cell tumors in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003. Ñ. 473- 489.
6.       Tamlin VS, Bottema CDK, Peaston AE. Comparative aspects of mast cell neoplasia in animals and the role of KIT in prognosis and treatment. Vet Med Sci. 2020;6:3-18.
7.       Sledge DG, Webster J, Kiupel M. Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors: a combined clinical and pathologic approach to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment selection. Vet J. 2016;215:43-54.
8.       Scase TJ, Edwards D, Miller J, et al. Canine mast cell tumors: correlation of apoptosis and proliferation markers with prognosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:151-158.
9.       Ozaki K, Yamagami T, Nomura K, Narama I. Prognostic significance of surgical margin, Ki-67 and cyclin D1 protein expression in grade II canine cutaneous mast cell tumor. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:1117-1121.
   
   
Title:

COMBINED EFFECT OF MYCOTOXINS AND EPRINOMECTIN AS A FACTOR CAUSING IM- MUNOSUPPRESSION IN PIGS

   
Authors: Taras V. Gerunov , doctor of biological sciences, associate professor, tv.gerunov@omgau.org Vladimir I. Gerunov , doctor of veterinary sciences, professor, vi.gerunov@omgau.org Yury N. Fedorov , doctor of biological sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor, fun181@mail.ru Marina N. Gonokhova , candidate of veterinary sciences, associate professor, gonochova@mail.ru Yana O. Kryuchek graduate student, yao.kryuchek36.06.01@omgau.org
   
Address:
1,2,5 Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Omsk, Russia
3 All-Russian Research and Technological Institute of Biological Industry, Biokombinat settlement, Shchelkov- skii District, Moscow Region, Russia
4 Omsk State Medical University, Omsk, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract. Industrial livestock production causes numerous stress factors that animals face. The combined effect of these stressors is ecpecially dangerous for them. This study was aimed at assessing the risks of immuno- suppression in pigs that were treated with eprinomectin against parasites and received feed contaminated with my- cotoxins. Two groups of pigs aged 100-110 days (n=10) were used in the experiment. The first group was control, and its animals were given good food without mycotoxins. Pigs from the second group received food containing deoxynivalenol (0.93 mg/kg), T-2 toxin (0.025 mg/kg), and zearalenone (less than 0.02 mg/kg) for 45 days. Also, on the 38th day of the experiment, the experimental group underwent a single antiparasitory treatment with the medical drug Veteprin (the active substance – eprinomectin). The dose was 300 mcg/kg. Seven days after injection of the drug, blood tests were taken to determine the immunological indicators. It was found that the combined effect of mycotoxins and eprinomectin did not affect the leucocytes content, but the proportion of lymphocytes increased by 9.8%, mainly due to an increase in absolute and percentage number of B-lymphocytes. The T-lymphocytes level decreased to 1.0×10 /liter, while its level in animals of the control group was 1.3×10 /liter. The animals in the 
9
9
experimental group also had a lower indicator of the stimulated NBT test, and the calculated coefficient of granu- locyte stimulation fell by 6.8%. Histological examination of the thymus of these animals revealed narrowing of the cortical substance and the appearance of pronounced Hassall’s corpuscles. In the white pulp of the spleen and mes- enteric lymph nodes, a decrease in the density of lymphocytes, blood filling of blood vessels, swelling and thicken- ing of blood vessel walls, and fragmentary loosening of connective tissue were revealed. The results of the study indicate that animals that face the combined effects of toxicants have a high risk of immunosuppression, which increases the likelihood of infectious diseases.
   
Keywords: Keywords: mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, antiparasitic agents, eprinomectin, thy- mus, spleen, lymph node, immunosuppression.
   
