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  Radiobiology
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-62-67 RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUBSTANCES OF ZOOGENIC ORIGIN

   
Authors: Nizamov R.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Sharifullina D.T. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Titov A.S. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Shakurov M.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The present research is conducted to study radioprotective properties of substances of zoogenic origin. Aqueous extracts of organs and tissues of irradiated animals were obtained. Adult rabbits exposed to gamma rays 137Cs at a dose of 10.5 Gr. were used as donors. At 10-th day after radiation (the peak of acute radiation sickness) the animals were slaughtered, their internals (liver, kidneys, spleen, lymphatic nodes, small intestines, marrow) were extracted, homogenized and exposed to aqueous extraction at a ratio of 1:10. The obtained tissue extracts were once subcutaneously injected to lethal doses irradiated animals (white mice, rats, rabbits) rated as 1 mg/kg of dry substance for therapeutic and prevention purpose. Four of the six tested extracts are found to have radioprotective effect protecting 66.6% animals exposed to gamma irradiation at absolutely lethal doses. Incubation of organs’cells (for example, splenocytes) in a growth medium had a potentiating effect on the studied indicator increasing therapeutic and preventive effects by 25 and 30%, respectively, that can be explained by induction of synthesis of interleukin-1 and interleukin-1b.

   
Keywords: acute radiation sickness, tissue extracts, therapy, prevention, survival rate, incubation, metabolic products.
   
References:
1. Autoantitela obluchennogo organizma [Autoantibodies of irradiated body] pod red. N.N.Klemparskoy. – M.: Atomizdat, 1972. – 270 p.
2. Fermenty vnekletochnoy DNK iz sredy inkubirovaniya limfotsitov cheloveka, obluchennogo v malykh dozakh [Enzymes of intracellular DNA from the media of incubated lymphocites of low doze exposed human] / A.V.Ermakov [et al.] // Radiatsionnaya biologiya. Radioekologiya. – 2008. – Vol. 48, ¹ 5. – P. 553–564.
3. Ivanov A.A. Vliyanie radiatsii na sistemu immuniteta I immunologicheskie metody modifikatsii radiorezistentnosti [Influence of radiation on the immunity system and immunological methods of radiological resistance modification] / A.A.Ivanov // Luchevoe porazhenie: sbornik; pod red. Yu.B.Kudryashova [Radiation damage: collection]. - Ì.: Izd-vo MGU, 1987. – P. 154–160.
4. Immunologicheskie metody [Immunological methods] / pod red. G.Frimelya. – Ì.: Ìåditsina, 1987. – 250 p.
5. K probleme poiska sredstv zaschity pri porazhenii zhivotnykh ioniziruyuschim izlucheniem [On the problem of searching protective means for animals exposed to ionizing radiation] / G.V.Konyukhov, R.D.Gareev, R.M.Aslanov [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2012. – ¹ 6. – P. 20–23.
6. Puti sozdaniya radiozaschitnykh sredstv na osnove izucheniya molekulyarno-biologicheskikh I patogeneticheskikh mekhanizmov luchevogo porazheniya organizma [Ways of creation of radioprotective means based on studies of molecular and biological and pathogenetic mechanisms of radiation damage of the body ] / R.N.Nizamov, G.V.Konyukhov, N.B.Tarasova [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2005. – ¹ 1. – P. 35–40.
7. Rozhdestvenskiy, L.M. Tsitokiny v aspekte patogeneza I terapii ostrogo luchevogo porazheniya [Cytokins in the aspect of pathogenesis and therapy of an acute radiation damage] / L.M.Rozhdestvenskiy // Radiatsionnaya biologiya. Radioekologiya. – 1997. – Vol. 37, Issue 4. – P. 590–596.
8. I spolzovanie lechebno-profilakticheskogo immunoglobulina dlya korrektsii kliniko-gematologicheskikh sdvigov, vyzvannykh ioniziruyuschim izlucheniem [Use of treatment and prevention immunoglobulin for the correction of clinic and hematological changes due to ionizing radiation] / N.B.Tarasova, G.V.Konyukhov, R.N.Nizamov [et al.] //Veterinarny vrach. – 2007. – ¹ 1. – P. 16–20.

  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-43-49 TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FEED FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA FOR THE PRESENCE OF PESTICIDES AND NITROGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

   
Authors: 1Malanyev A.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Aleev D.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Galyautdinova G.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Egorov V.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Ivanov E.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

2Regional Office of the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance (FSVPS) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan (e-mail: agronadzor_rt@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Many farms that grow animal feed crops do not conduct studies to determine the level of pesticides, nitrates and nitrites. Such analyses of feed begin to be carried out only on the fact of poisoning of animals or the occurrence of such adverse situations. Monitoring of levels of pesticides, nitrates and nitrites in feed contributes to the taking of various preventive measures to reduce their negative impact on the body of animals and prevent from the accumulation of these substances in animal products. The purpose of the research is to study the level of pesticides, nitrates and nitrites in feed from the farms of the Republic of Mordovia. Determination of pesticides and nitrogen-containing compounds in feed and water was carried out in accordance with applicable regulations. According to the research results, no pesticides were found in the samples of feed and water received from the farms of the Republic of Mordovia. The content of nitrates in most of feed samples (88.9%) was within the established level of maximum permissible concentrations. There was a slight exceeding of norms of maximum permissible concentrations in forage, silage and haylage from LLC Agrofirma «Oktyabrskaya» branch of Kommunar, LLC «Remezenskoe»; TNV and K LLC «Komsomolskoe» and LLC «Agromir» by 4.2%, 15.46% and 13.1%, respectively. In the straw from the Tishkin farm, the significant exceeding of the established level of the maximum permissible concentrations of nitrates by 154.8% was found. The content of nitrites in all the forages from the territory of farms of the Republic of Mordovia does not exceed the established level of MPC. The presence of pesticides, nitrates and nitrites in the investigated feed and water meet veterinary and sanitary requirements, therefore, they can be used for animal feeding without restriction. 

   
Keywords: feed, sanitary evalutation, pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamates, nitrogen-containing compounds, nitrates, nitrites.
   
