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¹ 5, 2018

  Radiobiology
   
Title:

UDC 619:615:616–001.17:616–001.28./29619:615:616–001.17:616–001.28./29 EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMBINED RADIATION AND THERMAL INJURIES

   
Authors: Gaynutdinov T.R. – Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Idrisov A.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Shashkarov V.P. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Tarasova N.B. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Guryanova V.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Analysis of the consequences of accidents at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the atomic bombing of Japanese cities showed that the striking factors in emerging critical situations were ionizing radiation, light and shock waves, etc. Therefore, along with the single-factor there are 2, 3, 4-factor combined radiation injuries (PKK). The most common are combined radiation and thermal injuries (CRTP), emerging as a result of exposure a body to ionizing radiation, radiation and/or thermal (as a result of fires) factors. In this connection, the methodological approaches and methods of burn wounds treatment sustained on the background of gamma radiation are very actual. Based on the abovementioned, the aim of the research was to find funds for the treatment of CRTP. The conducted studies showed the aggravating effect of ionizing radiation on the course and outcome of burn disease of the III B degree, the treatment schemes for CRTP were developed. The tested potential anti-fire preparations in the form of ointments VID and SVD with the concentration of the active substance of 20 and 10%, respectively, was experimentally established to have a pronounced therapeutic effect, which was manifested in an earlier rejection of the burn scab and healing of thermal damage in comparison with the control drug. 

   
Keywords: ointment, ionizing radiation, burn, clinic, pathogenesis, treatment.
   
References:
1. Budagov, R.S. Nekotorye posledstviya sistemnoy vospalitelnoy reaktsii v patogeneze otyagoscheniya iskhodov kombinirovannykh radiatsionno-termicheskikh porazheniy [Some consequences of systemic inflammatory reaction in the pathogenesis of aggravation of combined radiation and thermal injuries outcomes] / R.S.Budagov, L.P.Ulyanova; A.Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Center // Radiatsionnaya biologiya. Radioecologiya. – 2005. – Vol. 45, ¹ 2. – P. 191-195.
2. Veterinarnaya radiobiologiya-2012 [Veterinary radiobiology-2012] [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://handcent.ru/radiologiya/590-kombinirovannye-radiacionno-termicheskie-porazheniya.html.
3. Gaynutdinov, T.R. Poluchenie I izuchenie effektivnosti preparatov dlya terapii kombinirovannykh radiatsionno-termicheskikh porazheniy [Obtaining and studying the effectiveness of drugs for the treatment of combined radiation and thermal injuries ] / T.R.Gaynutdinov // Ekologiya I bezopasnost v tekhnosfere: sovremennye problem I puti ikh resheniya: materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh, aspirantov I studentov [Ecology and safety in the technosphere: modern problems and ways to solve them: proceedings from the All-Russian scientific and practical conference of young scientists, postgraduates and students]. – g.Tomsk, 23-25 November 2017. – Tomsk, 2017. – P. 582-586.
4. Izyskanie preparatov dlya lecheniya kombinirovannykh radiatsionno-termicheskikh porazheniy [Searching for drugs to treat combined radiation and thermal injuries ] / T.R.Gaynutdinov, V.P.Shashkarov, M.A.Idrisov [et al.] // Scientific-practical journal Veterinariya. Zootekhniya. Biologiya: nauchno-prakticheskiy zhurnal. – 2018. – ¹ 2. – C. 6-12.
5. Eksperimentalnoe issledovanie mekhanizmov fenomena vzaimnogo otyagoscheniya pri sochetannykh radiatsionnykh porazheniyakh I effektivnosti sredstv ego modifikatsii [Experimental investigation of mechanisms of the phenomenon of mutual aggravation in combined radiation injuries and the effectiveness of its modification means] / N.I.Zargarova, V.I.Legeza, A.N.Grebenyuk, A.Yu.Kondakov // Tezisy dokladov VII syezda po radiatsionnym issledovaniyam [Abstracts from the VII-th Congress on radiation research]. – Moscow, 21-24 October 2014. – M., 2014. – Ð.142–144.
6. Konyukhov, G.V. Novoe sredstvo dlya lecheniya ozhogov pri kombinirovannykh radiatsionno- termicheskikh porazheniyakh v usloviyakh eksperimenta [A new means for burns treating at combined radiation and thermal injuries in the experimental conditions] / G.V.Konyukhov, N.M.Pozdnyakova // Vserossiyskaya nauchnaya konferentsiya po problemam radiatsionnoy bezopasnosti [All-Russian scientific conference on radiation safety]. – Kazan, 23-24 June 2006. – Kazan. – P. 57-59.

