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  Toxicology
   
Title:

Study of toxicodynamics of Startin-Phyto after administration to rats at different stages of pregnancy

   
Authors: Emil K. Rakhmatullin, Nikolai M. Vasilevsky, Zhanna R. Nasybullina, Ilnur R. Kadikov
   
Address: The study of the features of the drugs action mechanism during pregnancy in animals with an assessment of their teratogenicity remains a little-studied area of veterinary clinical pharmacology and toxicology. Multiple intragastric administration of Startin-Ρhyto to pregnant rats from the 1st to the 6th, from the 6th to the 16th and from the 16th to the 19th days of pregnancy does not cause toxic effects in animals. Startin-Phyto when administered intragastrically to pregnant rats from the 1st to the 6th, from 6th to 16th and from16th to 19th days of pregnancy does not have a teratogenic effect
   
Keywords: total protein, urea, glucose, bilirubin, enzymes aspartate- and alanine aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase
   
References:

1. Ivanova, A. . Teratogenic properties of drugs. Background / A. A. Ivanova, A. V. Mikhailov, A. S. Kolbin // Pediatric pharmacology. 2013. Vol. 10, No 1. P. 4653. URL: https://doi.org/10.15690/pf.v10i1.588 (accessed: 07.01.2022).

2. Kulinsky, V. I. Neutralization of xenobiotics / V. I. Kulinsky // Soros Educational Journal. 1999. No 1. P. 812.

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4. Medical laboratory technologies: a guide to clinical laboratory diagnostics: in 2 volumes. Vol. 1 / Ed. A. I. Karpishchenko. Moscow : GEOTΑR-Media, 2012. 472 p. ISBN 978-5-9704-2274-8. URL: https://www.rosmedlib.ru/book/ISBN9785970422748.html (accessed: 01.24.2022).

5. Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics: a reference book / Ed. prof. I. P. Kondrakhin. Moscow : KolosS, 2004. . 88.

6. Guidelines for the study of the embryotoxic action of pharmacological substances and their influence on reproductive function / . . Dyban, V. F. Puchkov, N. A. Chebotar. Moscow : Pharmacological Committee, 1986. 21 p.

7. Mironov, A. N. Guidelines for conducting preclinical studies of drugs. Part one / A. N. Mironov. Moscow : Grif and K, 2012. 944 p. ISBN 978-5-8125-1466-3.

8. Popova, O. S. Evaluation of toxicity taking into account the unpredictable uncertainty of preclinical and clinical studies in the field of veterinary medicine / O. S. Popova // Questions of legal regulation in veterinary medicine. 2021. No 2. . 7981. URL: ttps://rucont.ru/efd/754521 (accessed: 07.01.2022).

9. Problems of planning and conducting preclinical studies in the Russian Federation / A. N. Βasiliev, R. R. Niyazov, E. V. Gavrishina [et al.] // Remedium. 2017. No 9. P. 619. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/problemy-planirovaniya-i-provedeniya-doklinicheskih-issledovaniy-v-rossiyskoy-federatsii (accessed: 07.01.2022).

10. Reshetko, O. V. Pharmacological safety in pregnancy: a systematic review of the use of potentially teratogenic drugs / O. V. Reshetko, K. A. Lutsevich, I. I. Sanina // Pediatric pharmacology. 2017. Vol. 14, No 2. . 127141.

11. Solntseva, O. B. Analysis of statistical data in the STATISTICA package. A practical guide for users / O. V. Solntseva, A. V. Sevastyanov. Ulyanovsk : GSHA, 2004. 43 p.

12. Ehrenstein, V. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues, Sorensen HT / V. Ehrenstein, L. S. Βakketeig, L. Pedersen // Clin Epidemio. 2010. Vol. 2. . 37-43. Doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S9304.

13. Cytochrome P450: structure, mechanism, and biochemistry / Paul ROrtiz de Montellano.  New York : Kluwer Αcademic/Plenum Publishers, 2005.  912 . ISΒN 0-306-48324-6.

14. Reitman S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases / S. Reitman, S. Frankel // Am J Clin Pathol. 1957. Vol. 28. P. 5663. Doi: 10.1093/ajcp/28.1.56.

15. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics / C. Α. Burtis, E. R. Ashwood, D. E. Βruns. WB Saunders Co, 2005. 1999 .

