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¹ 6, 2018

Ñêà÷àòü íîìåð æóðíàëà â ôîðìàòå .pdf (2,34 ÌÁ)
  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.9:636/5.087/72(470.22) (470.41) EFFICACY OF SHUNGITE AND ZEOLITE ADDING IN BROILER CHICKENS DIETS CONTAMINATED BY CADMIUM AND LEAD

   
Authors: Biktashev R.U. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; Konuchova V.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Kadikov I.R. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Zakirova G.Sh. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gataullin D.Kh. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of experiment on broiler chickens of cross Kobb-500. The use of high dispersed (1-10 mcm) sorbents - shungite from the Republic Karelia Zazhogin deposit and zeolite from the Republic of Tatarstan Shatrashan deposit against the background of combined diets contamination by 0.5 MPC of cadmium and 0.5 MPC of lead enables to prevent them from accumulating in liver and muscle of broilers. The dose of sorbents introduction constitutes 0.5% of feed mass both separately and in combination. The prolonged using of sorbents in such doses does not influence on microelements metabolism and contributes to complete development of poultry genetic productive potential and obtaining of high qualitative production. The use of shungite in dose 0.5% in noncontaminated feeds makes it possible to increase productivity of broilers by 10.2% (P<0.001) owing to antibacterial, oxidizing and reducing properties of shungite. Feed conversion in that case decreases till 1.45 kg/kg of gain. The use of zeolite in noncontaminated feeds does not give such effect – the feed conversion is 1.62 kg/kg of gain.

   
Keywords: broiler chickens, diets, cadmium, lead, shungite, zeolite, liver, muscle.
   
References:
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4. Gorshtein, A.E. Adsorbtsionnye svoystva shungitov [Adsorptive properties of shungite] / A.E.Gorshtein, N.Yu.Baron, M.L.Syrkina // Izvestiya vuzov, khimiya I khimicheskaya tekhnologiya. – 1979. – T. 22, ¹ 6. – P. 711-715.
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zhiznedeyatelnosti cheloveka: sbornik materialov pervoy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy conferenzii; edited by. Yu.K.Kalinin. – Petrozavodsk, 3-5 oktyabrya 2006 g [Shungits and human life safety: proceedings from the 1-st All-Russian sci.-pract. conf., Petrozavodsk, 3-5 october in 2006]. – Petrozavodsk: Karelsky Scientific Center RAN, 2007. – P. 5-10.
7. Novozhilova, O.A. Povyshenie effectivnosty proizvodstva yaits I myasa broilerov na osnove obogacheniya shungitom kombikormov I pityevoy vody dlya ptitsy: Dis. … candidata selskokhozyaystvennykh nauk: 06.02.10 [Development of broilers’ eggs and meat production on the basis of enriching feeds and drinking water for poultry with shungit: diss. for cand. of agricultural sciences] / O.A.Novozhilova. – Vologda, 2011. – 192 l.
8. Papunidi, K.Kh., BiktashevR.U., BulankovaS.R. Biokhimicheskie pokazately syvorotky krovi lactiruyuschikh korov pri contaminatsii ratsionov T-2 toxinom na fone primeneniya vysokodispersnogo kizelgura [Biochemical indexes of the lactating cows blood serum at the contamination of diet by T-2 toxin against the background of high disperse Kizelgur application] / K.Kh. Papunidi, R.U. Biktashev, S.R. Bulankova // Veterinarny vrach. – 2014. – ¹ 3. – P. 8-12.
9. Podchaynov, S.F. Mineral tseolite – umnozhitel poleznykh svoystv shungita [Mineral Zeolite – multiplier of the useful shungite properties ] / S.F.Podchaynov // Shungity I bezopasnost
zhiznedeyatelnosti cheloveka: sbornik materialov pervoy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy conferentsii Petrozavodsk, 3-5 okt. 2006 g [Shungits and human life safety: proceedings from the 1-st All-Russian sci.-pract. conf., Petrozavodsk, 3-5 october in 2006]; pod red. Yu.K.Kalinina. – Petrozavodsk: Karelsky nauchny tsentr RAN, 2007. – P. 6-74.
10. Sarsenbaeva, N.B. Veterinarno-sanitarnaya otsenka kachestva productov ptitsevodstva pri ispolzovanii kormovykh dobavok – zeolitov, probiotiko: avtoref. … d-ra vet. nauk [Veterinary and sanitation evaluation of poultry products quality when using feed additives – tseolitov, probiotikov: abstract from dis. … for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine] / N.B.Sarsenbaeva. – Almaty, 2006. – 50 p.
11. Primenenie novogo adsorbenta «Modibent» dlya profilaktiki mikotoksikozov [Application of a new absorbent «Modibent» to prevent mycotoxicosis] / E.I.Semenov, S.A.Tanaseva, A.R.Valiev [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2017. – ¹ 3. – P. 30-35.
12. Tremasova, A.M. Farmako-toxicologicheskoe obosnovanie ispolzovaniya prirodnogo mineral shungita I preparatov na ego osnove, nanosorbentov polisorbin I polisorb v veterinarii: Dis. … d-ra biol. nauk 06.02.02.- 06.02.03 [Pharmacoligical and toxicological reason for using a natural mineral shungite and drugs made from it – nanosorbents Polisorbin and Polisorb in Veterinary Medicine: dis. … for Doctor of Biology]. – Kazan, 2015. – 351 l. 
13. Sharapova, V.Yu. Ispolzovanie shungita v kormlenii kur-nesushek [Using shungite in feeding of hens] / V.Yu.Sharapova, N.A.Leri // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2010. – ¹ 9. – P. 31-33.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.015.5.284:636.7/.8 MONITORING OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BLOOD OF DIFFERENT AGED DOGS AND CATS IN A STUDY OF TOLERANCE OF THE INSECTOACARICIDE COLLAR «NEOTERICA PROTECTO 12»

   
Authors: Arisov M.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Indyuhova E.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Koshkarev E.A. – postgraduate student; Arisova G.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitological of Animals and Plants named after K.I.Skryabin", Moscow (e-mail:zxcv3980@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
The study results of tolerance of complex insectoacaricide preparation for veterinary use "Neoteric Protecto 12" (imidacloprid, pyriproxifen and ethofenprox) on target species of animals – dogs and cats – are presented. To examine the safety of the preparation the study included 1-3 years dogs and cats, including puppies and kittens of 3-5 months of age. 3 groups were created – control and 2 experimental respectively. Animals of the first experimental group wore a single collar of appropriate length (therapeutic dose). Animals of the second experimental group wore 3 collars of appropriate length (threefold increased therapeutic dose). Control animals were not given the preparation. Dogs, cats, puppies and kittens of the experimental groups wore the collars for 6 months. As a result of tolerance study of daily observed animals during the experimental period it was found that the general state of all groups of dogs, puppies, cats and kittens did not change significantly:  all the animals were in a satisfactory condition, were mobile, active, willingly took food and drank water, there were no abnormalities of physiological functions, no any toxic phenomenon, conditioned reflexes were retained. The preparation "Neoteric Protecto 12" which is used in therapeutic and in threefold increased therapeutic doses, has no negative effect on physiological status of pets of different age groups. The studies have shown a good tolerance of the preparation. The significance of this study is that the effect of therapeutic and threefold increased therapeutic doses are studied to the body of those animals on whom the use of the preparation in veterinary practice is focused .

