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  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

ROSETTING LYMPHOCYTES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMMUNOLOGICAL STATE IN BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS

   
Authors: Baratov M.O. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
FSBI Caspian Zonal-Research Veterinary Institute branch of the Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of the Republic of Dagestan (e-mail: alama500@rambler.ru).

   
Abstract:
The results of studying the activity of rosetting lymphocytes in infected, as well as non-specifically reacting to PPD-tuberculin for mammals are presented in the article. The research included 50 heads of cattle. According to the results of the evaluation of allergic and laboratory research methods, all animals were divided into groups: the 1-st group - patients with tuberculosis, with minor pathologoanatomically pronounced changes in the lymph nodes; the 2-d group - vaccinated with BCG vaccine; the 3-d gr. - infected with atypical (non-tubercular) mycobacteria; the 4-th gr. - infected with M.bovis (strain 637) specifically reacting to PPD-tuberculin for mammals (studies were conducted in 2 months after infecting) and the 5-th group - healthy animals. According to the results of the study, dependence of the lymphocytes activity to rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes on the development of the tuberculous process and the nature of animal sensitization to PPD-tuberculin for mammals was established. In animals with tuberculosis the number of circulating rosetting lymphocytes is higher in comparison with healthy ones, (in an average of 325.40). Parameters in specifically sensitized animals did not differ. In animals vaccinated and infected with atypical mycobacteria the number of rosetting cells is less than 206309 and 103-278, respectively. In the group of healthy animals insignificant activity of lymphoid cells was revealed, caused by the circulation of corynebacteria in the blood and their allergenic properties to tuberculin. The dependence of the rosetting activity of lymphocytes sensitized to tuberculin on the positive dynamics of the tuberculosis process was also shown by the results of the study on the quantitative content of attached erythrocytes. The results obtained give reason to use this method for the differentiation of nonspecific reactions in reacting to PPD-tuberculin for mammals.

   
Keywords: rosetting, lymphocytes, tuberculosis, differentiation, mycobacteria, atypical, PPD-tuberculin, diagnosis.
   
References:
1. Sensibiliziruyushchie svoystva korinebakteriy k tuberkulinu [Sensitizing properties of corynebacteria to tuberculin] / M.O.Baratov, M.M.Akhmedov, O.P.Sakidibirov, D.A.Devrishov // Veterinarnaya medicina. 2011. 1. P. 3133.
2. Vetshigora, A.E. Osnovy immunologii [Basics of Immunology] / A.E.Vetshigora. Kiev: Vischa shkola, 1975. 320 p.
3. Liskova, E.A. Vydelenie korinebakteriy iz obyektov zhivotnovodcheskikh pomeshcheniy [Isolation of corynebacteria from livestock facilities] / E.A.Liskova, K.N.Slinina, A.A.Blokhin // Put nauki. 2015. 12. P. 3132.
4. Radchenkov, V.P. Rozetkoobrazuyushchie limfocity krupnogo rogatogo skota i racionalnye metody ikh vyyavleniya [Rosetting lymphocytes of cattle and rational methods for their detection] / V.P.Radchenkov, I.I.Sokolovskaya // Lechebnoe delo. 1980. 8. P. 476478.
5. Immunofiziologiya [Immunophysiology] / V.A.Chereshnev, B.G.Yushkov, V.G.Klimin, E.V.Lebedev. Ekaterinburg: URO RAS. 2002. 260 c.
6. Petrov, R.V. Osnovy immuniteta i immunnaya biotekhnologiya [The basics of immunity and immune biotechnology] / R.V.Petrov, R.M.Khaitov // Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii medicinskikh nauk. 2000. 11. C. 1821.
7. Tizard, I.R Veterinary Immunology. An Introduction / I.R.Tizard W.B.Saunders. USA, state Michigan: Michigan University, 2004. 494 p.

   
   
Title:

ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF XYLANASES AND CELLULASES OF PROBIOTIC STRAINS BACILLUS SUBTILIS

   
Authors: Mukhammadiev Rish.S. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Mukhammadiev Rin.S. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Valiullin L.R. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Biryulya V.V. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Skvortsov E.V. Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
6 , Bacillus subtilus, . , 1%- 1%- . , , . Bacillus subtilus, . , . 2- 3- . B.subtilis 10 B.subtilis 42 (0,4070,012 ./ 0,3640,016 ./, ). . , 2,8-6,7./, B.subtilis 42 1,1-2,4 . Bacillus subtilus , , .

   
Keywords: spore-forming bacteria, Bacillus subtilus, activity, xylanase, cellulase.
   