16. Trinder, P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor // Αnn Clin Βiochem. 1969. Vol. 6. . 2427.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

The importance of PCR in the detection of infectious agents in cattle

   
Authors: Natalya A. Bezborodova, Veronika V. Kozhukhovskaya, Antonina P. Poryvaeva, Evgenia N. Shilova, Elena V. Pechura
   
Address:

Ural Federal Agrarian Scientific Research Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Yekaterinburg, Russia

Corresponding author: Natalya Alexandrovna Bezborodova, n-bezborodova@mail.ru
   
Abstract: The aim of our work was to identify bacterial and viral infectious agents in biological material from cows and calves with different clinical manifestations of diseases by PCR. Biological material from animals was supplied to the PCR laboratory from 23 agricultural organizations of the Ural region. A total of 808 samples were examined, of which pathogen genomes were found in 11.9% of cases: Mycoplasma bovis DNA in 2.4% of samples, Bovine virus diarrhoea RNA in 2.3% of samples, Mycoplasma spp. DNA. and Chlamydia spp. in 2% of the samples, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Bovine herpes virus (type 1), Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum were isolated. Of 80 samples, 36.2% of biomaterials contained specific DNA sites Cl.difficile - 31.2% of samples, Cl.perfringens 20.0% of samples, Cl.difficile+Cl.perfringens - 25.0% of bioassays. Toxins were found in Cl.difficile: CDT toxin in 41.0% of clostridium, toxin B in 6.0% of pathogens, less often toxin A. All detected pathogens were presented in the form of monoinfection and, occasionally, in the form of mixed infections. UsingWith the help of PCR, it was possible to detect DNA and RNA of infectious agents with different clinical manifestations of diseases of bacterial and viral etiology in cattle herds of the Ural region
   
Keywords: DNA, RNA, PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Bovine herpes virus 1, Bovine virus diarrhea
   
References:

1.                  Bezborodova, N.A. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of latent, asymptomatic and chronic forms of infectious diseases in cattle / N. A. Bezborodova, V. V. Kozhukhovskaya, M. V. Petropavlovsky et al. // Issues of legal regulation in veterinary medicine. - 2019. - No. 4. - S. 30-33.

2.                  Krasikov A.P., Alekseeva I.G. Complex diagnostics of infectious diseases in cattle // Electronic scientific and methodological journal of the Omsk State Agrarian University. 2015. No. 1. C.9.

3.                  Krasikov, A.P. The concept of parasitocenoses, mixed and associative infections of animals // Krasikov A.P., Rudakov N.V., Zabolotnykh M.V. // Vestnik OmGAU No. 4 (24). 2016. P.158-165.

4.                  Nefedchenko A. V. An integrated approach to determining the etiological structure of respiratory diseases in cattle in dairy farms / A. V. Nefedchenko, T. I. Glotova, A. G. Glotov // Bulletin of the Krasnodar State Agrarian University. 2017. No. 1 (124). pp. 65-71.

5.                  Pathogenicity of non-cytopathogenic virus isolates of viral diarrhea-mucosal disease for seronegative calves / A.G. Glotov, T.I. Glotova et al.// Questions of virology. 2014. No. 4 (59). pp.46-49.

6.                  Pechura, E.V. The value of laboratory research in the system of epizootological characteristics and optimization of epizootological surveillance of acute respiratory viral infections in cattle / E. V. Pechura, O. G. Petrova, A. P. Poryvaeva et al. // Veterinary Pharmacological Bulletin. - 2020. - No. 4(13). - S. 151-158.

7.                  Sokolova O.V. Pathological changes in the system "mother-placenta-fetus" in cows with chlamydia / O. V. Sokolova, I. A. Shkuratova, L. I. Drozdova et al. // Veterinary. - 2020. - No. 12. - P. 9-12.

8.                  Comparative characteristics of the clinical manifestations of the genital form of infectious rhinotracheitis in cows and heifers under specific vaccination / M.V. Ryaposova [et al.] // Issues of legal regulation in veterinary medicine. 2017. No. 3. S. 59-62.

9.                  Shkuratova, I.A. Control programs for infectious factors affecting the reproductive function of highly productive dairy cows / I. A. Shkuratova, E. N. Shilova, O. V. Sokolova et al. // Veterinary and feeding. - 2020. - No. 2. - P. 54-57.

Yurov K.P. Control and ways of improving livestock of breeding farms and breeding enterprises from infectious rhinotracheitis and viral diarrhea / K.P. Yurov, M.I. Gulyukin // Russian agricultural science. 2018. No. 1. S. 59-63.
   
   
Title:

Corneal affection in dogs during coronavirus infection

   
Authors: Irina . Gndoyan, Yulia . Dvoretskaya, Evgeniy V. Solodov, Sergey . Chernov
   
Address:

Volgograd State Medical University of the Ministry of the Health of the Russian Federation .