  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.281: 615.9 ACUTE TOXICITY TEST OF ANTIVIRAL DRUG – TRIAZAVIRIN

   
Authors: Reshetnikova T.I. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk (e-mail: rechetnikova77@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The purpose of the study was investigation of acute toxicity of Triazavirin in test mice. The test was carried out on laboratory white outbred mice. During the first test with a single subcutaneous administration of the drug at a dose of 0.002 g dissolved into 0.2 ml of physiological solution in the back of 10 test mice there was no toxic effect found. According to the biochemical data from the second test it may be concluded that the drug at a dose of 0.002 g after administration to 20 g weighted mice during 14 days has a toxic effect on kidneys and liver; the drug administration causes active suppression of the thyroid function and typical reduction in T4 hormone synthesis. The drug administration in the third test at a dose of 0.01 g to test mice of 20 g in weight during 14 weeks caused leukocytosis in animals. Analyzing biochemical results, it may be concluded that the drug results in a significant increase in the creatinin level, causes the rise of the AST level up to ULN, and has a slight toxic effect on kidneys and liver. No lethality was recorded in all test groups. No acute toxicity parameters LD50were identified. So, following the results of the study it may be concluded that by the toxicity level this new antiviral drug belongs to the class of low-toxic compounds. 

   
Keywords: mice, Triazavirin, hematological and biochemical blood parameters, preclinical trials, acute toxicity.
   
References:
1. Godovalnikov, G.V. Sovremennoe lekarstvovedenie [Modern Pharmaceutical Science] / G.V.Godovalnikov. – Brest: OAO «Brestskaya tipografiya», 2008. – 520 p. 
2. Gosudarstvennaya farmakopeya Respubliki Belarus. T. 2. Kontrol kachestva vspomogatelnykh veschestv i lekarstvennogo rastitelnogo syrya [State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Belarus. Vol. 2. Quality control of auxiliary substances and herbal drug materials] / pod obsch. red. A.A.Sheryakova; Tsentr ekspertiz i ispytaniy v zdravookhranenii. – Molodechno: «Pobeda», 2008. – 472 p. 
3. Ischenko, V.I. Promyshlennaya tekhnologiya lekarstvennykh sredstv: uchebnoe posobie [Industrial Production of Pharmaceutical Products: textbook] / V.I.Ischenko. – Vitebsk: Izdatelstvo VGMU, 2003. – 568 p. 
4. Laboratornye zhivotnye. Razvedenie, soderzhanie, ispolzovanie v eksperimente [Laboratory Animals. Breeding, Keeping, Use in Experiments] / I.P.Zapadnyuk [et al.]. – Kiev: Vischa shk., 1983. – 383 p. 
5. Nadlezhaschaya laboratornaya praktika: Tekhnicheskiy kodeks ustanovivsheysya praktiki (TKP) 125-2008 (02040): utverzhden postanovleniem Ministerstva Zdravoohraneniya Respubliki Belarus 28.03.2008 g. – ¹ 56 [Good Laboratory Practice: Technical Code of Common Practice (TCP) 125-2008 (02040): approved by the resolution of the Ministry of Health of the Republic Belarus 28.03.2008. – ¹ 56]. – Minsk, 2008.
6. Rebrova, O.Yu. Statisticheskiy analiz meditsinskikh dannykh. Primenenie paketa prikladnykh programm STATISTICA [Statistical Analysis of Medical Findings. Use of Application Program Package STATISTICA] / O.Yu. Rebrova. – M.: MediaSfera, 2002. – 312 p. 
7. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novykh farmakologicheskikh veschestv [Guidelines for Experimental (Preclinical) Study of New Pharmaceutical Substances] / pod obsch. red. R.U.Habrieva. – 2-e izd., pererab. I dop. – M.: OAO «Izdatelstvo «Medicina», 2005. – 832 p. 
8. Rukovodstvo po provedeniyu doklinicheskikh issledovaniy lekarstvennykh sredstv. Chast 1 [Guidelines for Preclinical Studies of Pharmaceutical Products. Part 1]  / Predsedatel redakcionnoy kollegii A.N.Mironov. – M.: Grif i K, 2012. – 944 p. 
9. Ustroystvo, oborudovanie i soderzhanie eksperimentalno-biologicheskikh klinik (vivariev): Postanovlenie ¹131 ot 31.10.2006 g. ob utverzhdenii Sanitarnyh pravil i norm 2.1.2.12-18 [Arrangement, Equipment and Upkeep of Experimental and Biological Clinics (Vivaria): Regulation ¹ 131 ot 31.10.2006 g. on approval of Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.2.12-18]. – M., 2006.
10. Yudenko, O.A. Polozhenie o poryadke ispolzovaniya laboratornykh zhivotnykh v nauchno-issledovatelskikh rabotakh i pedagogicheskom protsesse Vitebskogo gosudarstvennogo meditsinskogo universiteta i merakh po realizatsii trebovaniy biomeditscinskoy etiki [Regulations on the Procedure for the Use of Laboratory Animals in R&D Activities and Educational Process at Vitebsk State Medical University and Measures for Implementation of Biomedical Ethics Requirements] / O.A.Yudenko, T.V.Buynova. – Vitebsk: VGMU, 2010. – 36 p.
11. European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes. – Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1986. – 51 p. 
12. Council Directive on the Approximation of Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Regarding the Protection of Animal Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes. – 1986. – 24.11. – 50 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.284 ANTIHELMINTICS RESISTANCE: THE PROBLEM AND MEANS TO OVERCOME IT

   
Authors: Kalinnikova T.B. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Gainutdinov M.Kh. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Shagidullin R.R. – Doctor of Chemistry, Corresponding Member of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences.
   