References:
References
1.   An introduction to immunology and immunopathology / J.S. Marshall [et al.] // Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. – 2018. – Vol. 14(Suppl 2). – P. 49. doi: 10.1186/s13223-018-0278-1. 
2.   Asres A. Effect of Stress on Animal Health: A Review // Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. – 2014. – No 4. – P. 116-121.
3. Dhabhar F.S. Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress on immune function: implications for immunoprotec- tion  and  immunopathology  //  Neuroimmunomodulation.  – 2009.  – Vol.  16,  No  5.  – P.  300-317.  doi: 10.1159/000216188. 
4. Temple D., Mainau E., Manteca X. Stress In Farm Animals // Farm Animal Welfare Education Center. – 2013. – No 6. URL: https://www.fawec.org/en/technical-documents-general-concepts/107-stress-in-farm-animals (äàòà îá- ðàùåíèÿ: 01.09.2023).
5.   Experimental combined mycotoxicosis of pigs against the background of an infectious load / E.I. Semenov [et al.] // Sel'skohozyajstvennaya biologiya. – 2022. – No 2. – P. 371-383.
6. Combined contamination of feed with mycotoxins as a risk factor for multiple animal pathologies / T.V. Gerunov [et al.] // Vestnik Omskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. – 2022. – No 4(48). – P. 116-123. doi: 10.48136/2222-0364_2022_4_116. 
7. Mycotoxicological monitoring of feed and its role in the prevention of mycotoxicosis in animals / V.I. Dorozhkin [et al.] // Vestnik Rossijskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Agronomiya i zhivotnovodstvo. – 2022. – Vol. 17., No 4. – P. 546-554. doi: 10.22363/2312-797X-2022-17-4-546-554. 
8. Potential danger of combined contamination of feed with mycotoxins / T.V. Gerunov [et al.]  // Current problems and innovations in modern veterinary pharmacology and toxicology: materials of the VI International Congress of Veterinary Pharmacologists and Toxicologists. Vitebsk, 2022. – P. 35-38. 
9. Methods for assessing the T- and B-immune systems in cattle with brucellosis and tuberculosis: methodological recommendations / M.A. Bazhin, V.A. Mironenko, S.K. Perekhodova [et al.]. – Omsk: RIO Uprpoligrafizdata, 1989. – 33 p.
10. Methods for assessing the functional activity of leukocytes in animal tuberculosis and leukemia: methodological recommendations / V.S. Vlasenko, N.A. Donchenko, Yu.I. Patsula [et al.]. – Omsk: Variant-Omsk, 2015. – 16 p.
11. Vlasenko V.S., Koshkin I.N. Antigenic complexes of BCG with betulin derivatives: prospects for use in veterinary medicine: methodological recommendations. – Omsk: IP Maksheeva E.A., 2022. – 20 p.
12. Study of the toxic effect of trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium Sporotrichioides in an experiment on pigs / I.I. Idiyatov [et al.] // Yug Rossii: ekologiya, razvitie. – 2022. – Vol. 62., No 1. – P. 62-79.
13. A Brief Overview of Neutrophils in Neurological Diseases / S. Chakraborty [et al.] // Biomolecules. – 2023. – Vol. 13., No 5. – P. 743. doi: 10.3390/biom13050743. 
14. Rosales C. Neutrophil: A Cell with Many Roles in Inflammation or Several Cell Types? // Front Physiol. – 2018. – Vol. 20., No 9. – P. 113. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00113. 
15. Different Faces for Different Places: Heterogeneity of Neutrophil Phenotype and Function / P. Yang [et al.]  // J Immunol Res. – 2019. – Vol. 2019. – P. 8016254. doi: 10.1155/2019/8016254. 
16. Effect of some mycotoxins on superoxide anion production of isolated human neutrophils and in whole blood / A. Richetti [et al.] // Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. – 2003. – Vol. 25., No 3. - P. 441-449. doi: 10.1081/iph- 120024511. 
17. Vilén L.K., Atosuo J., Lilius E.M. The Response of Phagocytes to Indoor Air Toxicity // Front Immunol. – 2017. – No 8. – P. 887. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00887. 
18. Kifer D. Jakšić D., Šegvić Klarić M. Assessing the Effect of Mycotoxin Combinations: Which Mathematical Model Is (the Most) Appropriate? // Toxins (Basel). – 2020. – Vol. 12, No 3. – P. 153. doi: 10.3390/toxins12030153. 
19. Combined Toxicity of the Most Common Indoor Aspergilli / D. Jakšić [et al.]  // Pathogens. – 2023. Vol. 12., No 3. – P. 459. doi: 10.3390/pathogens12030459. 
20. Inbaraj S., Sejian V., Ramasamy S. Role of environmental stressor-host immune system–pathogen interactions in development of infectious disease in farm animals // Biological Rhythm Research. – 2022. – Vol. 53., No 5. – P. 707-724, doi: 10.1080/09291016.2019.1695084.
21. Immunotoxicity of Three Environmental Mycotoxins and Their Risks of Increasing Pathogen Infections / Y. Sun [et al.]  // Toxins (Basel). – 2023. – Vol. 15., No 3. – P. 187. doi: 10.3390/toxins15030187. 
  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF FORMULATIONS OF UNIVERSAL BAITS FOR SELF-VACCINATION OF WILD BOARS AGAINST AFRICAN SWINE FEVER AND OTHER IN- FECTIOUS DISEASES (METHODS OF VACCINE DELIVERY TO WILD TARGET ANIMALS)

