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¹ 1, 2019

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Authors: 1KrupinE.O. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2KharchenkoA.M. – postgraduate student;1ShakirovSh.K.–Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 2GrigorievaT.V. –Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1TagirovM.Sh. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, academician of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan.
1Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, FRC Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).
2Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan (e-mail: public.mail@kpfu.ru).

The results of the comparative analysis of the milking cows rumen microbiota are presented when fed with experimental feed concentrate. The concentrate consisted of a complex of enzymes, probiotic strains of microorganisms, L-carnitine, sapropel, taken in a certain ratio. The research was carried out in Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture of FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University and LLC "Agrofirma Rassvet" of the Kukmorsky District of the Republic of Tatarstan. The analysis of the rumen microflora was carried out using a new generation sequencing method for the 16SpRNA gene. Studies have shown that using in the cows’diets the tested feed concentrate did not have a perceptible effect on the whole composition of the rumen microflora, but it affected the content of important functional groups of microorganisms (Fibrobacter, Ruminococcus, Anaeroplasma and Ruminobacter) that provided carbohydrate metabolism. The difference in the Shannon index showed a possible dependence of the productive effect of feed concentrate with the inclusion of microorganisms Ruminococcus genus on the uniformity of distribution of bacteria in animals rumen. This article was supported by FASO Russia project ÀÀÀÀ-À18-118031390148-1.

Keywords: digestion, microbiota, cow, feed, sequencing, metagenome.
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Authors: Alekseev I.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Tsarevsky I.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Egorov R.A. – postgraduate student.
Chuvash State Agricultural Academy, Cheboksary (e-mail: info@ academy21ru).

On the background of the use of a probiotic feed additive, there was an increase in blood of experimental animals compared to control analogues, the number of erythrocytes by 4.54% (P<0.05), leukocytes by 1.75%, hemoglobin by 7.59%% (P<0.01). Introduction of this additive to the diet of calves contributed to a slight increase of the serum intracellular enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and activation of protein metabolism in the organism of experimental animals. This is confirmed by the increase in the serum of calves, in relation to the control, of the indicated enzymes by – 0.02-0.03 mmol / hl, the level of total protein by 3.31% (P<0.01), albumin - by 2.69% (P<0.05), globulins – 4.20% (P <0.05), gamma-globulins – 12.97% (P<0.01), immunoglobulins A, M, G – by 4.54-5.12% (P<0.05). The used feed additive had a positive effect on the growth and development of experimental calves, as evidenced by the change in them, compared to the control animals, in the direction of growth of exterior measurements and average daily gains of body weight. Thus, at the age of 60 days, the height at the withers of the experimental calves was 1.10 cm higher, the length of the body was 0.76 cm higher, the girth of the chest behind the shoulder blades was 0.92 cm higher and the girth of the metacarpal were 0.90 cm higher, than the control peers, or more by 4.62-5.30% (P<0.05). Against the background of using the tested feed additive, an increase was observed in experimental calves, relative to the control, of the average daily gain in live weight - by an average of 7.56%; of natural resistance – by 7.04% and safety by 5.46 (Ð<0.05).

Keywords: probiotic Basulifor, young growth, cattle, average daily gain, live weight, safety.
1. Alekseev, I.A. Vliyanie Sporobakterina na uroven belka syvorotki krovi porosyat [Effect of Sporobakterin on pig blood serum protein level] / I.A.Alekseev // Sbornik trudov nauch.-prakt. konf. Chast 1 [Proceedings from the sci-prakt. conf. Part 1]. – M.: Ar-Konsalt, 2014. – P. 86-87.
2. Vremennoe nastavlenie po primeneniyu probioticheskoy kormovoy dobavki «Basulifor» [Temporary instruction for application of probiotic feed additive “Basulifor”]. – M.:OOO NII Probiotikov, 2011. – http://ru/products-2basulifod_ks.
3. Probiotiki na sovremennom etape – klinicheskie podkhody, oblasti primeneniya: posobie dlya vrachey [Probiotics at the present stage – clinical approaches, areas of application: manual for doctors] / L.N.Mazankova [et al.]. – M., 2005. – 40 p.
4. Nozdrin, G.A. Probiotiki na osnove Bacillus suntilis I ih rol v podderzhanii zdorovya zhivotnykh raznykh vidov [Bacillus suntilis based probiotics and their role in maintaining health in animals of various species] / G.A.Nozdrin, A.V.Ivanova // Sibirsky vestnik selskokhozyaystvennoy nauki. – 2006. – ¹ 7. – P. 63-66.
5. Plyashchenko, S.I. Poluchenie I vyrashchivanie zdorovykh telyat [Obtaining and breeding of healthy calves] / S.I.Plyashchenko. – Minsk: Urozhay, 2002. – 219 p.
6. Smirnov V.V. Probiotiki na osnove zhivykh kultur mikroorganizmov [Probiotics based on live cultures of microorganisms] / V.V.Smirnov, V.S.Podgorskiy // Mikrobiologiya. – 2002. – ¹ 4. – P. 62-65.
7. Toboev A.S. Probiotik Sporobakterin i ego vliyanie na fiziologicheskiy, morfologicheskiy I biokhimicheskiy status porosyat [Influence of Probiotic Sporobakterin on physiological, morphological and biochemical status of pigs] / A.S.Toboev, V.G.Sofronov // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM imeni N.E. Baumana. – 2014. – Tom. 217. – P. 260-266.
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Authors: Rozhentsov A.L. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; Smolentsev S.Yu. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola (å-mail: rector@marsu.ru).