References:
1. Bakulina, L.F. Probiotiki na osnove sporoobrazuyushchikh shtammov roda Bacillus i ikh ispolzovanie v veterinarii [Probiotics based on spore-forming strains of the genus Bacillus and their use in veterinary medicine] / L.F.Bakulina, I.V.Timofeev, N.G.Perminova // Biotekhnologiya. 2001. 2. P. 48-56.
2. Pokhilenko, V.D. Probiotiki na osnove sporoobrazuyushchikh bakteriy i ikh bezopasnost [Probiotics based on spore-forming bacteria and their safety] / V.D.Pokhilenko, V.V. Perelygin // Khimicheskaya i biologicheskaya bezopasnost. 2007. 2 (3). P. 20-41.
3. Probitiki na osnove bakteriy roda Bacillus v pticevodstve [Probiotics based on bacteria from the genus Bacillus in poultry breeding] / N.V.Feoktistova, A.M.Mardanova, G.F.Khadieva, M.R.Sharipova // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki. 2017. Vol. 159, Book. 1. P. 85107.
4. Geno- i fenotipicheskaya kharakteristika shtammov bacill-komponentov endosporina [Geno- and phenotypic characteristic of Bacillus strains-components of endosporin]. [Article in Russian] / L.A.Safronova [et al.] // Mikrobiologicheskiy zhurnal. 2012. Vol. 74, 5. P. 5566.
5. Mazmanian, S.K. A microbial symbiosis factor prevents inflammatory disease / S.K.Mazmanian, J.L.Round, D.Kaspe // Nature. 2008. Vol. 453. P. 620625.
6. Morelli, L. FAO/WHO guidelines on probiotics: 10 years later / L.Morelli, L.Capurso // J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012. Vol. 46 (Suppl). P. 12.
7. Probiotics, gut microbiota, and their influence on host health and disease / B.Sánchez [et al.] // Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2017. Vol. 61, 1. . 5869. 
8. Probiotics, their health benefits and applications for developing healthier foods: A review / R.Nagpal [et al.] // FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2012. Vol. 334, 1. . 115.
9. Mazankova, L.N. Probiotiki: kharakteristika preparatov i vybor v pediatricheskoy praktike [Probiotics: characterization of drugs and choices in pediatric practice] / L.N.Mazankova, E.A.Lykova // Det. Infekcii. 2004. 1. P. 1823.
10. Spore probiotics / I.G.Osipova [et al.] // Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunol. 2003. Vol.3. P. 113119. 
11. Smirnov, V.V. Bakterii roda Bacillus perspektivnyy istochnik biologicheski aktivnykh veshchestv [Bacteria of genus Bacillus is a prospective source of biologically active substances] / V.V.Smirnov, I.B.Sorokulova, I.V.Pinchuk // Mikrobiol. zhurn. 2001. Vol. 63, 1. P. 7278.
12. Sorokulova, I. Preclinical testing in the development of probiotics: regulatory perspective with bacillus strains as an example / I.Sorokulova / Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008. 46. P. 9295.
13. Sapego, V.I. Biologicheski aktivnye veshchestva i estestvennaya rezistentnost telyat [Biologically active substances and natural resistance of calves] / V.I.Sapego, E.V.Bernik // Veterinariya. 2002. 5. P. 4446.
14. Marchenko, F. Kompleksny podkhod k primeneniyu kormovogo probiotika BioPlus2B v sochetanii s antibiotikoterapiey [An integrated approach to the use of the feed probiotic BioPlus2B in combination with antibiotic therapy] / F.Marchenko, A.Sungurov, O.Bashkirov // Efektivne ptakhvnictvo ta tvarinnictvo. 2004. 3. P. 2930
15. Preobrazhenskiy, L.N. Farmakodinamicheskie osnovy i perspektivy primeneniya fermentnykh preparatov v zhivotnovodstve [Pharmacodynamic basics and prospects for the use of enzyme preparations in animal husbandry] / L.N.Preobrazhenskiy // Veterinariya selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh. 2006. 1. P. 7175.
16. Avdeeva, L.V. Biosintez cellyulaz probioticheskimi shtammami Bacillus subtilis pri sovmestnom vyrashchivanii [Biosynthesis of cellulases by probiotic strains Bacillus subtilis at joint cultivation] / L.V.Avdeeva, A.I.Osadchaya, M.A.Kharkhota // Mkrobologya botekhnologya. 2010. 4. P. 8089.
17. Rodionova, N.A. Ksilanaznaya sistema i faktory, stimuliruyushchie biosintez ee komponentov [Xylanase system and factors stimulating the biosynthesis of its components] / N.A.Rodionova, I.V.Itomlinskiy // Mikrobiologiya i nauchno-tekhnicheskiy progress: tez. dokl. 4 syezda Vsesoyuz. mikrobiol. Obshchestva [Microbiology and scientific and technological progress: proceedings from the 4 conference of the All-Union Microbiological society]. Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika, 1971. P. 133134.

   
   
Title:

NEUROTOXICITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM FOR NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

   
Authors: Kalinnikova T.B. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Egorova A.V. Research Assistant; Kolsanova R.R. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Gainutdinov M.Kh. Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Shagidullin R.R. Doctor of Chemistry, Corresponding Member of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences.
   
Address:
Research Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Kazan (e-mail: tbkalinnikova@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
The long-term practice of usage of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in veterinary has revealed a number of problems. Firstly, these drugs lose their efficiency during long-term use and decrease the natural resistance of animals to parasitic helminthes. Secondary, the progress of organic farming involves giving up the use of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. This explains high interest to search phytogenous anthelmintics, ones of which are juice and extracts of garlic Allium sativum. The questions of mechanisms of nematocidal activity of A.sativum and about secondary metabolites of A.sativum are responsible for its nematocidal activity are still open mainly because the experiments with parasitic nematodes in vitro are very difficult and expensive. Due to high conservatism of nematodes evolution in experiments with synthetic nematocides, over the last 10 years free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been successfully used as convenient model organism instead of parasitic nematodes. In this article it is shown that A.sativum juice is toxic for C.elegans and the target of toxic action of A.sativum is the nervous system. A.sativum juice increases the sensitivity of C.elegans nicotinic receptors; therefore hyperactivation of nicotinic receptors is the possible mechanism of its nematocidal activity. Synergism in A.sativum juice and levamisole action signifies the potential availability of usage as anthelmintics the compositions of A.sativum extracts and synthetic nematocides-agonists of nicotinic receptors. In total, the results of this work show that C.elegans can be used as a convenient model organism both for the control of effectiveness of A.sativum extracts and other phytogenous anthelmintic drugs and for isolation of chemical compounds with anthelmintic activity from plants. 

   
Keywords: Allium sativum, anthelmintic drugs, Caenorhabditis elegans, levamisole, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
   
References:
1. Holden-Dye, L. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans / L.Holden-Dye, R.J.Walker // Wormbook.org. The C. elegans Research Community. 2014 // URL: http://www.wormbook.org (date of access June 21, 2014). 
2. Sleigh, J.N. Functional analysis of nematode nicotinic receptors / J.N.Sleigh // Biosci. Horizons. 2010. Vol. 3. P. 2939.
3. Dent, J.A. What can Caenorhabditis elegans tell us about nematocides and parasites? / J.A.Dent // Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 2001. Vol. 6. P. 252263.
4. Kaplan, R.M. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report / R.M.Kaplan // Trends Parasitol. 2004. Vol. 20. P. 477481. 
5. Masamha, B. Efficasy of Allium sativum (garlic) in controlling nematodes parasites in sheep / B.Masamha, C.T.Gadzirayi, I.Mukutirwa // Intern. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 2010. Vol. 8. P. 161169.
6. Effects of garlic supplementation on parasitic infestation, live weight, and hematological parameters in Black Bengal goat / Mir Md.I.Hasan [et al.] // J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res. 2015. Vol. 2. P. 326331. 
7. Anthelmintic activity of Allium sativum / P.U.Kadam [et al.] // Pharma Sci. Monitor. 2015. Vol. 6. P. 2537.
8. Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot and their biologically active compounds / P.Mikaili [et al.] // Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci. 2013. Vol. 16. P. 10311048. 
9. Ahmed, M. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of selected medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus from sheep / M.Ahmed, M.D.Laing, I.V.Nsahlai // J. Helmintol. 2012. Vol. 26. P. 16. 
10. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes / S. Klimpel [et al.] // Parasitol. Res. 2011. Vol. 108. P. 10471054.
11. Abdel-Ghaffar, F. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes / F.Abdel-Ghaffar, M.Semmler, K.A.Al-Rasheid // Parasitol. Res. 2011. Vol. 108. P. 979084. 
12. Efficasy of allicin from garlic against Ascaridia galli infection in chickens / F.C.Velkers [et al.] // Poultry Sci. 2011. Vol. 90. P. 364368. 
13. Brenner, S. The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans / S.Brenner // Genetics. 1974. Vol. 77. P. 7194.
14. Bargmann, C.I. Genetic and cellular analysis of behavior in C. elegans / C.I.Bargmann // Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 1993. Vol. 16. P. 4771.
15. Opposite responses of the cholinergic nervous system to moderate heat stress and hyperthermia in two soil nematodes / T.B.Kalinnikova [et al.] // J. Therm. Biol. 2016. Vol. 62. P. 3749.
16. Mahoney, T.R. Analysis of synaptic transmission in Caenorhabditis elegans using an aldicarb-sensitivity assay / T.R.Mahoney, S.Luo, M.L.Nonet // Nat. Protoc. 2006. Vol. 1. P. 17721777. 
17. A neuronal acetylcholine receptor regulates the balance of muscle excitation and inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans / M.Jospin [et al.] // PLoS Biology. 2009. Vol. 7. 
18. Sensing of cadmium and copper ions by externally exposed ADL, ASE, and ASH neurons elicits avoidance response in Caenorhabditis elegans / Y.Sambongi [et al.] // NeuroReport. 1999. Vol. 10. P. 753757.
19. Hilliard, M.A. C.elegans responds to chemical repellents by integrating sensory inputs from the head and the tail / M.A.Hilliard, C.I.Bargmann, P.Bazzicalupo // Curr. Biol. 2002. Vol. 12. P. 730734.