   
Keywords: medicinal preparation, polymer tape, collar, pesticide, imidacloprid, pyriproxyfen, ethofenprox, safety, tolerance, cats, dogs.
   
References:
1. Parazitologiya I invazionnye bolezni zhivotnykh [Parasitology and Invasive Animal Diseases] / M.Sh.Akbaev, F.I.Vasilevich, R.M.Akbaev [et al.]; edited by. M.Sh.Akbaev. – M.: KolosS, 2008. – 776 p.
2. Arisov, M.V. "Inspektor" sprey – osnova uspeshnoy borby s otodektozom I ktenotsefalidozom sobak I koshek ["Inspector" spray is the basis for a successful control against Otodectosis and Ctenocephalides of dogs and cats] / M.V.Arisov, D.N.Shemyakov, E.N.Indyukhova // Veterinariya, zootekhniya I biotekhnologiya. – 2014. – ¹. 9. – P. 23-27.
3. Arisov, M.V. "RolfKlub 3D" kapli, sprey, osheyniki – effektivnye preparaty protiv ektoparazitozov sobak I koshek ["RolfClub 3D" drops, spray and collars are effective preparations against ectoparasitosis of dogs and cats] / M.V.Arisov, Ò.S.Kataeva, N.V.Danilevskaya // VetPharma. – 2015. – ¹. 2 (24). – P. 38-44.
4. Arisov, M.V. Antigelmintnaya effektivnost preparatov "Gelmintal C" I "Gelmintal K" "SPOT-ON:" mif ili realnost [Anthelmintic efficacy of preparations "Gelmintal C" and "Gelmintal K" "SPOT-ON": myth or reality] / M.V.Arisov, E.N.Indyukhova, V.A.Stepanov // Veterinarny vrach. – 2014. – ¹. 6. – P. 44-47.
5. Issledovanie perenosimosti kompleksnogo protivoparazitarnogo preparata "Inspektor osheynik" [The study of tolerance of complex antiparasitic preparation "Inspector Collar"] / M.V.Arisov, I.G.Glamazdin, A.I.Demin, V.V.Artemov // Rossiyskiy parazitologicheskiy zhurnal. – 2016. – Vol. 38, Issue. 4. – P. 547-553.
6. Arisova, G.B. Razrabotka I pervichnye ispytaniya novogo insektoakaritsidnogo preparata pri arakhnoentomozakh sobak [Development and initial tests of a new insectoacaricide preparation for dog arachnoentomosis] / G.B.Arisova, A.V.Loganov, M.V.Arisov // Rossiyskiy parazitologicheskiy zhurnal. – 2011. – ¹. 3. – P. 86-90.
7. Danilevskaya, N.V. Konyuktivin – izuchenie bezopasnosti pri dlitelnom primenenii preparata na laboratornykh zhivotnykh [Konjuktivin - safety study with prolonged use of the preparation on laboratory animals] / N.V.Danilevskaya, R.Tukhfatova, T.Abgalina // VetPharma. – 2012. – ¹ 3. – P. 32-36.
8. Fiziologiya I etologiya zhivotnykh [Physiology and Ethology of Animals]. V.F.Lysov, Ò.V.Ippolitova, V.I.Maksimov, N.S.Shevelyov; edited by prof. V.I.Maksimov. – M.: KolosS, 2012. – 605 p.
9. Panfilov, A.V. Insektoakaritsidnye sredstva v forme osheynika [Insectoacaricidal means in the form of a collar] / A.V.Panfilov // Rossiyskiy zhurnal "Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny I ekologii". – 2009. – ¹. 2. – P. 12.
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11. Roslavtseva, S.A. Neonikotinoidy – novaya perspektivnaya gruppa insektitsidov [Neonicotinoids are a new promising group of insecticides] / S.À.Roslavtseva // Agrokhimiya. – 2000. – ¹. 1. – P. 49-52.
12. Sokolyanskaya, M.P. Problema kross-rezistentnosti nasekomykh I kleschey k insektitsidam I akaritsidam [The problem of cross-resistance of insects and mites to insecticides and acaricides] / M.P.Sokolyanskaya, D.V.Amirkhanov // Bulletin of the BSAU. – 2010. – ¹. 1. – P. 12-18.
13. Neonicotinoids: insecticides acting on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors / K.Matsuda [et al.] // Trend Pharmacol Sci. – 2001. – Vol. 22 (11). – P. 573-580.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.9:636.52/58 INFLUENCE OF THE COMPLEX OF ZEOLITE AND SHUNGITE ON THE RESISTANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BROILER CHICKENS UNDER A MIXED MYCOTOXICOSIS

   
Authors: Mishina N.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Semenov E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor; Potekhina R.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Tanaseva S.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Ermolaeva Î.K. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Sagdeeva Z.Kh. – junior researcher; Gataullin D.Kh. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of studying the effect of a combination of shungite of the Republic of Karelia Zazhoginsky Deposit and zeolite of the Republic of Tatarstan Shatrashan Deposit at combined broiler chickens mycotoxicosis on the indexes of natural resistance, growth and productive qualities of poultry. The experimental work was carried out in vivarium conditions on the basis of FSBI "FCTRB-VNIVI. The broiler chickens meat cross "Cobb 500" with live weight 0.68-0.73 kg were used in the experiments. The duration of the experiment was from 21 days of age to the day of the control slaughter, which was performed at the age of 42 days. Birds of the first control group were taken complete feed; in order to exclude the influence of feed additives on the birds’ body, the second group birds were additionally introduced into the main diet a mixture of shungite and zeolite (the ratio in the mixture was 70:30%) in the maximum examined dosage of 0.5% of the diet. Chickens of the third group were fed a toxic diet, the fourth and the fifth groups chickens in addition to the toxic diet took a mixture of sorbents in two dosages – 0.5 and 0.25% of the diet, respectively, in order to determine the optimal dosage of the feed additive. The toxic diet was prepared on the basis of feed mixtures for broiler chickens with the addition of mycotoxins: T-2 toxin (200 µg/kg), zearalenone (500 µg/kg) and aflatoxin B1 (50 µg/kg). As a result of the research, the mixture of shungite and zeolite was found to have a high efficacy. After its application, the natural resistance of the body increases, the average daily weight gain increases. At mycotoxicosis, the most cost-effective and optimal dose it should be considered a dose of 0.5% of the diet, because a lower dose (0.25% of the diet) proved to be less effective.

   
Keywords: mycotoxicosis, shungite, zeolite, birds, immunity, resistance.
   