In our country, poultry breeding is the first among other branches of animal husbandry that has switched to intensive development. To transfer poultry breeding to an industrial basis, it needed to develop a fundamentally new technology, effective methods for feeding and keeping poultry, improving the organization of the industry and managing poultry farms. The purpose of the research was a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of growing broiler chickens cross Ross 308 and Cobb 500 in the LLC «Akashevskaya» poultry factory» of Republic of Mari El. The change in live weight was determined by weekly weighing 5 heads of chickens from the same cages, according to the following scheme: days 7 and 14 – on each battery of two cages on the 2nd of two cages on the 3rd tier, 21 and 35 days – on each battery of four cages (on the 2nd and 3rd tier at the front of the battery and on the 1st and 4th tier at the back of the battery), day 28 and the day before slaughter - on each battery of four cages at the 1st and 4th tier in front of and 2nd and 3rd tier behind the battery. Studies have shown that the broilers of the Cobb 500 cross exceeded the analogues of the Ross 308 cross by 7.8 absol. % There are significant differences in the days of breeding in the cross-section. During 39 days of breeding, the degree of difference in the Ross 308 cross was 95.2%, which was 5.2% less than the standard. Cross “Cobb 500” exceeded the standard figures for the entire period by an average of 6.5%. For 39 days of fattening, per 1 kg of live weight broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 cross spent 1.76 kg of feed, and the Ross 308 cross country – 1.83 kg, i.e. 1 kg of live weight of the Cobb-500 broilers consumed 0.07 kg less, which was 3.8%. According to the results of the research we recommend to use the cross Cobb 500 in the ÎÎÎ «Akashevskaya» poultry factory» of the Mari El Republic in order to increase the production of poultry meat.

Keywords: crosses, broiler chickens, technology, gain of live weight, fattening.
1. Bachkova, R.S. Mirovye tendencii v otechestvennom pticevodstve [World trends in the domestic poultry industry] / R.S. Bachkova // Pticevodstvo. – 2014. – Vol. 2. – Ð. 2-6.
2. Vishnevskij, V. Nozhka, shejka, krylyshko… Kakie krossy vybirat? [Leg, neck, wing... which crosses to choose?] / V.Vishnevskij // Novoe selskoe hozyajstvo. – 2007. – Vol. 4. – Ð.96-99.
3. Vyajzenen, G.N. EHffektivnost vyrashchivaniya cyplyat-brojlerov krossov «Ross-508» i «Habbard» [The efficiency of growing broiler chickens cross "Ross-508" and "Hubbard»] / G.N.Vyajzenen, N.V.Popova // Kormlenie selskohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh i kormoproizvodstvo. – 2012. – Vol. 8. – Ð. 44-54.
4. Ivanenko, P. Nashi specialisty krossom «KOBBB» dovolny [Our specialists cross "COBB" happy] / P.Ivanenko // ZHivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2012. – Vol. 6. – Ð. 16-17.
5. Kiselev, L.Y. Porody, linii i krossy selskohozyajstvennoj pticy [Breeds, lines and crosses of poultry] / L.YU.Kiselev, V.N.Fateev // – M.: «Kolos S». – 2005. – 112 p.
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7. Sobol, N. Plemennoj oazis «KOBB» v «Akashevo» [Tribal oasis "COBB" in " Akashevo»] / N.Sobol // ZHivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2014. – Vol. 9. – Ð. 22-23.
8. Eneev, S.H. Inkubacionnye kachestva yaic i rezultaty vyrashchivaniya cyplyat-brojlerov krossov COBB-500 i HUBBARD ISA v usloviyah pticefabriki «Kabardino-balkarskaya» [Incubation qualities of eggs and results of cultivation of broiler chickens of crosses COBB-500 and HUBBARD ISA in the conditions of poultry farm "Kabardino-Balkaria»] / S.H.Eneev, R.Z.Abdulhalikov, M.M.Hulaev // Zootekhniya. – Vol. 5. – 2013. – Ð. 30-31.
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10. Fisinin, V. I. Vysokij potencial Rossijskogo pticevodstva [High potential of Russian poultry farming] / V.I.Fisinin // Zivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2015. – Vol. 2. – Ð. 2-4.