References:
1. Opasnost sochetannogo zagryazneniya kormov ekotoksikantami tekhnogennogo I prirodnogo proiskhozhdeniya [The risk of associated contamination of feed by toxicants of technogenic and natural origin] / V.I.Egorov, G.G.Galyautdinova, E.I.Semenov [et al.] // Zpravyvědeckeideje – 2013: materialy IX mezinarodnivědecko-prakticka conference. – Dil 21. Zemědělstvi. Zvěrolekařstvi. – Praha: Publishing House "Education and Science" – P. 101–104.
2. Ganiev, M.M. Khimicheskie sredstva zaschity rasteniy [Chemical means of plant protection] / M.M.Ganiev, V.D.Nedorezkov. – M.:KolosS, 2006. -200 p.
3. Gorelov, A.A. Ekologiya: uchebnik [Ecology: a textbook] / A.A.Gorelov. – M.: Academiya, 2006. – 432 p.
4. Zhestkov, N.N. Ocenka kachestva kormov po pokazatelyam toksikologicheskoy bezopasnosti [Assessment of feed quality according to indicators of toxicological safety] / N.N.Zhestkov, M.Ya.Tremasov, K.Kh.Papunidi // Rossiyskiy Zhurnal «Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny I ekologii». – 2015. – ¹ 2 (14). – P. 16–19.
5. Zhestkov, N.N. Toksiko-ekologicheskiy kontrol azotsoderzhaschikh toksicheskikh veschestv v obyektakh okruzhayuschey sredy [Toxic and environmental control of nitrogen-containing toxic substances in the environment] / N.N.Zhestkov, D.V.Aleev, L.V.Kravchuk // Materialy III Mezhdunar. Kongressa veterinarnykh farmakologov I toksikologov [Proceedings from the III-rd International Congress of veterinary pharmacologists and toxicologists. – SPb., 2014. – P. 96–98.
6. Aktualnye problem veterinarnoy toksikologii [Actual problems of veterinary toxicology] / M.Ya. Tremasov, K.Kh.Papunidi, E.I.Semenov, E.Yu. Tarasova // Vestnik veterinarii. – 2012. – ¹ 4 (63). – Ð. 16–18.
7. Larina, E.V. Veterinarno-sanitarnaya ekspertiza ekzoticheskikh fruktov, yagod I ovoschey na nalichie nekotorykh pesticidov [Veterinary and sanitation examination of exotic fruits, berries and vegetables for the presence of some pesticides] / E.V.Larina // Rossiyskiy Zhurnal «Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny I ekologii». –2011. – ¹ 1 (5). – Ð. 20–22.
8. Ekologicheskiy monitoring / pod red. T.Ya. Ashikhmina [Environmental monitoring / edited by T.Ya. Ashikhmin]. – M.: Akademicheskiy Proekt. – 2005. – 410 p.
9. Kenneth, D. Pesticide Residues in Food and International Trade: Regulation and Safety Considerations / D. Kenneth // Pesticide Chemistry: Crop Protection, Public Health, Environmental Safety. – Verlag, Gmb H and Co KGaA: Wiley-VCH, 2007. – P. 29–41.
10. Chapman, J.L. Ecology / J.L.Chapman, M.J. Reiss. – 2nd edition. – CambridgeUniversity Press, 2009. – 336 p.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-30-37 PHARMACO-TOXICOLOGICAL REASON FOR INTRODUCTION OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC SORBENTS COMBINATION TO ANIMAL DIET AT T-2 TOXICOSIS

   
Authors: Mishina N.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Semenov E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Khasiyatullin A.F. – postgraduate student; Gataullin D.Kh. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The results of a comparative assessment and grounds for efficacy use of a of mineral and organic enterosorbents combination at T-2 toxicosis are presented in article. Shungite of the Zazhoginsky field of the Republic of Karelia, zeolite of the Shatrashansky field of the Republic of Tatarstan, b-glucans isolated from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as the examined preparations. Experimental work was performed on males of the white rats divided by the principle of analogue into 7 groups, 12 - in each. Duration of the experiment was 30 days. The first group of animals served as biological control and during 30 days of experience received "pure" compound feed (the main diet). To find out the influence of directly feed additives on animals’ organism, the rats of the second group were introduced into the main diet mix of a shungite and zeolite (70:30) in a dose of 0.5% of a diet, the third - mix of a shungite and zeolite (70:30) in a dose of 0.5% of a diet and b-glucans in a dose of 0.05% of a diet. The fourth group received the toxic diet representing compound feed, contaminated by T-2 toxin in a dose of 0.4 mg/kg which corresponds to 4 maximum permissible concentrations. The animals of the fifth and sixth groups were introduced in addition to a toxic diet mix of a shungite and zeolite (70:30) in a dose of 0.5% and 0.25% of a diet, respectively. The seventh group received "a toxic diet" and mix of a shungite and zeolite (70:30) in a dose of 0.25% of a diet and b-glucans in a dose of 0.05% of a diet. As a result of the studies, the combination of minerals of zeolite and a shungite was found to make a pronounced protective effect in a dose of 0.5% of a diet at T-2 toxicosis and less significant – in a dose of 0.25% of a diet. Addition of b-glucans (in a dose of 0.05% of a diet) to a combination of minerals of zeolite and shungite (in a dose of 0.25% of a diet) allowed to gain antitoxic effect equivalent to a protective effect, thus having received a considerable gain of body weight.

   
Keywords: T-2 toxicosis, shungite, zeolite, glyukomannans, prevention.
   