Address:
Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Kazan (e-mail: tbkalinnikova@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
Animal helminthosis is widespread in many countries of the world and causes a great economic damage to livestock both due to decrease of animal productivity and animal death. The use of anthelmintic drugs is the most effective way for treatment and prevention of animal helminthiases. The broad use of anthelmintics in livestock farming started in the middle of the XX century. In the present time there is numerous of scientific articles reporting about the decrease in effectiveness of many anthelmintic drugs. In some European countries and province of Quebec in Canada the free sale of anthelmintic drugs is prohibited by law. This article presents the reasons of parasitic helminths resistance to anthelmintic drugs and means to overcome it. The anthelmintic resistance of helminths appears to be a pre-adaptive heritable phenomenon. Regular prophylactic deworming of animals, long-time application of anthelmintics with the same mechanism of action and application of subtherapeutic doses of preparations - all lead to the increase of the percentage of animals resistant to these drugs. A combination drug strategy is discussed as the basic way to delay the progress of resistance to anthelmintic drugs. The conditions under which drug combinations would be most effective are discussed. This conditions are: (i) substances in complex drug must differ by mechanism of their action on organism; (ii) each substance must be present in complex drug in therapeutic dose; (iii) anthelmintics in the combination must have similar duration of persistent action. The rotation of anthelminthic drugs used to slow the occurence of drug resistance is not currently effective. In order to overcome the anthelmintic resistance along with the use of complex drugs the existing recommendations about prophylactic deworming must be revised. 

   
Keywords: animal helminthoses, anthelmintic drugs, benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles, macrocyclic lactones, drug resistance.
   
References:
1. Kaplan, R.M. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report / R.M. Kaplan // Trends Parasitol. – 2004. – Vol. 20. – P. 477–481. 
2. Kaplan, R.M. Prescripton-only anthelmintic drugs: the time is now / R.M.Kaplan // BioScience. – 2013. – Vol. 63. – P. 852–853.
3. Lalchhandama, K. Anthhelmintic resistance: the song remains the same / K.Lalchhandama // Sci. Vis. – 2010. –Vol. 10. – P. 111–122.
4. Coles, G.C. Drug resistance and drug tolerance in parasites / G.C.Coles // Trends Parasitol. – 2006. – Vol. 22. – P. 348.
5. Shalaby, H.A. Anthelmintic resistance; how to overcome it? / H.A.Shalaby // Iranian J. Parasitol. – 2013. – Vol. 8. – P. 18–32.
6. Besier, R.B. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes in Australia: the need for new approaches / R.B.Besier, S.C.J.Love // Aus. J. Exp. Agricul. – 2003. – Vol. 43. – P. 1383–1391.
7. Dent, J.A. What can Caenorhabditis elegans tell us about nematocides and parasites? / J.A.Dent // Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. – 2001. – Vol. 6. – P. 252–263.
8. Holden-Dye, L. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans / L. Holden-Dye, R.J.Walker. – Wormbook: The C. elegans Research Community, 2014. – 141 p. –http://www.wormbook.org.
9. Anthelmintic resistance in goats in peninsular Malaysia / P. Dorny, E. Claerebout, J. Vercruysse, R. Sani // Vet. Parasitol. – 1994. – Vol. 55. – P. 327–342. 
10. The problem of escalating resistance of H. contortus to the modern anthelmintics in South Africa // J.A. vanWyk, F.S. Malan, H.M. Gerber, R.M.R. Alves // Onderspoort J. Vet. Res. – 1989. – Vol. 56. – P. 41–49. 
11. Shoop, W.L. Ivermectin resistance / W.L.Shoop // Parasitol. Today. – 1993. – Vol. 9. – P. 154–159. 
12. Characterisation of an acetylcholine receptor gene of Haemonchus contortus in relation to levamisole resistance / R.Hoekstra [et al.] // Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. – 1997. – Vol. 84. – P. 179–187.
13. The role of combination anthelmintic formulations in the sustainable control of sheep nematodes / D.J. Bartram [et al.] // Vet. Parasitol. – 2012. – Vol. 186. – P. 151–158. 
14. Utzinger, J. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helmintiasis: common drugs for treatment and control / J. Utzinger, J. Keiser // Expert. Opin. Pharmacother. – 2004. – Vol. 5. – P. 263–285.
15. Fairweather, I. Triclabendazole: new skills to unravel and old(ish) enigma / I. Fairweather // J. Helmintol. – 2005. – Vol. 79. – P. 227–234. 
16. Drudge, J.H. Control of internal parasites of the horse / J.H.Drudge, E.T.Lyons // J.Am. Vet. Med. Ass. – 1966. – Vol. 148. – P. 378–383. 
17. Resistance to benzimidazoles anthelmintics  in equine strongyles. 1. Frequency, geographical distribution and relationship between occurrence, animal husbandry procedures and anthelmintic usage / J.Kelly [et al.] // Aust. Vet. J. – 1981. – Vol. 57. – P. 163–171.
18. Kaplan, R.M. An evidence-based approach to eguine parasite control: it ain't the 60s anymore / R.M.Kaplan, M.K.Nielsen // Equine Vet. Educ. – 2010. – Vol. 22. – P. 306–316. 
19. Barnes, E.H. Worm control and anthelmintic resistance – adventures with a model / E.H.Barnes, R.J.Dobson, I.A.Barger // Parasitol. Today. – 1995. – Vol. 11. – P. 56–63. 
20. Reinemeyer, R. Observations and equine strongyle control in southern temperate USA / R.Reinemeyer, J.Henton // Equine Vet. J. – 1987. – Vol. 19. – P. 505–508.