Authors: Gubeeva E.G. – Candidate of Medical Sciences; Khalikova K.F. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Aleev D.V.– Candidate of Biological Sciences; Egorov V.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Saitov V.R. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

Experiments were carried out to study the sorption properties of shungite and zeolite against pesticide (Imidacloprid) on 35 broiler chickens of 2 weeks age, of the Cross COBB 500 line, divided into 7 groups of five individuals each. The first group of broiler chickens served as biological control and received pure complete feed. The second group of chickens received a toxic diet with Imidacloprid at a dose of 40 mg / kg. Subsequent groups of chickens received feed containing Imidacloprid at a dose of 40 mg / kg with the addition of various combinations of sorbents. The third group of birds received sorbent zeolite in an amount of 0.5% of the diet, the fourth - shungite in a dose of 0.5% of the diet. The fifth, sixth and seventh groups received combined sorbents shungite and zeolite in a ratio of 30:70 in quantities of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% of the diet, respectively. To conduct histological studies the chickens’ liver tissue samples were taken. Tissue samples were fixed with 10% neutral formalin, after dehydration they were poured into paraffin. Histosections were obtained using arched microtome, stained with Ehrlich hematoxylin – eosin water. Microphotography was performed on the installation: microscope Leica DM 1000, digital camera Leica DFC 320 (Germany). As a result of morphological studies, the separate and combined use of shungite and zeolite are found to have a positive effect on the liver histostructure of broiler chickens under the influence of Imidacloprid. With the separate use of sorbents, zeolite proved to be more effective than shungite. The combined use of shungite and zeolite had a more favorable effect on the morphological picture of the poultry liver than separate. In this case, the best effect was observed in the group of broiler chickens fed with sorbents together with toxic feed in an amount of 0.25% of the diet. 

Keywords: broiler chickens, sorbents, zeolite, shungite, neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid, histology, liver
1. Belan, S.R. Novye pestitsidy: spravochnik [New pesticides: reference book] / S.R.Belan, G.M.Melnikova. – M.: Graal, 2001. – 195 p.
2. Boyko, T.V. Toksikologicheskaya kharakteristika neonikotinoidov, razrabotka diagnosticheskikh I lechebnykh meropriyatiy pri otravlenii zhivotnykh: dis. … d-ra vet. nauk [Toxicological characteristics of neonicotinoids, development of diagnostic and therapeutic measures at animal poisoning: dissertation for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine] / T.V.Boyko. – Omsk, 2014. – 345 p.
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4. Patomorfologicheskie issledovaniya organov krys pri otravlenii tiaklopridom I primenenii lechebnykh sredstv [Pathomorphological examination of rats’ organs poisoned by Thiacloprid and treated by therapeutical means] / V.I.Egorov, K.F.Khalikova, D.V.Aleev [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2017. – ¹ 3. – P. 35-39.
5. Zhulenko, V.N. Veterinarnaya toksikologiya [Veterinary Toxicology] / V.N.Zhulenko, M.I.Rabinovich, G.A.Talanov; edited by V.N.Zhulenko. – M.: Kolos, 2004. – 382 p.
6. Effektivnost sovmestnogo primeneniya sorbentov v ptitsevodstve [Effect of associate use of sorbents in Poultry Farming] / T.V.Zabolotskaya, M.Yu.Volkov, I.V.Drel, A.A.Ovchinnikov // Veterinarnaya meditsina. – 2009. – ¹ 1-2. – P. 41-42.
7. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po ispolzovaniyu shungita I tseolita v agropromyshlennom komplekse [Methodological guidelines on the use of shungite and zeolite in agro-industrial complex]. – Kazan, 2017. – 15 p.
8. Kormovye otravleniya I toksikoinfektsii zhivotnykh: monografiya [Fodder poisoning and toxicological infections of animal] / K.Kh.Papunidi, E.I.Semenov, A.I.Nikitin [et al.]. – Kazan: FSBRI «FCTRB-VNIVI», 2018. – 212 p.
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Authors: 1Gertman A.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary, Sciences, professor; 1Samsonova T.S. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 3Papunidi E.K. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Naumova O.V. – assistant.
1South Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk.

