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5, 2020

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Authors: Aslanov R.M. Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Makaeva A.R. Candidate of Biological Sciences, Makaeva V.I., Almitova L.I.

FSBSI Federal Center for Toxicological,

Radiation and Biological Safety

(420075, Kazan, Nauchny gorodok-2, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)


Organophosphate pesticides occupy one of the leading places among the preparations used in agriculture. Their high efficiency in the protection of animals and plants has been proved. Organophosphate pesticides are successfully used in the agricultural industry as insecticides and acaricides. At the same time, despite the proven feasibility of use in the national economy, pesticides are characterized by a high danger to humans and animals. The current situation with the treatment of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides necessitates the development of new domestic effective antidotes, one of the main components of this ones are holinolytics. The article presents the results of experimental studies aimed at studying the parameters of acute and chronic toxicity of the new domestic antidote RR-2 synthesized in the FCTRBS. Experiments were carried out on pond fish and guppies. For this purpose, the animals were kept in antidote solutions. Survival, behavior, and weight of specimens were evaluated. According to the results of experiments, the acute toxicity of cholinolytic for ponds is 150.0013.8 mg/dm3, for fish 125.9912.82 mg/dm3.

Keywords: antidote, organophosphate pesticides, toxicity, hydrobionts, poisoning.

1.         New antidotes at poisoning of animals with fosfororganichesky and carbaobscene pesticides / R.M. Aslanov, I.G. Hayrutdinov, N.N. Zhestkov, etc.  the Text: direct // Veterinarian. 2005. No. 2. Page 7-9.

2.         Application it is punched - the analysis in toxicology and pharmacology with use of the Microsoft Excel program for assessment of pharmacological activity at an alternative form of accounting of reactions / P.N. Babich, A.V. Chubenko, S.N. Lapach  the Text: direct // Modern problems of toxicology. 2003. No. 4. Page 81-89.

3.         Water fleas as a test object in the toksikogeneticheskikh researches / T.P. Denisova, E.V. Simonova  the Text: direct // the 3rd congress of toxicologists of Russia: theses of reports, on December 2-5, 2008 / under the editorship of G.G. Onishchenko, B.A. Kurlyandsky. M, 2008. Page 93-95.

4.         Genotoxicity mechanisms the fosfororganicheskikh of connections / E.L. Levitsky, A.N. Marchenko, Yu.I. Gubsky  the Text: direct // Modern problems of toxicology. 1998. No. 1. Page 47-50.

5.         Assessment of toxicity of copper for hydrobionts / Makayev, A.R. is the Text: direct//Veterinarian. 2015. No. 6. Page 32-36.

6.         Methodical instructions on development of standards of water quality of water objects of fishery value, including standards of threshold limit values of harmful substances in waters of water objects of fishery value: No. 14702: . Rosrybolovstvo 04.08.09, 2009  the Text: direct.

7.         Studying of biological oxidation of in vitro for the accelerated forecasting of metabolic activity of industrial poisons / A.D. Frolova, L.V. Lukovnikova  the Text: direct // the Toxicological messenger, 1995. No. 4 Page 9-12.

8.         Ethics of a medicobiological experiment in preclinical tests / G.P. Chervonskaya, G.P. Pankratova, L.L. Mironova, etc.  the Text: direct // Toxicological messenger. 1998. No. 3. Page 2-8.

9.         Sharp poisonings with fosfororganichesky connections: the main clinical syndromes and mechanisms of their formation / O.A. Harchenko, G.M. Balan, N.N. Bubalo  the Text: direct//Modern problems of toxicology. 2013. No. 1-2. Page 17-31.



Authors: 1Malanev A.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Khalikova K.F. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Yamalova G.R., 2Malaneva A.G. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Aleyev D.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Egorov V.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences

1FSBSI Federal enter for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety

(420075, Kazan, Nauchny gorodok-2, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)


2FSBEI HE Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University

 (420008, Kazan, 18 Kremlevskaya St., e-mail: public.mail@kpfu.ru)


Due to the increase in the range and scale of use of pesticides in agricultural practice, as well as environmental pollution from industrial and household waste, the urgency of the problem of pesticide poisoning is increasing every year. Because of the widespread use of pesticides, pests of agricultural crops resistance to them is gradually increasing, and as a result, there is a growing trend in the use of mixed pesticides. Cypermethrin causes neurotoxicity by passing through the blood-brain barrier in the central nervous system, and causes motor deficits. Also pesticide affects the peripheral nervous system. One of the most important parts in the complex treatment of cypermethrin poisoning is antidote therapy. Due to the small amount of information about the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning in an average fatal dose, the purpose of our research was to study the effect of cyanopyrethroid (β-cypermethrin) on the hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals (white rats) blood against of the therapeutic agents use. The experiments were performed in the vivarium of the laboratory of medicinal products pharmacology of The Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety. Experiments were conducted on 24 white rats of 180-210 g, β-cypermethrin (Kinmix, LLC "Green Pharmacy of Gardener") was administered intragastrically at an average fatal dose of 59.6 mg/kg, therapeutic agents was administered intramuscularly in the development of typical clinical symptoms of poisoning (depression, bronchospasm, convulsions, tremor). The animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals in each, the first group was a biological control (common water), the second group control (Kinmix). Animals of other groups were received β-cypermethrin and medicinal preparations in the development of clinical symptoms of poisoning. The third group was received treatment consisting of dipyroxime (28.0 mg / kg), sodium bromide (28.0 mg/kg), pyridoxine (0.4 ml) and diosmectite (12.0 mg/kg), the fourth group phenazepam (5 mg/kg) and diosmectite (12.0 mg/kg). According to the results of studies, in animals poisoned with β-cypermethrin in an average fatal dose (59.6 mg/kg) the best effect was obtained in the group with the use of dipyroxime, sodium bromide, pyridoxine and diosmectite. As a result, the survival rate of animals was 83.5%, which is confirmed by hematological and biochemical studies.

