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2, 2023

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  Infectious pathology

Antibiotic sensitivity of aerobic representatives intestinal normobiota of pets living in Chelyabinsk

Authors: Nailya E. Khaidarshina1, Karen V. Dallakyan2, Razaliya R. Timerbaeva3

1 Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia

2 Animal Protection Fund "Save Me", Chelyabinsk, Russia

3 Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan, Russia

Corresponding author: Nailya E. Khaidarshina, neh-74@ya.ru

Abstract: The composition of the normobiota of the human and animal organisms is being actively studied. Some representatives of the aerobic microbiota of the large intestine are opportunistic microorganisms that are increasingly moving into a group of pathogens with acquired antibiotic resistance. Monitoring the circulation of antibiotic-resistant strains in various human and animal populations is one of the main tasks regulated by the Strategy of the WHO, the European Union, and the Russian Federation. The study of the frequency of occurrence of antibiotic-resistant strains at the regional level is important for creating a list of highly effective drugs for the initial treatment of infectious pathologies in humans and animals. In our study, the results of antibiotic sensitivity of aerobic representatives of the intestinal normobiota of pets (cats and dogs) were obtained. For the studied cultures of staphylococci, enterococci and certain types of enterobacteria, the frequency of occurrence of strains sensitive to clinically significant drugs was more than 75%.
Keywords: pets, intestinal aerobic normobiota, opportunistic bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity, mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial drugs

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Evaluation of the effectiveness of the experimental composition as a therapeutic agent for diarrhea of young cattle

Authors: Ramziya M. Potekhina, Alexey V. Frolov, Ekaterina N. Mayorova, Dmitriy I. Milovankin, Dinis A. Mirgazov
Address: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Center for toxicological, radiation, and biological safety, Kazan, Russia.Corresponding author: Alexey V. Frolov, frolov012@list.ru

In calves of the dairy growing period, disorders of the digestive organs are often found, accompanied by a violation of the composition of the microflora of the digestive tract with a shift in the ratio towards conditionally pathogenic species, which leads to diarrhea, reduces the productivity of animals. In this regard, the issue of developing new means of combating digestive disorders of productive livestock does not lose relevance.

Studies were conducted in three farms of the Republic of Mordovia, the effectiveness of a new drug (a composition based on selimaccide and mycelial fungus Fusarium sambucinum strain VKPM F-139) was evaluated in experiments as a therapeutic agent for diarrhea of young cattle.

Of the experimental animals calves of the dairy growing period in each of the three experiments, 3 groups of 10 heads were made up: Group 1 healthy; group 2 with signs of diarrhea; group 3 with signs of diarrhea, were treated. The studied composition was administered orally for 14 days at a daily dose of 700 ml/head. Throughout the experiment, the clinical condition of the animals was taken into account, at the beginning of the experiment and after 14 days, fecal samples were taken from the animals to determine the composition of the microbiome of the digestive tract.

The results of the studies showed that the composition of the microbiome of calves with signs of diarrhea differed significantly from that of healthy animals: there was a shift in the balance towards conditionally pathogenic species, a decrease in the number of E. coli.

The use of the studied drug for the treatment of calves with signs of diarrhea led to normalization of the microbial landscape of the digestive tract. The positive effect was confirmed by the clinical picture
Keywords: calves, diarrhea, treatment, microflora, digestive tract

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Influence of the combined action of mycotoxins and ionizing radiation on allergic sensitization

Authors: Eduard I. Semenov, Nailya N. Mishina, Almaz R. Valiev, Lilia E. Matrosova, Konstantin N. Vagin, Nikolai M. Vasilevski

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological safety, Kazan, Russia

Corresponding author: Eduard Iljasovich Semenov, semyonovei@bk.ru


. Ionizing radiation can have different biological effects depending on the dose and its power. Whole-body low-dose gamma irradiation activates immune responses in a variety of ways, but the effect and mechanism of low-dose irradiation on allergic responses remains poorly understood. The mechanism of allergic sensitization to food allergens also remains poorly understood. In this regard, the study of multiple chemical sensitivity, which is a multisystemic, relapsing disorder, that aggravates in response to various exposures (for example, pesticides, solvents, toxic metals, and mold) below a threshold calculated for age and sex, is of increasing relevance.