References:
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6. Ivanov, A.A. Problema mikotoksikozov v ptitsevodstve [The problem of mycotoxicosis in poultry breeding] / A.A.Ivanov, E.I.Semenov, I.M.Egorov // Veterinarny vrach. – 2013. – ¹ 1. – P. 2-5.
7. Vliyanie tseolitov na ultrastrukturu pecheni i pochek sviney [The influence of zeolites on the ultrastructure of pig liver and kidneys] / A.V.Ivanov, A.O.Mullakaev, M.N.Lezhnina, A.A.Shukanov // Veterinariya. Nezaraznye bolezni. – 2017. – ¹ 7. – P.41-44.
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Title:

UDC 619:616-001.28/.29-085 SEARCHING RADIOPROTECTIVE MEANS FROM THE CLASS OF INDUCERS OF CYTOKINES

   
Authors: Tarasova N.B. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Vagin K.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Nizamov R.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The possibility of using means from the class of inducers of cytokines of zoogenic, microbial and phytogenic origin to treat animals at acute radiation sickness has been theoretically proved and practically confirmed for the first time. For initial evaluating the cytokine induced activity, an optimal test-system providing an immediate determination of the immunohemopoiesis mediators content in conditions ex vivo has been selected. The radioprotective effects of inducers of cytokines and cytokine stimulated sera has been studied for the first time. The new data of radioprotective action of the hemostimulated serum are obtained. The drugs "Era-N" and "Vita-Force"are found to possibly increase the radioprotective activity of hemostimulated serum and reduce its curative doses. As a result of experiments on laboratory and farm animals, the hemostimulated serum and the drug "Era-N" are found to have high therapeutic effects providing 60-80% protection in experimental acute radiation sickness.

   
Keywords: radiation sickness, prevention, treatment, cytokine inducers, mechanism of action.
   
References:
1. Budagov, R.S. Vliyanie sredstv mikrobnogo proiskhozhdeniya na uroven tsitokinov v syvorotke krovi, gematologicheskiy status I vyzhivaemost myshey pri kombinirovannykh radiatsionnykh porazheniyakh [The effect of using means of microbial origin on the level of cytokines in blood serum, hematological status, and mice survival rate in combined radiation injuries] / R.S.Budagov // Radiatsionnaya biologiya. Radioecologiya. – 2001. – Vol. 41, ¹ 1. – P. 38-42.
2. Vasin, M.V. Protivoluchevye lekarstvennye sredstva [Radioprotective drugs] / M.V.Vasin. – M., 2010. – 180 p.
3. Goncharenko, E.N. Metod opredeleniya perekisnogo okisleniya lipidov [Method for determination of lipid peroxidation] / E.N.Goncharenko, A.M.Latinova // Laboratornoe delo. – 1985. – ¹ 1. – P. 60-61.
4. Zherbin, E.A. Radiatsionnaya gematologiya [Radiation Hematology] / E.A.Zherbin, A.B.Chukhlovin. – M.: Meditsina, 1989. – 176 p.
5. Kondrakhin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki: spravochnik [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics: reference book] / I.P.Kondrakhin, V.A.Arkhipov; edited by I.P.Kondrakhin. – M.: Kolos, 2004. – 520 p.
6. K probleme poiska sredstv zaschity pri porazhenii zhivotnykh ioniziruyuschim izlucheniem [About the problem of searching protective remedies from animals ionizing radiation injury] / G.V.Konyukhov, R.D.Gareev, R.M.Aslanov [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2012. – ¹ 6. – P. 20-23.
7. Novye podkhody k terapii ostroy luchevoy bolezni [New approaches to therapy of acute radiation disease] / G.V.Konyukhov, N.B.Tarasova, R.N.Nizams [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2005. – ¹ 1. – P. 40-43.
8. Primenenie lechebno-profilakticheskogo immunoglobulina dlya korrekcii immunodefitsitov zhivotnykh [The use of therapeutic immunoglobulin for the correction of immunodeficiency in animals] / G.V.Konyukhov, R.N.Nizamov, N.B.Tarasova, K.H.Popunidi // Veterinarny vrach. – 2007. – ¹ 4. – P. 53-56.
9. Izuchenie radioprotektornykh svoystv antigenov mikrobnogo proiskhozhdeniya [Studying radioprotective properties of antigens of microbial origin] / R.N.Nizamov, G.V.Konyukhov, A.S.Titov [et al.] // Materialy. IV kongressa po radiatsionnym issledovaniyam. Tom 2 [Procceedings from the IV Congress on radiation research. Vol. 2]. – M., 2001. –  P. 457.
10. Surgucheva, L.I. Effektivnost biologicheski aktivnykh preparatov pri gamma-obluchenii [The efficacy of biologically active preparations at gamma-irradiation] / L.I.Surgucheva, V.A.Budakov // Problemy protivoradiatsionnoy zaschity: materialy konf. [The problems of radiation protection: proceedings from the conf.]. – M., 1998. – P. 31-32.
11. Ispolzovanie lechebno-profilakticheskogo immunoglobulina dlya korrekcii kliniko-biologicheskikh sdvigov, vyzvannykh ioniziruyuschim izlucheniem [The use of therapeutic and prophylactic immunoglobulin to correct the clinical and hematological changes caused by ionizing radiation] / N.B.Tarasova, G.V.Konyukhov, R.N.Nizamov [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2017. – ¹ 1. - P. 16-20.

  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.28:579.842.1/.2:636.52/.58.033 STUDYING THE EFFECT OF CITRININ ON OCCURRENCE OF DYSBACTERIOSIS AND MULTIRESISTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE

   
Authors: 1Afonyushkin V.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Donchenko N.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 2Kozlova Yu.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Davydova N.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Cherepushkina V.S. – Junior Researcher; 3 Frolova Î.À. – Junior Researcher.
   
Address:
1Siberian Federal Scientific Centre of Agro-BioTechnologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoobsk (e-mail: lisocim@mail.ru).
2Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (e-mail: niboch@niboch.nsc.ru).
3Krasnoyarsk Scientific-Research Institute of Animal Husbandry –Division of Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences” (e-mail: kristal_o@bk.ru).

   
Abstract:
The broiler chickens were observed a statistically reliable decrease in the concentration of lactobacilli in the intestine by 0.61 Log10 CFU / g (P=0.03) after taking citrinin with fodder. The contact of the intestinal microflora with citrinin had resulted in a decrease in the concentration of bacteria sensitive to enrofloxacin and caused an increase in the specific proportion of bacteria resistant to enrofloxacin. Based on the culture data, the intestinal contents microbiota biodiversity in the chickens of the experimental and control groups did not differ. Two morphotypes had prevailed among the dominant microorganisms family Enterobacteriaceae - blue color colonies (Enterobacter spp.) and pink color colonies (E.coli) (on the Uriselect 4 medium), i.e. the producing glucuronidase and galactosidase, respectively. In the experimental group there was a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of bacteria forming blue colonies on a medium without enrofloxacin and with an enrofloxacin concentration of 0.2 μg / ml. With an enrofloxacin concentration of 4 μg / ml, the number of colonies grown in the control and experimental chickens did not differ. Consequently, the number of bacteria resistant to enrofloxacin in the chickens of the experimental and control groups did not change. Correlation analysis made it possible to establish a negative correlation between the enrofloxacin concentration and the concentration of microorganisms (Enterobacter spp.) in the intestine (r = -0.805 and - 0.90 for the experimental and control groups, respectively). This also confirms the lower effect of enrofloxacin on reducing the number of bacteria after treating by citrinin. The second dominant bacterial species of the intestinal microbiota - E.coli – was characterized by the absence of a relationship between the enrofloxacin concentration in the nutrient medium and the concentration of bacteria. Thus, in both the control and experimental groups of chickens, all the bacteria of this morphotype were resistant to enrofloxacin, regardless of contact with citrinin. A hypothesis of the negative effect of increased citrinin level on the intestinal microbiota had been confirmed. The citrinin effect on the resistance of E.coli to enrofloxacin was not detected. The contact of the poultry intestinal microbiota with mycotoxins, in particular with citrinin, may lead not only to the development of dysbacteriosis but also contribute to the accumulation of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms.