Author responsible for the correspondence: I. . Gndoyan, irina.gndoyan@mail.ru

   
Abstract: The analysis of the course of inflammatory diseases of cornea of coronavirus etiology in dogs was performed. Five young mongrel dogs aged 3-6 months were under the observation. They were sent from a shelter for homeless animals for consultation with an ophthalmologist.  Three of them suffered from upper respiratory tract disease, two animals in addition to respiratory infection had severe enteritis.  Laboratory confirmation of coronavirus etiology of all diseases received.  The ocular manifestations of the infectious disease included bilateral purulent conjunctivitis and bilateral interstitial keratitis. All animals were treated by topical steroid therapy in the mode of drops instillations and subconjunctival injections of dexamethasone. The topical steroid therapy led to a complete elimination of corneal infiltration and restoration of its transparency without relapse within 10 months. Bilateral interstitial keratitis may be a specific local manifestation of coronavirus infection in dogs.
   
Keywords: dogs, coronavirus infection, keratitis, topical steroids, subconjunctival injection
   
References:

1.                      Chen L., Deng C., Chen X., Zang X. et al. Ocular manifestations and clinical characteristics of 534 cases of COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional study. medRxiv [Preprint] . 2020 March 16. doi:10.1101/2020.03.12.20034678.

2.                      Chen Y., Liu Q., Guo D. Emerging coronavirus: Genome structure, replication and pathogenesis. J. Med.Virol. 2020; 92:418-423. doi.org/10/1002/jmv25681

3.                      Coronaviruses in animals and humans (round table). BIO. 2020; 5 (236): 1627. [Coronaviruses in animals and humans (round table). bio. 2020; 5 (236): 1627. (in Russ.)]

4.                      Egorov E.A. Astakhov Yu.S., Stavitskaya T.V. Ophthalmopharmacology. M.: GEOTAR-MED, 2004. 464 p. [Egorov E.A. Astakhov Yu.S., Stavitskaya T.V. Ophthalmopharmacology. M.: GEOTAR-MED, 2004. 464 p. (in Russ.)]

5.                      Kasparov A.A. Ophthalmoherpes. M.: Medicine, 1994. 224 p. [Kasparov A.A. Ophthalmoherpes. M.: Meditsina, 1994. 224 p. (in Russ.)]

6.                      Turbin R., Wawrzusin P., Sakla N., Traba C., WongK. et al. Orbital cellulitis, sinusitis and intracranial abnormalities in two adolescents with COVID-19. Orbit [Internet]. 2020; 39(4):305-310. doi:10.1080/01676830.2020.1768560.

7.                      Wu P., Duan F., Luo C. et al. Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020; 138(5):575578. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.1291

  Parasitology
   
Title:

Endoparsite complex of agricultural ruminants in some regions of the North Caucasus

   
Authors: Irina I. Tsepilova, Svetlana A. Shemyakova, Elizaveta A. Nikolaeva
   
Address:

Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MBA named after K.I. Skryabin, Moscow, Russia

Corresponding author: Irina Igorevna Tsepilova, irenka_c_1987@mail.ru

   
Abstract:

The article provides information on the composition of endoparasitocomplexes of large and small cattle in the Karachay-Cherkess and Kabardino-Balkaria Republics and provides a comparative analysis of the structure of endoparasitocenoses with the calculation of the index of parasitocenoses. To study the nosological profile of endoparasites of agricultural ruminants in the conditions of the farms of the Karachay-Cherkess and Kabardino-Balkarian Republics, 211 fecal samples were selected and studied, including 101 samples from the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic and 110 samples from the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. The most diverse structure of endoparasitocenosis in small cattle on the territory of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic in the sheep breeding farm LLC Muhu, where parasitism of one species of trematodes: Dicrocoelium lanceatum, one species of cestodes: Moniezia benedeni, one suborder, five genera and three species of nematodes was found: Strongylata, Protostrongylus, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Nematodirella, Trichocephalus, Muellerius capillaris, Dictyocaulus filaria and Strongyloides papillosus and one genus of protozoa, Eimeria. All of these pathogens parasitize both in the form of mono- and mixed invasions, creating 26 different variations of endoparasitocenoses. In the structure of endoparasitocenoses identified in farm animals in the conditions of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, nematodes from the suborder Strongylata dominate, PI ranges from 42,8 to 95,1.

In the Zolsky district of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, two genera and one species of trematodes were identified: Fasciola, Paramphistomum, Dicrocelium lanceatum, one suborder and two genera of nematodes: Strongylata, Trichocephalus, Protostrongylus and one genus of protozoa - Eimeria, and four variations of mixed invasions were identified. The structure of endoparasitocenosis in agricultural animals is dominated by protozoa of the genus Eimeria, PI in various variations of endoparasites consisting of two taxa corresponds from 46,6 to 88,8, PI of nematodes from the suborder Strongylata varies from 33,3 to 53,4.
   
Keywords: endoparasite complex, endoparasitocenosis, monoinvasion, mixed invasion, cattle, small cattle.
   