   
   
Title:

GLOBAL SHEEP POX AND GOAT POX EPIZOOTIC SITUATION

   
Authors: Akimova T.P. Veterinarian; Semakina V.P. Leading Veterinarian.
   
Address:
FGBI Federal Centre for Animal Health (FGBI ARRIAH), Vladimir (e-mail: akimova@arriah.ru).

   
Abstract:

Over the past 30 years the sheep pox and goat pox epizootic situation has been deteriorating in countries of Eurasia and Africa. During this period sheep pox and goat pox have been recorded in more than 70 countries across the world. Currently the diseases are detected in most African countries (mainly north of the Equator), India, Central Asia (including Western China) and in the Middle East. It has also spread into the Southern European countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey) bordering the countries of the Middle East, as well as into the Russian Federation. Sheep pox and goat pox harm the countries economies, impede the development of the livestock industry, reduce productivity, and obstruct trade in animals and animal products. Continuous monitoring of the epizootic situation, as well as analysis and prediction of occurrence, spread, and possible economic losses are therefore necessary. The purpose of this paper was to draw the attention of veterinary professionals to the problem of sheep pox and goat pox spreading across the globe and to the need for the implementation of control measures to improve prevention and control of these dangerous diseases. The article presents an analysis of the current global epizootic situation regarding sheep pox and goat pox. 


   
Keywords: sheep pox and goat pox, epizootic situation, countries of the world, analysis, prediction.
   
References:
1. Parilov, S.V Analiz i prognoz mirovoy epizooticheskoy situatsii po ospe ovets i koz i chume melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh v 2011-2015 gg: nauchnoe izdanie. [Analysis and forecast of the global epizootic situation regarding sheep and goat pox and peste des petits ruminants in 2011 2015: scientific issue.] / S.V.Parilov, A.V.Knize, V.M.Balyshev [electronic resource] // Nauchny Zhurnal Kub GAU. 2011. 69 (05). - url: http://ej.kubagro.ru/2011/05/pdf/21.pdf.
2. Analiz epizooticheskoy situatsii i modelirovanie potentsialnykh nozoarealov ospy i chumy melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh do 2020 goda / [Sheep and goat pox and peste des petits ruminants: epizootical analysis and forecasting potential nosoareas up to 2020] // A.V.Knize, M.V.Bolgova, S.V.Parilov [et. al.] // Veterinarny vrach. 2016. Vol. 1. P. 1117. 
3. Virusvaktsina assotsiirovannaya protiv ospy ovets i koz kulturalnaya sukhaya [Cultural dry associated virus vaccine against sheep pox and goat pox] / Findpatent [electronic resource] // URL: http://www.findpatent.ru/patent/240/2403064.html (date of access June 14, 2018).
4. Rao, T.V.S. A comprehensive review of goat pox and sheep pox and their diagnosis / T.V.S.Rao, S.K.Bandyopadhyay // Anim. Health Res. Rev. 2000. 1 (2). P. 127136.
5. Kamran, M. A review of sheep pox and goat pox: perspective of their control and eradication in Iran / M.Kamran, M.B.Seyed, B.Saied // J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res. 2015. 2 (4). P. 373381.
6. Yune, N. Epidemiology and economic importance of sheep and goat pox: a review on past and current aspects / N.Yune, N.Abdela // J Vet Sci Technol. 2017. 8 (2). P. 15.
7. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) & Sheep Pox State of play in the EU / European Commission [electronic resource] // URL: https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/animals/docs/comm_ahac_20171218_pres05.pdf (date of access June 14, 2018).
8. Mongolia: Dzud Office of the Resident Coordinator Situation. Report No. 3 / Relief web [electronic resource] // URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/mongolia/mongolia-dzud-office-resident-coordinator-situation-report-no-3-17-june-2016 (date of access June 14, 2018).
9. Kardjadj, M. Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) in Algeria / M.Kardjadj // Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 2017. 49 (3). P. 649652.
10. Scientific Opinion on sheep and goat pox // EFSA Journal. 2014. 12 (11). P. 3885.
11. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia / H.Boshra [et al.] // PLoS ONE. 2015. 10 (10).
12. Sheep pox and goat pox Morocco / ProMED-mail [electronic resource] // URL: http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20180317.5692007 (date of access June 26, 2018).
13. Sheep pox in Tunisia: Current status and perspectives / F.Ben Chehida [et al.] // Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2018. 65 (1). P. 5063. 
14. WAHIS, OIE, 2007 2017. URL: http://www.oie.int/ (date of access June 14, 2018).

   
   
Title:

EPIZOOTIC SITUATION ON INVASIVE DISEASES IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS REGION

   
Authors: 1Chernykh O.Yu. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 2Drobin U.A. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Shevchenko L.V. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 3Shevchenko A.A. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:

1State budgetary institution of Krasnodar Krai "Kropotkinskaya regional veterinary laboratory", Kropotkin, (e-mail: gukkvl50@kubanvet.ru).


2 North-Caucasus Zonal Scientific-Research Veterinary Institute branch of Federal State budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Rostov agricultural scientific center", Novocherkassk (e-mail: kadri.skzniwi@mail.ru).


3Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T.Trubilin, Krasnodar (e-mail: shevchenkoalexsandr@rambler.ru).