Keywords: synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, toxicity, laboratory animals, hematological and biochemical parameters.

1.    Changes of hematologic and biochemical indicators at calfs at the combined intake of pesticide, mycotoxin and heavy metal / V.I. Egorov, L.R. Valiullin, D.D. Khayrullin Text: direct // Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of N.E. Bauman. - 2013. - T. 202. - Page 257.

2.    Current problems of veterinary toxicology / M.Ya. Tremasov, K.H. Papunidi, E.I. Semyonov, E.Yu. Tarasova Text: direct  // Messenger of veterinary science. - 2012. - No. 4(63). - Page 16-18.

3.    Efficiency of AL-5 antidote at sharp poisonings with synthetic pyrethroids /  R.M. Aslanov,             R.D. Gareyev, A.G. Malanyeva Text: direct//Veterinarian. - 2010. - No. 6. - Page 12-14.

4.    Hematologic and biochemical indicators of rats at sharp intoxication cyanopyrethroids /                    K.F. Halikova, A.V. Malanyev, G.R. Yamalova, etc. Text: direct // Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of N.E. Bauman. - 2019. - T. 239. - No. 3. - Page 223-226.

5.    Improvement of a technique of determination of level of an imidakloprid in sterns by method of a highly effective liquid chromatography / D.D.Khayrullin., G.R. Yamalova, K.F. Halikova, etc. Text: direct // Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of N.E. Bauman. - 2017. - No. 3. - Page 154-156.

6.    Patomorfologichesky researches of bodies of rats at poisoning tiaklopridy and use of remedies / V.I. Egorov, K.F. Halikova, D.V. Aleev, G.R. Yamalova, E.G. Gubeeva Text: direct // Veterinarian. - 2017. - No. 3. - Page 35-39.

7.    Studying of cytotoxic influence of synthetic in vitro pyrethroids / A.G. Malanyeva,                           A.V. Malanyev, V.I. Egorov, etc.  Text: direct // Russian magazine of the Problem of veterinary sanitation, hygiene and ecology. - 2015. - No. 2 (14). - Page 92-95.

8.    Biomonitoring of the hematological, biochemical and genotoxic effects of the mixture cypermethrin plus chlorpyrifos applications in bovines / D.M. Ferré et al. Text: direct // Science of The Total Environment. - 2020. - P. 138058.

9.    Cellular Mechanism involved in cypermethrin induced neurotoxicity / H.F. Ali Text: direct // Records of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. - 2020. - .4. - . 1. - P. 32-39.

10.               Changes in some hematological and biochemical indices of rabbits induced by isoflavones and cypermethrin / M.I. Yousef et al Text: direct // Toxicology. - 2003. - . 189. - . 3. - P. 223-234.

11.               Cypermethrin-induced reproductive toxicity in the rat is prevented by resveratrol / P. Sharma, A. U. Huq, R. Singh Text: direct  // Journal of human reproductive sciences. - 2014. - . 7. - . 2. - P. 99.

12.               Detection of cypermethrin residues in toxicological control objects using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction / I. M. Fitsev, O. V. Shlyamina, A. R. Makaeva, G. R. Nasybullina, A. M. Saifutdinov Text: direct  // IJMPRED. - 2020. - V. 10 (3). - P. 5563-5570.

13.               Effect of a beta-cypermethrin and emamectin benzoate pesticide mixture on reproductive toxicity in male mice in a greenhouse environment / Y. Zhang , C. Kong, H. Chi et al. Text: direct // Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. - 2020. - . 30. - P. 100-106.

14.               Protective role of isoflavones against the toxic effect of cypermethrin on semen quality and testosterone levels of rabbits / M.I. Yousef, F.M. ElDemerdash, K.S. AlSalhen Text: direct // Journal of environmental science and health, part . - 2003. - . 38. - . 4. - P. 463-478.

 Toxic effect of alpha cypermethrin, an environmental pollutant, on myocardial tissue in male wistar rats / L. Ghazouani et al. Text: direct // Environmental Science and Pollution Research. - 2020. -   . 27. - . 6. - P. 5709-5717.


Authors: Sagdeeva Z.H., Ermolaeva O.K. - candidate of biological Sciences; Valiev A.R - candidate of biological Sciences; Sagdeev D.R., Potekhina R. M. - candidate of biological Sciences; Matrosova L.E. - doctor of biological Sciences

FSBSI Federal Center for Toxicological,

Radiation and Biological Safety

 (420075, Kazan, Nauchny gorodok-2, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)

Abstract: The main requirements for feeds are their safety and nutrition, ensuring the physiological needs of animals. Safety indicators include toxicity, the content of toxic elements, mycotoxins, pesticides, nitrates and nitrites, conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. The purpose of the research is to assess the general (integral) toxicity of feed received from the Republic of Tatarstan (Zelenodolsky, Nurlatsky, Buinsky, Baltasinsky, Arsky, Laishevsky districts, Naberezhnye Chelny). The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of mycotoxins FTSTRB-VNIVI. In the studied feeds, the general toxicity was determined according to GOST 31674-2012 for 3 types of test objects (stylonichia, white mice, rabbits). 89.8% of feed samples by bioassay on protozoa showed no toxicity; 4.1% were toxic. In all cases, the bioassay on white mice was negative (no death of the animals and no visible changes in the internal organs during the autopsy of the animals killed were observed). In two cases, dermatonecrotic effect was revealed when applying extracts of the studied feed to the skin of rabbits. It is worth considering the fact that the official interpretation of the research results requires adjustment depending on the type of animals. In the case of toxicity on protozoa and the absence of toxicity on white mice and rabbits, the food is officially considered non-toxic, but given that the cicatricial microflora, including ciliates, plays a special role in digestion in ruminants, it must be considered toxic. Most of the studied samples of feed from livestock farms of the Republic of Tatarstan by the bioassay method were recognized as benign and recommended for use without restriction. For livestock farms where toxic feed has been discovered, recommendations have been issued for their further use
Keywords: agricultural feed, bioassay, toxicity, stilonychia, white mice, rabbits

1.  Biotesting of products forages and objects of the environment/VA. Debts, S.A. Lavin, S.S. Kazak, etc. the Text: direct//RUDN Bulletin. 2014. - No. 3. Page 63-72.