References:
1. Bogomolov, V.V. Ocenka effectivnosti novogo compleksnogo preparata s fungistaticheskoy I sorbcionnoy activnostyu metodami biotestirovaniya [Evaluation of the effectiveness of a new complex drug with fungistatic and sorption activity using biotesting methods] / V.V. Bogomolov, E.Ya. Golovnya / Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoy mediciny: sbornik tezisov nauch.-prakt. konf. [Actual problems of veterinary medicine: proceedings from the sci.-practical conf.]. – Sankt-Peterburg, 28-29 avgusta 2006 g. – SPb., 2006. – P. 140.
2. Vasilieva, E.A. Clinicheskaya biokhimiya selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Clinical biochemistry of farm animals] / E.A.Vasilieva. – M.: Rosselkhozizdat, 1982. – 254 p.
3. Dorofeychuk, V.G. Opredelenie aktivnosti lizocima nefelometricheskim metodom [Determination of lysozyme activity by nephelometric method] / V.G.Dorofeichuk // Lab. Delo. – 1968. – ¹ 1. – P. 28–30.
4. Egorov, I. Micosorb snizhaet toksichnost korma [Mycosorb reduces feed toxicity] / I.Egorov, N. Chesnokova, D.Davtyan // Pticevodstvo. – 2004. – ¹3. – P.29–30.
5. Vliyanie ceolitov na ultrastrukturu pecheni I pochek sviney [The influence of zeolites on the ultrastructure of pig liver and kidneys] / A.V.Ivanov, A.O.Mullakaev, M.N.Lezhnina, A.A.Shukanov // Veterinariya. Nezaraznye bolezni. – 2017. – ¹7. – P.41–44.
6. Kost, S.A. Opredelenie fagocitarnoy aktivnosti leykocitov [Determination of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes] / S.A.Kost, M.I.Stenko // Klinicheskaya gematologiya zhivotnykh. –M.: Kolos, 1974. – P. 99–100.
7. Vliyanie kompleksa ceolita I shungita na rezistentnost I produktivnost ciplyat-broylerov pri smeshannom mikotoksikoze [Effect of zeolite and shungite complex on resistance and productivity of broiler chickens with mixed mycotoxicosis] / N.N.Mishina, E.I.Semenov, K.Kh.Papunidi [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2018. – ¹ 6. – P. 3–7.
8. Mikotoksiny (v pishevoy cepi: monografiya) [Mycotoxins (in the food chain)] / K.Kh.Papunidi, M.Ya.Tremasov, V.I.Fisinin [et al.]. – 2-e izd., pererab. I dop. – Kazan: FSBRI «FCTRB-VNIVI», 2017. – 188 p.
9. Smirnova, O.V. Opredelenie baktericidnoy aktivnosti syvorotki krovi metodom fotonefelometrii [Determination of bactericidal activity of blood serum by the method of photodeveloper] / O.V. Smirnova, T.A. Kuzmina // Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii I immunobiologii. – 1966. – ¹ 4. – P. 8-11.
10. Tremasov, M.Ya. Mikotoksikozy – problema rasprostraneniya I profilaktiki v zhivotnovodstve [Mycotoxicosis – the problem of distribution and prevention in animal husbandry] / M.Ya.Tremasov // Problemy ekotoksikologicheskogo, radiacionnogo I epizootologicheskogo monitoringa: materialy Vserossiiskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferencii, posvyaschennoy 45-letiyu FSBI VNIVI. – Kazan, 14-15 apr. 2005 goda [The problems of ecotoxicological, radiation and epizootological monitoring: proceedings from the All-Russian sci.-practical conf.]. – Kazan: FSBRI VNIVI, 2005. –P. 41–51.
11. Tremasova, A.M. Farmako-toksikologicheskoe obosnovanie ispolzovaniya prirodnogo mineral shungita I preparatov na ego osnove – nanosorbentov polisorbin I polisorb v veterinarii: dis. … d-ra biol. nauk [Pharmaco-toxicological reason for the use of a natural mineral shungite and its derivatives – nanosorbent polisorb in and polysorb in veterinary medicine: dis. … doctor of biology] / A.M.Tremasova. – Kazan, 2014. – 351 p.
12. Tutelyan, V.A. Prirodnye toksiny I problemy biobezopasnosti [Natural toxins and biosafety problems] / V.A.Tutelyan // Tezisy dokladov II syezda toksikologov Rossii. – M.: Rossiiskiy registr potencialno opasnykh khimicheskikh I biologicheskikh veshestv Minzdrava Rossii, 2003. –P. 32-35.
13. Frimel, G. Immunologicheskie metody [Immunological methods] / G.Frimel. – M.: Medicina, 1987. – 472 p.
14. Sharapova, V.Yu. Ispolzovanie dobavok iz fukusnykh vodorosley I shungita v kormlenii kur-nesushek: dis. … kand. s.-kh. nauk: 06.02.08 [The use of additives from fucus algae and shungite in the feeding of laying hens: dis. … cand. of agric. sci.: 06.02.08] / V.U.Sharapova. – Petrozavodsk, 2011. – 162 p.
15. Berek, L. Effects of mycotoxins on human immune functions in vitro / L.Berek // Toxicology In Vitro. – 2001. – Vol. 15. – P. 25–30.
16. Bryden, W.L. Mycotoxin contamination of the feed supply chain: Implications for animal productivity and feed security / W.L.Bryden // Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. – 2012. – Vol. 173. – P. 134–158. 
17. Screening drugs-potential immunomodulators for T-2 mycotoxicosis / E.I.Semenov [et al.] // Bali Medical Journal. – 2017. – ¹ 6 (2). – Ð.110-114. – DOI: 10.15562/bmj.v6i2.516.
18. Alkali extraction of β-D-glucans from Sacchamyces cerevisiae cell wall and study of their absorptive properties toward zearalenone / A.Yiannikouris, J.Francois, L.Poughon[et al.] // J.Agric. Food Chem. – 2004. – ¹ 52. – P. 3666–3673. 
19. A novel technique to evaluate interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall and mycotoxins: application to zearalenone / A.L.Yiannikouris, X.Poughon, C.G.Cameleyre [et al.] // Biotech. Letters. – 2003. – ¹ 25. – P. 783–788.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-37-43 THE EFFECT OF RATIONS WITH THE CONTENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED SOYBEANS ON ANIMALS BODY

   
Authors: Zakirova G.Sh. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Kadikov I.R. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Semenov E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The purpose of the work was to study the impact of diets containing genetically modified (GMO) soya on the body of animals in the first and second generations. Materials for the study were white rats of the Wistar flow obtained from the nursery of the Institute of Bioorganic chemistry named after M.M.Shemyakin and Y.A.Ovchinnikov of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 225 adult animals and 855 rats were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into 5 experimental groups receiving rations with inclusion of GMO-soya and non-GMO. The first control group of rats (males and females) received throughout the experiment the usual diet (feed); the second experimental group (males and females) received the main diet with the inclusion of soybeans without GMO in the amount of 5% of the diet; the third experimental group of rats (males and females) received the main diet with the inclusion of soybeans without GMO in the amount of 15% of the diet, the fourth experimental group – the main diet with the inclusion of soybean meal derived from genetically modified soya in the amount of 5% of the diet, the fifth experimental group of rats – the main diet with the inclusion of soybean meal derived from genetically modified soya in the amount of 15% of the diet. Animals were on these diets 30 days before mating, during mating, pregnancy, feeding of cubs up to 30 days. The results of the studies indicate the absence, at this stage of work, the influence of GMO-soya on fetal formation and physiological development of the first and second generations of white rats.

   
Keywords: GMO, soybean, embryotoxicity, teratogenic effect, offspring, white rats.
   
References:
1. New feeds from genetically modified plants: Substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestability, and safety for animal and the food chain / A.Autmaire [et al.] // Livestock Production Science. – 2002. – ¹ 74. – Ð. 223–238.
2. Beaver, D. Safety issues associated with the DNA in animal feed derived from genetically modified crops: A review of the scientific and regulatory procedures / D.Beaver, C.Kemp // Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. Series B: Livestock Feeds and Feeding. –2000. – ¹ 70. – Ð. 175–182.
3. Clark, J.H. Livestock performance: Feeding biotech crops / J.H.ClarkI. R.Ipharraguerre // J. Dairy Sci. – 2001. – ¹ 84. – Ð. E9–E18.
4. Federation of Animal Science Societies. 2005. References: Feeding transgenic crops to livestock // FASS website. – 2005. – URL: http://www.fass.org/references/Feeding Transgenic Crops to Livestock.htm. – (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ 15.05.2006).
5. Federation of Animal Science Societies. 2005. References pertaining to transgenic DNA and protein and livestock products (meat, milk, eggs) // FASS website. – 2005. – URL: http://www.fass.org/references/Transgentic_DNA.htm. – (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ 15.05.2006).
6. Flachowsky, G. Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants /G.Flachowsky, A.Chesson, K.Aulrich // Archives of Animal Nutrition. –2005. – ¹ 59. – Ð. 1–40.
7. Uptake of amplifiable fragments of retrotransposon DNA from the human alimentary tract / A.Forsman [et al.] // Molecular Genetics and Genomics. – 2003. – ¹ 270. – Ð. 362-368.
8. USDA National Organic Program website. – URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/nop . – (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ 15.05.2006).
9. Ocenka vliyaniya GMO rastitelnogo proiskhozhdeniya na razvitie potomstva krys v trekh pokoleniyakh [Àssessment of the impact of GMO of plant origin on the development of offspring rats in three generations] / N.V.Tyshko, V.M.Zhmichenko, V.A.Pashorina [et al.] // Voprosy pitaniya. – 2011. – ¹1. – P. 14–28.
10. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novykh farmakologicheskikh veschestv [Guide to experimental (preclinical) study of new pharmacological substances / edited by R.U.Khabriev]. – 2-eizd., pererab. I dop. – M.: Medicina, 2005. – 832 p.