References:

1. Bespalova, N.S. The problem of helminth resistance to antiparasitic drugs in cattle breeding / N. S. Bespalova, S. V. Fateev // Science and Education. - 2021. - V. 4. - No. 2. - S. 2331.

2. Davydova, O.E. Methods of helminthocoprological studies in the diagnosis of helminthiases in animals / O.E. Davydova, D.N. Shemyakov, I.I. Tsepilova. - M., FGBOU VO MGAVMiB - MVA im. K.I. Scriabin. - 2016. - 31 p.

3. Zubairova, M.M. Mixed strongylatoses of the digestive tract and anoplocephalatoses of sheep in the context of the vertical zonality of Dagestan / M.M. Zubairova, A.M. Ataev, N.T. Karsakov, M.A. Akhmedov // Russian Journal of Parasitology. - 2022. - T. 16. - No. 1. - P. 93100.

4. Kosyaev, N.I. Invasion of cattle with strongylates of the digestive canal depending on the conditions of detention / N.I. Kosyaev, Kh.Kh. Shakhbiev // Proceedings of the All-Russian scientific-practical conference "Modern achievements of veterinary and zootechnical science: development prospects". - Moscow, 2019. - S. 268271.

5. Loginova O.A. Strongylatoses of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants: experience in determining the species composition of helminths / O.A. Loginova // Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference of the Faculty, Researchers and Postgraduates of SPbGAVM. - St. Petersburg, 2016. - P. 4748.

6. Marchenko, V.A. The structure of helminthocenosis in cattle of the Altai Mountains / V.A. Marchenko, E.A. Efremova, E.A. Vasilyeva // Russian Journal of Parasitology. - 2008. - No. 3. - S. 2 - 6.

7. Mironenko, V.M. Treatment of small cattle with mixed invasions / V.M. Mironenko, I.K. Konakhovich // Animal husbandry and veterinary medicine. - 2020. - No. 4 (39). P. 3437.

8. Nikonorova, V.G. Chemoprophylaxis of helminthiases during grazing of ruminants in lowland, flood pastures / V.G. Nikonorova, E.N. Kryuchkova // Theory and practice of combating parasitic diseases. - 2019. - No. 20. - P. 416423.

9. Postevoy, A.N. Modern aspects of the epizootology of fascioliasis in ruminants of Central Russia / A.N. Postevoy, O.N. Andreyanov // Veterinary of farm animals. - 2016. - No. 10. - P. 1621.

10. Postevoy, A.N. Distribution of fascioliasis in ruminants in the Central region of Russia / A.N. Postevoy, V.V. Gorokhov, O.N. Andreyanov, A.N. Karamnov // Veterinary. - 2015. - No. 9. - P. 3538.

11. Puzanova E.V. Forecast of the epizootic situation on the main helminthiases of farm animals in the Russian Federation for 2020 / E.V. Puzanova // Russian Journal of Parasitology. - 2020. - No. 2 (14). P. 5361.

12. Shikhalieva, M.A. The number and associations of parasites in cattle and goats in the North Caucasus M.A. Shikhalieva, M.I. Bittirova, S.Sh. Mantaeva, Z.Kh. Yusupova, S.Sh. Chilaev S.Sh. // Russian parasitological journal. - 2014. - T. 14. - No. 2. - P. 1621.

13. Yatusevich, A.I. Fasciola hepatica L., 1758 in the functioning parasitic system of ruminants in the Republic of Belarus (evolution of the problem) / A.I. Yatusevich, E.L. Bratushkina, I.A. Yatusevich, M.V. Skulovets, L.A. Verbitskaya, R.N. Protasovitskaya // Scientific notes of the Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. - 2014. - V. 50. No. 1. - Part 1. - P. 7181
  Radiobiology
   
Title:

The possibility of using sorbents in animal husbandry in ecologically unfavorable territories

   
Authors: Vladimir Ya. Sarukhanov, Nizametdin N. Isamov, Vadim G. Epimakhov
   
Address:

Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk, Russia

Corresponding author: Vladimir Yakovlevich Sarukhanov, sarukhanov.vladimir@yandex.ru

   
Abstract:

Animal husbandry in technogenically polluted territories is accompanied by contamination of agricultural products with mycotoxins, heavy metals and other pollutants, for example 137Cs. In this case, animal husbandry should be accompanied by the use of sorbents that simultaneously reduce the intake of radionuclides, heavy metals and mycotoxins into the body of animals. Waste from the food industry, such as rice husks, sunflower husks or coffee sludge, can also be used as sorbents. The combination of ferrocin with other sorbents will make it possible to reduce it and, as a consequence, reduce the cost of producing livestock products to obtain environmentally friendly products. Alumosilicates obtained at the Department of General and Special Chemistry, National Research University of MEPhI, have a high sorption capacity for radionuclides and heavy metals. To use them in animal husbandry, it is necessary to study their harmlessness sorption capacity in relation to mycotoxins and determine the dose neutralizing mycotoxins, heavy metals and radionuclides in the body of productive animals. For use in animal husbandry, the active substance can be applied to substrates containing cellulose, such as sawdust, coffee sludge, or mixed with mixed compound feed.