2.  Influence of a complex of zeolite and the shungit for resistance and efficiency of broilers at the mixed mikotoksikoz / N.N. Mishina, E.I. Semyonov, K.H. Papunidi, R.M. Potekhina, S.A. Tanaseva, O.K. Yermolaeva, Z.H. Sagdeeva, D.H. Gataullin  the Text: direct//Veterinarian. - 2018. - No. 6. - Page 3-9.

3.  Studying of hematologic and biochemical indicators of blood of sheep at introduction of a moniliformin and application of sorbents / O.K. Yermolaeva, S.A. Tanaseva  the Text: direct//Veterinarna medicine. 2013. - No. 97. Page 324-326.

4.  Immunosuppression in pathogenesis of T-2 of a mikotoksikoz and its pharmakokorrektion / A.R. Valiyev, E.I. Semyonov, F.G. Akhmetov  the Text: direct//Veterinarian. - 2011. - No. 2. - Page 4-6.

5.  Clinical and patomorfologichesky changes at the spontaneous associated T-2 and an aspergillotoksikoza of hens / N.V. Saprinskaya, I.Yu. Domnitsky, V.A. Agoltsov, O.M. Popova  the Text: direct//Scientific life. 2016. - No. 8. Page 27-39.

6.  Mikotoksikologichesky assessment of forages in the Republic of Tatarstan / E.I. Semyonov, N.N. Mishina, S.A. Tanaseva, R.M. Potekhina, Z.H. Sagdeeva the Text: direct//Works of the Federal Center of health protection of animals. 2018. - T.16. Page 512-523.

7.  Mycotoxins - real threat of food security / M.Ya. Tremasov, A.V. Ivanov, E.Yu. Tarasova  the Text: direct//Messenger of veterinary science. 2013. - No. 2. Page 78-80.

8.  Monitoring of aflatoxins in sterns from the Ryazan region / S.A. Tanaseva, I.V. Bosyakov the Text: direct//Materials of the international scientific and practical conference devoted to the 90 anniversary since the birth of professor V.A. Kirshin "Current problems of veterinary medicine". 2018. Page 191-193.

9.  Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rabbits at an experimental aflatoksikoz against the background of use of Retinolum of acetate and zeolite / A.Z. Mukharlyamova, A.M. Tremasova, S.A. Tanaseva, N.G. Shangarayev, P.V. Sofronov, E.I. Semyonov  the Text: direct//Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of N.E. Bauman. - 2019. - T. 238. - No. 2. - Page 133-138.

10.  About results of the analysis of forages on the content of mycotoxins/L. G. Burdov, L.E. Matrosova  the Text: direct//Veterinarian. - 2011. - No. 2. Page 7-9.

11.  The combined effect of dioxine, mycotoxins and toxic elements on animals / I.R. Kadikov, V.R. Saitov, K.H. Papunidi, M.Ya. Tremasov, I.I. Idiyatov  the Text: direct//Veterinary science. 2014. No. 9. Page 47-51.

12.  T-2 toxin biotesting for Stylonychia mytilis and daphnia magna straus / E.A. Shuralev, L.R. Valiullin, O.V. Nikitin, E.I. Semyonov  the Text: direct//Progress of a medical mycology. T.17. - 2017. - Page 457-452.

13.  Toxicological assessment of forages from the Republic of Mordovia on availability of pesticides and nitrogen-containing connections / A.V. Malanyev, D.V. Aleev, G.G. Galyautdinova, V.I. Egorov, etc. the Text: direct//Veterinarian. 2019. - No. 2. Page 43-49.

14.  Toxicological assessment of the combined influence of a detsis, T-2 of toxin and cadmium on an organism of calfs at the level of maximum allowable concentrations / of Galyautdinov, V.I. Egorov  the Text: direct//Veterinary medicine. 2013. - No. 97. Page 418-419.

15.  The toxicological analysis of some forages on reaction of survival of an infusorian of Paramecium caudatum / I.A. Shadrin the Text: direct//KRASGAU Bulletin. - 2008. - No. 2. - Page 128-134.

16.  Ecotoxicological monitoring of agricultural and food products in the Republic of Tatarstan/VA. Konyukhov, I.R. Kadikov, A.A. Korchemkin, I.F. Vafin the Text: direct//Materials of the international scientific and practical conference devoted to the 90 anniversary since the birth of professor V.A. Kirshin "Current problems of veterinary medicine". 2018. Page 145-148.

17.  Joint effect of the mycotoxins T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on the weaner pigs against a background of the infection load / E.I. Semenov, L.E. Matrosova, M.Ya. Tremasov, E.Yu. Tarasova, M.A., Kryuchkova et al. Text: direct // Research journal of pharmaceutical, biological and chemical sciences. 2016. - 7(1). .18601868.



Authors: Kobyalko V.O. - Candidate of Biology, Sarukhanov V.Ya. Candidate of Biology, Polyakova I.V., Gubina O.A.