  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-8-14. USING DNA MARKERS ENCODING P24 AND GP51 PROTEINS IN PCR-RT TO INCREASE SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF THE PCR METHOD FOR INDICATION OF BLV

   
Authors: Safina R.F. – postgraduate student; Lukmanova G.R. – postgraduate student; Usoltsev K.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Khammadov N.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Faizov T.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Bovine leucosis is a chronic, infectious, slow-flowing cattle disease with development of tumor. The genome of the causative agent of BLV (bovine leukemia virus) is found to be represented by 8.7 thousands nucleotides. The viral genome consists of two identical single-stranded positive RNA molecules. The virus genome can also exist as DNA, which is synthesized on viral RNA and then integrated into the chromosome of the host cell as a provirus. The purpose of this work was to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR method for the diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus. For this purpose, the analysis for the efficiency of PCR was made when using various combinations groups of oligonucleotide primers for PCR-RT (polymerase chain reaction in real time). Combinations of primers and probes complementary to the BLV genes encoding the capsid protein p24 and the glycoprotein gp51 were developed, 3 combinations for each DNA marker. As a result of the study, all the above-mentioned primers and probes are found to be efficient, and the most effective oligonucleotide primers to be the primers and the “combination 2.2” probe to the gene env. Oligonucleotides “combination 2.2” initiated the synthesis of amplicons at earlier PCR cycles, which allows detecting lower concentrations of the proviral BLV DNA. This fact suggests that PCR has a higher sensitivity when indicating the proviral BLV DNA due to the use of this combination of primers. Thus, sensitivity and specificity of the PCR are increased when using DNA markers encoding the p24 and gp51 proteins in PCR-RT to detect BLV. 

   
Keywords: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzootic leukemia, p24 and gp51, bovine leukemia virus (BLV).
   
References:
1. Glazunov, Yu.V. Leykoz krupnogo rogatogo skota v Tyumenskoy oblasti [Bovine leukemia in Tyumen Region] / Yu.V.Glazunov, L.A.Glazunova // Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. – 2015. – ¹ 3. – P. 611.
2. Ivanov, O.V. Kachestvo serologicheskoy diagnostiki – garantiya ozdorovleniya stada ot leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [The quality of serologic diagnosis is a guaranty of herd recovery from bovine leukemia] / O.V.Ivanov, O.Yu.Ivanova // Farm Animals. – 2014. – ¹ 3 (7). – P. 26–29.
 3. Verkhovskiy, O.A. Leykoz krupnogo rogatogo skota [Bovine leukemia] / O.A.Verkhovskiy, T.I.Aliper // Rukovodstvo po virusologii: Virusy i virusnye infekcii cheloveka i zhivotnykh; pod red. akad. RAN D.K.Lvova; [Manual on virusology: Viruses and viral infections of human and animals; edited by akad. RAS D.K.Lvov]. – M.: Medicinskoe informacionnoe agentstvo, 2013. – P. 869-873. 
4. Infekcionnaya patologiya zhivotnykh. Tom. 1 / pod red. A.Ya.Samuylenko [i dr.] [Infectious pathology of animals. Vol. 1; edited by A.Ya.Samuylenko [et al.]. – M.: IKC «Akademkniga», 2006. – 910 ð.
5. Monitoring epizooticheskoy situacii i primenenie molekulyarno-geneticheskoy diagnostiki v ozdorovitelnykh meropriyatiyakh pri leykoze krupnogo rogatogo skota [Monitoring of epizootic situation and using molecular and genetic diagnosis in recovery measures at bovine leukemia ] / N.G.Kozyreva, L.A.Ivanova, T.V.Stepanova, M.I.Gulyukin // Dostizhenie nauki i tekhniki APK. – 2014. – ¹ 1. – P. 47–51.
6. Izuchenie genotipicheskogo raznoobraziya virusa leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota, cirkuliruyushchego v populyacii zhivotnykh v regione Severnogo Kavkaza (Stavropolskiy kray) [Study of genotypical diversity of bovine leukemia virus circulating in animal population in the North Caucasus Region (Stavropol Territory)] / S.S.Abakin [et al.] // Vestnik APK Stavropolya. – 2015. – ¹ 3 (19). – P. 60–64.
7. Gendzhieva, O.B. Filogeneticheskoe sravnenie virusa leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Phylogenetic comparison of bovine leukemia virus] / O.B.Gendzhieva // Vestnik Kalmytskogo universiteta. – 2012. – ¹ 2 (14). – P. 10–16.
8. Donnik, I.M. Sincitialny metod pri ranney identifikacii virusa leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Syncytial method used in early identidication of bovine leukemia virus] / I.M.Donnik, M.V.Petropavlovskiy // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2015. – ¹ 4. – P. 8–10.
9. Rossler, Í. Influence of different culture conditions on BLV expression in permanently infected PLK cell lines / Í.Rossler, Í.Burkhardt, S.Rosental. – Folia biol. (CSSR). – 1985. – Vol. 31, ¹ 4. – Ð. 273–283.
10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of bovine leukemia virus: Its evolutionary relationship to other retroviruses / N.Sagata [et al.] // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. – 1985. – ¹ 82. – Ð. 677–681.
11. Comparison of the entire genomes of bovine leukemia virus and human T-cell leukemia virus and characterization of their unidentified open reading frames / N. Sagata [et al.] // EMBO J. – 1984. – Vol. 3. – Ð. 3231–3237.
12. Bovine leukemia virus: unique structural features of its long terminal repeats and its evolutionary relationship to human T-cell leukemia virus / N.Sagata [et al.] // Proc Natl Acad Sci. – 1984. – Vol. 81. – Ð. 4741–4747.
13. Pat. 2644233 Ros. Federaciya, MPK C 12 Q 1/66. Sposob ekspress-diagnostiki leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota / A.I.Nikitin, K.V.Usolcev, T.Kh.Faizov, A.N.Chernov, I.I.Usolceva, M.E.Semenova, N.I.Khammadov, Z.Z.Aleeva, F.A.Khusniev, R.M.Akhmadeev, Sh.Z.Validov, E.A.Shuralev; zayavitel i patentoobladatel FSBRI «FCTRB-VNIVI». – ¹ 2016109396; zayavl. 15.03.16; opubl. 08.02.18, Byul. ¹ 4.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-3-8 THE EFFECT OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO VIRAL INFECTION AGENTS IN THE BLOOD OF CALVES

   
Authors: Altynbekov O.M. – assistant; Andreeva A.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Bashkir State Agrarian University, Ufa (e-mail: bgau@ufanet.ru).