   
Abstract:
The purpose of the research was to study the nosologic profile and spreading invasive diseases among various kinds of animals in the north Caucasus region. The article presents the results of research on the spread of morbidity of farm animals, fur animals and poultry invasive diseases in the farms of Krasnodar region for the period of 2015-2017 gg. as well as materials of own research of 23 districts and two cities of Krasnodar region. The study of 133618 samples of patmaterial revealed 16224 positive samples. In nosological profile 55 names of various invasive diseases in different types of farm animals, fur animals, domestic carnivores and poultries are registered. The most frequent were the following invasive diseases: eimerioses in cattle 46.91%, in small cattle 54.02%, poultry 59.67%, fur-bearing animals 65.71%; esophagostomoses in cattle 98.34%, in pigs 76.19%; strongylatosis in horses 35.09%; passalurus in rabbits 54.54%; trichomoniasis of birds 68.5%; ascaridosis in pigs 29.08%; balantidiosis in pigs 23.07%; piroplasmosis in cattle 36.84%, in dogs 35.40%; fascioloses in cattle 46.24% and dirofilarioses in dogs 22.91%. Among invasive diseases dominating were: eimerioses in cattle, poultry, fur-bearing animals and rabbits; esophagostomoses, ascaridosis, strongylatosis, fasciolosis, piroplasmosis, babesiosis in cattle; passalurus in rabbits, trichomoniasis, ganguleterakidosis, heterakidosis in poultry, balantidiosis in pigs, dirofilarioses, piroplasmosis in dogs. Invasive extensiveness in various kinds of animals was from 5.5% to 85%.

   
Keywords: invasive diseases, fur-bearing animals, domestic carnivores, poultry, eimerioses, esophagostomoses, ascaridosis, strongylatosis, fasciolosis, trichomoniasis, balantidiosis.
   
References:
1. Arkhipov, I.A. Effektivnost Biovermina pri nematodozakh sviney [Efficacy of Biovermine for nematodosis of pigs] / I.A.Arkhipov, V.S.Lubavin // Veterinariya. 1998. 6. P. 1520.
2. Arkhipov, I.A. Vybor antgelmintikov dlya lecheniya zhivotnykh [The Choice of Anthelmintics for the treatment of animals] / I.A.Arkhipov, .. Musaev // Veterinariya. 2004. 2. P. 2833. 
3. Panirovskiy, E.N. Protozoynye bolezni [rotozoal diseases] / E.N.Panirovskiy, G.V.Ni, P.I.Khristianovskiy. Orenburg: publishing center of OGAU, 2000. 108 p. 
4. Timofeev, B.A. Eymeriozy krupnogo rogatogo skota [Eimerioses of cattle] / ..Timofeev // Veterinarny consultant. 2004. 1. P. 1113. 
5. Andrushko, E.A. Epizootologicheskiy monitoring eymerioza molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota v khozyaystvakh Ivanovskoy I prilezhaschikh oblastey [Epizootological monitoring of eimeriosis of young cattle in farms of Ivanovo and adjacent areas] / ..Andrushko, S.V.Egorov // Microbiologicheskiy Jurnal. 2015. 2. P. 2731. 
6. Experience of diagnostics and containment of foot and mouth disease of cattle in Krasnodar region / O.U.hernykh, G.A.Koshaev, A.A.Lysenko [et al.] // Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 2017. Volume 5 (6). . 786792.

  GENETICS OF FARM ANIMALS
   
Title:

INFLUENCE OF BREED AND GENOTYPE FOR LEPTIN GENE ON MILK PRODUCTIVITY AND MILK QUALITY OF COWS

   
Authors: 1Tyulkin S.V. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 2Shaydullin R.R. - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; 1Gilmanov Kh.Kh. - Research Officer; 1Vafin R.R. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor of the RAS; 3Faizov T.H. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1FSC of Food Systems named after V.M. Gorbatov RAS, Moscow (e-mail: pr@vniipm.ru).

2Kazan State Agrarian University, Kazan (e-mail: info@kazgau.ru).

3Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The purpose of the research is to study the milk productivity and milk quality of the first-calf cows of Kholmogory breed of Tatarstan type with different genotypes for leptin gene (LEP). The studies were conducted in conditions of breeding farm of LLC "Biryuli" of Vysokogorsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan on individuals of Kholmogory breed of Tatarstan type. As a result of molecular and genetic studies (AS-PCR-analysis), the animals were divided into groups according to the genotype for LEP gene. The occurrence frequency of alleles C and T; CC, CT and TT genotypes for LEP gene in the sample of studied cows were 0.53 and 0.47; 25.0%, 55.5% and 19.5%, respectively. It was established that the first-calf cows with the CC and CT genotypes for LEP gene compared with the first-calf cows of TT genotype exceeded for yield by 565 kg (P<0,001) and 136 kg of milk, for the amount of milk fat by 14.2 kg (P<0.01) and 4.4 kg; for the quantity of milk protein by 17.5 kg (P<0.001) and 2.5 kg, respectively. At the same time, animals with TT genotype for LEP gene compared to other genotypes analogues had the largest mass of fraction fat and protein in milk (3.92% and 3.29%), which is higher than that of their peers with other genotypes by 0,15% (P<0.001) and 0,02%; 0.02-0.04%, respectively. As a result, the studies have shown that the ratio of first-calf cows bearing the desirable CC genotype for LEP gene in the population cattle of Kholmogory breed of Tatarstan type was 25.0%. It should be also noted that the obtained results of the studies need to be used in breeding and improvement of dairy cattle of the Republic of Tatarstan.

   
Keywords: dairy productivity, milk fat and protein, qualitative properties, polymorphism, genotype, Leptin, PCR, DNA.
   