   
   
Title:

INVESTIGATION OF THE SELECTIVE SENSITIVITY OF CELL CULTURES IN VITRO TO THE EFFECT OF T-2 TOXIN

   
Authors: 1Mukhammadiev Rin.S. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Mukhammadiev Rish.S. – Junior Researcher; 1Birulya V.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Zalyalyutdinova L.M. – postgraduate student; 1Idiyatov I.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Gallyamova S.R. – Junior Researcher; 1Valiullin L.R. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Kazan Federal University, Kazan (e-mail:public.mail@kpfu.ru).
3Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, Kazan (e-mail: info@sportacadem.ru).
4Kazan State Medical Academy, Kazan (e-mail: ksma.rf@tatar.ru)

   
Abstract:
A study of the cytotoxicity of the T-2 toxin against human skin fibroblast (HSF) and cow embryo lung epithelial cell lines (LEK) was made. The cytotoxic effect of the toxin was determined by the survival of cell cultures using the standard MTT assay and expressed as IC50 values (the least concentration which produces 50% inhibition of growth). The combined incubation of T-2 toxin at concentrations of 2500-1.2 nM with human skin fibroblast (HSF) and cow embryo lung epithelial cell lines (LEK) led to inhibition of cell growth in culture. The most pronounced cytotoxic effect of the toxin was observed on HSF cells. T-2 toxin in the concentration range of 2500-1.2 nM exhibited a dose-dependent toxic effect against human skin fibroblast cell lines (IC50 121.05 ± 22.1 nM). A study of the morphology of the cultures after their combined incubation with T-2 toxin showed that lower doses of the toxin led to a change in the size, shape of the human skin fibroblast cells, their condensation, their isolation and loss of contact between them. High doses of the toxin led to the cell membrane degradation, prevented the cells to form a monolayer, the formation of unshaped cellular aggregates and the dying of the studied cells by high level of apoptosis. The toxin concentration at which the inhibition of growth of 50% of the cow embryo lung epithelial cell lines (LEK) was observed was above 2500 nM.

   
Keywords: T-2 toxin, cell culture, human skin fibroblast, cow embryo lung epithelial cell lines, morphology, survival, cytotoxicity.
   
References:
1. Bennett, J.W. Mycotoxins / J.W.Bennett, M.Klich // Clin Microbiol Rev. – 2003. – Vol. 16. – P. 497–516. 
2. Schlatter, J. Toxicity data relevant for hazard characterization / J.Schlatter // Toxicol Lett. – 2004. – Vol. 153. – P. 83–89. 
3. Metabolic pathways of trichothecenes / Q.Wu, V.Dohnal, L.Huang [et al.] // Drug Metab Rev. – 2010. – Vol. 42. – P. 250–267. 
4. Cytotoxicity and related effects of T-2 toxin on cultured Vero cells / C.Bouaziz, S.Abid-Essefi, A.Bouslimi [et al.] // Toxicon. – 2006. – Vol. 48. – P. 343–352. 
5. Pestka, J.J. Mechanisms of deoxynivalenol-induced gene expression and apoptosis / J.J.Pestka // Food Addit. Contam. Part A Chem. Anal. Control Expo. Risk Assess. –2008. – Vol. 25. – P. 1128–1140.
6. Li, D.T. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol-induced toxic effects on DF-1 cells in vitro: Cell-cycle arrest, oxidative stress, and apoptosis / D.T.Li // Environ Toxicol Phar. – 2014. – Vol. 37. – P. 141–149. 
7. Fang, H. T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in differentiated murine embryonic stem cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway / H.Fang // Apoptosis. – 2012. – Vol. 17. – P. 895–907. 
8. T-2 Toxin, a Trichothecene Mycotoxin: Review of Toxicity, Metabolism, and Analytical Methods. / Y.Li, Z.Wang, R.C.Beier [et al.] // Agric. Food Chem. – 2011. – Vol. 59. – P. 3441–3453.
9. Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment / S.Marin, A.J.Ramos, G.Cano-Sancho, V.Sanchis // Food and Chemical Toxicology. – 2013. – Vol. 60. – P. 218-237.
10. Mather, J.P. Introduction to cell and tissue culture. Theory and technique / J.P.Mather, P.E.Roberts. – New York: Plenum Press, 1998. – 200 p.
11. Lyagoskin, I.V. Validatsiya XTT-testa dlya otsenki antiproliferativnoy aktivnosti preparatov na osnove monoklonalnykh antitel [Validation of XTT Test for evaluation of the antiproliferative activity of drugs based on monoclonal antibodies] / I.V.Lyagoskin, M.A.Berestovoy, D.A.Poteryaev [et al.] // Biopreparaty. Profilaktika, diagnostika, lechenie. – 2015. – Vol. 1, ¹ 53. – P. 45-50.
12. Metabolism and cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin and its metabolites on human cells in primary culture / M.Königs, D.Mulac, G.Schwerdt [et al.] // Toxicology. – 2009. – Vol. 258. – P.106-115.
13. Kim, Y.W. Effects of T-2 toxin and its congeners on membrane functions of cultured human fibroblasts / Y.W.Kim, R.P.Sharma, Y.Elsner // Mycotoxin Res. – 1991. – Vol. 7. – P. 19-28.