   
Keywords: sorbents, ferrocin, mycotoxins, radionuclides, farm animals, livestock products technogenically polluted territories
   
References:

1. Braginets, S. V. Physical methods of reducing the content of mycotoxins in feed and their application in the feed industry (review) / S. V. Braginets, O. N. Bakhchevnikov // Agrarian science of the Euro-North-East. 2021. Vol. 22. No. 1. pp. 32-46. DOI 10.30766/2072-9081.2021.22.1.32-46.

2. Evgenevsky, A. A. Fodder mycotoxicoses of cows in industrial animal husbandry: causes, consequences and effective approaches to prevention and treatment / A. A. Evgenevsky, E. P. Evgenevskaya, I. I. Mikhailova et al. // Veterinary pathology. 2018. 1(63). Pp. 47-53. DOI 10.25690/VETPAT.2018.63.20487.

3. Kutsenko, S. A. Fundamentals of toxicology / S. A. Kutsenko. St. Petersburg : LLC "Foliant Publishing House", 2004. 570 p. ISBN 5-93929-092-2.

4. Tarasenko, Yu.A. Enterosorption as a method of excretion of heavy metals from the body. Yu.A. Tarasenko, I.I. Gerashchenko, N.T. Kartel // Surface. - 2014. - Issue 6 (21). - pp. 110-121.

5. Buldakov L.A. On the exchange and biological action of caesium-137 in sheep. //Distribution, biological effect, acceleration of the removal of radioactive isotopes / Edited by prof. Yu.I. Moskalev. M.: Medicine, 1964. - pp. 167-182

6. Arkhitskaya, E.V., Yakushkin I.V. Practical significance and effectiveness of the use of enterosorbents in animal husbandry // Electronic scientific and Methodological Journal of Omsk State Agrarian University. - 2016. - Special issue No. 2. URL http://e-journal.omgau.ru/index.php/spetsvypusk-2/31-spets02/400-00149 . - ISSN 2413-4066

7. Pyanova, L. G. Creation and prospects of using modified sorbents in veterinary medicine / L. G. Pyanova, L. K. Gerunova, V. A. Likholobov, A.V. Sedanova // Bulletin of Omsk State Agrarian University. 2016. 2(22). Pp. 138-146.

8. Chemezova, I. A. The effect of the feed mineral supplement "BS-Vit" on the prevention of early postnatal pathology in calves / I. A. Chemezova // Youth and science. 2016. No. 4. p. 3.

9. Malikova, M. G. The use of natural zeolites of Bashkortostan in animal husbandry / M. G. Malikova, M. T. Sabitov, H. M. Safin. Ufa : State Autonomous Institution of Science of the Republic of Bashkortostan "Bashkir Encyclopedia", 2019. 172 p. ISBN 978-5-88185-444-

10. Shadrin, A.M. The role of natural and modified zeolites in the prevention of forage and environmental stresses in animals and birds / A.M. Shadrin, V. A. Sinitsyn, N. M. Belousov // Siberian Bulletin of Agricultural Science. 2006. 6(166). Pp. 43-49.

11. Vinogradov, I. Mycotoxins: a threat to animal husbandry / I. Vinogradov, I. Ryabchik // Efficient animal husbandry. 2015. 8(117). P. 41.

12. Laptev, G. Yu. Dynamics of mycotoxin accumulation in silage at different stages of storage / G. Yu. Laptev, N. I. Novikova, L. A. Ilyina et al. // Agricultural Biology. 2014. Vol. 49. No. 6. pp. 123-130. DOI 10.15389/agrobiology.2014.6.123rus.

13. Pobednov, Yu. A. The content of mycotoxins in feed at different methods of silage and haylage of herbs / Yu. A. Pobednov, O. N. Sokolova, A. A. Mamaev // Problems of biology of productive animals. 2017. No. 2. pp. 51-59.

14. Trukhachev, V. I. Reduction of toxicity of grain and feed affected by mycotoxins / V. I. Trukhachev, V. N. Avdeeva, G. P. Starodubtseva, Yu. A. Bezgina // Agrarian science. - 2007. No. 5. pp. 13-15.

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17. Isamov, N. N. On the issue of rationing the content of 137Cs in farm animal feed / N. N. Isamov, S. V. Fesenko, P. V. Prudnikov, etc. // In the collection: "Radioecological consequences of radiation accidents: to the 35th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident" materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Obninsk. - 2021. pp. 338-341.