   
Abstract:
The early postnatal period is the most crucial and characterized by the state of immunodeficiency, which causes the occurrence of associative gastrointestinal infections in young cattle, in case of which high mortality is recorded. To achieve the immune health and increase the effectiveness of vaccination, the preparations that have a targeted effect on the immune system – immunostimulants, are widely used. The studies were conducted on calves of black-and-white breed from mother cows, which were stimulated with preparations “Recombinant Bovine Interferon” (RBI) and “Immunate.” Before vaccination immunostimulating preparations RBI and “Immunate” were also administered to the newborn calves of the experimental groups. Before colostrum administration, antibodies in the blood of calves to rotavirus, coronavirus and diarrhea virus - mucosal diseases – had not been found. After colostrum administration, the level of antibodies increased and reached a maximum on the 7-th day of calves’ life. The maximum values of this index were recorded in calves of the experimental groups, which were injected with immunostimulatory preparations. In calves obtained from immunostimulated cows, which were injected with immunostimulants, clinical manifestations of diarrhea were noted in three cases. The disease in such calves flowed in light form, lasted no more than 2 days and ended in complete recovery, unlike the calves of the control group. Calves born from cows injected with immunostimulatory preparations, as well as newborn animals immunostimulated with the same preparations, had significant differences in the main development indicators (absolute daily live weight gain) compared with animals that did not receive preparations.

   
Keywords: calves, recombinant bovine interferon, immunat, vaccination, antibody titer.
   
References:
1. Metod lecheniya ostrykh zheludochno-kishechnykh bolezney telyat [Method for the treatment of acute gastrointestinal diseases of calves] / S.Sh.Abdulmagomedov, R.A.Nuratinov, R.M.Bakrieva. A.Yu.Aliev // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy mediciny im. N.E. Baumana [Scientific notes of Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine]. – 2014. – Vol. 217. – P. 3–7.
2. Altynbekov, O.M. Korrekciya syvorotochnykh immunoglobulinov novorozhdennykh telyat [Correction of serum immunoglobulins in newborn calves] / O.M.Altynbekov, A.V.Andreeva // Prioritetnye vektory razvitiya promyshlennosti I selskogo khozyaistva: materialy I Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. [Priority vectors of industrial and farm development: proceedings from the 1-st International scientific and practical conference]. – Voronezh: Izd-vo Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta im. Imperatora Petra I, 2018. – P. 11–14.
3. Andreeva, A.V. Dinamika morfologicheskikh pokazateley krovi pri korrekcii specificheskogo immuniteta [Dynamics of morphological parameters of blood at correction of specific immunity] / A.V.Andreeva, O.N.Nikolaeva // Morfologiya. - 2018. – Vol. 153, ¹ 3. – P. 20.
4. Profilaktika rota- I koronavirusnykh enteritov novorozhdennykh telyat [Prevention of rota-and coronavirus enteritis of newborn calves] / A.E.Zelenov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2004. – ¹ 4. – P. 8–9.
5. Pleshakova, V.I. Primenenie immunomodulyatorov Vestin I Provest dlya profilaktiki virusnykh respiratornykh infekciy telyat [The use of immunomodulators Vestin and Provest for the prevention of viral respiratory infections of calves] / V.I.Pleshakova, V.S.Vlasenko, I.A.Lukyanova // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2012. – ¹ 4. – P. 7–9.
6. Sidorov, M.A. Osnovy profilaktiki zheludochno-kishechnykh zabolevaniy novorozhdennykh zhivotnykh [Basics of prevention of gastrointestinal diseases in newborn animals] / M.A.Sidorov, V.V.Subbotin // Veterinariya selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh. – 2008. – ¹. 3. – P. 8–12.
7. Spiridonov, G.N. Zheludochno-kishechnye zabolevaniya novorozhdennykh telyat v usloviyakh promyshlennykh kompleksov I razrabotka lechebno-profilakticheskikh meropriyatiy (Smeshannaya infekciya) [Gastrointestinal diseases of newborn calves in industrial complexes and development of therapeutic and preventive measures (Mixed infection)] / G.N.Spiridonov // Veterinarny vrach. – 2007. – Spetsvypusk. – P. 26–29.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-25-30 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BOVINE LEUKEMIA SPREAD IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

   
Authors: Mustafayev A.R. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Mahachcala (e-mail: mustafaev_arkif@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
The extent of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) spread was studied in comparative aspect by years (from 2009 to 1 half-year of 2018) in the Republic of Dagestan. According to Republican Veterinary Laboratory, the level of cattle infectivity with leukemia fluctuates by years from 2.9% in 2012 up to 23% in 2010, and for 1 half-year 2018 this index was 3,7%. Such indexes fluctuations of bovine infectivity for these years depended upon quantity of the studied animals, the level of a livestock coverage, zone of the republic, age of the studied animals, and the status of an economy. The conducted research showed` that the high level of enzootic bovine leukemia spread was received from the public cattle which was on the plain. 60216 heads of cattle was investigated with the serological method in 1 half-year 2018 from which 2212 (3.7%) tests of blood serum were positive. 345 animals were subjected to a research for hematology from which 72 (20.9%) had a high persistent leukocytosis. High level of infectivity was revealed in the following regions and cities: Lak – 35.8%, Gunibsky – 29.6%, Karabudakhkentskiy – 15.3%, Kumtorkalinskiy – 14.42%, Kizilyurt – 10.4%, Kayakentskiy – 9.5%, Levashinskiy – 8.1%, Babayurtovskiy – 39.1% and Shamilskiy – 9.4% and also in Makhachkala – 13.6% and Kaspiysk – 8.0%. In other regions and the cities of the republic this indicator fluctuates from 0,07% to 7,2%. The following regions and the cities were free from BLV: Agul, Akushinskiy, Kurakhskiy, Tsuntinskiy, Khunzakhskiy, Charodinskiy and also city Yu. Sukhokumsk from the number of the studied animals.

   
Keywords: enzootic bovine leukemia, infectivity, serology, hematology, epizootology.
   