  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.375:636.4 MICROFLORA OF SWINE GENITAL TRACTS AND ITS CORRECTION BY PREPARATIONS OF THE INTERFERON SERIES

   
Authors: Brigadirov Yu.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Kotsarev V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Shaposhnikov I.T. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Lobanov A.E. – Junior Researcher; Borisenko N.A. – Junior Researcher; Falkova Yu.O. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:
All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (e-mail: ldmvdc@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Among the great number of tasks of veterinary science in the field of pig industry, the problem of preserving the reproductive function of the sow-breeding stock takes quite a significant place. The increased microbe contamination of the environment leads to colonisation of genital tracts by conditionally pathogen and pathogen microflora, and subsequently to the development of inflammatory process in the uterus. The aim of the research was to study microflora of genital tracts in pigs during the reproductive cycle and the possibility of its correction by alpha and gamma interferons. The studies was carried out in the pig farms on 20 taken for the experiment sows at the 110-112 day of pregnancy and divided into two groups of 10 pigs in each. The sows of the first group were injected by alpha - and gamma pig recombinant interferons of 10ml to each animal parentally twice during the pregnancy with an interval of 48 hours and once on the first-second days after the farrows. Drugs were not appointed to the sows of the second group which served as a control. From 5 sows of each group at the beginning of the experiment (before drug prescription) on the 3-4th day of lactation and before weaning the probes of cervical uterine mucus were received to determine the quantity and quality composition of the microbiota. At the beginning of the experiment before the introduction of drugs the microflora of genital tracts was not found to significantly differ between the groups. Vagina biota of the sows of the experimental group on 3-4 days of lactation and before weaning was characterized by greater saturation of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, enterococcus. The intact animals had much less indigenous microflora: lactobacilli – by 80 and 50%, bifidobacterium – by 20% before weaning, but more pathogen lactosonegative escherichia – by 70 and 40%, St.aureus – by 100 and 80%, yeast-like fungi – by 80 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, using immunomodulatory drugs causes pharmacological effect reducing the degree of genital tracks insemination by the pathogen and conditionally pathogen flora and stabilizating the representatives of the indigene normal flora, thus preventing inflammatory processes in reproductive organs.

   
Keywords: sows, reproductive organs, microflora, alpha and gamma interferons.
   