   
Keywords: citrinine, chickens, salmonella, E.coli, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic sensitivity.
   
References:
1. Swartz, M.N. Human diseases caused by foodborne pathogens of animal origin / M.N.Swartz // Clinical Infectious Diseases. – 2002. – ¹ 34 (supplement 3). – Ð. 111–122. – doi: 10.1086/340248.
2. Antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoid Salmonella serotypes: a global challenge / L.H.Su, C.H.Chiu, C.Chu, J.T.Ou // Clinical Infectious Diseases. – 2004. – ¹ 39 (4). – Ð. 546–551. – doi: 10.1086/422726.
3. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in poultry / G.Rajashekara [et al] // Journal of Food Protection. – 2000. – ¹ 63 (2). – Ð. 155–161.
4. Davis, M.A. Multiresistant clones of Salmonella enterica: the importance of dissemination / M.A.Davis, D.D.Hancock, T.E.Besser // The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. – 2002. – ¹ 140 (3). – Ð. 135–141. – doi: 10.1067/mlc.2002.126411.
5. Increased burden of illness associated with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium infections / L.J.Martin, M.Fyfe, K.Doré [et al.] // The Journal of Infectious Diseases. – 2004. – ¹ 189 (3). – Ð. 377–384. – doi: 10.1086/381270.
6. Jensen, A.N. Immediate differentiation of Salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar / A.N.Jensen, J.Hoorfar // Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology. – 2000. – ¹ 8 (3). – Ð. 219–225. – doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4581.2000.tb00219.x.
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9. Sovremennye metody kontrolya salmonelleza [Modern methods of salmonellosis control] / V.N.Afonyushkin, E.V.Dudareva, L.I.Malakheeva [et al.] // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2008. – ¹ 9. – P. 43–44.
10. CLSI Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; 21st informational supplement. – 2011. – ¹ (31). – Ð. 165.
11. EUCAST Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 2.0. – 2012. – 73 ð.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98-07/.091: 636.2 ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTICS OF ANIMALS ANAEROBIC ENTEROTOXEMIA

   
Authors: Spiridonov A.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The research data on developing ELISA test-system to detect specific antibodies against bacteria Cl.Perfringens are presented. The strains were used as producton: ¹ 28 (type A), LD-1 (type B), ¹ 392 (type C), ¹ 213 (type D). To obtain antigen the daily suspension of Cl.Perfringens containing 20 milliards of microbial cells in 1 cm3 (5 milliards of microbial cells in each serotype), was sounded on a ultrasound disintegrator of 20 mHertz for 15 minutes at 40 C, then Endotoxin was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and purified by differential solving of precipitation in 0,02 M phosphate buffer followed by dialysis against tap water. The positive test serum with antibody titers not below than 1:12800 against Cl. Perfringens antigens was obtained by hyperimmunization of cattle using corpuscular antigens and anatoxins. The standardization of the basic conditions for conducting ELISA reaction was carried out. The antigen sorbtion concentration was detected while simultaneous testing of different conjugant dilutions. The most acceptable animals blood serum titer index was detected at conjugate dilution 1:2500 and in sorbet antigen concentration of 5-8 mkg/cm3. The production testing of ELISA test-system was carried out in unwell for calves anaerobic enterotoxemia cattle breeding farms of the 3 regions of the Russian Federation. Altogether 677 blood serum samples were examined, including 240 – from anaerobic enterotoxemia animals, 389 samples - from vaccinated against anaerobic enterotoxemia and 48 – from clinically health animals in stationary well-being farm. The ELISA method was found to make it possible to detect specific antibodies against Cl.Perfringens bacteria in 97.7% vaccinated and 94.6% anaerobic enterotoxemia animals. The positive results of laboratory and production test of the test-system enable to recommend it to be implemented it into veterinary practice of the Russian Federation.

   
Keywords: anaerobic enterotoxemia, Cl.Perfringens, calves, diagnosis, Enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) analysis.
   
References:
1. Laboratornye issledovaniya v veterinarii. Bacterialnye infektsii [Laboratory research in veterinary medicine. Bacterial infections] / B.I.Àntonov,V.V.Borisova,P.M.Volkova [et al.]. – Ì.: Àgropromizdat, 1986. – 352 p.
2. Gaffarov, Kh.Z. Immunofermentny analiz v diagnostike reovirusnoy infektsii krupnogo rogatogo skota [Using ELISA in cattle reovirus infection diagnostics] / Kh.Z.Gaffarov Ì.À.Åfimova, Î.V.Moskvichev // Veterinarny vrach. – 2011. – ¹ 5. – Ð. 14-16.
3. Kurilenko, À.N. Bacterialnye I virusnye bolezni molodnyaka selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Bacterial and viral diseases of young farm animals] / À.N.Kurilenko, V.L.Krupalnik, N.V.Pimenov. – Ì.: ÊîlîsS, 2006. – 296 p.
4. Patent Ros. Federatsiya, Ïàòåíò ÐÔ íà èçîáðåòåíèå ¹2428202. MPK A61P 031/04, A61K 039/116, A61K 039/108, A61K 039/08. Vaktsina assotsiirovannaya protiv anaerobnoy enterotoksemii I esherikhioznoy diarei telyat [Associated vaccine against anaerobic enterotoxemia and colibacillus diarrhea] / G.N. Spiridonov, À.À.Ivanov, Kh.N.Makaev, Ì.Ò. Khuramshina, À.G. Spiridonov, E.R.Galiullina; applicant and patent possessor FGBU ÔÃÁÓ «FCTRB-VNIVI». – ¹ 2010124555/15; published. 10.09.2011, Áþë. ¹ 25.
5. Salimov, V.A. Nekotorye osobennosti patologoanatomicheskoy diagnostiki anaerobnoy enterotoksemii telyat, vyzvannoy Cl. perfringens tipa A [Some peculiarities of postmortem diagnosis of anaerobic enterotoxemia caused by Cl. perfringens Cl. perfringens type A / V.A.Salimov, N.P.Salimova. // Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennykh usloviyakh: materialy nauch.-prakt. konf. [Actual problems of young farm animals in modern conditions: Proceedings from sci.-pract. conf.]. – Voronezh, 2002. – P. 527-528.
6. Infektsionnaya enterotoksemiya molodnyaka selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh v regione Srednego Povolzhya I Preduralya [Infectious enterotoxemia of young farm animals in the regions of Middle Volga and Middle Urals ] / G.N.Spiridonov À.F.Ìàkhmutov, Ì.Ò.Khuramshina, À.G.Spiridonov // Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoy meditsiny Sibiri: materialy nauch.-prakt. konf. [Actual problems of Siberian veterinaty medicine: Proceedings from sci.-pract. conf.]. – Krasnoobsk, 2010. – P. 134–139.
7. Sovremennye podkhody k spetsificheskoy profilaktike I lecheniyu anaerobnoy enterotoksemii I esherikhioznoy diarei telyat [Modern approaches to specific prevention and treatment of calves anaerobic enterotoxemia and colibacillus diarrhea] / À.G.Spiridonov, D.D.Nasertdinov, Kh.N.Makaev, G.N.Spiridonov // Veterinarny vrach. – 2015. – ¹ 6. – Ð. 12-15.
8. Novel insights into the epidemiology of Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning / M.Lindstrom, A.Heikinheimo, P.Lahti, H.Korkeala // Food Microbiol. – 2011. – ¹ 28 – P. 192-198.
9. Enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in 9-month-old calves / B.Savic [et al] // Can. Vet. J. – 2012. – ¹ 53 – P. 174-176.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.823.1 EPISOTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL RUMINANTS PEST

   
Authors: 1Mishchenko A.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Mishchenko V.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Chernykh O.Yu. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 3Shevkoplyas V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 4Krivonos R.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 5Lysenko A.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 6Chernov A.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1Federal Centre for Animal Health («ARRIAH»), Vladimir (e-mail: mischenko@arriah.ru).