18. Panov, A.V. Technologies of animal husbandry with large-scale radioactive contamination (to the 35th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident) / A.V. Panov, N. N. Isamov, O. S. Gubareva et al. // Bulletin of the Russian Agricultural Science. 2021. No. 4. pp. 58-63. DOI 10.30850/vrsn/2021/4/58-63 .

19. Sarukhanov, V. Ya. Increasing the economic efficiency of cattle breeding on polluted 137Cs agricultural land // Economics of agricultural and processing enterprises. 2021. No. 9. pp. 22-28. DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2021-0-9-22-28.

20. Rozhina, D. A. Ion-exchange properties of biosorbents based on seaweed and ferrocyanides of iron and zinc, selective to caesium ions / D. A. Rozhina, L. S. Pan, A. S., Makoveev // Bulletin of the Tambov University. Series: Natural and Technical Sciences. - 2014. Vol. 19. No. 5. pp. 1458-1461

21. Dudnik, A. N. Study of the process of carbonization of sunflower husks / A. N. Dudnik, P. E. Strizhak, I. S. Sokolovskaya, etc. // Modern Science: research, ideas, results, technologies. 2011. 3(8). Pp. 74-78.

22. Yamansarova, E. T. Investigation of sorption properties of materials based on vegetable raw materials in relation to organic and inorganic impurities / E. T. Yamansarova, N. V. Gromyko, M. I. Abdullin et al. // Bulletin of Bashkir University. - 2016. Vol. 21. No. 2. pp. 314-318.

23. Kupchik, L.A. The use of mercerized rice husks as sorbents of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Sr(II) ions from solutions / L.A. Kupchik, V.A. Denisovich, O.M. Salavor, O.V. Nichik // Bulletin of the Vitebsk State Technological University. 2017. - 2 (33). - C 95-100.

24. Bashashkina, E.V. The use of coffee sludge as a raw material for obtaining protein feed additives / E. V. Bashashkina, I. V. Shakir, N. A. Suyasov, V. I. Panfilov // Chemical industry today. 2010. No. 6. pp. 28-33.

25. Fam, T. M. On the possibility of using coffee waste in sorption purification of water from dyes / T. M. Fam, O. E. Lebedeva // In the collection "Energy- and resource-saving environmentally friendly chemical and technological processes of environmental protection" Materials of the international scientific and technical conference. Belgorod. - 2015. pp. 136-141.

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  Biotechnology
   
Title:

Immunotropic drug of the PigStim series in providing specific immunity and productive qualities of pigs

   
Authors: Dmitry Anatolyevich Nikitin 1, Vladimir Grigoryevich Semenov 1, Vladimir Grigoryevich Tyurin 2, Lyubov Pavlovna Gladkikh 1, Evgeny Vladimirovich Stolbov 1
   
Address:

1Chuvash State Agrarian University, Cheboksary, Russia, semenov_v.g@list.ru

2All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Sanitation, Hygiene and Ecology, Moscow, Russia, potyemkina@mail.ru

The author responsible for the correspondence: Vladimir Grigoryevich Semenov, semenov_v.g@list.ru

   
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to preserve the health and realize the productive qualities of young animals by increasing the effectiveness of specific prevention of circovirus infection and pig clostridiosis. For the experiment, according to the principle of pairs of analogs, 3 groups of Landrace pigs of 15 heads each were formed. The animals were involved in the experiment in the suckling period from the age of 14 days. Animals of the 1st experimental group were injected twice on the 14th and 21st days of life as an adjuvant with the immunotropic drug PigStim-V at a dose of 1.0 ml per head. In animals of the 2nd experimental group, the specified immunotropic drug was injected once at the time of vaccination against porcine circovirus on the 21st day of life. The animals of group 3 were biologically controlled, vaccination was carried out without the use of adjuvants. To control the level of antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2, blood serum was examined by immuno-enzyme analysis using the BioChek PCV2 diagnostic kit. The determination of specific antibodies against the toxins α, β and ε of the microorganism Clostridium perfringens was carried out by a semi-quantitative blocking variant of the immuno-enzyme analysis evaluating the conditional degree of positivity of the sample based on % inhibition of the desired toxin using the BIOX Clostridium perfringens toxin (α, β, ε) test system. It has been established that the use of the immunotropic drug PigStim-V to young pigs as an adjuvant does not have a negative effect on the clinical and physiological condition of pigs, contributes to an increase in the titers of vaccine-specific antibodies against type 2 circovirus infection of pigs and specific antibodies against toxins α, β and ε of the microorganism Clostridium perfringens, reduces morbidity, shortens the recovery time and activates growth processes with a more pronounced positive effect of double injection.
   