References:
1. Printsipy profilaktiki akusherskikh oslozhneniy assotsiirovannykh s narusheniyami v sisteme gemostaza [Principles of prevention of obstetrical complications connected with disorders of the hemostatic system] [Text] / S.V.Barinov, I.V.Medyannikova [et al.] // Rossiysky vestnik akushera-ginekologa. – 2014. – ¹ 2. – Ð. 77–81.
2. Belokrinetskaya, T.E. Sostoyanie zaschitnykh system i ikh korrektsiya pri endometritakh posle rodov i kesareva secheniya [Ñondition of protection systems and their correction at endometritis after childbirth and Caesarian operation] [the Text] / T.E.Belokrinetskaya,Yu.A.Vitkovsky. – Chita: «Poisk», 1999. – 114 p.
3. Boyarintsev, L.E. Razrabotka i primenenie preparatov interferona i biologicheski aktivnykh dobavok v veterinarii: avtoref. dis. ... d-ra vet. nauk [Development and application of interferon drugs and biologically active additives in veterinary medicine: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Vet. Medicine] / L.E.Boyarintsev. – Voronezh, 2003. – 44 p.
4. Narusheniya immunnogo statusa pri razvitii u svinomatok skryto protekayuschego endometrita [Violations of immune status in the development of latent endometritis in pigs] [Text] / Yu.Brigadirov, V.N.Kotsarev, I.Shaposhnikov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2016. – ¹ 11. – Ð. 34-37.
 5. Rol mikrobnogo faktora v vozniknovenii i razvitii skrytykh vospalitelnykh protsessov v polovykh organakh svinomatok [The role of microbe factor in development of latent inflammatory processes in the genital organs of sows] [Text] / Yu.Brigadirov, I.T.Shaposhnikov, V.E.Michailov [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormlenie. – 2015. – ¹ 4. – Ð.14-17].
6. Antibiotikoresistentnost koagulazo otritsatelnykh stafilokokkov vydelennykh v statsionarakh Sankt-Peterburga i Moskvy [Antibiotic resistance of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated in hospitals of Sankt-Peterburg and Moscow] [Text] V.V.Gostev [et.al.] // Antibiotiki i khimioterapiya. – 2015. – ¹ 60. – Ð. 23-28.
7.Grechukhin, A.N. Rol mikrobnogo faktora v etiologii sindroma metrit-mastit-agalaktiya (MMA), ego profilaktika i lechenie v usloviyakh svinovodcheskogo kompleksa: avtoref. dis. ... kand. vet. nauk [The role of microbe factor in etiology of the syndrome of metritis, mastitis, agalactia (MMA), its prevention and treatment in conditions of pig complex: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Vet. Science] / A.N.Grechukhin. – L., 1982. – 18 p.
 8. Gridyaev, E.L. Rol mikrobnogo faktora i rezistentnosti u sviney v etiologii poslerodovykh bolezney i sredstva ikh profilaktiki: avtoref. dis. ... kand. vet. nauk [The role of microbe factor and swine resistance in the etiology of postnatal diseases and their prevention: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Vet Science] / E.L.Gridyaev. – Voronezh, 1987. – 21 p.
9.Gruzdev, K.N. Interferony v veterinarii: obzornaya informatsiya [Interferons in Veterinary Medicine: overview] / K.N.Gruzdev. – M.: VNIIIIiTEI agroproma, 1989. – 51 p.
10 Korobov, N.A. Antibiotikoresistentnost gramotritsatelnoy mikroflory, vydelennoy iz metroaspirata u rodilnits s poslerodovym endometritom [Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative microflora isolated from metroaspirat in swines with postnatal endometritis] [Text] / N.A.Korobov // Uralsky meditsinsky zhurnal. – 2015. –¹ 3. – Ð. 73-78.
11. Kotsarev, V.N. Antimikrobny preparat dinopen dlya terapii svinomatok pri poslerodovykh zabolevaniyakh [Antimicrobic drug dinopen for therapy of postnatal swine diseases] [Text] / V.N.Kotsarev, V.Yu.Boev // Veterinariya. – 2011. –¹ 11. – Ð. 42-44.
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Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.828.11 A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EPIZOOTIC SITUATION OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN FOR 2016

   
Authors: Budulov N.R. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Musaeva M.N. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Salikhov Yu.S. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Shikhragimov E.M. – Junior Researcher; Gaydarbekova H.M. – Researcher.
   
Address:
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute FASO Russia, Makhachkala (e-mail: mila-nazarova@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Based on the results of clinical, hematological and serological studies, significant spread of bovine leukemia virus in the population of cattle was established. For the year of observations the infection rate of the virus and the incidence of leukemia in animals was, respectively, 12.5 and 29.1% from the number of investigated animals. In the agricultural farms BLV infection was diagnosed in 18.4% of animals, in peasant farms – in 19.0%, in households – in 6,1% of animals. From the 88 households 48 (54.5%) were successful for BLV infection, in 40 (45.5%) households the infection of the animals ranged from 0.4% to 93.0%. From 32 farms 12 (37.5%) were successful for leukemia, in peasant farms and households, respectively, 2 (40.0%) and 34 (66.7%). Bovine leukemia in the Republic of Daghestan is not spreaded equally. The greatest number of sick animals was found in pedigree farms and farms where cattle of high productivity is kept. So, for 2016, in 16 breeding farms by serologic RID method 4821 heads of cattle were examined, 1051 or 21.8% seropositive animals were revealed from the number of examined. Hematologic method revealed 26.6% leukemia sick animals, and suspect in the disease – 13.7%. On January 1, 2017 there were 8 unsuccessful officially announced in 2012 leukemia sites left in the Republic of Daghestan: in the Kizilyurt district – 1 point (A/F U.Buynaksky SPK), Khunzakh (SPK «Red Partizan» and LLC NPF «Plemservice») and Kulinsky districts (p/kh «Kulinskoye», SPK «Aminova») – two points each, Kazbekovsky – 3 (SPK «Druzhba», GUP «Dylymsky» and SPK «New Life»), the newly revealed ones were not found. All these points are breeding farms, and they continue to remain unsuccessful to the present time. 

   
Keywords: leucosis of cattle, bovine leukemia virus, hematologic and serologic studies, leukemia-infected object, immunoprecipitation test, The Republic of Daghestan.
   