2Kropotkin Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Kropotkin (e-mail: gukkvl50@kubanvet.ru).

3Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after K.I.Skryabin, Moscow (e-mail: shevkoplyasvn@gmail.com).

4State Veterinary Administration of the Krasnodar region, Krasnodar, Russia (350020, Krasnodar, Rashpilevskaya str., 36), e-mail: sinkubani@mail.ru
5Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T.Trubilin, Krasnodar (e-mail: vet.kubgau@mail.ru).

6Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
This article presents the literature data analyzes and OIE reports on the epizootic situation of small ruminants pest in the territory of countries with which the Russian Federation has trading and economic links, as well as the information on the epizootic features of this disease, resistance of the pathogen in environment and infected products. The paper briefly contains information on the properties of the small ruminants pest virus. Data on the suspected pathways of the introduction of the small ruminants pest virus into the territory of the Russian Federation and the mechanisms of the pathogen propagation are presented. The article also presents the detailed description of the epizootic situation of ovine and caprine pest among small cattle (sheep and goats) in Hovd of Mongolia aimak, as well as a detailed analysis of the epizootic situation of pest in saigas (Saiga tatarica mongolica) in the Hovd and Gobi-Altai aimaks of Mongolia. On the territory of these aimaks of Mongolia the death of gazelles (Gazelle subguturosa), argali (Ovis ammon) and Siberian ibex (Siberian ibex) from small ruminants pest was recorded. In wild animals, the diagnosis of infectious diseases, including small ruminants pest, is considerably hampered due to the technical difficulties in detecting corpses and the rapid decomposition of corpses of dead animals.

   
Keywords: sheep, goats, saigas, small ruminants pest.
   
References:
1. Alekhin, A.F. Osobennosti techeniya chumy sredi krupnogo rogatogo skota, vypasayuschegosya na otgonnom pastbische [Features of the rinderpest pathogenesis in cattle on the pastures] / A.F.Alekhin, V.A.Mischenko // Voprosy veterinarnoy virusologii, mikrobiologii i epizootologii: materialy nauchnoy konferentsii VNIIVViM. – Pokrov, 1992. – P. 151-152.
2. Geneticheskaya kharakteristika vozbuditelya, epizootologiya i spetsificheskaya profilaktika chumy melkikh zhvachnykh [Genetical characteristics of causative agent, epizootology and specific prophylaxis of small ruminants pest] / A.M.Anoyatbekova [et al.] // Rossiyskiy veterinarny zhurnal (selskokhozyaystvennye zhivotnye). – 2015. – ¹ 4. – P. 36-38. 
3. Chuma melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh (sovremennoe sostoyanie, epizootologiya, spetsificheskaya profilaktika i mery borby) [Small ruminants pest: modern situation, epizootology, specific prophylaxis and control measures] / N.I.Zakutskiy, V.M.Balyshev, A.V.Knize [et al.] // Nauchny zhurnal Kubanskiy GAU. – 2012. – ¹ 83 (09). – P. 17.
4. Infektsiya virusom chumy melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh [Infection by virus of small ruminants pest] // Kodeks zdorovya nazemnykh zhivotnykh MEB [OIE Terrestrial Code]. – 2016. – P. 717-729.
5. Analiz epizooticheskoy situatsii i modelirovanie potentsialov nozoarealov ospy i chumy melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh do 2020 g. [Analysis of epizootic situation and modelling of nosoareals of pox and pest of small ruminants till 2020] / A.V.Knize, M.V.Bolgova, S.V.Parilov [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2016. – ¹ 1. – P. 11-16.
6. Monitoring mirovoy epizooticheskoy situatsii po chume melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh i prognoz ee rasprostraneniya v 2015-2018 gg. [Monitoring of global epizootic situation of small ruminants pest and prognosis of its spreading in 2015-2018] / A.V.Knize, S.V.Parilov, M.V.Bolgova [et al.] // Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoy biologii [Actual problems of veterinary biology]. – 2014. – ¹ 4 (24). – P. 15-20.
7. Monitoring po virusnym infektsiyam zhivotnykh na territorii Respubliki Tadzhikistan i Kyrgyzskoy Respubliki v 2014 g. [Monitoring of animal viral infections in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Kyrgyzstan Republic in 2014] / Zh.K.Koshemetov [et al.] // Vestnik Krasnodar GAU. – 2016. – ¹ 3. – P. 171-179.
8. Epizootologicheskaya situatsiya i mery borby po chume melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh v mire i na territorii Respubliki Tadzhikistan [Epizootologic situation and control measures against small ruminants pest in the world and in the territory of Tajikistan Republic] / E.K.Koshemetov, A.R.Sansyzbaev, I.Sattori [et al.] // Doklady Tadzhikistan Akad. Selkhoz nauk. – 2014. – ¹ 4. – P. 30-38.
9. Lunitsin, A.V. Chuma melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh [Small ruminants pest] / A.V.Lunitsin, A.E.Gogin, P.V.Ilyasov // Veterinariya. – 2017. – ¹ 5. – P. 3-9.
10. Massovaya gibel saygakov v Mongolii [Mass death of saigas in Mongolia] // Stepnoy bulletin. – 2017. – ¹ 49. – P. 5.
11. Epizooticheskaya situatsciya po chume melkikh zhvachnykh v stranakh Sredney Azii [Epizootologic situation of small ruminants pest in countries of Middle Asia] / D.M.Mirzoev, A.O.Abdulloev, A.A.Kolomytsev [et al.] // Vestnik Krasnodar GAU. – 2014. – ¹ 6. – P. 222-225.
12. Mischenko, A.V. O putyakh rasprostraneniya i mekhanizmakh peredachi virusa yaschura [On ways of spreading and the mechanisms of transmission of the foot and mouth disease virus] / A.V.Mischenko, V.A.Mischenko // Veterinariya. – 2015. – ¹ 1. – P. 19-22.
13. O roli dikikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh v rasprostranenii yaschura [About the role of wild ruminants in the spread of foot and mouth disease] / A.V.Mischenko, V.A.Mischenko, N.A.Yaremenko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2012. – ¹ 11. – P. 3-5.
14. Problema klinicheskoy diagnostiki yaschura u ovets i koz [The problem of clinical diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats] / A.V.Mischenko, V.A.Mischenko, V.N.Shevkoplyas [et al.] // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2016. – ¹ 6. –P. 8-10.
15. Problema massovoy gibeli saygakov [The problem of mass death of saigas] / A.V.Mischenko, V.A.Mischenko, A.K.Karaulov [et al.] // Veterinariya segodnya. – 2016. – ¹ 4 (19). – P. 40-45.
16. Chuma melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh [Small ruminants pest] / A.V.Mischenko, V.A.Mischenko, V.P.Melnikov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2016. – ¹ 9. – P. 3-9.
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19. O putyakh rasprostraneniya i mekhanizmakh peredachi virusa chumy melkikh zhvachnykh zhivotnykh / O.Yu.Chernykh, A.V.Mischenko, V.A.Mischenko [et al] [On ways of spreading and mechanisms of transmission of small ruminants pest virus] // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2016. – ¹ 4. – P. 7-9.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:579.842.14:636.4. STUDYING THE EFFICACY OF IMMUNOSTIMULATING AGENTS TO IMPROVE THE VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS OF PIG SALMONELLOSIS