 FSBSI "Russian Research

Institute of Radiology and Agroecology",

(249032, Kaluga region, Obninsk, Kiyevskoye Highway,

109 km, e-mail: nar@obninsk.org, sarukhanov.vladimir@yandex.ru)


Determining the level of natural resistance is essential for assessing the state of the human body and animals, the severity of the development of negative processes and the forecast of consequences when exposed to man-made environmental factors. The available methods for determining humoral factors of natural resistance are labor-intensive and require large amounts of test serum or plasma, reagents, and test culture. This makes it difficult to use them for a large number of samples in model Toxicological and radiobiological studies, as well as for mass inspection of farm animals in technogenically polluted territories. Automation of the detection process with the help of technical solutions used for enzyme immunoassay can help solve this problem successfully. Studies have shown that the values of lysozyme, β-lytic and bactericidal activity of the blood of irradiated rats, determined using standard methods, and ELISA do not differ significantly. The dynamics of the studied humoral factors of natural resistance in animals after radiation exposure in the dose range from 3 to 12 Gy depended on the radiation dose, and not on the method of determination. It was demonstrated that the use of ELISA to determine the level of natural resistance of animals allows to: decrease the volume of the studied serum or blood plasma test and culture; to increase the number of simultaneously analyzed samples, to measure parallel samples to maximize the accuracy of the studied parameters.

Keywords: natural resistance, laboratory animals, blood, lysozyme, β-lithionic, activity, detection methods, enzyme immunoassay

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7.    Method of determination of beta and lytic activity of blood of farm animals /          V.Ya. Sarukhanov, N.N. Isamov, P.G. Tsarin the Text: direct//Agricultural biology. - T. 42. - No. 4 - 2007. - Page 123-125.

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Authors: Sarukhanov V.Ya. - Candidate of Biology, Kobyalko V.O. - Candidate of Biology, Polyakova I.V.

FSBSI "Russian Research

Institute of Radiology and Agroecology"

(249032, Kaluga region, Obninsk, Kiyevskoye Highway, 109 km.

e-mail: nar@obninsk.org)


Food products, ready-to-eat and semi-finished products of animal origin, due to the peculiarities of manufacture and storage, can be a source of intestinal infections and such dangerous diseases as listeriosis and erisipiloid (erysipelas). The most at risk are consumers with immunodeficiency during the rehabilitation period, after the use of immunosuppressants, cytotoxic drugs and ionizing radiation during the treatment of cancer. If infection with banal intestinal infections and listeriosis occurs alimentary, then an erisipeloid can develop after contact with the causative agent of the disease during cutting and preparation of products from pork obtained from animal carriers of bacteria. A study of the possibility of using radiation technologies to ensure microbiological safety of problematic food products showed that irradiation of minced meat in a vacuum package at a dose of 1.5 kGy leads to complete inactivation of the listeriosis pathogen. A positive effect was observed during the radiation processing of minced meat (dose of 0.5 kGy) in a modified gas environment (75% O2, 25% CO2). It was shown that the magnitude of the effective dose depends on the concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in production. The fact that the pathogen of erisipeloid does not form spores and capsules (radioresistant forms) suggests that the inactivating dose will not exceed 3 kGy. According to numerous data, radiation treatment in this dose range does not reduce the quality of food products. Thus, radiation technologies can be considered as the best way to provide people with immunodeficiencies with safe and quality food products.

Keywords: radiation technologies, listeriosis pathogens, erysipeloid, immunodeficiency, radiation treatment, food products, semi-finished products, minced meat, quality indicators

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16.            Stability of some pathogenic microorganisms in the external environment / Century. I. Rodin, V.P. Yaremchuk, I.M. Nityaga, E.A. Gorobchuk the Text: direct //Meat technologies. - 2010. - No. 4. - Page 46-51.

17.            Tsyba, A.F. Radiation and pathology: the manual for higher education institutions / under the editorship of. A.F. Tsyba, R.S. Budagov, I.A. Zamulayeva. M.: The higher school, 2005. - 341 pages the Text: direct.  

18.  Combined effect of gamma irradiation, ascorbic acid, and edible coating on the improvement of microbial and biochemical characteristics of ground beef / B. Ouattara, M. Giroux, W. Smoragiewicz, L. Saucier, M. Lacroix  Text: direct // J. Food Protection. - 2002. - 65. - pp. 981-987.

19.  Diehl J.F. Safety of Irradiated Foods. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1995. - pp. 173-223.

20.  Effect of gamma irradiation and post-irradiation cooking on thiamin, riboflavin and niacin contents of grass prawns (Penaeus monodon) K.F. Lee, L.-B.  Hau Text: direct // Food Chem. - 1996. - 78. - pp. 379-382.

21.  Effect of gamma radiation on refrigerated mechanically deboned chicken meat quality / H.A. Gomes  E.N. Silva, H.M.A.B. Cardello, K.M.V.A.B. Cipolli Text: direct // Meat Science. - 2003. - Vol. 65. -   2. - pp. 919-926. doi: 10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00299-1.

22.  Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on beef quality and fatty acid composition of beef intramuscular lipid / Y.J. Chen, G.H. Zhou, X.D. Zhu, X.L. Xu, X.Y. Tang, F. Gao Text: direct // Meat Science. - 2007. - Vol. 75 - 3. - pp. 423-431. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.08.014.

23.  Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological and sensory quality of pork stored at refrigeration temperatures / I.R. Grant, M.F. Patterson Text: direct // Int. J. Food Sci. Technol.  1991. - 26(5). - pp. 507-519.

24.  Effects of gamma irradiation and cooking on vitamin B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon) / L-B. Hau, M.S. Liew Text: direct // Rad. Phys. Chem. - 1993 - 42. - pp. 297-300.