References:
1. Dinamika rasprostraneniya leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Dagestan [Dynamics of bovine leukemia spread in the Republic of Daghestan] / N.R.Budulov, E.M.Shikhragimov, Yu.S.Salikhov [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormlenie. – 2017. – Vol. 5. – P. 23–25.
2. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po diagnostike leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Methodical recommendations to detect bovine leukemia] / M.I.Gulyukin, G.A.Simonyan, N.V.Zamaraeva [et al.]. – M., 2000. – 22 p.
3. Metodicheskie recomendatsii po epizootologicheskomu issledovaniyu pri leykoze krupnogo rogatogo skota [Methodical recommendations on epizootological study of bovine leukemia] / M.I.Gulyukin, P.N.Smirnov, V.V.Razumovskaya [et al.]. – M., 2001. – 28 p.
4. Monitoring epizooticheskoy situatsii po leykozu krupnogo rogatogo skota v tovarnykh I plemennykh khozyaystvakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2014–2015 gody [Monitoring of the epizootic situation of bovine leukemia in commodity and breeding farms of the Russian Federation for 2014–2015] / M.I.Gulyukin, I.I.Barabanov, L.A.Ivanova [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormlenie. – 2016. – Vol. 4. – P. 5–41.
5. Ob utverzhdenii gosudarstvennoy programmy Respubliki Dagestan na 2017–2020 gody «Osnovnye napravleniya po obespecheniyu I razvitiyu veterinarnoy sluzhby Respubliki Dagestan na 2017–2020 gody»: postanovlenie Pravitelstva Respubliki Dagestan ot 24 oktyabrya 2016 goda, ¹ 305 [On approval of the State program of the Republic of Daghestan «The main directions on the provision and development of the veterinary serves of the Republic of Daghestan on 2017–2020»: resolution of the Government of the Republic of Daghestan on October 24 2016, ¹ 305]. – Makhachkala, 2016. – 38 ð.
6. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya po sotsialno-znachimym i osobo opasnym boleznyam zhivotnykh v Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2016 god [Epizootic situation on socially significant and particularly dangerous diseases of animals in the Russian Federation for 2016] / V.N.Shevkoplyas, V.N.Borovoi, Yu.I.Barsucov [et al.] // Ezhegodny sbornik «Biznes-Partner. Selskoe khozyaystvo Rossii». – M, 2017. – P. 22–25.
7. http://milknews.ru/index/novosti-moloko_3564.html.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.831.31-085:636.083.143:615.37 THE INFLUENCE OF THE ÀSSOCIATION OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE BODY OF CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF VIRAL ETIOLOGY

   
Authors: Scherbakov P.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Stepanova K.V. – lecturer; Scherbakov N.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Scherbakova T.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
South Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk (å-mail: scherbakov_pavel@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The incidence of respiratory diseases in calves largely depends on both the circulation of pathogens and on the concentration of ammonia and temperature regimes. This is mostly confirmed when breeding calves using "cold" method. To implement this method, the main conditions are the presence of warm bedding and good ventilation, because under the influence of low temperatures on the calves’ body the thermoreceptors are excited and drive mechanisms adaptating to cold. Before the production experiment to study the influence of symbiotic microflora on the allocation of abiogenic factors in the "cold" method of calfbreeding, we studied the epizootological situation for respiratory diseases in the Chelyabinsk region. As a result of the analysis of the epizootological situation, there was a conclusion of a wide-spread circulation of viral infection and a high calves mortality rate in the farms of these regions. The most difficult situation was observed in Limited Liability Company (LLC) «Uyskiy» of Uyskiy district of Chelyabinsk region, therefore, the production experiments were carried out on the basis of this farm. The use of the developed biological preparation in deep litter led to a decrease in ammonia in the superstructure air layer of the experimental group of calves on the 30th day by 2.3 times and after 60 days by 3.6 times relatively to the beginning of the experiment. At the same time, the concentration of ammonia in the control group of calves increased by 1.1 times on the 30th day of experiment as compared to the first study, and on the 60th day of experiment there was an increase in the concentration of ammonia by 1.5 times in the superstructure layer of air as compared to the concentration of ammonia on the 1st day of the study. According to the analysis of the data obtained, the temperature increase in the litter of both groups was noted, so in the litter of the control group after 30 days the temperature increased by 2 times relative to the first day of study, and after 60 days – by 2.6 times. In the litter of the experimental group after 30 days, the temperature rose by 4.5 times compared to the first day of study, and after 60 days – by 5.3 times. In the course of production experience, the decrease in ammonia concentrations and the rise in temperature of the litter had a positive influence on the calves’body of the experimental group, which had been shown in the improvement of the hematological status of calves and immunological response of their organisms.

   
Keywords: viruses, ammonia, respiratory diseases, symbyotic microflora, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes.
   