Keywords: pigs, PigStim-V immunotropic preparation, immunity, circovirus infection of pigs type 2, Clostridium perfringens
   
References:
   
   
Title:

Indicators of the seed of bulls-producers of the kazakh white-head breed obtained with the method of electroejaculation in the conditions of Western Kazakhstan

   
Authors: Abilov A.I.ˡ, Zholdasbekov A.K.², Nametov A.M.², Shamshidin A.S.², Zhulanov M.N.³
   
Address:

1Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry named after Academy Member L.K. Ernst

2Western Kazakhstan Agrarian Technical University named after Zhangir

3Kazakh National Agrarian Research University Federal Research Center for Animal
   
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the reproductive abilities of bulls-producers of the Kazakh white-headed breed, used to "clean up" the herd after the completion of artificial insemination. The work was carried out on the basis of an agreement on scientific cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan, at the Department of Veterinary Clinic and Science, West Kazakhstan Agrarian and Technical University named after. Zhangir Khan and FGBNU FRC VIZH named after. OK. Ernst in the period of June-July 2020 using young sires of the Kazakh white-headed breed aged 1.5-2.5 years in four farms. Taking into account that the bulls used to clean up the herd are not accustomed to an artificial vagina, the semen was taken by electroejaculation for the analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators. Semen was assessed using traditional methods, as well as using an AFS-500 fertility sperm analyzer (LLC NPF BIOLA, Moscow). We studied the average statistical indicators (M + m), variability (min-max), ratio (max-min) of the seed in a comparative aspect, as well as the discrepancy between the data between the two methods: traditional eye-measuring and fertility sperm analyzer. It was found that the volume of semen in sires was 4.9 ml with a variation of 3.0-6.0 ml, with a mobility of 84.0 3.0%, a movement speed of 105.0 4.0 m/sec., with a variation of 43.1-135.4 m/sec. Semen concentration in ejaculates showed a wide variation among ejaculates and varied between 0.150-1.29 billion/ml. The total number of spermatozoa is 2.1 billion with a variation of 0.6-6.5 billion. The evaluation ratio between the traditional method and the AFS-500 fertility sperm analyzer was 1.1 units. It has been established that the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the semen obtained by electroejaculation have significant differences between enterprises. Analysis of sperm production by activity gradations showed that the higher the activity, the higher the speed of movement. In ejaculates with more active movement, the total number of spermatozoa was increased by both assessment methods. The score ratio between methods varied from 0.9 to 1.2 units. It was revealed that the ejaculates obtained by the method of electroejaculation were distributed according to the speed of movement as follows: 33% - 75 microns/s; 28% - 110 m/s and 38.5% - 128 m/s. The lowest level (7%) of the discrepancy was noted in the group where the movement speed was 128 m/s. The concentration of ejaculates, as assessed by a traditional and automatic sperm analyzer, depending on the speed of movement, had significant differences.
   
Keywords: Kazakh white-headed breed, electroejaculation, sperm production, assessment methods, activity, movement speed
   
References:

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2.   Bragina E.E., Bocharova E.N. Kolichestvennoe elektronnomikroskopicheskoe issledovanie spermatozoidov pri diagnostike muzhskogo besplodiya // Andrologiya i genital'naya hirurgiya. 2014. 1. C. 4150.

3.   Vinogradov V.N., Abilov A.I., Sergeev N.I. i dr. Sistema povysheniya effektivnosti vosproizvedeniya krupnogo rogatogo skota // Sbornik innovacionnyh razrabotok, pos. Dubrovicy. - 2010. 118 s.

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5.   Dugdanov D.D. Rost, razvitie i produktivnye kachestva bychkov raznyh linij kazahskoj belogolovoj porody v usloviyah Zabajkal'ya: diss. kand. s.- h. nauk. Ulan-Ude, 2006. 125 s.

6.   Kombarova N.A., Abilov A.I., Korneenko-Zhilyaev Yu.A., Katerskaya N.V., Galankina A.A. Komp'yuternyj analiz spermy s ispol'zovaniem SFA-500 (importozameshchenie) // Sbornik  Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya sovremennoj reproduktivnoj tekhnologii, kriobiologii i ih rol' v intensifikacii zhivotnovodstva: mat-ly mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii Dubrovicy. - 2017. S. 134-144.

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9.   Nikitina E.V., Zavertyaev B.P., Shapiev I.Sh. Selekcionno-geneticheskij analiz pokazatelej kachestva spermy bykov raznoj plemennoj cennosti // Sbornik nauchnyh trudov VIZha Proshloe, nastoyashchee i budushchee zootekhnicheskoj nauki: Mat-ly mezhdunarodnyj nauchnoj prakticheskoj konferencii. Dubrovicy. - 2004. Vyp. 62. T. 3. - S. 160-163.