References:
1. Bagal, I.V. Polimorfizm genov molochnykh belkov i gormonov u korov vysshey selekcionnoy gruppy Kholmogorskoy porody: dis. kand. biol. nauk: 06.02.07 [Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins and hormones in cows of higher breeding group for Kholmogory breed: dissertation for Candidate of Biological Sciences] / I.E.Bagal. Lesnye Polyany Moskovskoy oblasti, 2017. 152 l.
2. Polimorfizm genov leptina (LEP), tireoglobulina (TG) i beta-kazeina (CSN2) u golshtinskikh korov [Polymorphism of leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and beta-casein (CSN2) genes in Holstein cows] / M.A.Began, Ya.A.Xabibrakhmanova, L.A. Kalashnikova, V.G. Trufanov // Sbornik nauch. trudov. VNII ovcevodstva i kozovodstva [Proceedings from VRI of sheep breeding and goat breeding]. 2014. Vol. 3, 7. P. 487491.
3. Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologicheskie printsypy proizvodstva molochnykh konservov gerodieticheskogo naznacheniya [Scientific bases and technological principles of the production of gerodietic canned milk] / A.G.Galstyan, A.N.Petrov, I.A.Radaeva [et al.] // Voprosy pitaniya. 2016. Vol. 85, 5. P. 114119.
4. Polimorfizm gena leptina i ego vliyanie na pokazateli molochnoy produktivnosti korov [Polymorphism of Leptin gene and its effect on parameters of milk performance of cows] / A.I.Gandzha [et al.] // Zootekhnicheskaya nauka Belarusi. 2017. Vol. 52, 1. P. 3745.
5. Izuchenie svyazi gena leptina (LEP) s molochnoy produktivnostyu u korov golshtinskoy porody s primeneniem PDRF-analiza [Studying the relationship of leptin gene (LEP) with milk production in Holstein cows using RFLP-analysis] / F.F.Zinnatova, A.R.Shamsova, F.F.Zinnatov [et al.] // Fundamentalnaya nauka I technologii perspektivnye razrabotki: materialy XII Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf [Fundamental science and technologies prospective developments: proceedings from the XII International scientific and practical conference]. Create Space, 2017. P. 13.
6. Shaydullin, R.R. Fiziko-khimicheskie pokazateli moloka korov-pervotyolok s raznymi genotipami po genam CSN3 i DGAT1 [Physical and chemical parameters of milk of first-calf cows with different genotypes for CSN3 and DGAT1 genes] / R.R. Shaydullin // Vestnik Michurinskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2018. 2. P. 140144.
7. Effect of leptin gene polymorphisms on growth, slaughter and meat quality traits of grazing Brangus steers / P.M.Corva [et al.] // Genet. Mol. Res. 2009. Vol. 8, 1. P. 105116.
8. Association of leptin polymorphism with production, reproduction and plasma glucose level in Iranian Holstein cows / A.Heravi Moussavi, M.Ahouei, M.R.Nassiry, A.Javadmanesh // Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences. 2006. Vol. 19 (5). P. 627631.
9. Effect of missense mutation of leptin gene on serum leptin concentration and some blood metabolic parameters in Czech Pied bulls / A.Pavlik, P.Slama, A.Knoll [et al.] // Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013. Vol. 19. P. 14251430.
10. Indicators of quality of canned milk: Russian and international priorities / A.N.Petrov, A.G.Galstyan, I.A.Radaeva [et al.] // Foods and Raw Materials. 2017. Vol. 5, 2. P. 151161. [https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2017-2-151-161].
11. Influence of TG5 and LEP gene polymorphism on quantitative and qualitative meat composition in beef calves / T.A.Sedykh, L.A.Kalashnikova, I.V.Gusev [et al.] // Iraqi Journal of veterinary sciences. 2016. Vol. 30, 2 P. 4148.
12. Evaluation markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle / J.Szyda, .Morek-Kopec, J.Komisarek, A.Zarnecki // BMC Genetics. 2011. Vol. 12 (1). P. 30. [https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-12-30].
13. Trakovicka, A. Genetic polymorphisms of leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation with production and reproduction traits in cattle / A.Trakovicka, N.Moravcikova, R.Kasarda // Acta Biochim. Pol. 2013. Vol. 60 (4). P. 783785.
14. Technological properties of milk of cows with different genotypes of kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin / S.V.Tyulkin, R.R.Vafin, L.R.Zagidulin, [et al.] // Foods and Raw Materials. 2018. Vol. 6, 1. P. 154162. [https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2018-1-154-162].
15. Development of PCR Methods for Cattle Genotyping by Allelic Variants of DGAT1 Gene / R.R.Vafin, S.V.Tyulkin, L.R.Zagidullin [et al.] // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2016. Vol. 7, 2. P. 20752080.

 
   
Title:

CORRECTION OF BLOOD PARAMETERS AT MODELLING ACUTE POSTHEMORRHAGIC ANEMIA USING OF THE PREPARATION FERSEL

   
Authors: 1Gasanov A.S. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Tamimdarov B.F. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2uzina G.K Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 3Torosian K.S. State inspector of Border Veterinary Control.
   
Address:
1 Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail:study@ksavm.senet.ru).

2Kazan State Agrarian University, Kazan (e-mail: info@kazgau.ru).

3Regional Office of the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance (FSVPS) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan (e-mail: agronadzor_rt@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article is dedicated to the problem of correction of metabolic disorders in animals. The authors have summarized the literature data on the distribution of alimentary iron deficiency anemia among young livestock. The purpose of the research was to study the anti-anemic effect of the new selenium containing drug Fersel using various doses. The experiment was performed on the basis of the Department of Therapy and Clinical Diagnostics with Radiology of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. Under the laboratory conditions, the acute post-hemorrhagic anemia was modelled. The gray Flemish Giant rabbits aged from 45 to 50 days were used as a model. Three groups were formed of 5 rabbits in each. Rabbits of the first experimental group received the Fersel drug in form of pills given in the morning before taking the feed in doses of 3.0 mg per kilogram of body weight. The second group received the drug at a dose of 6.0 mg per kilogram of body weight. Rabbits of the third group served as control and did not receive the drug. Studies have shown that the use of Fersel when modelling acute post-hemorrhagic anemia had a positive effect on the recovery of red blood cell content on the 60th day of the experiment by 15.8% and 5.0% in the first and second experimental groups, hemoglobin by 1.36% and 2.7%, respectively, compared with background parameters at the beginning of the experiment. The quantitative parameters of leukocytes and erythrocyte sedimentation rates did not have significant changes, as all experimental animals had been conditionally healthy at the time of the beginning of experiment.

   
Keywords: drug, hemoglobin erythrocytes leukocytes, iron deficiency anemia, rabbits.
   
References:
1. Berezina, O.V. Sravnitelnaya effektivnost preparatov pri zhelezodeficitnoy anemii norok: avtoref. dis. Kand. Vet. Nauk [Comparative efficacy of drugs in iron deficiency anemia of mink: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Veterinary Sciences] / O.V.Berezina. Kazan, 2000. 19 p.
2. Ivanov, D.P. Profilaktika nedostatochnosti mikroelementov u porosyat [Prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in piglets / D.P.Ivanov, V.V.Seregin // Veterinariya. 1983. 10. P. 6970.
3. Karput, I.M. Nezaraznye bolezni molodnyaka [Non-contagious diseases of young animals] / I.M.Karput. Minsk: Urazhay, 1989. 240 p. 
4. Miterev, Yu.G. Zhelezodeficitnaya anemiya (dostizheniya I problem) [Iron deficiency anemia (achievements and problems)]. / Yu.G.Miterev, P.M. Alperin // Gematologiya I transfuziologiya. 1983. 6. P. 38. 
5. Sukcinaty d-elementov perspektivnye biologicheski aktivnye preparaty [Succinates of d-elements - promising biologically active preparations:] / K.Kh.Papunidi, B.M.Gilmetdinov, A.S.Gasanov [et al.] // Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy progress v zhivotnovodstve Rossii resursosberegaemye tekhnologii proizvodstva ekologicheski bezopasnykh produktov zhivotnovodstva: materialy II Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf.: v 2 Ch., Ch. 1 [Scientific and technical progress in livestock production in Russia - resource-saving technologies for the production of environmentally safe livestock products: proceedings from the II International Scientific and Practical Conference: in 2 arts, Part 1:]. g. Dybrovitsy, 29.03. - 3.10.2003. Dybrovitsy: All-Russian Scientific Research Veterinary Institute of Animal Husbandry, 2003. P. 251254.
6. Papunidi, K.Kh. Patologiya obmena veschestv I puti ee korrekcii [Pathology of metabolism and ways to correct it / K.H.Papunidi, R.G.Shayakhmetov // Profilaktika narusheniy obmena veschestv I nezaraznykh bolezney molodnyaka selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh: materialy nauchno-metodicheskoy konferencii po diagnostike I terapii bolezney s.-kh. zhivotnykh [Prevention of metabolic disorders and non-contagious diseases of young livestock: proceedings from the scientific and methodological conference on detection and treatment of farm animals diseases]. Kazan, 1998. P. 37.
7. Shustov, V.N. Rol ekologicheskikh faktorov v razvitii anemii [The role of environmental factors in development of anemia] / V.N.Shustov, T.E.Evzerova, L.Ya.Fetisova // Materialy III Vseros. Syezda gematolofov [Proceedings from the 3rd All-Russian Congress of Hematologists] SPb., 1996. P. 4647.
8. Scherbakov G.G. Vnutrennie bolezni zhivotnykh [Internal Animal Diseases] / G.G.Scherbakov, A.V.Korobov. SPb.: Lan, 2002. 732 p.