2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

3Kazan Cooperative Institute (branch) of Russian University of Cooperation, Kazan.

In the territory of the farm, in environmental objects (soil, water, and feed) the abnormal content of essential microelements (iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese) and a presence of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead) in adequate or exceeding maximum allowable concentration has been revealed. To study environmental objects, biological material, common methods were used. The content of microelements in animal’s blood was lower than average standard indexes, as for iron and heavy metals – higher. When examining heifers of 4-5 month age, the animals with clinic and hematological picture of anemia, gastroenteritis, bronchopneumonia, rachitis were revealed. Using laboratory methods of diagnostics made it possible to exclude infectious diseases in the animals. Experimental groups of calves were formed from sick animals. When treating experimental animals Vermikulit as detoxicant was prescribed in a dose of 0.1 g/1 kg of mass by a course of 15 days with 15 days intermission. When treating anemia heifers, salts of microelements (cobalt and manganese salts) were orally prescribed and B vitamins (pyridoxine, cyancobalamine) – intermuscularly. In control group the course of vitamin therapy was used only. To treat experimental bronchopneumonia calves, antibiotics combined with 10 dayed course of physiotherapy were used. At gastroenteritis, antibiotic caffeine, sodium benzoate and 5% glucose solution were introduced to heifers. When treating experimental rachitis heifers, 10 % calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate solutions, salts of microelements (cobalt and manganese salts) were prescribed, control animals were fed with 10-15 g of chalk per 24 hours. In the background of therapy, the clinical status indexes and blood picture were normalized in experimental animals. The duration of treatment was shorter by 3-5 days. In conditions of environmental and man-made pressure it is obligatory in diagnostics to analyse blood for content of microelements and heavy metals, and when treating it is need to apply mineral sorbents combined with chemotherapeutic preparations, physiotherapeutic and symptomatic methods of treatment.

Keywords: natural and technogenic provinces, heifers, non-contagious pathologies, diagnostics, treatment, anemia, gastroenteritis, bronchopneumonia, rachitis
1. Effektivnost vermikulita v sochetanii s khimioterapevticheskimi preparatami pri nezaraznoy patologii I ego vliyanie na produktivnost zhivotnykh [Efficacy and influence of vermikulit combined with chemotherapeutic drugs on animal productivity at noncontagious pathology] / A.M.Gertman, T.S.Samsonova, E.M.Rulikova, N.V.Kireeva // Agrarny vestnik Urala. – 2011. – ¹11 (90). – P. 13-14.
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3. Cadmium and other heavy metal concentrations in bovine kidneys in the Republic of Ireland / Mary J.Canty [et al.] // Science of The Total Environment. – 2014 (July). – Volumes 485–486. – P. 223-231. doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.065.
4. A randomised clinical trial of a metaphylactic treatment with tildipirosin for bovine respiratory disease in veal calves / J.Berman [et al.] DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1097-1.
5. Managing lead exposure and toxicity in cow-calf herds to minimize the potential for food residues / C. Waldner [et al.] DOI: 10.1177/104063870201400606.
6. Primenenie sorbentov dlya profilaktiki narusheniya obmena veschestv I toksikozov zhivotnykh / K.Kh. Papunidi, E.I. Semenov, I.R. Kadikov [et al.]. – Kazan: FSBRI “FCTRB-VNIVI”, 2018. – 224 p.
7. Vliyanie kompleksa tseolita I shungita na rezistentnost I produktivnost tsyplyat-broylerov pri smeshannom mikotoksikoze [Influence of zeolite and shungite complex on broiler chickens’ resistance and productivity at associated mycotoxicosis] / N.N.Mishina, E.I.Semenov, K.Kh.Papunidi [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2018. – ¹ 6. – P. 3-9.
8. Effektivnost shungita I tseolita v ratsionakh tsyplyat-broylerov, kontaminirovannykh kadmiem I svintsom [Efficacy of shungite and zeolite in broiler chickens’diet contaminated by cadmium and lead] / R.U.Biktashev, V.A.Konyukhova, K.Kh.Papunidi [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2018. – ¹ 6. – P. 16-20.