25.  Effects of irradiation dose and storage temperature on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on poultry meat / M.F. Patterson, A.P. Damoglou, R.K. Buick Text: direct // Food Microbiol. 1993. 10. pp.197-203.

26.  Gamma radiation sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes / C.N. Huhtanen, R.K. Jenkins, D.W. Thayer Text: direct // J. Food Prot. - 1989. - 52(9). - P. 610-613.

27.  Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on turkey meat / D.W. Thayer, G. Boyd Text: direct // J. Food Prot. - 1999. -  62(10). - pp. 1136-1142.

28.  Narvaiz P, Horak C, Campos M, Veronesi P, Cossani E, Lound L, Gasparovich A, Liendo G, Hovsepian J, Mengoni G. Safer prepared meals for immunocompromised patients and the general consumer by gamma irradiation. In: Irradiation to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Prepared Meals. STI/PUB/1365. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2009. - pp. 29-52.

29.  Riley Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of an occupational pathogen / C. Josephine Brooke, V. Thomas  Text: direct // J. Of medical microbiology. - 1999. - 48(9). - pp. 789-799. doi: 10.1099/00222615-48-9-789.

30.  Sommers editors. Food irradiation research and technology / Fan Xuetong, H. Christopher Text: direct / Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2012. - 317 . DOI:10.1002/9781118422557.

31.  Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on irradiated poultry carcasses / G.C. Mead, W.R. Hudson, R. Arrifin Text: direct // Lancet. - 1990. - 335(8696). - 1036 .

32.  The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat, poultry and seafood plants in the Nordic countries /          B. Gudbjörnsdóttir, M.-L. Suihkob, P. Gustavsson, G. Thorkelsson, S. Salo, A.-M. Sjöberg et al. Text: direct // Food Microbiology. 2004. 21. . 217-225. doi:10.1016/S0740-0020(03)00012-1.

33.  Tracking of Listeria monocytogenes in Smoked Fish Processing Plants / J. Thimothe, K.K. Nightingale, V.N. Scott, M. Wiedmann Text: direct // Journal of Food Protection. - 2004. -  Vol. 67. - 2. - . 328-341. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X-67.2.328.

34.  Wholesomeness of irradiated foods / D.W. Thayer Text: direct // Food Technol. - 1994. - 48(5) - pp. 132-136.



Authors: Ivanova S. V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences, Melnikova L. A. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, Rodionov A. P


FSBSI "Federal Center for Toxicological,

Radiation and Biological Safety"

(420075, Kazan, Nauchny gorodok 2, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)


The leading role in elimination of infectious agents from the body, such as anthrax, belongs to cells with phagocytic properties, immunoglobulins and proteins of the complement system. The paper presents the materials of studying the dynamics of the functional activity of phagocytes of animals vaccinated against anthrax. Functional activity of phagocytic cells was evaluated by the phagocytic activity of leukocytes. Phagocytic activity (FA) was determined in calculating the relationship of phagocytic neutrophils to the total number identified and their absorption capacity for the phagocytic index (PHI) the number of microbial cells in terms of one active neutrophil. During the study observed the increase in the values of phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, which reached their maximum values at day 14 after immunization, indicating activation of factors of natural resistance of the organism. High values of the studied parameters was observed up to 150 days after vaccination. In the further periods of the study, indicators fell to levels identical to the control group. The decrease in the examined values to the level of the control group determines the low efficiency of presentation of antigens to cells of the adaptive immune system, and as a result, the actual phagocytosis final stage of the immune response. Reducing the number of active phagocytes to 120 days after vaccination may be associated with complete elimination of the introduced vaccine strain from the body by this time.

Keywords: anthrax, immunity, phagocyte, phagocytic number, phagocytic index

1.    Allergology and immunology. National guide / R. M. Khaitov. M.: GEOTAR-Media. - 2009. 656 p. Text: direct.

2.    Gilmutdinov, R. Ya. infectious diseases of exotic and wild animals / R. Ya. Gilmutdinov, A.V. Ivanov, A. N. Panin. - M.: Kolos, 2010. - 668s. Text: direct.

3.    Using geoinformation systems to create an electronic database of anthrax burials on the territory of the Stavropol territory / N. P. Buravtseva, V. M. Mezentsev, A. G. Ryazanova, T. M. Golovinskaya, D. Yu.Degtyarev, A. N. Pazenko, O. I. Semenova, A. N. Kulichenko Text: direct //Problems oobo dangerous infections.- 2019. - No. 4.-P. 31-36.

4.    Kulichenko, A. N. anthrax in the North Caucasus / A. N. Kulichenko, N. P. Buravtseva, A. G. Ryazanova, E. I. Eremenko; edited by prof. Maykop: Quality. - 2016. 198 p. Text: direct.

5.    Simonova, E. G. epidemiological danger of anthrax burials: theoretical and methodological aspects / E. G. Simonova, S. A. Kartavaya, M. N. Loktionova, V. I. Ladny Text: direct // Medicine in Kuzbass. 2013. - no. 2. Pp. 26-31.

6.    Improving methodological approaches to the survey of anthrax graves and animal burial grounds / Z. F. Dugarzhapova, M. V. Chesnokova, T. A. Ivanova, S. A. Kosilko, S. V. Balakhonov Text: direct // Problems of particularly dangerous infections.- 2019. - No. 4.- P. 41-47.

7.    Old anthrax burials - possible sources of infection spread / A. K. Galiullin, S. A. Klimina Text: direct // Veterinary doctor.-2004.-3-4.-p. 36-38

8.    Characteristics of the epizootic situation for anthrax in the Republic of Tatarstan / A. P. Rodionov, S. V. Ivanova, L. A. Melnikova, Kh. N. Makaev, A. G. Khisamutdinov, A. S. Kozlov Text: direct // Veterinary science. - 2020. - No. 3. P. 8-11.