   
Authors: Baratov M.O. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Mahachcala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru).

   
Abstract:
In the present work, the possibility of increasing postvaccinal immunity by some immunostimulating drugs (Prodigiazan, Methyluracil, T- and B-Activin) has been studied. Experiments were carried out on 50 pigs analogues of 20-day-old in a pig complex by a continuous farrowing system, where the cases of piglets mortality were systematically observed against the background of a decrease in the immunobiological status. Hematological and immunological studies have shown the presence of immunodeficient conditions in piglets of 2 months of age connected with the disintegration of maternal immunoglobulins and a protracted transition to the synthesis of their own. The resultiveness of specific prophylaxis was poorly effective. Using immunized form-vaccine the piglets were administered Prodigiozan 2 times with an interval of 7 days, Methyluracil, daily, orally for a week (7 days), T-activin, subcutaneously 3 times at intervals of 2 days, B-activin, 2-fold, subcutaneously, 5-10 days after immunization. Piglets were sampled blood at intervals of 5 days for 30 days to determine the titers of specific antibodies. The presence of antibodies was determined in the Indirect Hemagglutination Reaction with salmonella O - erythrocyte diagnosticum. According to the results of the studies, the weak stimulating post-vaccination immunogenesis was shown by the preparations, Prodigiazan, Methyluracil and T-Activin and comparatively high – by B-activin.

   
Keywords: salmonellosis, piglets, immunity, postvaccinal, immunodeficiency state, antibodies, vaccine prophylaxis, immunoglobulins, antisalmonella antibodies.
   
References:
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5. Gaydamaka, A.V. Issledovanie immunologicheskogo statusa sviney v promyshlennom komplekse v svyazi s vaktsinoprofilaktikoy salmonelleza: avtoref. dis. … kand. biol. nauk [The study of the immunological status of pigs in the industrial complex in connection with the vaccine prophylaxis of salmonellosis: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Biological Sciences] / A.V.Gaydamaka. – Harkov, 1990. – 23 p.
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7. Oreshkin, A.S. Rol uslovno-patogennoy mikroflory v zabolevaniyakh molodnyaka [The role of the conditionally pathogenic microflora in young animals diseases] / A.S.Oreshkin. – Veterinarnaya gazeta. – 2000. – ¹ 20. – P. 4.
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Title:

UDC 619:616.98:579.852.11-097:636.2 STUDYING THE IMMUNOLOGICAL STATUS OF HEADED CATTLE VACCINATED AGAINST ANTHRAX

   
Authors: Rodionov A.P. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The paper presents the study results of changes in anthrax antibody titer and the number of T and B lymphocytes in different terms after vaccination. The work was conducted in a farm of the Vysokogorskiy district of the Republic of Tatarstan, where 30 head cattles immunized against anthrax were collected. Blood samples from experimental animals were taken on the day of vaccination (background titer) and then after 7, 14, 21, 35, 62, 90, 153, 181 days. Antibody titers were determined using the "Kit of determination of antibodies in the serum of animals vaccinated against anthrax in the reaction of indirect hemagglutination (RHA)". The quantitative composition of immunocytes was studied according to the methodological recommendations “Immuno-cell test-system for assessing the effect of ionizing radiation on animals”. As a result of the work there was a need for more extensive studies to find the optimal terms for revaccination of susceptible head of livestock. Animals were found to have a T-cell immunity not depending on the number of B-lymphocytes and antibody titer in the process of immunogenesis at anthrax. 

   
Keywords: anthrax, immunogenesis, vaccination, cattle, antibodies, lymphocytes, RHA.
   
References:
1. Makarov, V.V. Mirovoy nozoareal sibirskoy yazvy [World nozoareal of anthrax]. / V.V.Makarov,O.I.Sukharev. // Veterinarnaya patologiya. – 2012. – ¹ 1 (39). – P. 7-15.
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  GENETICS OF FARM ANIMALS
   
Title:

UDC 636.082.2:636.034 COMPATIBILITY OF HIGH MILK PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN HOLSTEIN HEIFERS IN THE CONTEXT OF LEPTIN GENE (LEP) POLYMORPHISM

   
Authors: 1,2Safina N.Yu. – postgraduate student; 1Shakirov Sh.K. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 1Yulmetyeva Yu.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Akhmetov T.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture – Subdivision of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science “Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, Kazan (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).
2N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: natysafina@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
The genetic predisposition due to polymorphism of candidate genes responsible for reproductive qualities plays an important part in dairy cattle breeding along with such factors as feeding and keeping heifers before and after calving. The leptin gene is presumed to influence the transmission of the status of energy reserves to the central nervous system and serve as a regulator of feed intake and reproductive function in ruminants. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis about the possible influence of leptin gene polymorphism on the compatibility of high milk production and reproductive ability in Holstein heifers. In the course of the study on the leptin gene locus by PCR-RFLP, 172 heifers of Integrated Agricultural Production Centre “Stud farm named after Lenin” of Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan were genotyped. The studied gene is found to be polymorphic in the studied population. The genotype distribution of the leptin gene was as follows: ÑÑ – 35.5% (61 animals), ÒÑ – 53.3% (90 animals), ÒÒ – 12.2% (21 animals), the distribution in frequency of occurrence of alleles C and T was 0.62 and 0.38, respectively. The analysis of the studied livestock showed that the maximum milk yield for the first lactation was obtained from heifers with leptin genotype TT which exceeded the milk yield level of species with genotypes CC and TC by 459.1 kg (6.1%) and by 673.4 kg (8.9%; P≤0,01), respectively. The same group of animals was distinguished by later age and a high rate of live weight during the first fruitful insemination. It is also noted that against the background of the general extended service period and reduced calf crop index, the species with genotype LEPTT had a service period equal to 141 days and 78.6 live calves per 100 cows. Thus, the Holstein heifers bearing the homozygous allele Ò at the locus of the LEP gene are the desired type of animals for the breeding of high milk production combined with reproductive ability.

   
Keywords: gene, leptin, polymorphism, heifer, insemination, calving, reproductive function, calves, service period.
   