   
   
Title:

ETIOPATHOGENETIC THERAPY OF INTERDIGITAL FIBER PHLEGMONE AND PHLEGMONE CORONAE IN COWS

   
Authors: 1Chekhodaridi F.N. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Persaev Ch.R. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Gugkaeva M.S. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Fidarov R.Kh. postgraduate.
   
Address:
1Gorskiy State Agrarian University, Vladikavkaz (e-mail: ggau.vet@mail.ru).

2North Ossetian State University after K.L.Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz (tel. +7 (8672)33-33-73).

   
Abstract:
Orthopedic dispensary examination of milking cows in the dairy-commodity farm of Agricultural Complex Raduga of RSO Alanya local region for 2016, 2017, and 2018 was conducted. From 220 examined milking cows it has been revealed with surgical pathology in 2016 56 cows (25.5%), as for 2017 42 cows (19.1%), 2018 38 cows (17.3%) including with phlegmon 8 (14.3%), 6 (14.3%), and 5 (13.2%), respectively. In educational and experimental farm of Gorskiy SAU in 2016 from 52 cows it was revealed 18 sick animals (34.6%), in 2017 from 58 heads 16 cows (27.6%), in 2018 from 50 cows 14 (28.0%); including with phlegmon 4 (22.2%), 2 (12.5%), and 2 (8.3%), respectively. Using of etiopathogenetic therapy of interdigital fiber phlegmone and phlegmone coronae in cows expedites recovery of animals on the 7-th day as compared with control group. Index by L.N.Popova was less than 4 (planimetric study of the wound area). The complex therapy is found to expedite normalization of hematological parameters: haemoglobin content, average erytrocytes volume by 38.5%, average content of haemoglobin in erythrocytes by 20.0%, average concentration of haemoglobin in erythrocytes by 1.7%, and reduction in leucocyte number by 31.8%, and also biochemical parameters of blood serum and nonspecific resistance of the body from the 3-d day till the end of the study.

   
Keywords: orthopedic pathology, dispensary examination, surgical pathology, cows, blood, planimetric study of the wound area, nonspecific resistance.
   
References:
1. Veremey, E.I. Primenenie oksidanta torfa pri boleznyakh v oblasti palcev u krupnogo rogatogo skota [An application of oxidant of peat at diseases of fingers in cattle] / E.I.Veremey, V.A.Zhurba // Veterinariya. 2002. 8. P. 4143.
2. Veremey, E.I. Etiopatogenez I sovremennye podkhody k lecheniyu gnoyno-nekroticheskikh processov v oblasti palcev I kopytec u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Etiopathogenesis and current approaches to treatment of purulent-necrotic processes in the area of cattle fingers and hooves ] / E.I.Veremey, V.A.Zhurba, V.A.Lapina // Veterinarny consultant. 2003. 16. P. 1011.
3. Veremey, E.I. Lechenie korov pri gnoyno-nekroticheskikh processakh v oblasti palcev u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Treatment of cows at purulent-necrotic processes in the area of cattle fingers] / E.I.Veremey, V.A.Zhurba, V.A.Lapina // Veterinariya. 2004. 3. P. 3941.
4. Profilaktika I lechenie krupnogo rogatogo skota pri gnoyno-nekroticheskikh porazheniyakh tkaney distalnoy chaste konechnostey [Prevention and treatment of cattle in purulent-necrotic affections of the distal part of limbs tissues ] / A.N.Eliseev, Yu.A.Klyuchkov, A.A.Stepanov, A.A.Chertkov // Veterinarnaya patologiya. 2007. 3 (22). P. 7072.
5. Maryin, E.M. Ortopedicheskie zabolevaniya u korov [Orthopedic diseases in cows] / E.M.Maryin, V.A.Ermolaev, P.I.Lyaschenko // Aktualnye problem veterinarnoy khirurgii: materialy Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. [Actual problems of veterinary surgery: proceedings from the Int. sci. conf.] Ulyanovsk: Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy, 2011. P. 95100.
6. Persaeva N.S. Patogeneticheskaya terapiya gnoyno-nekroticheskikh yazv kopytec u korov [Pathogenetic therapy of purulent-necrotic hooves abscesses in cows] / N.S.Persaeva, F.N.Chekhodaridi // Izvestiya Gorskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2014. Vol. 51, Part 4. P. 180184.
7. Chekhodaridi, F.N. Etiopatogeneticheskaya terapiya gnoyno-nekroticheskikh yazv kopytec u korov [Etiopathogenetic therapy of purulent-necrotic hooves abscesses in cows] / F.N.Chekhodaridi, N.S.Persaev, M.S.Gugkaeva // Ippologiya I veterinariya. 2016. 1 (19). P. 116120.

   
   
Title:

HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF COWS AND CALVES BORN FROM THEM WITH IMMUNOMODULATORY AND HORMONAL STIMULATION

   
Authors: Terentev S.S. postgraduate.
   
Address:
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (e-mail: sergei.terentev.14@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to research the effect of azoximer bromide in combination with hormonal stimulation of a synthetic analogue of estrone on the morphological and biochemical composition of the cows blood when administered in the last week of pregnancy. For this purpose, the control and experimental groups were formed, 20 animals in each. During the experiment, the blood of experimental cows at the time of calving showed a greater increase in the number of leukocytes of 48.89% due to an increase in the number of segmented neutrophils by 3.4 times and a small increase in the number of lymphocytes. In the blood serum of the experimental cows at the moment of calving there was more total protein, due to albumin, α-globulins and γ-globulins (the volume of which increased by 75.29%). And the first portion of colostrum contained the volume of immunoglobulins 27.74% more compared with the cows in the control group. Calves born from cows of the observed groups at birth had differences in the blood morphological composition, and the biochemical parameters differed slightly. In an hour after feeding the first portion of colostrum in the blood of calves of the experimental group, the volume of γ-globulin increased by more than 2 times, and the next day, it increased another by 6.9 times. One day after calving, the volume of γ - globulins in the serum of the experimental cows was 59.07% higher as compared to the control. Thus it can be concluded that the described stimulation of the immunity of cows-mothers increases the content of immunoglobulins in colostrum and improves the state of the cows-mothers organism after calving. The physiological condition of calves is affected by the timely feeding the colostrum obtained from cows-mothers. That has a strengthening effect on the calves protective systems and increases the rate of metabolic processes.