   
Authors: Roman N. Melnik , candidate of biological sciences, mromanos@mail.ru Oleg A. Revvo , revvo_oavet@mail.ru Nikolay V. Melnik , doctor of veterinary sciences, melniknv@biocombinat.ru Viktor Yu. Petrov , c666ea@mail.ru Natalia V. Haustova , khaustovanv@biocombinat.ru Vyacheslav A. Starikov , candidate of veterinary sciences, starikovva@biocombinat.ru Vladimir N. Borovoy , candidate of veterinary sciences, borovoi_vn@mail.ru Ekaterina V. Pankova , candidate of biological sciences, katerinka_ja@bk.ru
   
Address:
 All-Russian Scientific Research and Technological Institute of the Biological Industry, Losino-Petrovsky, Moscow Region, Russia
2 All-Russian State Research Institute of Control, Standardization, and Certification of Veterinary Preparations, Moscow, Russia
3 Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological safety», Kazan, Russia 
   
Abstract: Abstract. The article presents scientific research on the development and design of formulations of univer- sal baits for self-vaccination of wild boars against African swine fever and other infectious diseases (methods of vaccine delivery to wild target animals). The ways of the spread of African swine fever and other infections, methods and ways to reduce the risk of introducing the pathogen, the main goals of preventive vaccination, its tasks are shown. The characteristics and composition of the briquette-baits and the requirements for their design are shown. The photo shows some samples of universal baits for delivering any vaccine to target animals for self-vaccination. Based on the foregoing, one of the tasks in addition to creating an ASF vaccine is to create baits for wild boar, which can not be parenterally immunized. For oral vaccination against African swine fever approaches to be successful, it is necessary to develop baits that meet a number of requirements: be attractive to the target animal species; ensure that an effective dose of the vaccine enters the animal; ensure the safety of the vaccine without compromising its effectiveness; be free from outside agents; not attract non-target species, including humans; be safe for target and non-target species; enable industrial production. One of the decisive factors in ensuring oral vaccination coverage is the palatability of the bait. The following factors influence the palatability of the bait: smell. taste, texture, shape and size of the bait. Based on the results of the analysis of scientific data. We concluded that in an endemic situation, where control measures (killing, zoning with restrictive measures) are insufficient, systematic vaccination based on the use of an oral vaccine may be an appropriate tool to control ASF in the wild boar population.
   
Keywords: Keywords: baits, classical swine fever, african swine fever, wild boar, oral vaccination
   
References:
References
1. Veterinary rules for the implementation of preventive, diagnostic, restrictive and other measures, the establish- ment and lifting of quarantine and other restrictions aimed at preventing the spread and eliminating foci of African swine fever. Moscow 2021.
2.   Elsukova A.A. Genotyping of African swine fever virus isolates: Candidate of Biol. Sciences: 03.02.02 / El- sukova Alexandra Andreevna. - Pokrov, 2010. - 138 p.
3.   Kozlo P.G. A wild boar. Publishing house "Urajay". Minsk. 1975
4. Donaldson, A. Improvement of mathematical models for predicting of foot and mouth disease / A. Donaldson, M. Lee, C. Gibson // Adv. Aerobiol. Proc 3rd Intern. Conf. Aerobiol., Basel, 1986. – Boston, 1987. – P. 351- 355.
5. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: determination and statistical validation of a model using a serological approach / P.V. Barnett, R.J. Statham, W. Vosloo, D.T. Haydon // Vaccine. – 2003. – Vol. 21. – P 3240-3248.
6. Knight-Jones, T. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: Modeling population protection against FMD in Turkish cattle / T. Knight-Jones // Open Sess. Stand. Tech. Res. Comm. FMD. – Cavtat (Croatia), 29 - 31 Oct. 2014.
7.   Moutou, F. Modeling the spread of foot-and – mouth disease virus / F. Moutou, B. Durand // Vet. Res. – 1994. – Vol. 25. – P. 279-285.
8.   Barnett KM, Civitello DJ. Ecological and evolutionary challenges for wildlife vaccination. Trends Parasitol. 2020; 36: 970–978.
9.   Cross ML, Buddle BM, Aldwell FE. The potential of oral vaccines for disease control in wildlife species. Vet J. 2007; 174: 472–480.
10. Mähl P, Cliquet F, Guiot AL, Niin E, Fournials E, Saint-Jean N, et al. Twenty-year experience of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in wildlife: a global review. Vet Res. 2014; 45: 77.
11. Rossi S, Staubach C, Blome S, Guberti V, Thulke HH, Vos A, et al. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6: 1141.
   