Authors: Potekhina R.M. is a Candidate of Biology; Huzin D.A. - doctor of veterinary sciences; Makayev H.N. is a doctor of veterinary sciences, professor; Semyonov E.I. - Candidate of Biology

FSBSI "Federal Center Toxicological,

Radiation and Biological Safety",

(420075, Kazan, Nauchny gorodok-2, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)


It is purulent - necrotic defeats of a disteel part of extremities of cattle of varying severity arise owing to traumatizing an integument with the subsequent contamination of an affected area the gnoyerodny bacteria and micromycetes of various mushrooms aggravating inflammatory process are one of the reasons of decrease in efficiency and resistance of an organism of the cattle to infectious diseases. Results of bacteriological and mycologic researches of materials from affected areas of a disteel part of extremities of cattle, tests of forages for animals and the soil from the territory of the livestock farms delivered from agricultural enterprises of the Republic of Tatarstan, Stavropol Krai and the Nizhny Novgorod Region where registered 30-40% of animals with signs of damage of extremities are presented in article. Laboratory researches of material from the affected extremities, tests of forages and the soil from the surveyed agricultural enterprises, along with the causative agent of necrobacillosis F.necrophorum allocated streptococci, staphylococcus and micromycetes of various mushrooms. The pathogenicity and virulence of the allocated bacteria, toksigenny properties of isolates of mushrooms and their role in emergence and distribution of damages of extremities of the cattle are studied. On the basis of the received results of researches the conclusion is drawn that on a row with bacteriological researches of material from the affected extremities of cattle, carrying out systematic monitoring of maintenance of micromycetes in sterns, the soil will allow to hold in due time and effectively medical and preventive events at it is purulent - necrotic damages of extremities of various etiology.

Keywords: it is purulent - necrotic damages of extremities, epizootic process, the bacteriological and mycologic analysis of biomaterial, bacteria, mushrooms, tests of forages and the soil.

1.    Diseases of fingers and hooves at cows of a solution problem/Huzin, D.A.  The text: direct // Dairy industry. - 2019. - No. 3. - Page 62-63.

2.    Kriga, N. Opredelitel of Berdzhi's bacteria. In 2 t. T. 2: The lane with English / N. Kriga, etc.; under the editorial office J. Houlta M.: World, 1997. T. 1 (in 2 t.) 482 pages  the Text: direct

3.    Paper bag, A.B. Atlas of opportunistic mushrooms of the sort Aspergillus of causative agents of bronchopulmonary infections  / A.B. Kulko. - M.: News, 2012.-155 pages.

4.    Litvinov, M.A. Opredelitel of microscopic soil mushrooms / M.A. Litvinov. - L.: Science, 1967. 303 pages.

5.    Methodical recommendations about diagnostics, treatment and prevention of necrobacillosis, manual dermatitis and diseases of hooves of cattle of a noncontagious etiology. - M.: To FGBN Rosinformagrotekh, 2017. 42 with.  Text: direct

6.    Methodical instructions on allocation and quantitative accounting of microscopic mushrooms in sterns, feed additives and raw materials for production of forages. . 14.07.03 there is M., 2003. 8 pages  the Text: direct

7.    Mycologic assessment of forages in the Republic of Tatarstan / R.M. Potekhina, etc.  the Text: direct//Veterinarian. - 2019. - No. 1. Page 19-24.

8.    Prevention of diseases of hooves of KRS of optimization of feeding, leaving and contents / Huzin, D.A.  Text: direct//Veterinary science and feeding. - 2013. - No. 3. Page 24-25.

9.    Etiology, pathogenesis and measures of fight against necrobacillosis of cattle / H.N. Makayev, etc.   the Text: direct // Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of N.E. Bauman. - 2012. - T.209. Page 202-206.



Authors: Akhmadeev R. M. ndidate of Veterinary Sciences, Mukhamedzhanova A.G., Miftakhov N. R. ndidate of Biological Sciences; Nasyrov Sh. M. ndidate of Veterinary Sciences; Samerkhanov I. I. ndidate of Biological Sciences; Aleeva Z. Z. , Arutunjan G. S., Yarullina G. M.

FSBSI Federal Center for Toxicological,

Radiation and Biological Safety

 (420075, Kazan, Nauchny gorodok-2, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)

Abstract: Results of research of an alternative way of release of antigen of a virus of the rage based on a method of three-phase extraction of initial suspension and scoring on a dispergator and also estimates of immunochemical properties of the received product are presented. Initial virussoderzhashchy material of organ and fabric origin was subjected to extraction by serial processing by saturated solution of sulfate of ammonium (NSA) and a butanol. For fuller disintegration the extracted suspension was subjected to scoring on an ultrasonic dispergator of UZDN - 2T then anti-gene samples processed 96% ethanol in different proportions. Anti-gene properties of the received fractions estimated by methods of an analytical disk-electrophoresis, a western - a blotting and "sandwich" - IFA. It is shown that application of ultrasonic processing of the extracted suspension of virussoderzhashchy material and further processing of 96% ethanol in the ratio 1:1 allows to get rid of ballast substances and subvirus components more effectively. The received anti-gene product is monomeric, supports one prevailing proteinaceous fraction weighing 67.2 kd that corresponds to G-protein of a virus of rage and also has a caption in "sandwich" - IFA 1:40960. These characteristics confirm high diagnostic efficiency of this antigen and its suitability for a complete set of express test systems on the basis of IFA. The described way of release of antigen by means of chemicals and ultrasonic processing can be considered as an available and economic alternative to the considered earlier zone ultracentrifugation in density gradients.
Keywords: rage virus glycoprotein, immunofermental analysis, designing of diagnostikum.