References:
1. Taksonomiya virusov [Virus taxonomy] [elektronny resurs] rezhim dostupa: http:// ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp./data obrascheniya (30/08/2018 g.).
2. Monitoring epizooticheskoy situacii po leykozu krupnogo rogatogo skota v tovarnykh I plemennykh khozyaystvakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2014 – 2015 gody [Monitoring of epizootic situation for bovine leukemiya in commodity and breeding farms of the Russian Federation for 2014 - 2015] / M.I.Gulyukin, I.I.Barabanov, L.A.Ivanova [et al.] // Veterinariya I kormlenie. – 2016. – ¹ 4. – P. 5–39.
3. Mustafaev, A.R. Analiz epizooticheskoy obstanovki virusa leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Dagestan [Analysis of epizootic situation for bovine leukemiya virus in the Republic of Dagestan] / A.R.Mustafaev, M.I.Gulyukin, Kh.M.Gaydarbekova // Veterinariya I kormlenie. – 2017. – ¹ 5. – P. 25–27.
4. Leykoz krupnogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Dagestan [Bovine leukemiya in the Republic of Dagestan] / E.M.Shikhragimov, N.R.Budulov, Yu.S.Salikhov [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2015. – ¹ 1. – P. 24–28.
5. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po diagnostike leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Metodological guidelines on diagnosis of bovine leukemiya] / M.I.Gulyukin, G.A.Simonyan, N.V.Zamaraeva [et al.]. – M.: VNIIEV, 2000. – 22 p.
6. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po epizootologicheskomu issledovaniyu pri leykoze krupnogo rogatogo skota [Metodological recommendations on epizootological investigation at bovine leukemiya] / M.I.Gulyukin, P.N.Smirnov, V.V.Razumovskaya [et al.]. – M.: RASKhN. Otd. Vet. mediciny, 2001. – 28 p.
7. Simonyan, G.A. Veterinarnaya gematologiya [Veterinary hematology] / G.A.Simonyan, F.F.Khisamudinov. – M.: Kolos, 1995. – 256 p.
8. Informacionno-pravovoy portal [elektronny resurs] rezhim dostupa: http://www.garant.ru/data obrascheniya (10.09.2018 g.).
9. Mustafaev, A.R. Osobennosti rasprostraneniya leykoza po prirodnym zonam Dagestana [Features of leukemiya spread in natural zones of Dagestan] / A.R.Mustafaev, N.R.Budulov, Yu.S.Salikhov // Vestnik DGU. – 2013. – ¹ 6. – P. 132–135.
10. Gillet, N. Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human / N.Gillet, A.Florins, M.Boxus // Retrovirology. – 2007. – Vol. 4, ¹ 18. – P. 1–32.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-15-22 MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ISOLATE TIMASHEVSK 01/18

   
Authors: 1Chernykh O.Yu. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Krivonos R.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 3Verhovsky O.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 4Aliper T.I. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 5Pershin A.S. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 5Zhukov I.Yu. – leading biologist; 5Vlasova N.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 5Igolkin A.S. – Head of the ASF Reference Laboratory.
   
Address:
1Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar (e-mail: mail@kubsau.ru).
2Veterinary Department of Krasnodar Region, Krasnodar (e-mail: sinkubani@mail.ru).
3Research Institute for Diagnostics and Prevention of Human and Animal Diseases, Moscow (e-mail: info@dpri.ru).
4Virology Research Institute named after D.I. Ivanovsky, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow (e-mail: aliper@narvac.com).
5 FGBI «ARRIAH», Federal Governmental Budgetary Institution (FGBI) Federal Centre for Animal Health, Vladimir (e-mail: Zhukov@arriah.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article contains the main results of molecular and biological studies of the ASF virus isolate Timashevsk 01/18 detected from forcedly slaughtered domestic swines when eliminating of the ASF outbreak in LLC “Svinokompleks “Razvilnenskiy” (Timashevsk town). In the course of experiments the research to determine for the viral isolate property to cause infectious process was conducted; the isolate genome changeability analysis was examined; the determination of possible changes in the properties of pathogen was conducted. The results of epizootological investigation and studies of biological isolate properties showed the presence in the territory of Russian Federation of naturally attenuated ASF viruses as well as confirmed the presence of genetic changes in such version of ASF virus in the region of gene responsible for virulence of MGF 505-2R. The obtained data will further enable to study in detail changes of viral population structure and to reveal attenuated virus versions in the territory of infected with ASF subjects of Russian Federation.

   
Keywords: ASF, molecular and biological properties, isolate.
   
References:
1. Gulyonkin, V.M. Ocenka ekonomicheskogo ushcherba ot afrikanskoy chumy sviney [Evaluation of economical damage from ASF] / V.M.Gulyonkin, N.S.Bardina, A.A.Shevtsov // Veterinariya. – 2011. – ¹ 10. – P. 10–12.
2. Epizooticheskaya situaciya po ACS v populyacii dikikh kabanov na territorii Rossiyskoy Federacii v 2007-2018 gg. [Epizootic situation for ASF in population of wild boars in Russian Federation] [Elektronny resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: http://www.fsvps.ru/fsvps-docs/ru/iac/asf/2016/05-27/03.pdf.
3. Characterization of pathogenic and non-pathogenic African swine fever virus isolates from Ornithodoroserraticus inhabiting pig premises in Portugal / F.S.Bolinas [et al.] // Journal of general virology. – 2004. – Vol. 85, ¹. 8. – P. 2177–2187.
4. Biological properties of African swine fever virus Odintsovo 02/14 isolate and its genome analysis / A.A.Elsukova, I.V.Shevchenko, A.A.Varentsova [et al.] // International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research. – 2017. – Vol. 2. – P. 26–37.
5. Shevchenko, I.V. Biologicheskie svoystva I analiz polnykh genomov rossiyskikh izolyatov virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney, vydelennykh v 2013-2014 gg: dis. … kand. biol. nauk [Biological properties and analysis of full genomes of Russian isolates of ASF, detected in 2013-2014: dis. … cand. of biol. sci. / I.V.Shevchenko. – Vladimir, 2017.
6. Reprodukciya izolyata Antonovo 07/14 virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney in vivo i in vitro [Reproduction of isolate Antonovo 07/14 of ASF virus in vivo and in vitro] / O.S.Puzankova [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2016. – ¹ 5. – P. 18–24.
7. Zhukov, I.Yu. Biologicheskie svoystva izolyatov virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney I osobennosti techeniya bolezni pri eksperimentalnom zarazhenii: dis. … kand. biol. nauk [Biological properties of isolates of ASF virus and features of pathogenesis in experimental infection: dis. … cand. of biol. sciences] / I.Yu. Zhukov. – Vladimir, 2018.
8. GOST 28573 – 90. Svinyi. Metody laboratornoy diagnostiki afrikanskoy chumy sviney [Pigs. Methods of laboratory diagnostics of ASF]. – M.: Standartinform, 2005. – 10 p.
9. Laboratory methods to study African swine fever virus / P. de León [et al.] // Virus Research. – 2013. – ¹ 4 (April). – P. 168–179.
10. Biologicheskie svoystva virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney, vydelennogo v Rossiyskoy Federacii [Biological properties of ASF virus, detected in Russian Federation] / V.M.Balyshev, V.V.Kurinnov, S.Zh.Cybanov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2010. – ¹ 7. – P. 25–27.
11. African swine fever virus replication and genomics / L.K.Dixon [et al.] // Virus Research. – 2013. – Vol. 173, ¹ 1. – P. 3–14.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-22-25 OBTAINING ERYTHROCYTE ANTHRAX ANTIGEN