References:
1. Metabolic Parameters Concentrations In Blood Serum Of Czech Pied Bulls Depending On Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of Leptin Gene / A.Pavlík, P.Sláma, Z.Havlíček, R.Filipčík // Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. – 2014. – ¹. 3 (2). – P. 145-147.
2. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue / Y.Zhang, R.Proenca, M. Maffei [et al.] // Nature. – 1994. – ¹. 372. – P. 425-432.
3. Zieba, D.A. Regulatory roles of leptin in reproduction and metabolism: A comparative review / D.A.Zieba, M.Amstalden, G.L.Williams // Domestic Animal Endocrinology. – 2005. – ¹. 29. – P. 166–185.
4. Pankov, Yu.A. Belkovye gormony, retseptory i drugie belki v mekhanizmakh gormonalnoy regulyatsii [Peptide hormones, receptors and other proteins in the mechanisms of hormonal regulation] / Yu.A.Pankov // Biomeditsinskaya khimiya. – 2004. –Vol. 50 (2). – P. 122-135.
5. Molecular markers related to marbling in uruguayan Creole cattle / E.Armstrong, F.Penagaricano, R.Artigas [et al.] // Archivos de Zootecnia. – 2011. – ¹. 60 (231). – P. 707-716.
6. Assotsiatsiya polimorfizma gena-kandidata leptin s energiey rosta i fizicheskim razvitiem golshtinskogo krupnogo rogatogo skota  [Association of polymorphism in leptin candidate gene with energy of growth and physical development in Holstein cattle] / N.Yu.Safina, Yu.R.Julmetyeva, T.M.Akhmetov [et al.] // Veterinarny vrach. – 2017. – ¹ 6. – P. 52-56.
7. Terminy i opredeleniya, ispolzuemye v selektsii, genetike i vosproizvodstve selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Terms and definitions used in breeding, genetics and reproduction of agricultural animals] / I.M.Dunin [et al.]. – M.: VNIIplem, 1996. – 306 p.
8. Hot topic: An association between a leptin single nucleotide polymorphism and milk and protein yield / F.C.Buchanan, A.G.Van Kessel, C.Waldner [et al.] // Journal of Dairy Science. – 2003. – Vol. 86, Issue. 10. – P. 3164-3166.
9. Chasovschikova, M.A. Vliyanie servis-perioda na molochnuyu produktivnost korov cherno-pestroy porody [Service-period influence on black-marked breed cow’s milk productivity] / M.A.Chasovschikova // Bulletin of Krasnodar GAU. – 2012. – ¹ 10. – P. 136-138.
10. Tamarova, R.V., Ermishin, A.S. Sravnitelnaya otsenka po biologicheskim i hozyaystvenno poleznym kachestvam molochnogo skota zarubezhnoy i otechestvennoy selektsii [Comparative assessment of biological and economic-useful qualities of milk cattle of foreign and domestic selection] / R.V.Tamarova, A.S.Ermishin // Myasnoe i molochnoe skotovodstvo. – 2016. – ¹ 7. – P. 14-18.
11. Shatalov, S.V. Vliyanie urovnya razdoya pervotelok na produktivnost i dlitelnost ekspluatatsii molochnogo skota [Influence of the heifers milk yield level on the further milk productivity and duration of exploitation of dairy cattle] / S.V.Shatalov, V.K.Tomilin, V.S.Shatalov // Nauchny zhurnal Kubanskiy GAU. – 2012. – ¹ 77 (03). – P. 785-794.
12. Kononov, V.P. Problemy sovmestimosti vysokoy molochnoy produktivnosti, vosproizvoditelnoy sposobnosti i produktivnoy zhizni korov v sovremennom skotovodstve [The compatibility problem of high milk production, reproductive performance and productive longevity of cows in modern dairy cattle] / V.P.Kononov // Zootehniya. – 2013. – ¹ 1. – P. 40-45.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.082:636.034:575/577 ASSOCIATION OF POLYMORPHISM FOR ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN GENE WITH MILK PRODUCTIVITY AND MILK QUALITY OF COWS

   
Authors: 1,2Tyulkin S.V. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 1Zagidullin L.R. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1 Akhmetov T.M. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Shaydullin R.R. - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; 3Faizov T.H. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 4Efimova I.O. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: niskgavm@mail.ru).
2Kazan State Agrarian University, Kazan (e-mail: info@kazgau.ru).
3Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
4Chuvash State Agricultural Academy, Cheboksary (e-mail: vet1@academy21.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of research is to study milk productivity and milk quality of Black-and-White and Holstein breeds of heifers with different genotypes according to alpha-lactalbumin gene (LALBA). The studies were conducted in conditions of breeding reproducer of LLC "Dusym" of Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan on cross-bred animals of Black-and-White breed. As a result of molecular and genetic studies (PCR-RFLP-analysis) the animals were divided into groups depending on genotype for LALBA gene. The frequency of occurrence AA, AB and BB genotypes according LALBA gene in the studied cow population was 50.6%, 39.9% and 9.5%, respectively. The heifers with genotypes AB and BB for LALBA gene in comparison with heifers of AA genotype were found to exceed in milk yield by 473-660 kg (P<0.01-0.001), in the amount of milk fat - by 15.2-24.6 kg (P<0.01-0.001), in protein content in milk - by 0.01-0.04%, in the amount of milk protein - by 15.6-23.5 kg (P<0.001), in intensity of milk yield - by 0.06-0.11 kg/min. (P<0,05) and in milk yield per 1 day of lactation – by 1,7-2,3 kg (P<0.01-0.001). At the same time, animals with the AA genotype for LALBA gene, compared with analogues of the other genotypes, had the highest fat content in milk (3.87%), which is higher than that of AB genotype by 0.07% (P<0.05) and the BB genotype - by 0.02%. As a result, the studies have shown that the ratio of the heifers carrying in its genotype desirable B-allele of the LALBA gene in the population of cross-bred Black-and-White breed cattle was 49.4%. It should also be noted that the obtained results of research should be used in the breeding and improving dairy cattle of the Republic of Tatarstan.

   
Keywords: dairy productivity, milk fat and protein, qualitative parameters, polymorphism, genotype, LALBA, PCR, DNA.
   