UDC: 636.085/087:582.28 DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X/2019-1-19-24 MYCOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF FEED IN THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

Authors: Potekhina R.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Ermolaeva O.K. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Sagdeeva Z.Kh. – Junior Researcher, Semenov E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

A mycological analysis of the feed of the Republic of Tatarstan was conducted in the period of 2017-2018 years. The wide distribution of fungi Aspergillus, in particular A.flavus and A.fumigatus, Penicillium sp, Trihoderma sp., in particular Trihoderma veride was determined. The most widespread were the fungi of the genus Fusarium and especially F. graminearum. That is connected with climatic specific features – a wet and cool summer of 2017. No dangerous isolates of Stachyobotrys alternans and Dendrodochium toxium were found. The total number of fungi ranged from 1x102 to 5x103 (CFU / g feed), which did not exceed the permissible level. However, isolates of the genus Fusarium, isolated in: Apastovsky, Elabuzhsky, Aktanyshsky and Kukmor districts, showed a high toxigenic potential - T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxins were produced. It was established that 8.1% of the samples on the test object Stilonykhia showed marked toxicity, 2.7% of the samples showed weak toxicity. In white mice, toxicity was not recorded, the skin test on rabbits was positive in 2.7% of the samples. They were recognized as non-quality. As a result, we already registered cases of animal mycotoxicosis in autumn of 2017, and more often in cows. The results of the study revealed the fact that the officially accepted interpretation of the feed toxicity results required adjustment depending on the type of animal. Only a systematic monitoring of feed and preventive measures will allow to prevent the spread of mycotoxicosis in livestock farms in due time.

Keywords: farm feeds, fungi, mycotoxins, corn, fusarium, Stylonychia, toxicity.
1. Mikotoksiny (v pischevoy cepochke): monografiya [Mycotoxins (in food chain): monograph] / K.Kh. Papunidi, M.Ya. Tremasov, V.I.Fisinin [et al.]. – 2-e izd., dop. – Kazan: FSBRI “FCTRB-VNIVI”, 2017. – 158 p.
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UDC: 636.3.085/087:612.1:546.815:574. DOI: 10.33632/1998-698X/2019-1-13-19 ACTIVITY OF Δ-ALAD IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF SHEEP CHRONICALLY AFFECTED BY LEAD

Authors: Kobyalko V.O. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Sarukhanov V.Ya. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Mirzoev E.B. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Frolova N.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Gubina O.A. – Researcher; Polyakova I.V. – postgraduate student.
Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk, Russia e-mail: nar@obninsk.org).

Lead and its compounds is one of the hazardous pollutants of the environment and agrobiocenoses in particular. On pastures agricutural animals are exposed to hardly regulated intake of the toxicant. In this case chronic intake of lead with the ration can not only be the cause of negative biological effects but also result in the excess of maximum allowable concentrations of the metal in animal products. A decrease in the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) in the peripheral blood is treated as one of the most sensitive indicators of lead effect and signals of the dangerous metal levels in the body. For farm animals, however, there is practically no information on the connection between δ-ALAD activity and toxicant content. The study was carried out in a model experiment with sheep. The animals received for 90 days lead nitrate with the ration at the rate of 0 (group 1), 5 (group 2), 25 (group 3) and 150 (group 4) mg/kg feed. The δ-ALAD activity and metal content were measured in blood samples taken from animals before morning feeding, at the beginning of the experiment and on 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 90 days of the study. In intact animals, δ-ALAD activity varied from 0.7 to 1.5 nmol/ml erythrocytes and lead content from 0.6 to 3.5 μg/dl. On day 7, the metal concentration in animal blood in group 2 reached 7.9±1.3 μg/dl, and enzyme activity decreased by 62%. In sheep of groups 3 and 4, increase in the lead content to 11.2±0.8 and 27.6±1.9 μg/dl inhibited δ-ALAD activity by 82% and 91%, respectively. On subsequent days the achieved metal level in the blood varied insignificantly, and the enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited (2-3% of the control level). It is concluded that δ-ALAD activity of sheep actively responds to variations in the lead content in blood. Even on insignificant increase (>4-5 μg/dl) the activity significantly drops. The relatively low basal enzyme activity and high efficiency of its almost complete inhibiting by small concentration of lead in peripheral blood probably signify of common increased sensitivity of sheep to the presence of lead in environment. That fact allows to recommend δ-ALAD activity in sheep’ peripheral blood as a prospective means for biomarker of anthropogenic pollution of pasture areas and feed by lead compounds. 