1.    Results of test "A set of medicines for diagnosis of clamidiosis of pigs by method of the immunofermental analysis / V.V. Evstifeev the Text: direct//Scientific notes of the Kazan state veterinary academy of N.E. Bauman. 2015. No. 1. Page 71-73.

2.    Allocation, cleaning and assessment of serological activity of anti-gene components of a virus of rage / M.A. Yefimova, K.S. Hayertynov, A.F. Arslanova, etc. the Text: direct//Problems of especially dangerous infections. 2017. No. 4. Page 27-31.

3.    Assessment of suitability of the globulins emitted the antirabicheskikh for methods of laboratory diagnostics: IFA and MFA / M.A. Yefimova, A.G. Mukhamedzhanova, A.N. Chernov, etc. the Text: direct//Veterinarian. 2018. No. 4. Page 3-7.

4.    Modern problems of vaccinal prevention of rage / A.A. Movsesyants, Yu.V. Olefir the Text: direct//Biological products. Prevention, diagnostics, treatment. 2019. No. 19 (1). Page 10 -16.

5.    Mukhamedzhanova, A. G. Improvement of ways of receiving high cleaning antigen of a virus of rage for express test systems on the basis of IFA and MFA: the abstract of the thesis for a degree of the candidate of veterinary sciences / Mukhamedzhanova Antonina Glebovna Kazan, 2020. 24 pages.

6.    Rakhmanin, P. V. An immunofermental test system for determination of level the antirabicheskikh of antibodies in serums of blood of the cats imparted against rage and dogs: the abstract of the thesis for a degree of the candidate of veterinary sciences / Rakhmanin Pyotr Vladimirovich Shchyolkovo, 2009. 29 pages.

7.    RU2575800C2 patent the Russian Federation Virus-like particles (VLP) from a rage virus glycoprotein: . 20.02.2016/Smith G., Liu E. 2s - the Text: direct.        

8.    Allocation of a glikoproteid from the fixed strain rage virus strain "Moscow 3253" and designing on its basis of a diagnostikum for a pillbox immunoanalysis / N.A. Sharapova, M.N. Kireev, E.G. Abramova, etc. the Text: direct//ActaBiomedica Scientifica. 2012. No. 5 (1). Page 347-350.

9.    Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4 /                  U. K. Laemmli Text: direct // Nature. 1970. 227 (5259). P. 680-685.

10.      Rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review / R. Singh, K. P. Singh, S. Cherian et al. Text: direct // Veterinary Quarterly. 2017. 37(1). P. 212-251.

11.      Zhao, R. Novel strategy for expression and characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein /R. Zhao, Y. Shan, M. et al.  Text: direct // Protein expression and purification. 2020. 168:105567.



Authors: 1Azhmuldinov E.A. doctor of agricultural sciences, professor; 1Kovalenko V. P. Accusative the candidate of agricultural sciences; 1Titov M.G. - the candidate of agricultural sciences; 1Kizayev M.A. candidate of agricultural sciences; 2Rogozinnikova I.V. Candidate of Biology.

1FSBSI "Federal Scientific Center of Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences"(460000, Orenburg, January 9 St., 29, tel/fax (3532) 30-81-70)

2FSBEI HE Ural State Agricultural University (620075, Yekaterinburg, Karl Liebknecht St., 42)


The experiment provides information on a comparative study of the biological characteristics and productive traits in bull-calves of various genotypes under the year-round feedlot conditions, OOO, conducted a scientific and economic experiment. The scientific and economic experiment was conducted on three groups (30 animals each) of bull-calves of Kazakh white-headed (I group), Simmental (II group) and Kalmyk (III group) breeds in Yubileynoye LLC, Adamovsky District, Orenburg Region to achieve appointed goals. The test animals were kept on a feedlot combined with a light type building for resting and feeding individuals in bad weather. All technological processes associated with keeping and feeding animals were mechanized. During the experiment, bulls of all experimental groups received the same rations, consisting of mixed grass hay, haylage, corn silage, concentrates in accordance with detailed feeding norms, taking into account the receipt of 800 - 900 g of daily gain in body weight. The diets were balanced by basic nutrients and adjusted according to live weight and growth rate of individuals of various genotypes. During the experiment, the average monthly outdoor temperature at the feedlot in autumn was from + 10.0 to -5.5 C, in winter from -10.8 to -15.7 C, in spring from -8.8 to + 9,9  C. Relative humidity ranged from 55 to 86%, wind speed from 0.3 to 9.7 m / s. As a result of the study, it was found that Simmental bull-calves had the highest live weight and absolute growth rate. They were ahead of their beef cattle peers in the first indicator by 12.5 (3.06%) and 28.0 kg (7.13%), in the second - by 6,4 (3.6%) and 13.3 kg (7.9%). In general, the average daily gain over the period of the experiment of bull-calves from groups I, II, and III was 836; 866 and 803 g with maximum performance in individuals of the Simmental breed. However, the bull-calves of the Kazakh white-headed and Kalmyk breeds were more resistant to the influence of environmental factors. They exceeded the comparable peers of the Simmental breed in terms of bactericidal activity of blood serum by 5.2 and 4.0%, serum lysozyme activity - by 1.4 and 1.6 times in unfavorable months by climatic conditions. The greatest activity of β-lysines was observed in individuals of all groups in the winter (15.2 - 17.6%), lower - in fall (14.9 - 15.7%).

Keywords: bulls-calves, genotype, live weight, average daily gain, nonspecific resistance

1.    Baktygaliyeva A.T. Productive qualities and biological features of young growth of the Kazakh white-headed breed of different genotypes: the abstract of the thesis for a degree of candidate of science / Baktygaliyev, Asemgul Temirkhanovna, Orenburg, - 2017. - 25 pages  the Text: direct

2.    Influence of trial and error methods of the meat cattle on increase in production efficiency of beef / O.A. Sutorma, D.A. Randelin, V.V. Randelina-Text: direct // Innovative ways in development of resource-saving production technologies and processings of agricultural products: mat. . . . . Volgograd: Politekhnik, - 2010.- 2 - Page 102-105.