   
Authors: Ivanova S.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Melnikova L.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Makaev Kh.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Rodionov A.P. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Anthrax is a particularly dangerous infectious disease which refers to a group of zooanthroponosis, manifested massively or sporadically in various regions of the Russian Federation. One of the reasons for the occurrence of human and animals anthrax cases is human activity connected with ground works, construction of residential objects and roads, laying of pipelines and other works, herding animals and agricultural activities near anthrax graves ignoring the epizootic situation and lack of coordination with veterinary and sanitary services of regions. At present, to ensure the welfare for this disease, all animals without exception are vaccinated that reduces risk of disease occurrence but does not eliminate the ongoing threat of new outbreaks of anthrax. Additional sources of the disease in animals are omitted at vaccination animals, lack of tension of induced antianthrax immunity when violating keeping and transportation of the vaccine. Therefore, an important element to prevent from the disease and its spread among animals is the control of tension of postvaccinal immunity. Obtaining erythrocyte anthrax antigen includes 3 stages:1) getting blood, formalinization of red blood cells, determination of the residual mass and preparation of 3% suspension; 2) tanization of 3% suspension of formalinized erythrocytes; 3) sensibilization of 3% suspension of formalinized erythrocytes by polysaccharide complex of strain 55 of anthrax pathogen. The obtained erythrocyte anthrax antigen is active, specific, gives no self-agglutination.

   
Keywords: anthrax, antigen, formalinization, tanization, sensibilization, erythrocytes.
   
References:
1. Burgasov, P.N. Metod ocenki protivosibireyazvennogo immuniteta po preventivnym svoystvam syvorotki [Method for evaluation of anthrax immunity according to the preventive serum properties] / P.N.Burgasov, G.I.Rozhkov // Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, immunologii. – 1972. – ¹ 6. – P. 10–15.
2. Borisovich, Yu.F. Veterinarnye preparaty [Veterinary preparations] / Yu.F.Borisovich, L.V.Kirillov; pod red. D.F.Osidze. – M.:Kolos, 1981. – P.49.
3. Galiullin, A.K. Ocenka sibireyazvennogo immuniteta u zhivotnykh cherez raznye sroki vakcinacii [Evaluation of anthrax immunity in animals in various terms after vaccination] / A.K.Galiullin, A.A.Fayzullin, D.A.Adiyatullina // Veterinariya. – 1994. – ¹ 8. – P. 27–28.
4. Sibirscaya yazva [Anthrax] / N.G.Ipatenko [et al.]; pod red. N.G.Ipatenko. – M.: Kolos, 1996. – 336 p.
5. Sybirskaya yazva selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Anthrax of farm animals] / N.G.Ipatenko, V.A.Sedov, V.S.Zelepukin, V.N.Guschin. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1987. – 256 p.
6. Karalnik, B.V.Eritrocitarnye diagnostikumy [Erythrocyte diagnosticums] / B.V.Karalnik. – M.: Medicina, 1976. – 164 p.
7. Kolesov, S.G. Sybirskaya yazva [Anthrax] / S.G.Kolesov. – M.: Kolos, 1976. – 288 p.

 
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-58-62 OSTEODENSITOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF THE LOWER JAW OF DOGS DURING THE TEETH CHANGE

   
Authors: Morozova D.D. – postgraduate student; Krasnikov A.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor; Annikov V.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Krasnikova E.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor.
   
Address:
N.I.Vavilov Saratov State Agrarian University, Saratov (e-mail: darie.morozova@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of changes in the bone tissue mineralization of dogs during the period of teeth change. One of the progressive and minimally invasive methods for determining bone mineral density is densitometry. Based on a study of 80 radiographs obtained during the X-ray inspection of 5 mongrel dogs for 3 months during the bite change period with an interval of 10 days, in experimental animals a significant increase in bone density was found to be recorded during the tooth change. At the beginning of the experiment in the area of incisors 232.6 ± 1.23 and 233.3 ± 1.32 px, in the region of the canine 236.4 ± 1.32 and 239.4 ± 0.87 px. In the region between the 2nd and 3rd premolars, 277.6 ± 0.75 and 280.5 ± 0.39 px, to the left and right, respectively. At the time of completion of the experiment, the following data was obtained: the tissue density in the incisor area was 316.7 ± 1.31 and 315.2 ± 1.15 px, in the canine region – 320.0 ± 0.25 and 318.2 ± 1, 03 px, in the region between 2 and 3 premolars 389.9 ± 0.74 and 388.7 ± 0.95 px, respectively. Thus, during the observation period in dogs in the incisal group, the relative mineral density during the study period changed by 26.1%, in the canine region by 24.8% and in the region between the second and third premolar – by 38.6%. The average gain of the mineral density of the bone tissue in the region of lower jaw was in average about 26% which was connected with the formation of permanent bite processes and with the skeleton growth in dogs.

   
Keywords: osteodensitometry, radiography, lower jaw, dogs, change of teeth, temporary teeth, bite.
   
References:
1. Vilkovskiy, I.F. Persistentsiya molochnykh zubov u sobak [Persistence of primary teeth in dogs] / I.F.Vilkovsky, M.A.Kharitonov // Rossiyskiy veterinarny zhurnal. Melkie domashnie I dikie zhivotnye. – 2005. – ¹ 4. – P. 3–5.
2. Gaivoronskiy, I.V. Vozrastnye osobennosti, polovye razlichiya I korrelyacionnye svyazi izmeritelnykh priznakov chelyustey v aspekte klinicheskoy voennoy stomatologii [Age features, sex differences and correlation of measuring characteristics of the jaws in the aspect of clinical military dentistry] / I.VGaivoronskiy // Aktualnye voprosy chelyustno-litsevoy khirurgii I stomatologii: materialy konf.; pod obschey redakciey A.V.Belevitina [Actual problems of maxillofacial surgery and dentistry: proceedings from the conf.; edited by. A.B.Belevitin]. – SPb., 2009. – P. 25–28.
3. Goncharova, E.I. Osobennosti prorezyvaniya postoyannykh zubov u detey razlichnogo pola [Features of eruption of permanent teeth in children of different sex] / E.I.Goncharova // Stomatologiya. – 2013. – ¹ 1. – P. 69–72.
4. Evstafyeva, M.G Osobennosti rosta [Features of growth] / MG.Evstafyeva // Stomatologiya. – 2013. – ¹ 3. – P. 92–95.
5. Pat. 2014611777 Ros. Federatsiya. Programma EVM “Hi-scene” dlya provedeniya kompyuternogo analiza, ocenki I dokumentacii dannykh luchevykh metodov issledovaniya I lyubykh elektronnykh izobrazheniy, a takzhe provedeniya na osnovanii poluchennykh dannykh predoperacionnogo modelirovaniya / O.V.Klimov, A.N.Lyashchenko, A.S.Banshchikov [Pat. 2014611777 Russian Federation. The “Hi-scene” computer program for computer analysis, evaluation and documentation of data from ray-based research methods and any electronic images, as well as making preoperative modelling based on the obtained data]. – 2014. – Bul. ¹ 3.
6. Krasnikov, A.V. Stomatologicheskie bolezni u domashnikh zhivotnykh v g. Saratove [Dental diseases in domestic animals in the city of Saratov] / A.V.Krasnikov, D.D.Morozov // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM imeni. N.E.Baumana. – 2014. – Vol. 217. – P. 127–131.
7. Maksyukov, S.Yu. Vozrastnye I gendernye aspekty izmeneniya mineralnoy plotnosti oporno-dvigatelnogo apparata, zubov I parodonta [Age and gender aspects of changes in the mineral density of the musculoskeletal system, teeth and periodontal] / S.Yu.Maksyukov, D.N.Gadzhieva, O.I.Shakhbazov // Fundamentalnye issledovaniya. – 2012. – ¹ 5-1. – P. 74–79.