   
Keywords: cows, calves, colostral immunity, azoxymere-bromide, estrone.
   
References:
1. Baymishev, M.Kh. Innovacionnye priyomy korrekcii reproduktivnoy funkcii u vysokoproduktivnykh korov: monografiya [Innovation methods of reproductive function correction in high-productive cows: monograph] / M.H.Baymishev, S.P.Eremin. Kinel: RIO Samarskoy GSKHA, 2017. 209 p.
2. Morfologicheskie i biokhimicheskie pokazateli krovi novorozhdennykh telyat posle primeneniya sinestrola korovam-materyam [Morphological and biochemical blood parameters of newborn calves after Sinestrol use to cows-mothers] / V.I.Velikanov [et al.] // Problemy biologii produktivnykh zhivotnykh. 2018. 4. P. 5664.
3. Zakhurdaeva, L.D. Estrogeny: biologicheskie i farmakologicheskie effekty [Estrogens: biological and pharmacological effects] / L.D.Zakhurdaeva // Medicinskie aspekty zdorovya zhenshchin. 2010. 8 (37). P. 4151.
4. Zubovich, V.K. Gormonalny kriz novorozhdennykh [Hormonal crisis of newborns] / V.K.Zubovich. Minsk: Belarus, 1978. 112 p.
5. Klyapnev, A.V. Fiziologo-biokhimicheskie pokazateli krovi novorozhdennykh telyat pri ispolzovanii preparata "Sinestrol 2%" v antenatalny period [Phisiological and biochemical parameters of newborn calves blood when using preparation "Sinestrol 2%" at an antenatal period] / A.V.Klyapnev // Veterinarny vrach. 2017. 6. P 6168.
6. Kondrakhin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki: spravochnik [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnosis; reference book] / I.P.Kondrakhin. M.: KolosS, 2004. 520 p.
7. Malashko, V.V. Molozivo. Immunoglobuliny moloziva: ucheb. dlya vuzov [Colostrum. Immunoglobulin colostrums: students book] / V.V.Malashko, N.A.Kuznetsov. Grodno: GGAU, 2010. 98 p.
8. Samburov, N.V. Molozivo korov, ego sostav i biologicheskie svoystva [Cowscolostrum, its composition and biological properties] / N.V.Samburov, I.L.Palaus // Vesti Kurskoy gos. s.-kh. akad. 2014. 4. P. 59.
9. Skopichev, V.G. Fiziologiya reproduktivnoy sistemy mlekopitayushchikh: uchebnoe posobie [Mammals reproductive system physiology: textbook] / V.G.Skopichev, I.O.Bogolyubova. SPb.: Izd-vo "Lan'", 2007. 512 p.: il. (Uchebniki dlya vuzov. Specialnaya literature. [University books. Special literature]).
10. Vliyanie vvedeniya glubokostelnym korovam sinteticheskogo analoga estrona na stanovlenie estestvennoy rezistentnosti u novorozhdennykh telyat [Effect of synthetic analogue of estrone administered to down-calving cows on formation of the natural resistance in newborn calves] / L.V.Kharitonov [et al.] / Problemy biologii produktivnykh zhivotnykh. 2018. 1. P. 2937.
11. Shulga, N.N. Dinamika immunoglobulinov v syvorotkakh krovi i moloziva korov [Dynamics of immunoglobulins in cows blood sera and colostrum] / N.N.Shulga // Veterinariya. 2006. 1. P. 4547.
12. Immunoglobulins, growth factors and growth hormone in bovine colostrum and the effects of processing / L.Elfstrand [et al.] // International dairy journal. 2002. 11 (12). P. 879887.
13. Delaying colostrum intake by one day has important effects on metabolic traits and on gastrointestinal and metabolic hormones in neonatal calves / U.Hadorn [et al.] // J. Nutr. 1997. 127. P. 20112023.
14. Wayne, R.W. Effect of estrogen and progesterone on lactating rat mammar y glands: a light and electron microscope study: dissertation for Doctor of philosophical sciences / R.W.Wayne. Ames, Iowa, 1972. 114 p.

   
   
Title:

FORMATION OF THE DIGESTIVE-TRANSPORT CONVEYOR OF CARBOHYDRATES IN POSTNATALLY PHYSIOLOGICALLY IMMATURE ANIMALS

   
Authors: Khasnutdinov N.Sh. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Volga State Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Kazan (e-mail: nahas@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The purpose of the research is to experimentally study the formation of the digestive and transport conveyor of carbohydrates in postnatal ontogenesis and to determine the effect of malnutrition on it during the period of milk feeding. The experiments in all cases were in the nature of acute experiment, followed by the determination of the studied parameters in vitro using biochemical methods. In the experiment, rats were used from the 1st day of life up to the 90-day age. On the 21st day of postnatal life, the rats of both groups (control and experimental) were transferred to a balanced specialized diet equivalent in calories. The specialized diet contained 35% of protein, 55% of carbohydrates and 10% of fat per calorie. Malnutrition during the period of milk feeding leads to the development of postnatal physiological immaturity, which is accompanied by violations of the regular postnatal reorganization of the intestinal digestive-transport conveyor of carbohydrates, delayed repression of some hydrolytic-transport systems and the formation of others. The generalization of the above results indicates that in malnutrition during the period of milk feeding, the activity of the enzymes of the initial hydrolysis of carbohydrates does not indirectly change at all, on one hand, and enzymes of the final stage of hydrolysis of this food component - on the other. Consequently, when growth is delayed during the period of milk feeding under conditions of malnutrition, an increase in nutritional excitability occurs, the physiological role of which is to restore the growth rate of animals.

   
Keywords: digestive transport conveyor, physiological immaturity.
   