   
Title:

ERYTHROCYTE DIAGNOSTICUM FOR DETECTION OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO BACTERIA CL. PERFRINGENS

   
Authors: Gennady N. Spiridonov, doctor of biological sciences, spiridonovkzn57@gmail.com Danil N. Mingaleev, doctor of veterinary sciences, damin80@mail.ru Milyausha T. Khuramshina, Khuramshina@mail.ru Aidar F. Makhmutov, candidate of biological sciences, Makhmutov.aidar@bk.ru Anton G. Spiridonov, candidate of biological sciences, mrtkzn@gmail.com Svetlana V. Ivanova, candidate of biological sciences, 9274281396@mail.ru Maksim A. Kosarev, candidate of biological sciences, kosarev@vnivi.ru
   
Address: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological safety», Kazan, Russia 
   
Abstract:
Abstract. The article presents the results of studies on obtaining an erythrocyte diagnosticum for the indication of specific antibodies to Cl perfringens in IHA. Sheep erythrocytes were used as a cellular basis for the preparation of the diagnosticum. At the beginning, they were treated with formalin and tannin at a temper- ature of (37 ± 1) °C. Then they were sensitized with a mixture of toxoids and somatic antigens of 5 serotypes 39
of Cl perfringens (A, B, C, D, E), taken in equal volumes. Sensitization was carried out in a water bath at a temperature of (37 ± 1) °C, with continuous stirring for 2 hours. Then the sensitized erythrocytes were washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.2) and resuspended in the same solution up to 3 % concentration. The resulting erythrocyte diagnosticum was preserved with formalin to 1 % of the final concen- tration. The activity and specificity of the obtained erythrocyte antigen diagnosticum was determined by stag- ing IHA with control (negative and positive to Cl. perfringens) and heterologous (hyperimmune sera to Esch- erichia coli, Moraxella bovis) sera. A technique for staging IHA was developed to determine specific antibod- ies to the bacteria Cl. perfringens.
   
Keywords: Keywords: anaerobic enterotoxemia, Cl. perfringens, IHA, erythrocyte diagnosticum, calves
   
References:
References
1.   Obtaining erythrocyte anthrax antigen / S. V Ivanova, L. A. Melnikova, Kh. N. Makaev [et al.] // The Veteri- narian. – 2019. – No 2. – P. 22–25. 
2. Kapustin, A. V. Methods for controlling the immunogenic activity of an associated vaccine against infectious diseases of cattle caused by various types of bacteria of the genus Clostridium spp. / A. V. Kapustin // Veteri- nary Medicine and Feeding. – 2017. – No 3. – P. 47–49. 
3. The use of molecular genetic techniques for the typing of Clostridium perfringens / A. D.  Kozlova, N. S. Gorbacheva, O. V. Klimenkova [et al.] // Russian Journal Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences. – 2017. – No 3 (47). – P. 188–194. 
4. Kolesnikova, Y. N. The etiology of anaerobic infections of cattle and comparative characteristics of the iso- lated strains of Clostridium / Y. N. Kolesnikova, N. V. Pimenov, A. V. Kapustin // Russian Journal of Agri- cultural and Socio-Economic Sciences. – 2016. – No 8 (56). – P. 39–48. 
5. Diagnostic significance of seroconversion to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin in cattle / N. V. Novikova, N. V. Lomako, Ì. À. Ananchikov [et al.] // Proceedings of the Federal Center for Animal Health.   – 2018. – Vol. 78. – P. 215–223. 
6. Patent No. RU 2754465 Russaian Federation. IPC G01N 33/48 (2006.01). Method for obtaining an erythrocyte diagnosticum for the indirect hemagglutination reaction (IHAR) with clostridiosis of animals; No 2020139350: Appl. 30.11.2020: publ. 02.09.2021 / Spiridonov G. N., Khuramshina M. T., Ivanova S. V., Melnikova L. A., Kosarev M. A., Spiridonov A. G., Makhmutov A. F., Makaev Kh. N. – 6 p. 
7.   Sidorov, M. A. Opredelitel' zoopatogennyh mikroorganizmov / Sidorov M. A., Skorodumov D. I., Fedotov V. P.  – M.: Kolos, 1995. – 319 p. 
8.   Spiridonov, A. G. Enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) method for diagnostics of animals anaerobic enter- otoxemia / A. G. Spiridonov // The Veterinarian. – Kazan. – 2018. – No 6. – P. 26–29. 
9.   Species Spectrum of Bacteria of Genus Clostridium Isolated from Cattle on Dig Dairy Farms / Ò. Å. Terentjeva, A. G. Glotov, T. I. Glotova [et al.] // Russian Veterinary Journal. – 2016. – No 1. – P. 5–9. 
10.  Research of Clostridium indication method / S. G. Hairov, D. M. Ramazanova, Y. S. Salikhov [et al.] // Vet- erinary Bulletin. – 2009. – No 48 (1) – P. 48–50. 
11. The distributiuon of gastrointestinal diseases of newborn calves in The Middle Volga region / Ì. Ò. Khuram- shina, A. F. Makhmutov, G. N. Spiridonov, Kh. N. Makaev // Scientific notes of the Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. N. E. Bauman. – 2020. – Vol. 243 (III). – P. 280–284.
 