   
   
Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-49-53 THE ROLE OF MORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE STUDY OF METABOLIC DISORDERS OF COWS

   
Authors: 1Pozov S.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Porublyov V.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Orlova N.E. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Redkokasha K.G. – student; 3Papunidi E.K. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol (e-mail: sokratpozov@mail.ru).

2Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology – MVA named after K.I.Skryabin. (e-mail: rector@mgavm.ru).

3Kazan Cooperative Institute (branch) of Russian University of Cooperation, Kazan.

   
Abstract:
Prevention of metabolic disorders in highly productive cows is of great importance, especially in farms developing on an industrial basis. The purpose of this work was to determine the role and significance of morphological research in the study of metabolic disorders in cattle (cows) under experimental conditions. The morphofunctional activity of the liver is found to be influenced by the general physiological state and the level of feeding of cows. In the autumn, after the pasture period, the liver of highly productive cows contains a fairly high amount of total protein, nucleic acids, metabolite (vitamin A) and nutrient (glycogen) storage substances, and also has optimal activity of the studied redox and hydrolitic enzymes. During the first period of lactation (two weeks after calving), in the background of ultrastructure changes, the level of synthetic processes reduces (total protein, RNP, glycogen, vitamin A, a number of redox enzymes and alkaline phosphatase and reduction processes), and the level of catabolic processes increases (glycolysis, acid phosphatase, glutamate-dehydrogenases). In the period of cows' adaptation to lactation (in 2-3 months after calving), in addition to dystrophic changes, compensatory-adaptive processes increase in the liver suggesting the ability of the body to mobilize spare nutrients substances (protein, carbohydrates, vitamin A, fat), to maneuver by the metabolic pathways to restore impaired functions and homeostasis. Taking into consideration high stress of exchange rate and gradual activation of adaptation mechanisms in cows due to lactation, it is necessary to regularly analyze and adjust the rations (enrichment of them with appropriate high quality feeds and additives), considering the actual milk productivity.

   
Keywords: liver, glycogen, lactation, carbohydrates, additives, fats, homeostasis, dystrophy, metabolism.
   
References:
1. Pozov, S.A. Profilaktika I lechenie narusheniy obmena veschestv u korov I dispepsii u telyat [Prevention and treatment of cows metabolism disorders and dyspepsia in calves] / S.A.Pozov, E.L.Tinkova // Veterinarnaya sluzhba Stavropolya. – 2001. – ¹ 4. – P. 21–23.
2. Pozov, S.A. Vliyanie medi, kobalta I fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na kliniko-gematologicheskie pokazateli u ovec [Influence of copper, cobalt and phytobiostimulant (PBS) on clinic and hematological parameters in sheep] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina // Sostoyanie, perspektivy I strategiya razvitiya I nauchnogo obosnovaniya ovcevodstva I kozovodstva Rossiyskoy Federacii: materialy Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. Chast 3 [State, prospects and strategy of development and scientific substantiation of sheep and goat breeding of the Russian Federation: proceedings from the International scientific and practical conference. Part 3]. – Stavropol, 2007. – P. 78–82.
3. Vliianie podkormok mikroelementami I fitobiostimuliatorom (FBS) na produktivnost I sokhrannost ovec [Influence of feeding with microelements and phytobiostimulant (PBS) on productivity and safety of sheep] / S.A.Pozov [et al.] // Ovcy, kozy I scherstnoe delo. – 2008. – ¹ 3. – Ð. 50–52.
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5. Orlova, N.E. Biogeokhimicheskie provintsii I svyazannye s nimi mikroelementozy zhivotnykh: monografiya [Biogeochemical provinces and connected with them microelementosis of animals: monograph] / N.E.Orlova, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Pozov. – Stavropol: AGRUS, 2008. – 132 p.
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Title:

DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X.2019-2-53-58 METABOLIC PROCESSES IN ANIMALS AND MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF COWS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES

   
Authors: 1Andreev A.I. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 2Erofeev V.I. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 3Shilov V.N. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 1Sholin S.Y. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:

1Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk (e-mail: kafedra_tpppzh@agro.mrsu.ru).
2Mordovian Institute of Retraining for the Specialists Agricultural Business, Saransk (e-mail: erofeev56@inbox.ru).
3Tatar Institute of Retraining Personals of Agribusiness, Kazan (e-mail: shilovvn@yandex.ru).
   
Abstract:
The amount of milk yield and its qualitative composition depends on hereditary characteristics, feeding and keeping conditions of animals and other environmental factors. The effect of external factors on the vital processes of body and the productivity of cows of different genotypes was judged according to hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The research was carried out at the dairy complex of LLC "Agrosoyuz" of Ruzaevsky district of the Republic of Mordovia. According to the principle of groups-analogues 4 groups were formed of dairy cows, 30 heads in each: the first - purebred simmentals of Austrian selection, the second - purebred red-and-white Holstein, the third - half-breed simmentals with Holstein and the fourth – a cross with the blood ¼ Simmental x ¾ Holstein. Feeding and keeping conditions were the same for animals of all groups. Blood was taken from 5 cows from each group of the jugular vein in the morning before feeding at fourth month of lactation. Recording of milk productivity was carried out according to the results of the weekly control milkings. Based on the data of morphological and biochemical parameters of animal blood, their milk productivity, it can be argued that cross-bred animals were characterized by an increased level of redox processes and more intensive metabolism, which resulted in an increase in their milk productivity and improved product quality by increasing the fat content of milk and its protein. 


   
Keywords: cows, breed, genotype, cow feeding, blood, morphological and biochemical parameters.
   
References:
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