References:
1. Akhmetov, T.M. Genotipirovanie korov po lokusam kappa-kazeina, beta-laktoglobulina i BLAD-mutacii [Studying of genotypes cows on loci kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and BLAD-mutation] / T.M.Ahmetov, S.V.Tyulkin, EH.F.Valiullina // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM. – 2011. – T. 205. – P. 11-17.
2. Harakteristika bykov-proizvoditeley s raznymi genotipami beta-kazeina po proiskhozhdeniyu [The characteristics of bull-producers with different genotypes of beta-casein by origin] / T.M.Ahmetov, S.V.Tyulkin, R.R.Vafin, I.F.Kabirov // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM. – 2012. – T. 210. – P. 14-20.
3. Optimizaciya sposobov genotipirovaniya krupnogo rogatogo skota po genu kappa-kazeina [An optimization of cattle genotyping means by kappa-casein gene] / R.R.Vafin, T.M.Ahmetov, EH.F.Valiullina [et al.] / Veterinarnaya praktika. – 2007. – ¹ 2. – P. 54-59.
4. Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologicheskie principy proizvodstva molochnykh konservov gerodieticheskogo naznacheniya [Scientific bases and technological principles of production of gerodietetic canned milk] / A.G.Galstyan, A.N.Petrov, I.A.Radaeva [et al.] // Voprosy pitaniya. – 2016. – T. 85, ¹ 5. – P. 114-119.
5. Uluchshenie kachestva molochnykh konservov za schyot ispolzovaniya pasterizovannogo moloka-syrya [Improvement of the canned milk products quality due to the application of the pasteurized raw milk] / A.G.Galstyan, I.A.Radaeva, V.V.CHervecov, [et al.] // Molochnaya promyshlennost. – 2015. – ¹ 5. – P. 42-44.
6. Gladyr, E.A. Diagnostika polimorfizma gena alfa-laktalbumina krupnogo rogatogo skota [Diagnosis of polymorphism for alpha-lactalbumin gene in cattle] / E.A.Gladyr, O.V.Kostyunina, N.A.Zinoveva // Sovremennye dostizheniya i problemy biotekhnologii selskohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Modern achievements and problems in biotechnologies of livestock animals]. – Dubrovicy, 2002. – P. 109-110.
7. Dolmatova, I.Yu. Ocenka geneticheskogo potenciala krupnogo rogatogo skota po markernym genam [Assessment of the cattle genetic potentials by marker genes] / I.Yu.Dolmatova, F.R.Valitov // Vestnika Bashkirskogo universiteta. – 2015. – T. 20, ¹ 3. – P. 850-853.
8. Kostyunina, O.V. Molekulyarnaya diagnostika geneticheskogo polimorfizma osnovnykh molochnykh belkov i ikh svyaz s tekhnologicheskimi svoystvami moloka: avtoref. diss. … kand. biol. nauk: 03.00.23 [Molecular diagnostics of genetic polymorphism of main milk proteins and their connection with technological properties of milk: abstract from Dis. … kand. of biol. sci. / O.V.Kostyunina. – Dubrovicy, 2005. – 21 p.
9. Polimorfizm bykoproizvodyaschikh korov holmogorskoy porody po genam molochnykh belkov [Polymorphism of bulls-mother cows of Kholmogor breed by milk proteins genes] / I.Yu.Pavlova, L.A.Kalashnikova, V.L.Yaluga, T.A.Rukhlova // Zootekhniya. – 2011. – ¹ 6. – P. 6-7.
10. Proizvodstvo molochnykh konservov: innovacii v formirovanii svoystv syrya [The canned milk production: innovations in the formation of raw materials properties] / A.N.Petrov, I.A.Radaeva, A.G.Galstyan, S.N.Turovskaya // Molochnaya promyshlennost. – 2010. – ¹ 5. – P. 74-77.
11. Rakina, Yu.A. Vzaimosvyaz polimorfizma genov alfa-laktoalbumina i beta-laktoglobulina korov s produktivnostyu i tekhnologicheskimi svoystvami moloka: avtoref. dis. … kand. s.-h. nauk [Correlation of polymorphism for genes of alpha-lactoalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin of cows with productivity and technological properties of milk: abstract from Dis. kand. of agric. sci.] / Yu.A.Rakina. – Ufa, 2013. – 21 p.
12. Ocenka molochnoy produktivnosti korov s raznykh porod v svyazi s polimorfizmom po genu alfa-laktalbuminu [Evaluation of milk productivity in cows of different breeds in connection with the alpalactalbumin gene polymorphism] / V.I.Seltsov, O.V.Kostyunina, Yu.P.Zagorodnev [et al.] // Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK. – 2013. - ¹ 3. – P. 57-60.
13. Harakteristika bykov-proizvoditeley s raznymi genotipa alfa S1-kazeina po proiskhozhdeniyu [The characteristics of bull-producers with different genotypes of alpha S1-casein by origin] / S.V.Tyulkin, T.M.Akhmetov, A.V.Muratova, R.R.Vafin // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM. – 2012. – T. 212. – P. 384-390.
14. Shaydullin, R.R. Ocenka polimorfizma gena kappa-kazeina u zhivotnykh cherno-pestroy porody [Evaluation of genetic polymorphism of kappa-casein gene in animals of Black-and White breed] / R.R.Shaydullin, A.S.Ganiev // Vestnik Ulyanovsk GSKHA. – Ulyanovsk, 2015. - ¹ 3 (31). – P. 104-109.
15. Haplotype Analysis Involving a Novel Polymorphism in Bovine Alpha-Lactalbumin 5/ Flanking Region / G.W.Kazmer, P.Zhou, J.L.Troyer, L.D.Strausbaugh / J.Dairy Sci. – 2001. – Vol. 84. – P. 1542-1544.
16. Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins: Quantitative variability and molecular diversity / P.Martin, L.Bianchi, C.Cebo, G.Miranda // Advanced dairy chemistry. Springer Science+Business, Media. – New York, 2013. Vol. 1A: Proteins: Basic Aspects, 4th ed. – P. 387-429. – [https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4714-6].

 
   
Title:

UDC 574.22:539.16:58(470.43) CONCENTRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN HONEY PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN REGIONS OF THE SAMARA REGION

   
Authors: Zalibina Y. N. - postgraduate student; Grigoriev V.S. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Samara State Regional Academy (Nayanova), Samara (e-mail: ula160688@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
The paper presents data on the results of the assessment of radioactive elements migration from soil, air and water entering the honey plants: linden, sunflower, buckwheat, maple and sainfoin, which are cultivated in the Southern and Eastern regions of the Samara region. According to the results of the study, the increased concentrations of K40 and Be7 in soil and air in the Southern and Eastern regions were found. The obtained maximum concentrations in soil, water and air are safe, but honey plants are more sensitive to radioactive contamination, which reduces the biological value of honey. Therefore, the environmentally harmless and biologically safe from radionuclides (Cs137) nectar is collected by bees from sainfoin (0.76 Bq/kg), sunflower (0.46 Bq/kg), Linden (0.26 Bq/kg) and buckwheat (0.15 Bq/kg). The highest concentrations of Ra226 were found in the flowers of sainfoin (9.12 Bq/kg), Th232 – in the flowers of buckwheat (9.06 Bq/kg). Such concentrations of radionuclides do not have harmful effects on living organisms, but reduce the quality of honey. Although, we must not forget about the feature of radioactive elements to accumulate, which subsequently has a harmful effect on humans.

   
Keywords: Eastern region, Southern region, Samara region, radioactive elements, honey plants, water, soil, air, concentration of radionuclides.
   
References:
1. Rasprostranenie radionuklidov vblizi uranovykh razrabotok [Spreading radionuclides in the vicinity of uranium developments] / D.A.Zaredinov [et al.] // Radiatsionnaya gigiena. – 2016. – Vol. 9, ¹ 4. – P. 37-40.
2. Ishemgulov, A.M. Otsenka kormovoy bazy zakaznika «Altyn Solok» kak osnova dlya sokhraneniya i razmnozheniya bashkirskoy bortevoy pchely / A.M.Ishemgulov [Åvaluation of the forage base of the Altyn Solok reserve as a basis for the preservation and reproduction of the Bashkir wild-bee] / Ishemgulov A.M. // Proceedings from the Orenburg State Agrarian University. – 2013 – ¹1 (39) – P. 239.
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