   
Title:

HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GOAT BLOOD WHEN USING CHLORELLA SUSPENSION

   
Authors: Sergey Yurievich Smolentsev, doctor of veterinary sciences, Smolentsev82@mail.ru
   
Address: Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola, Russia
   
Abstract:
Abstract. The greatest interest in the production of feed is caused by technologies that allow us to produce higher-quality feed while reducing their cost. Over the past decade, along with premixes, vitamins and dietary supplements, the animal feed diet has been replenished with algae. These include chlorella, a rep- resentative of green microscopic algae. It is advisable to use single-celled chlorella algae as a dietary supple- ment. The aim of the research was to study the effect of chlorella suspension and Bacillus subtilis 2336 com- bined on blood parameters of dairy goats. We used goats of the Zaanen breed in the experiment. The research was conducted in the conditions of a goat farm of the Lukoz agroholding in the Sernursky district of the Re- public of Mari El. According to the principle of analogues, 3 groups of milking goats with 20 heads each were formed. One of them was a control, the second and third acted as experimental ones. The main feed for goats is mixed grass hay, which is also accompanied by mineral-type additives, combined feeds. Goats belonging to the experimental groups received daily Algavet feed additive with water at the rate of 40 ml per animal. The 27
third group additionally received Bacillus subtilis 2336 in an amount of 105 CFU/ml. The experiment lasted for three months. The study showed that the clinical, physiological and hematological parameters of female goats from the experimental groups did not exceed the limits of physiological norms. At the end of the exper- iment, an increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood of the goats of the experimental groups was found compared with the control. The number of red blood cells increased by 3.20% and 8.20%, and the hemoglobin level increased by 2.50% and 5.59%, respectively. In addition, an increase in the content of total protein and albumins was also observed in the blood serum of the experimental groups of female goats. Total protein increased by 2.83% and 6.32%, and albumins increased by 3.80% and 9.11%, respectively.
   
Keywords: Keywords: goats, chlorella, blood, research, analysis of indicators, probiotic
   
References:
References
1.   Andreev, A.I. Metabolic processes in animals and dairy productivity of cows of different genotypes / A.I. Andreev, V.I. Erofeev, V.N. Shilov, S.Yu. Sholin // Veterinarian. -2019.-No.2.-pp.53-58.
2.   Gainullina, M.K. Productivity and protein composition of goat milk when used in the diets of oilcakes from oilseeds / M.K. Gainullina, G.F. Khairullina // Sheep, goats, wool business. - 2018.-No. 1.-pp. 37-39.
3. Grigoriev, M.F. The influence of non-traditional feed additives on the dairy productivity of goats in Yakutia / M.F. Grigoriev, A.I. Grigorieva, N.M. Chernogradskaya, S.I. Stepanova // Agrarian Scientific Journal. -2021.- No. 7.-pp. 62-65.
4.   Huseynova, R.Z. The influence of crossing zaanen goats on dairy productivity / R.Z. Huseynova // Bulletin of the Kyrgyz National Agrarian University named after K.I. Scriabin. -2021.-¹ 2 (56). - Pp.137-141.
5. Zheltova, O.A. Milk productivity and milk quality of goats with different genotypes according to the beta- lactoglobulin gene / O.A. Zheltova, A.S. Shuvarikov, E.A. Gladyr // Sheep, goats, wool business. -2011.-No. 3.-pp. 80-83.
6. Zabelina, M.V. Milk productivity, technological properties and fatty acid composition of milk of Nubian breed goats / M.V. Zabelina, T.B. Ledyaev, T.S. Preobrazhenskaya, A.V. Danilin // Sheep, goats, wool business. - 2020.-No. 3.-pp. 19-21.
7.   Kolomiets, S.N. The effect of a new preparation based on organic acids on digestion and some metabolic parameters of broiler chickens / S.N. Kolomiets, K.V. Vasilyeva // Veterinarian. -2021.-No.1.-pp.21-25.
8.   Kononovich, A.S. Dairy productivity and maintenance of goats of the Zaanen breed / A.S. Kononovich, A.V. Stepanov // Youth and Science. -2018.-No. 5.-p. 57.
9.   Muna, M. The influence of different levels of feeding on the metabolism and productivity of goats of the Zaanen breed / M. Muna // Sheep, goats, wool business. -2007.-No.3.-p.33-37.
10. Mukhammadieva, A.S. Isolation and study of morphological and biochemical properties of new strains of lactic acid bacteria promising for the creation of probiotic drugs / A.S. Mukhammadieva, R.S. Mukhammadiev, R.S. Mukhammadiev, L.R. Valiullin // Veterinarian. -2020.-No.3.-pp.39-46.
11. Potekhina, R.M. Snow cover as an indicator of atmospheric air pollution near the CHP by mycelial fungi and heavy metals / R.M. Potekhina, V.I. Makaeva, L.I. Almitova, I.I. Idiyatov, A.M. Tremasova, Yu.V. Kuzov- kova, I.F. Vafin // Veterinarian. -2021.-No. 3.-pp.39-45.
12. Funk, I.A. The influence of the probiotic drug "plantarum" on milk productivity and quality of goat milk / I.A. Funk, N.I. Vladimirov // Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian University. -2022.-¹ 5 (211). - Pp. 56-61.
13. Halimbekov, Z.A. Influence of feed additives "lactomin" and "lactuvet" on dairy productivity of goats / Z.A. Halimbekov, L.S. Malakhova, O.E. Griga, N.M.O. Jafarov // Agricultural Journal. -2022.- No. 1 (15). -pp. 78- 84.
14. Yashkin, A.I. Milk productivity of lactating goats of the Zaanen breed when using probiotic preparations / A.I. Yashkin, N.I. Vladimirov, L.N. Pautova // Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian University. -2022.-¹ 4 (210). - Pp. 67-72.
   