References:
1. Kampa, M. Human health effects of air pollution / M.Kampa, E.Castanas // Environmental Pollution. - 2008 - Vol. 151. - P. 362367. 
2. A review of the literature on the effects of ambient air pollution on fetal growth / M.Mildred Maisonet [et al.] // Environmental Research. - 2004. - Vol. 95, 1. - P. 106115. 
3. Stozharov, A.N. Medicimskaya ekologiya: ucheb. posobie [Medical ecology: textbook] / A.N.Stozharov. - Minsk: Vyssh shk, 2007. 368 p.
4. Ekologicheskie factory I formirovanie pischevaritelnoy sistemy / B.A.Sadykov [et al.] [Ecological factors and formation of the digestive system] // Uzb. biol. zhurnal. 2006. 4. P. 810.
5. Shakhmurov, G.A. Vliyanie nitratov I nitritov na aktivnost pankreaticheskoy amilazy u krys [The effect of nitrates and nitrites on the activity of pancreatic amylase in rats] / G.A.Shakhmurov, L.S.Kuchkarova // Biologiya nauka XXI veka: materialy 18 Mezhdunar. Pushchinskoy shkoly-konf. molodykh uchenykh [Biology - the science of the XXI century: proceedings from the 18th Int. Pushchino school-conference of young scientists]. Pushchino, April 2125 2014. Pushchino, 2014. P. 125.
6. Vzaimootnosheniya fermentativnykh funkciy podzheludochnoy zhelezy I tonkoy kishki pri adaptivnykh processakh [Interrelations between the enzymatic functions of the pancreas and the small intestine during adaptive processes] / A.M.Ugolev, A.A.Gruzdakov, Yu.D.Zilberg [et al.] // Fiziol. zhurnal SSSR. 1978. Vol. 64, 9. - P. 12171228.
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9. Auricchio, S. Intestinal glucosidase activities in the human embryo, fetus and newborn / S.Auricchio, A.Rubino, G.Murset // Pediatries. - 1965. - Vol. 35. - P. 994954.
10. Henning, S.J. Ontogeny of enzymes in the small intestine / S.J.Henning // Ann. Rev. Physiol. 1985. Vol. 45. P. 231245.
11. Lebenthal E. Effect of intrauterine and postnatal malnutrition on the ontogeny of gut function / E.Lebenthal, E.Young // Progress in food and nutrition science. 1986. - Vol. 10. - P. 315335.

   
   
Title:

STUDYING THE EFFICACY OF A NEW DISINFECTANT IN PRODUCTION CONDITIONS

   
Authors: Saipullayev M.S. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Koychuev A.U. Research Officer; Mirzoeva T.B. Research Officer.
   
Address:
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute - branch of FSBI Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of Republic of Dagestan Makhachkala (e-mail: strong.alialiev@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of production testing of a new disinfectant Monochloride (iodochloride) 2.0% (LLC "PC" Vortex) as well as developed application regimes for preventive and forced disinfection of veterinary supervision facilities. The tests were carried out in the premises for keeping cows at the farm "Tube" of the Kumtorkalinsky district and broilers at the farm "Karanthay" of the Buynaksky district of Republic of Dagestan. 0.5-6.0% of the preparation, Monochloride (iodochloride) solutions were tested under the production conditions at 2.0%, at a consumption rate of 0.25-0.5 l / m2, at 1 and 3 hours exposure. As tests have shown, when controlling the quality of disinfection for E. coli isolation, the disinfection of smooth surfaces (stainless steel, galvanized iron, tile) was achieved with a 1.0% solution at a consumption rate of 0.25-0.3 l / m2 and an exposure time of 1 hour and rough surfaces (for wood, concrete) with a 3.0% solution at a consumption rate of 0.5 l / m2 and exposure for 3 hours. When controlling the quality of disinfection for isolating staphylococci, disinfection of smooth and rough surfaces was achieved, respectively, with 3.0-4.0% solution at a solution rate of 0.25-0.5 l / m2 with an exposure of 3 hours in both cases. According to the results of production tests at the above mentioned objects of veterinary supervision, there is a clear dependence of the disinfecting effect of the drug Monochloride (iodchloride) 2.0% on the type of surfaces being treated.

   
Keywords: disinfection, concentration, exposure, disinfecting solution, E.coli, staphylococcus, smooth surface, rough surface.
   
References:
1. Batiashvili, A.G. Moyusche-dezinficiruyuschie sredstva iz otkhodov promyshlennosti: monografiya [Washing disinfectants from industrial waste: monograph] / A.G.Batiashvili. Tbilisi: Tbilisskiy universitet, 1995. 233 p.
2. Miroshnikova, A.I. Baktericidnaya aktivnost novogo dezinficiruyuschego preparata "Ecosilver" [Bactericidal activity of the new disinfectant "Ecosilver"] / A.I.Miroshnikova, I.V.Kireev, V.A.Orobets // Proceedings from the Kuban State Agrarian University. 2014. Vol. 1, 46. . 183185.
3. Prokopenko, A.A. Izuchenie dezinficiruyuschey aktivnosti preparata "Abaldez" v laboratornykh opytakh [Study of the disinfecting activity of the drug "Abaldez" in laboratory experiments] / A.A.Prokopenko, Yu.I.Bochenin, N.E.Vanner // Rossiyskiy zhurnal "Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny I Ekologii", 2017. 3 (23). . 3843.
4. Ponteleeva, L.G. Sovremennye antimikrobnye dezinfektanty, osnovnye itogi I perspektivy razrabotki novykh sredstv [Current antimicrobial disinfectants, the main results and prospects for the development of new means] / L.G.Ponteleeva // Dezinfekcionnoe delo. 2005. 2. . 4748.
5. Ocenka effektivnosti dezinficiruyuschego sredstva Forbicid [Evaluation of the efficacy of the disinfectant Forbicid] / N.I.Popov, S.A.Michko, Z.E.Alieva [et al.] // Rossiyskiy zhurnal "Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny I ekologii". 2018. 2 (26). . 2530.
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Title:

THE INFLUENCE OF HAYLAGE PRESERVED WITH DIFFERENT BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS ON THE BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY IN COWS

   
Authors: Vafin F.R. - Research Assistant; Shakirov Sh.K. - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; Bikchantaev I.T. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture - Subdivision of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science "Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Kazan (e-mail: vafin.fr@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The experiments were conducted by the Integrated Agricultural Production Centre Kyzyl Yul of Baltasinsky District of the Republic of Tatarstan. Milking cows were divided into 3 groups of 5 animals in each. The first group of cows served as control. Lucerne haylage preserved in the traditional way without adding conservants was introduced to their diets. Lucerne haylage made with liquid biological preparation Ferbach-Sil (Kazan) was introduced to the diet of the second group of cows. The third group of cows received lucerne haylage preserved with dry biological preparation Bioamid-3 (Saratov) The preparatory period lasted 15 days, and the experimental one 60 days. Throughout the experiment, milking cows were kept under the same conditions. The nutritional introduction of lucerne haylage made with biological preparations to experimental cows for 60 days was found to lead to increase in total protein by 10.32-11.70 g/ l, albumin by 0.88-4.78 g/l, total bilirubin by 0.05 mol / l. The animals of the third group treated in the diets haylage with biological conservant Bioamid-3 (41.90 U/l) were characterized by high activity of amylase. Thus, according to the results of the studies, the tested lucerne haylage with added biological preparations did not make a negative impact on the body of cows of the experimental group. This is confirmed by the fact that for a long period of experiments biochemical parameters of blood and blood serum in experimental cows were within the limits of physiological norms.

   
Keywords: cows, blood biochemistry, haylage, biological preservative, feed.
   
References:
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