A study of the possibility of the action of ionizing radiation and mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone) as factors - inducers of allergic sensitization was made. The study was carried out on white Wistar rats. Ovalbumin was used as allergen model. Modeling of subacute radiation sickness was performed with a single dose of 4.0 Gy with an exposure dose rate of 5.38 R/min. The doses of mycotoxins were at the MPC level, the animals were exposed for 10 days.

It was established that the consumption of mycotoxins increased the manifestation of anaphylactic shock in animals, while exposure to ionizing radiation, on the contrary, reduced it. The same trends persisted in the dynamics of antibody titers to ovalbumin. The combined effect caused a slight excess of these parameters relative to the control. The combined action caused a significant increase in intestinal permeability, which led to the accumulation of mycotoxins in the liver. An aftereffect and a delayed effect have been found.

Although no immediate-type sensitization enhancements have been recorded when combined with ionizing radiation and mycotoxins, there is a risk that a combination of exposure to ionizing radiation and diet/feeding features may cause additional damage to the body. Consumption of food containing high levels of mycotoxins, which are associated with certain disorders in both humans and animals, poses significant health risks. The aftereffect we found requires additional studies in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions
Keywords: ionizing radiation, mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, allergy, immediate-type sensitization

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Morphometric assessment of ultrastructural organization Escherichia coli bacteria after exposure to gamma radiation

Authors: Marina Yu. Gallyamova, Konstantin N. Vagin, Aidar F. Makhmutov, Gleb S. Kashevarov, Vadim R. Saitov

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Center for toxicological, radiation, and biological safety, Kazan, Russia

Corresponding author: Marina Yu. Gallyamova, marina_rb@inbox.ru

Abstract: The study of the response of microorganisms to the influence of various environmental factors is an object of constant attention of scientists. Bacteria are exposed to agents that cause changes in the chemical-physical and biochemical processes, and subsequently in the morphology and structural organization of cells. The aim of the work was to assess the overall effect of the radiation factor on the submicroscopic organization of Escherichia coli. The experiment was performed on a cell culture of the production strain of E. coli PL-6, radiation exposure was carried out using a stationary gamma installation Researcher (60Co). The culture was fixed with a 1 % solution of glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer. Further, the samples were subjected to post-fixation with osmium tetroxide, dehydration (ethyl alcohols of increasing concentration 30; 50; 70; 80; 96 %, absolute alcohols, acetone) and impregnation. The material in the form of ultrathin sections was examined on a Jeol JEM-1011 electron microscope (Japan); Statistical data processing was carried out using the Statistica 6.0 and MS Excel programs. It was revealed that the influence of ionizing radiation is externally manifested by the presence of a larger number of E. coli cells with an increased periplasmic space, as well as a smaller number of elongated forms. The general morphological picture of bacteria in the control group is represented by various forms to a greater extent, including elongated ones (polymorphism); predominantly cells with increased periplasmic space; cell wall appendages (such as pili) were not noted; vesicle formation is almost not observed. In bacteria of the experimental group, polymorphism is less pronounced; elongated bacteria are almost never found; cell wall appendages (such as pili) are not seen and vesicle formation is extremely low.
Keywords: bacteria, ionizing radiation, Escherichia coli, morphometry, ultrastructure

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Features of the selection of primers and probes of the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) for polymerase chain reaction with real-time detection (RT-PCR)

Authors: Saida Nurbievna Marzanova1, Nina Valerievna Konovalova2, Yakov Igorevich Alekseev2, Yuriy Mikhailovich Khodarovich3, Davud Abdulsemedovich Devrishov1, Nurbiy Safarbievich Marzanov4

1The Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after K.I. Skriabin, Moscow, Russia.

2Closed Joint Stock Company Sintol, Moscow, Russia.

3Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, RAS (IBCh RAS), Moscow, Russia.

4L.K. Ernst Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry, Podolsk-Dubrovitsy, Moscow Region, Russia.