   
Title:

HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF SPRING WATER QUALITY

   
Authors: Liliyà I. Almitova, almitova.voda@mail.ru Venera I. Makaeva, v.makaeva@yandex.ru
   
Address: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological safety», Kazan, Russia 
   
Abstract: Abstract. Nowadays, as a result of the ever-increasing anthropogenic impact on the environment, the water problem is especially acute: it is important to provide the population with high-quality drinking water. Springs are natural sources and have long been used as a source of drinking water. They are of great economic, recreational, cultural and historical importance. To date, the groundwater of the springs is used mainly by residents of small settlements and vacationer in the summer. The population associates such water with environmentally friendly and healthy water. However, the quality of natural water in urbanized areas has deteriorated significantly in recent decades. Drinking water from a local source of water supply in terms of chemical composition and properties must comply with the standards from SanPiN 1.2.3685-21. The article presents water monitoring data from the Apakai spring in the village of Lenino-Kokushkino, Pestrichinsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan in the summer of 2020 and 2023 in terms of organoleptic and chemical indicators. Given that the composition of drinking water is an important environmental factor affecting human health, the purpose of this work is to study the problem of water safety of sources of non-centralized drinking water supply of the population. It was revealed that the water in the spring does not meet the sanitary and hygienic requirements for water quality in terms of nitrates and the content of hardness salts. The content of nitrates exceeding the maximum permissible concentration in 2.32 times creates a public health risk. In this regard, it is necessary to continue to monitor the quality of water and continue to inform the population about its unsuitability for use.
   
Keywords: Keywords: springs, water quality, chemical indicators, maximum permissible concentration (MÐC), ni- trates, total hardness.
   