3.    Influence of technology of contents on natural resistance of an organism of bull-calves/accusative / V.P. Kovalenko, E.A. Azhmuldinov, K.S. Kutbangaliyev the Text: direct // Messenger of meat cattle breeding. - 2003.  Issue 56. Page 284-288.

4.    Humoral factors of natural immunity at the cattle of meat breeds / Kurtsev N.V., Britvina E.I. Text: direct // Problems of meat cattle breeding. . VNIIMS, - 1978. - t.23. - Part 1. - Page 141-144.

5.    Natural resistance of animals in the conditions of industrial technology / G. I. Belkov, N.V. Kurtsev, V.P. Sidorova, etc. the Text: direct // Theses . . . . - M, - 1983. - Page 24.

6.    Natural resistance of animals at various types of feeding and Contents / Plyashchenko S.I., Sidorov V.T. Text: direct//Veterinary science, - 1983.- 2. - Page 22-25.

7.    Dependence of natural resistance from Conditions of Keeping/Gorlov I.F. Text: direct//Sb. . VNITI of a MMS and PPZh. Volgograd, - 1996. - Page 10-15. Text: direct

8.    Science/Matara H.S. Productive and biological features of young growth of mondolongsky breed of different gender and age groups: the abstract of the thesis for a scientific degree competition Candidate of Science/Matara Hardzhinder Singh, Orenburg, - 2017.-19 pages the Text: direct

9.    Methodological principles of studying of adaptation of farm animals / Smirnov V.S Text: direct//Zootechnics. - 1995. - No. 3. - Page 14-17.

10.     Some interior indicators of young growth of cattle depending on Contents / Kutbangaliyev technology of K. S. the Text: direct//Prospects of development of meat cattle breeding / Mat. . . . ., devoted 70 anniversaries . Orenburg, - 2000. Page 65-66.

11.     Randelin D.A. Natural resistance of an organism of bull-calves of meat breeds//the-innovative directions in development of agricultural production: mat. . . . / VNIIMS, Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences. Orenburg, - 2012. - Page 60-61. Text: direct

12.     Sidorov, V.T. Natural immunity and its age and pedigree differences / Minsk: A harvest, - 1972. - 23 pages the Text: direct

Ethology fundamentals of technology of meat cattle breeding / Cherekayev A.V. the Text: direct//Zootechnics. - 1995.-No. 6. - Page 16-20.



Authors: Alekseev V.A. - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Nemtseva E. Yu. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Terent'ev A. Yu. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Andreeva S. G. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences


FSBE  HE Chuvash State Agricultural Academy,

(428003, Cheboksary, Karl Marx Str., 29,

-mail: EUNemtzeva@yandex.ru)


In two scientific and economic experiments conducted by the group-analog method in the conditions of a poultry farm in the Chuvash Republic, the effect of feeding preparations of water-soluble vitamins C, Bc and B13 to laying hens of the cross "Loman-brown" on their egg production and egg quality was studied. In the first experiment, the birds of the experimental groups were given 50 mg of ascorbic acid, 1 mg of folic acid, and 5 mg of potassium orotate for 180-230 days as part of 1 kg of compound feed PK-1-3. In the second experiment, we studied the effectiveness of introducing potassium orotate into compound feeds for laying hens at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg per 1 kg of feed. Such feeding contributed to an increase in egg-laying hens of the experimental groups in comparison with the control groups by only 3.0 5.8 %, with a significant improvement in the vitamin value of food eggs. In the first experiment, there was an increased content of thiamine, Riboflavin, ascorbic acid and retinol in the yolk of eggs by 20% compared to the control group. When studying the effectiveness of introducing into feed of vitamin B13, it is established that at the dose of 5 7.5 mg/kg was an increase in egg yolk of laying hens of the experimental groups compared with the control carotenoids 4.5 to 7.1 %, vitamin A 52 59 %, thiamin 14.3 28.6 per cent. In 1 kg of feed, the content of ascorbic acid should be at least 75 mg, folic acid-102 mg, potassium orotate-7.5 mg.

Keywords: laying hens, poultry, feed, feeding, vitamins, eggs, quality.

1.    Alekseyev, V. A. Vitamins and vitamin nutrition of young pigs. Cheboksary, LLC "polygraph", 2008. 120 p. Text: direct

2.    Norms and rations for feeding farm animals: reference guide / A. P. Kalashnikov, V. I. Fisinin, V. V. Shcheglov, N. I. Kleymenov. M., 2003. P. 285 294. Text: direct

3.    Easter eggs will check the quality // "Arguments and facts", 2019. - 11, 21 27 March. P. 15. Text: direct

4.    Ponomarenko, Y. A. and others. Water-soluble vitamins / Yu. a. Ponomarenko, V. I. Fisinin, I. A. Egorov, V. S. Ponomarenko // Feed, feed additives, biologically active substances for farm animals. Moscow, 2009. 208 p. Text: direct

5.    Products of functional purpose / G. K. Alkhmatova et al. Text: direct // Young scientist. 2014. - no. 12. P. 62 65.

6.     Products of functional nutrition of animal origin / L. S. Prakhasko, V. R. Grudchina, E. V. Simochenko and others Text: direct // Young scientist. 2015. - no. 4. Pp. 238 241.

7.    Modern approaches to poultry feeding / I. A. Egorov Text: direct // Poultry farming. - 2014. - No. 4. P. 11 16.