Corresponding author: Saida Nurbievna Marzanova, s.marzanova@mail.ru


For the first time, based on bioinformatic solutions, a technology for creating a test system for the diagnosis of 4 alleles (CSN3A, CSN2B, CSN2C, CSN2E) in the kappa-casein locus is presented. Bioinformatics is an important tool that greatly improves the work of a researcher. The article describes the stages of working with the NCBI database and the Oligo 6.0, Primer3 programs for searching for kappa-casein gene sequences and selecting primers and probes. All the above work steps are relevant in the development of PCR kits. An algorithm of actions is described that contributes to the formation of a general idea for creating a set for determining alleles and genotypes in the kappa-casein locus in cattle. It is shown how the selection of the temperature regime, primers, probes is going on. The probes were labeled with fluorophores FAMcarboxyfluorescein and R6Gcarboxyrodamine-6G. As fluorescence quenchers, RTQ1 (fluorescence quencher of the RTQ family) and BHQ2 (fluorescence quencher of the BHQ family) were used. In order to visualize the experiment, a layout of primers and probes in the genomic DNA sequence for the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) was presented. It marked the sites of hybridization of primers CSN_F, CSN_R and allele-specific CSN3-MaeII-wt, CSN3-MaeII-m, CSN3-HinfI-wt2, CSN3-HinfI-m2, CSN3-HaeIII-wt, CSN3-HaeIII-m2 probes. As a result of the obtained data, it was decided to stop at 40 amplification cycles. When searching for homology using the Nucleotide BLAST online Internet service, the homology of the sequencing results with the CSN3 gene sequence was shown at the level of 99.28%. The CSN3B allele is a genetic marker associated with the cheese suitability of cow's milk, which is important for the correct determination of genotypes and alleles at this locus.

Keywords: cattle, breed, milk, locus, kappa-casein, genotype, allele, polymorphism, DNA-technology, primers, CSN3, PCR, NCBI

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The etiological structure of mastitis in cows in large livestock complexes for milk production

Authors: Aidar F. Makhmutov, Gennady N. Spiridonov, Lilia Sh. Dupleva, Dinar D. Nasertdinov, Milyausha T. Khuramshina

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Center for toxicological, radiation, and biological safety, department of bacteriology, laboratory of bacterial animal pathologies, Kazan, Russia

Corresponding author: Gennady Nikolayevich Spiridonov, spiridonovkzn57@gmail.com
Abstract: Dairy cattle breeding is the leading branch of agriculture in Russia. Among the many diseases of cows, obstetric and gynecological diseases are the main ones that inhibit the growth of productivity and reproduction. Economic losses are primarily associated with a decrease in milk productivity or a complete cessation of lactation, as well as with premature culling of livestock. At the same time, early diagnosis and prevention of mammary gland diseases are of particular importance. This paper presents the results of study the etiology of the mammary gland diseases in cows in large livestock complexes for the milk production. 117 samples of milk from cows with mastitis and 28 samples of genital secretions from cows with endometritis were obtained from 18 industrial complexes and studied. 126 isolates of Streptococcus, 25 of Staphylococcus, 3 of Micrococcus, 41 of Escherichia coli, 9 of Proteus vulgaris, 5 of Yersinia and 3 of Candida have been isolated by bacteriological examination. Thus, as a result of the research, the etiological structure of infectious mastitis in cows was studied, the main pathogens of the disease were identified
Keywords: mastitis, pathogen, diagnosis, mammary gland disease, cows, heifers

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A study of antimycotic activity substances against dermatophytes genus Microsporum