Keywords: lead, sheep, dehydratase δ-aminolevulinic acid, peripheral blood, chronic intake, the activity of the enzyme.
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Authors: 1Gavrichkin A.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Siben A.N. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Skorov A.S. – deputy head; 3Malev A.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 4Gilmutdinov R.Ya. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
1Federal public budgetary scientific institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology" (FGBNU VNIIVEA), Tyumen (e-mail: vniivea@mail.ru, jroschewitsch@mail.ru).
2Service of a Veterinary Medicine of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area, Salekhard (e-mail: slugba@sv.yanao.ru).
3MBUK "Kazan Zoological and Botanic Garden", Kazan (e-mail: al.malev@mail.ru).
4Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: proksavm@mail.ru).

The prevalence of invasive disease pathogens in polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) was analyzed based on own results and literature data. Parasitological tests of fecal samples were conducted by Fulleborn methods and ether-acetous sedimentation. We found that parasites in polar bears may be represented by the following taxons and species: Protists (Toxoplasma gondii Manceaux, 1908; Sarcocystis spp., Sarcocystis arctosi), Nemathelminthes (the species Trichinella spp. Railliet 1895; the species Trichinella native Britov et Boev 1972; the species Trichinella pseudospiralis Garkavi 1972; Dirofilaria ursi Yamaguti, 1941; Baylisascaris transfuga Rudolphi, 1819; Ancylostoma malayanum Alessandrini, 1905; Strongylus ursi-maritimi (Dochmius ursi, Ursi Uncinaria) Dujardin,1845; Haemonchus contortus Rudolphi, 1803) and Plathyhelminthes (Diphyllobothrium latum Lühe1758; Taenia ursi-maritimi Rudolphi 1810, Linstow 1878; Bothriocephalus sp.). The dominant species were Toxsoplasma gondii and Trichinella native. The extensity of invasions varied from 4 to 45.6% for toxoplasmosis and from 25 to 90% for trichinosis. Animals with Dirofilaria ursi Yamaguti, 1941 were recorded only on the archipelago Franz-Joseph and the Islands of the Barents sea. For Ursus maritimus in zoo, we also recorded invasion by B.transfuga; A.malayanum; S.ursi-maritimi; H.contortus; D.Latum; T.ursi-maritimi and Bothriocephalus sp., these invasions may be due to poor keeping conditions. In Kazan Zoobotanical Garden, polar bears were invaded by nematodes Toxascaris transfuga and Toxascaris multipapillata. The results of own coproscopic tests revealed oocysts of Toxoplasma spp. and eggs of Taenia krabbei in fecal samples of polar bears from White Island.

Keywords: polar bear, Ursus maritimus, zoo, Toxoplasma, Trichinella, helminths.
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Authors: 1Mustafina E.N. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Mustafin T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Sadykov N.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Chernov A.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences.
1Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2The company "PromAseptika", Kazan (e-mail: swa862@mail.ru).

Precipitation reaction is one of the simpliest and fastest methods of serological analysis. The basis of the reaction is the formation of a visible precipitation line, consisting of entered with each other in the combination of antibodies and molecular antigens. For this reason, in this study, we develop and compare two methods for producing botulinum antigens (precipitinogens) for the precipitation reaction. The principle of the first method consisted in obtaining botulinum antigen of the pathogen Clostridium botulinum type À by the method of complete antigen Buavena. The second method involved the separation of botulinum antigen from a complex pathogen- toxin Clostridium botulinum type A. In the course of the experiment, the occurrence of a group reaction of precipitation associated with the homologous structure of antigens was revealed. The most effective and specific precipitinogen for the precipitation reaction is botulinum antigen of the pathogen Clostridium botulinum type A, obtained by the method of "Full antigen Buavena".