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13. Li Na, Li Hong-bo, Yan Xiang-min, [et al.]. Analysis of the Slaughter Performance and Beef Quality between Xinjiang Brown Cattle and Dual Purpose cattle // Zhurnal Sin'zyan'skoj sel'skohozyajstvennoj nauki, 2013. .50 (12). S. 167-174.

14. Soler C., Valverde A., Bompart D., Fereidounfar S., Sancho M., Yániz J., Garcia-Molina A., Korneenko-Zhilyaev Y. New methods of semen analysis by CASA // Selskokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya [Agricultural Biology]. 2017. - V. 52. - 2. - pp. 232-241.

15.       Wang Zhi-gang, Wang Ya-chun, Wang Hao, Zhang Sheng-li The primary Analysis of DHI Data for Dual-purpose Cattle in China [Elektronnyj resurs] 2016. Rezhim dostupa: http://cnki.xast.cn/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?filename=ZGNN201602004&dbcode=CJFD&dbname=CJFD2016
 
   
Title:

Fluorescent diagnostics of breast cancer of dogs and cats

   
Authors: Davydov Yevgeniy Vladimirovich1,2
   
Address:

1Moscow State University of Food Production, IVVSEiAB Department of Veterinary Medicine,

Russia, Moscow, Talalikhina str., d 33, dr.DavydovEV@yandex.ru

2Veterinary clinic "Veles", Russia, Moscow, 11th street Tekstilshchikov d 7, dr.DavydovEV@yandex.ru

Corresponding author: Davydov Yevgeniy Vladimirovich dr.DavydovEV@yandex.ru

   
Abstract: Fluorescent diagnostics is a new high-tech method, the essence of which is the introduction of a photosensitizer into the patient's body, which selectively accumulates in the tumor and, when irradiated with light of a certain wavelength, begins to fluoresce, which is detected by a device for fluorescent diagnostics. As a photosensitizer, Photoditazine was used at a dose of 1 mg / kg with preliminary dilution in a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride, in a ratio of 1:10. The fluorescent diagnostic apparatus ALHT ELOMED was used for diagnosis. Fluorescent diagnostics were performed on 25 cats and 9 dogs, of different breeds and ages, with stage I, II and III breast cancer, without signs of distant metastasis. The fluorescence of the photosensitizer was displayed in real time on the monitor in the form of a white glow uniform over the entire surface of the tumor, the contours of which were visualized with good contrast. Especially well detected large tumors, more than 1 cm in diameter, located close to the surface of the skin. It was found that the most optimal time for fluorescence diagnosis of breast cancer in dogs and cats is the time interval from 2.5 to 3 hours after the introduction of the photosensitizer Photoditazine. Fluorescent diagnostics has proven itself well as an auxiliary method in photodynamic therapy, as it allows to visualize the area of photosensitizer accumulation and monitor the course of the treatment session. We consider it impractical to perform fluorescent navigation in the surgical treatment of breast cancer with a size less than 1 cm, due to the difficulty of detecting fluorescence from such a tumor.
   
Keywords: cats, dogs, fluorescent diagnostics, breast cancer, photosensitizer, Photoditazine, laser irradiation
   
References:

1. Goryainov S. A. (2013) Intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics and laser biospectroscopy in brain glioma surgery. Abstract for the degree of Candidate of medical Sciences, Moscow.

2. Davydov E. V. (2013) Experience of combined use of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. Russian biotherapeutic journal. vol. 2. - p 26.

3. Korobov S. S., Davydov E. V. (2016) Experience of using fluorescent diagnostics of skin tumors. Scientific and practical journal "Laser medicine". vol. 20 No. 2-p 49.

4. Nemtseva Yu. S., Davydov E. V. (2016) Experience in the treatment of breast tumors using photodynamic therapy. Journal of Laser medicine. Vol. 20. No. 3. - pp. 50-51.

5. Telpukhov V. I., Davydov E. V. (2016) Experience of combined treatment of breast tumors using low-intensity quantum radiation. Scientific and practical journal "Laser medicine". vol. 20 No. 3. - p 54.

6. Filonenko E. V. (2013) History of the development of fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy and their possibilities in oncology. Russian Chemical Journal. Journal of the Russian Chemical Society named after D. I. Mendeleev. vol. LVII, No. 2-p. 5-9.

7. Shiryaev A. A., Musaev G. H., Loshenov M. V., Borodkin A.V., Levkin V. V., Okhotnikova N. L., Volkov V. V., Makarov V. I., Loshenov V. B. (2016) Fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy in the combined treatment of cholangiocellular cancer. Biomedical Photonics. 5(4) - pp. 15-24.