Authors: Rinat S. Muhammadiev, Rifkat R. Musin, Valentina Y. Titova, Anna M. Tremasova, Evgeny V. Skvortsov
Address: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Center for toxicological, radiation, and biological safety, Kazan, Russia.Corresponding author: Rinat Salavatovich Muhammadiev, tanirtashir@mail.ru
Abstract: A study of antimycotic activity against dermatophytes Microsporum genus of substances sodium benzoate, thymol, benzotriazole, gout extract and celandine extract was conducted in comparison with the widely used antifungal agents chlornitrophenol, terbinafine, fluconazole, naftifine, clotrimazole,     2-mercaptobenzthiazole. ntimycotic activity substances were determined in concentration range of           0.098100 g/ml by method of double serial dilutions. It was found that most of substances were able to inhibit growth of isolates of Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum. Thymol and clotrimazole had the most pronounced antimycotic effect against fungal isolates, for which minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 6.25 μg/ml. Evaluation of sensitivity dermatophytes Microsporum genus to the substances showed that M. canis isolate was sensitive to all tested substances. Isolate of M. gypseum was sensitive to thymol, clotrimazole, chlornitrophenol, terbinafine, naftifine, 2-mercaptobenzthiazole, celandine extract and was resistant to celandine extract. Obtained research results open up prospects for further study thymol and its use as main active substance in the drugs for external treatment of microsporial infection.
Keywords: dermatophytes, Microsporum, active substances, antimycotic activity, sensitivity to active substances

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Evaluation of total toxicity of feed by biotesting on simply and laboratory animals

Authors: Gulnara G. Galyautdinova, Zuhra Kh. Sagdeeva, Oksana V. Shlyamina

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Center for toxicological, radiation, and biological safety, Testing center, Kazan, Russia.

Corresponding author: Gulnara Gabitovna Galyautdinova, galyautdinovaggg@gmail.com


Ensuring high productivity of farm animals and poultry is possible only with the organization of balanced feeding. The fodder base must satisfy the needs of a living organism for the necessary nutrients, in the right amount and in the right ratio. In this regard, the industry produces compound feeds already enriched with vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, micro- and macroelements, antibiotics, probiotics, etc. In the production of compound feeds, the peculiarities and requirements for nutrients of different types of animals are taken into account. Depending on the purpose, they are subdivided for cattle and small livestock, for pigs, for poultry, for rabbits, etc. However, as a result of an increase in the growth of various additives in the production of compound feed, the question of the possibility of using the method of general toxicity of feed and the reliability of the results is increasingly being raised. Do the inclusions of feed additives affect the survival of protozoa, as well as the possibility of false toxicity during cutaneous application and the effect on the digestive system of warm-blooded animals? The purpose of this work was to assess the overall toxicity of feed received at the ICTRB-VNIVI by survival rate on test cultures and on vivary laboratory animals (mice, rabbits) in accordance with GOST 31674-2012 Feed, compound feed, compound feed raw materials. Methods for determining toxicity. During the primary screening for Stylonychia mytilus, the toxicity of feeds containing additives in the form of enzymes, preservatives, antibiotics, etc. was established. However, the confirmatory biotesting method on vivary laboratory animals (rabbits, mice) did not reveal toxicity in most of the studied feeds.

Keywords: general toxicity, feed, compound feed, biotesting, protozoa, rabbits, mice

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Pesticides in bee honey and bee products

Authors: Irina V. Kushch1, Damir I. Udavliev2, Anton L. Bairov3, Artem I. Grudev3, Elena G. Shubina3

1All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Sanitation, Hygiene and Ecology - Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Research Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine named after K. I. Skryabin and Ya R. Kovalenko of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Russia, Moscow, i.kusch@mail.ru

2FGBU VO Russian Biotechnological University, Russia, Moscow

3FGBU Federal Center for Animal Health, Russia, Moscow

Corresponding author: Irina Vyacheslavovna Kushch, i.kusch@mail.ru


Pesticides are poisonous substances for the destruction of plant pathogens; parasites; weeds and other pests, without which the agricultural industry cannot do today. However, non-target insects, such as honey bees, are harmed when pesticides are used incorrectly, leading to the death of their colonies and the ingress of pesticides into bee products.

The article presents the results of laboratory monitoring of residues of prohibited and harmful substances in bee products, covering the results in relation to pesticides and other pesticides from 19 branches of the Central scientific and methodological veterinary laboratory.

The main methods used for the implementation of food monitoring of beekeeping products on the territory of the Russian Federation are considered.

Keywords: bee honey, pesticides, GC, GLC, GC-MS, TLC, monitoring, veterinary and sanitary examination