References:
References
1.   Keller A.A. Medical ecology / A.A. Keller, V.I. Kuvakin. - Petrogradsky and K., St. Petersburg, 1998. –P. 255.
2.   Solovyeva, E.A. Ecologi and conditions of natural water sources of Yelets town / E.A Solovyeva // Bulletin of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Series: Ecology and life safety. – 2014. – ¹ 1. – p. 72-76.
3. Krikalo, I. N. Assessment of the quality of drinking water from sources of non-centralized water supply of the Mozyr district / Krikalo I. N., Bodyakovskaya E. A., Radionova E. N. // Bulletin of the Mozyr State Pedagogical University named after IP Shamyakin. – 2017. – ¹. 1. - p. 48-56.
4.   Lukashevich, O.D. Water safety in the springs of the city of Tomsk / Lukashevich O.D., Chernyshova N.A. // XXI century. Technosphere safety. - 2018. - ¹. 2 (10). - p. 81-97.
5. Potekhina, R.M Snow cover as an indicator of atmospheric air pollution near TPP with mycelial fungi and heavy metals / Potekhina R.M., V.I. Makaeva, L.I. Almitova, I.I. Idiyatov, A.M. Tremasova, Yu.V. Ku- zovkova, I.F. Vafin // Veterinary doctor. – 2021. – No. 3. – P. 39-45.
6.   SanPiN 1.2.3685-21 «Hygienic standards and requirements for ensuring the safety and (or) harmlessness of environmental factors for humans" - Moscow JSC "Codex». – 469 p.
7. SanPiN 1.2.3684-21 "Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the maintenance of the territories of urban and rural settlements, for water bodies, drinking water and drinking water supply to the population, atmospheric air, soils, residential premises, operation of industrial, public premises, organization and con- duct of sanitary and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures" - Moscow JSC "Codex". – 75 p.
8. Almitova, L.I. Results of quality studies of spring waters of the Republic of Tatarstan / Almitova L. I., Makaeva V. I., Makaeva A. R. // Water sector of Russia: problems, technologies, management. – 2021. – ¹. 5. – P. 75-83.
9.   Averina, E.A. Nitrates in well water Vladivostok / Averina E.A., Andayakova I.A., Zaretskaya S.V., Ko- valeva Y.V. // Health. Medical ecology. The science. - 2013. – Vol. 52. – ¹ 2-3. – p. 28-29.
10. Novikov, L.L. The influence of the position of springs in landscapes on the content of nitrates in their waters / L.L., Yudina Yu.V. G. Orekhova.A. // Regional geosystems. - 2012. – V. 18. – ¹. 3. – p. 242-250.
11. Bratovcic, A. Quality assessment and health safety of natural spring water / Bratovcic A., Petrinic I. // Technologica Acta. - 2020. - V. 13, no. 1, P. 33–40. 
12. Sigora, G.A. The problem of the study of the ecological sondition of spring of the Sevastopol region / Sigora G. A., Khomenko T.Yu., Lyashko T.V., Nichkova L.A. // Economics of construction and environ- mental management. – 2019. – ¹. 1 (70). – P. 115-123.
13. Almitova, L.I. Hygienic evaluation of drinking water of the Republic of Tatarstan ion terms of fluoride content / Almitova L.I., Makaeva V.I., Makaeva A.R., Shliamina O.V. // Actual Problems of Ecology and Nature Management. - Actual problems of ecology and nature management. - Publishing house of the Kur- gan State Agricultural Academy named after T.S. Maltsev. - 2021. - p. 12-15.
14. Iskeev, S.S. Physico-chemical analysis of drinking water in the village of Novoorsk / Iskeev S.S., Sibirkina A.R. // Bulletin of Science and practice. - 2016. – ¹ 3. – p. 11-17.
   
   
Title:

THE STUDY OF A COMBINED FEED ADDITIVE WITH SILICA AND PROBIOTIC BACTERIA HEPATOTOXIC EFFECT

   
Authors: Emil K. Rakhmatullin, doctor of veterinary sciences, amil59@yandex.ru Ilnur R. Kadikov, doctor of biological sciences, cir6@yandex.ru Nikolai M. Vasilevsky, doctor of veterinary sciences, vnickm@list.ru Ekaterina I. Kurshakova, candidate of biological sciences, keter-89@mail.ru Svetlana N. Potapova, candidate of veterinary sciences, svetlana150895@yandex.ru
   
Address: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological safety», Kazan, Russia 
   
Abstract: Abstract. With the intensive animal husbandry, to realize the potential of animal productivity, feed additives with sorbing and probiotic properties are used. The research of the mechanism of hepatotoxic action of feed additives remains a poorly studied area of toxicology and veterinary clinical pharmacology. The hepa- totoxic effect of the Bisolbi feed additive was studied. Changes in biochemical parameters indicate the active participation of the liver in the metabolism of the feed additive. Dogs were given oral doses of Bisolbi feed additive at a dose of 0,5 g/kg for 31 days. It has been established that it, does not adversely affect the condition and behavior of animals, blood biochemical parameters, and it does not have a hepatotoxic effect.
   
Keywords: Keywords: feed additive, Bisolbi, blood biochemical parameters, hepatotoxic effect
   