Keywords: botulism, diagnosis, antigen, precipitinogen, precipitin.
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Authors: Semakina V.P. – Leading Veterinarian; Akimova T.P. – Veterinarian; Irza A.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Mitrofanova M.N. – Leading Veterinarian.
Federal Centre for Animal Health (FGBI “ARRIAH”), Vladimir (e-mail: akimova@arriah.ru).

Transboundary animal diseases are defined as highly contagious diseases that can spread rapidly irrespective of national borders. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR, sheep and goat plague) is a transboundary animal disease. Peste des petits ruminants is widely spread in countries of Africa and Asia including the Asian countries which share their borders with Russia. Although the Russian Federation is historically free of peste des petits ruminants, in the recent years, scientists have increasingly predicted the possible introduction of the disease into the country. The PPR epizootic situation in such affected countries neighboring Russia as China, Mongolia and Georgia as well as in the affected countries with which Russia maintains trade and economic relations in terms of animal husbandry presents the greatest threat to the country. The Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR designed by the FAO and OIE based on the successful Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme has been implemented across the globe since 2015 [3]. The reduction in the number of PPR-endemic countries is in the mutual interest of all the world’s countries. 

Keywords: peste des petits ruminants, OIE, FAO, epizootic situation.
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Authors: Shcherbakov P.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Stepanova K.V. – lecturer; Shcherbakova T.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
South Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk (å-mail: scherbakov_pavel@mail.ru).

Intensive livestock farming is the largest producer of toxic gases. Toxic gases adversely affect the productivity of animals, provoking the complication of young animal diseases, while reducing the profitability of farms. One of the most aggressive abiogenous factors affecting the course and outcome of respiratory diseases are the increased content of ammonia in the air and the low temperature of the litter, and one of the biogenous factors is the active reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microflora. Active reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the respiratory tract of calves predisposes to the occurrence of bacterial complications (Pseudomonas, Proteus, escherichiosis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis) of respiratory diseases of viral etiology. This explains the extension of the terms of animals falling ill and severe course of respiratory diseases, often fatal. When conducting work experience at the farm LLC “Uyskiy” of “Uyskiy”district of the Chelyabinsk region, the samples of litter and swabs from the upper respiratory tract in control and experimental calves were selected as materials, which were examined by standardized methods in Microbiology to count and identificate microflora using elective and universal culture media. The concentrations of ammonia in the overgrowth layer of the air in the individual cells of the calves of both groups were measured using a universal gas analyzer by a linear-color method. The decrease in ammonia emission in the overgrowth layer of the air and the amount of putrefactive microflora in the litter and in the respiratory tract of experimental calves is due to changes in microbiological processes in the litter when cultures of symbiotic microflora are introduced into it, which are part of the developed biological preparation.

Keywords: respiratory diseases, abiogenous factors, biogenous factors, microflora, ammonia.
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Authors: Balbutskaya A.A. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Skvortsov V.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences.
Belgorod Department of Federal Research Center «All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine named after K.I.Skryabina and Ya.R.Kovalenko» Russian Academy of Sciences, Belgorod (å-mail: nerpa-2007@mail.ru).

The paper describes the phenotypic properties of Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated from the synovial fluid of a chicken with arthritis. S.aureus had typical cultural and morphological properties for Staphylococcus genus, coagulated the citrated rabbit blood plasma and produced β-hemolysin. The growth of colonies with yellow pigmentation was observed on salt mannitol agar. Species identification of Staphylococcuswas performed by the biochemical test system "STAPHYtest 24" (PLIVA – LachemaDiagnostikas.r.o). The isolate showed specific reactions for aureus species in 24 tests. The study was also conducted to identify drug resistance profile of S.aureus to different antimicrobials by disñ and diffusion method. The methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) was sensitive to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, lancosamides, fusidin, vancomycin, linezolid and rifampicin. The strain was resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, furazolidone, macrolides, levomycitin and chloramphenicol, metronidazole. An experimental staphylococcal infection was reproduced to investigate the pathogenic properties of S. aureus. White mice and chickens were used as the models of experimental S. aureus infection. The investigated strain showed pronounced pathogenic properties. Subcutaneous injection of S. aureus at the dose 1.5×108 CFU/0.5 ml caused abscess formation in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of the causative agent at the dose 1×109 CFU/0.5 ml caused joints affection in chickens.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, synovial fluid, arthritis, poultry, phenotypic properties, antibiotic resistance, experimental model, staphylococcal infection.
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