References:
References
1. Efficiency of using the sorbing probiotic additive Bisolbi in the diets of pigs during their cultivation and fatten- ing / Yu. V. Semyonova, V. E. Ulitko, L. A. Pykhtina, O. A. Desyatov, E. V. Savina, A. I. Malysheva, A. V. Shuklina // Vestnik NSAU (Novosibirsk State Agrarian University). – 2017. – No 4 (45). – P. 149–155.
2.   Efficiency of using the feed additive Bisolbi in growing broiler chickens / V. E. Ulitko, L. A. Pykhtina, O. A. Desyatov, A. G. Aritkin, E. V. Savina, Yu. V. Semenova // Agrarian science and education in modern stage of 25
development: experience, problems and ways to solve them: proceedings of the VIII International scientific and practical conference, February 7-8 2017. – Ulyanovsk: UGSHA Stolypin P. A., 2017.  – P. III. – P. 105–111.
3. Methods and value of determination of glutamic acid dehydrogenase activity in the serum. A contribution to the importance of examination of enzyme relations in the serum / Å. Schmidt, F.W. Schmidt // Klin Wochenschr. – URL : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13991973/ (date of application: 25.04.2023).
4. Enzyme determinations in the serum in liver diseases. Function patterns as a means of diagnosis Enzymol Biol Clin (Basel) / Å. Schmidt, F.W. Schmidt. – URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14056980/ (date of applica- tion: 12.02.2022).
5. Directive 2010/63/EU of The European Parliament and of The Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of  animals  used  for  scientific  purposes,  L  276/52.  – URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-con- tent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32010L0063 (date of application: 18.05.2022).
6. Drug-induced liver injury (clinical guidelines for physicians) / V. T. Ivashkin, A. Yu. Baranovsky, K. L. Raykhelson, L. K. Palgova, M. V. Maevskaya, E. A. Kondrashina, N. V. Marchenko, T. P. Nekrasova, I. G. Nikitin. – URL: https://www.gastro-j.ru/jour/article/viewFile/332/266 (date of application: 04.03.2023).
7. Reporting adverse drug reactions definitions of terms and criteria for their use. – URL: https://cioms.ch/publi- cations/product/reporting-adverse-drug-reactions-definitions-of-terms-and-criteria-for-their-use/ (date  of  ap- plication: 19.11.2022).
8.   Clinical laboratory diagnosis of diseases of the liver and biliary tract: a guide for doctors / A. I. Karpishchenko, A. V. Moskvalev, V. V. Kuznetsov, S. N. Zheregelya – Moscow: GEOTAR Media, 2020. – 464 p.
9.   Kishkun, A. A. Clinical laboratory diagnostics: textbook / A. A. Kishkun – Moscow: GEOTAR-Media, 2019. – 1000 p.
10. Determination of serum proteins by means of the Biuret reaction / A. G. Gornall, C. S. Bardawill, Ì. Ì. David // J Biol Chem. – URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18110453/ (date of application: 06.11.2022).
11. Clinical laboratory diagnostics: in 2 vol. Vol. 1 / Ed. Professor V. V. Dolgov. – Moscow: LLC «Labdiag», 2017. – P.259–332. 
12. The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time / Mona Botros, Kenneth A Sikaris // Clin Biochem Rev. – URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24353357/ (date of application: 16.03.2023).
13. Simplified enzymic/colorimetric serum urea nitrogen determination / À. Tabacco, F. Meiattini, Å. Moda, Ð. Tarli // Clin Chem. – URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/759035/ (date of application: 07.09.2022).
14. Sociedad Española de Química Clínica, Comité Científico, Comisión de Enzimas. Método recomendado para la determinación en rutina de la concentración catalítica de la aspartato aminotransferasa en suero sanguíneo humano  //  Quim  Clin.  – URL: https://www.vestnik-rsn.ru/vrsn/article/view/1108 (date  of  application: 08.09.2022).
15. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th ed. / Ñ. À. Burtis, E.  R.  Ashwood, D. E. Bruns. – URL: https://archive.org/details/tietztextbookofc0000unse (date of application: 11.02.2023).
16. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37°C. Part 9. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase. – URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21702699/ (date of application: 01.03.2023).
17. Analysis of statistical data in the STATISTICA package: a practical guide for users / O. V. Solntseva. – Ulya- novsk: GSHA, 2004. – 43 p.
18. The combined effect of physical and chemical factors on the clinical and biochemical parameters of animals / A. V. Ivanov, M. Ya. Tremasov, F. G. Akhmetov, E. K. Papunidi, E. I. Semenov // The Veterinarian. – 2007. – No 4. – P. 4–6.
19. Clinical laboratory diagnostics. National leadership / V. V. Dolgov, V. V. Menshikov – Moscow: GEOTAR – Media, 2016. – 688 ð.
20. Laboratory diagnosis of drug-induced liver damage during pregnancy. translational medicine / V. V. Dorofei- kov, I. V. Borisova, M. A. Tarasova, N. V. Zhestkova, T. V. Vavilova – URL: https://doi.org/10.18705/2311- 4495-2017-4-3-35-44 (date of application: 14.12.2022).
21. Clinical interpretation of a biochemical blood test in liver diseases: a textbook for students / A. V. Davydova. – Irkutsk: GBOU VPO IGMU of the Ministry of Health of Russia, 2013. – P. 25-28
22. GOST 33216-2014. Guidelines for the maintenance and care of laboratory animals. Rules for the maintenance and care of laboratory rodents and rabbits. – Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. – 15 p.
23. Tactics of clinical laboratory diagnostics / Ed. A. M. Ivanova – Moscow: GEOTAR-Media, 2021. – 112 p.
24. An enzymic test for the diagnosis of viral hepatitis; the transaminase serum activities / F. DE Ritis, Ì. Coltort, G.  Giusti  //  Clin  Chim  Acta.  – URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13447217/ (date  of  application: 17.01.2023).