References:
1. Akhmerova, N.M. Nespetsificheskaya bronkhopnevmoniya [Nonspecific bronchopneumonia] / N.M.Akhmerova // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2007. – ¹ 2. – P. 51
2. Belov, L.N. Probiotiki v selskom khozyaistve [Probiotics in agriculture] / L.N.Belov // AgroPress. – 2008. – ¹ 5. – Ð. 36-38.
3. Belkin, B.L. Vliyanie microklimata na phiziologicheskie funktsii telyat [Influence of microclimate on physiological functions of calves] / B.L.Belkin // Veterinaria. – 1998. – ¹ 7. – Ð. 52.
4. Glotov, A.G. Rasprostranenie virusnykh respiratornykh bolezney krupnogo rogatogo scota [Spread of viral respiratory diseases in cattle] / A.G.Glotov, O.G.Petrova, T.I.Glotova // Veterinaria, 2002. - ¹3. – P. 17-21.
5. Stepanova, K.V. Assotsiatsiya «abiogennykh» I «biogennykh» faktorov, kak glavnaya sostavlyayuschaya v techenii I iskhode respiratornykh bolezney telyat v khozyaystvakh Chelyabinskoy oblasti [Association of "abiogenic" and "biogenic" factors as the main component in the course and outcome of respiratory diseases of calves in the farms of the Chelyabinsk region] / K.V.Stepanova // Nauchnoe obespechenie innovatsionnogo razvitiya APK: materialy VIII Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. «Industrializatsiya – osnova novogo ekonomicheskogo rosta gosudarstva» [Scientific support of innovative development of agriculture: Proceedings of the VIII International scientific and practical conference "Industrialization is the basis of a new economic growth of the state"]. – Kostanai: Kostanai Dulatov Engineering-Economic University, 2016. – P. 120-121.
6. Stepanova, K.V. Faktornaya vzaimosvyaz v mekhanizme vozniknoveniya respiratornykh bolezney telyat v khozyaystvakh Chelyabinskoy oblasti [Faktor correlation in the mechanism of occurrence of respiratory diseases in calves at farms of the Chelyabinsk region] / K.V.Stepanova // Veterinarnaya meditsina – agropromyshlennomu kompleksu Rossii. Tom 211 [Veterinary medicine – for the agro-industrial complex of Russia. Vol. 211]. – Chelyabinsk: FGBOU VO «South Ural State Agrarian University», 2017. – P. 173-177.
7. Scherbakov, P.N. Preparaty dlya molodnyaka [Drugs for young cattle] / P.N.Scherbakov // Zhivotnovod. – 2002. – ¹ 2. – P. 34.
8. Scherbakov, P.N. Profilaktika I lechenie pri zheludochno-kishechnykh I respiratornykh boleznyakh telyat [Prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves] / P.N.Scherbakov, A.G.Gusev // Veterinariya. – 2002. – ¹ 3. – P. 15-16.
9. Profilaktika zheludochno-kishechnykh I respiratornykh bolezney porosyat [Prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in piglets] / P.N.Scherbakov, L.Malyavina, T.B.Scherbakova, E.Nagovitsina // Svinovodstvo – 2002. –¹ 5. – P.25.
10. Scherbakov, P.N. Osobennosti vozniknoveniya I techeniya respiratornykh bolezney telyat v khozyaystvakh Chelyabinskoy oblasti [Features of occurrence and course of respiratory diseases in calves at farms of the Chelyabinsk region] / P.N.Scherbakov, V.K.Stepanova, N.P.Scherbakov // Vestnik Altaiskogo Gosudarstvennogo Agrarnogo Universiteta. – 2016. –¹ 12. – P. 104-107.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.842.1:577.2 ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR IDENTIFICATING ANTIBODIES TO THE PROTEIN P30 OF THE AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS

   
Authors: 1Verkhovsky O.A. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Tsibezov V.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Alekseev K.P. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Kozlov A.Yu. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Kostina L.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Vlasova N.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 3Chernykh O.Yu. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Aliper T.I. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Diagnostic and Prevention Research Institute for Human and Animal Diseases, Moscow (e-mail: info@dpri.ru).

2Federal Centre for Animal Health (ARRIAH), Vladimir (e-mail: vlasova_nn @ arriah.ru).

3Kropotkin Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Kropotkin (e-mail: gukkvl50@kubanvet.ru).

   
Abstract:
The recombinant protein p30 (rec-p30) of African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been synthesized and specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to this protein have been obtained. The test-system in the format of solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to identify ASFV-antibodies. The ELISA has demonstrated 97,5 % sensitivity and 100% specificity. Using ELISA the ASFV- antibodies are found to be detected on 9 – 11 days post infection. The high efficiency of practical application of ELISA to identify virus-specific antibodies in ASFV animals has been demonstrated. The algorithm of diagnostic studies for ASFV in the background of occurrence of moderate virulent isolates of ASFV has been discussed. 

   
Keywords: African swine fever, ASF virus, recombinant protein p30 ASFV, monoclonal antibodies, virus-specific antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
   
References:
1. Biologicheskie svoystva virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney, vydelennogo v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Biological properties of African swine fever virus isolated in Russian Federation] / V.M.Balyshev, V.V.Kurinnov, S.Zh. Tsybanov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2010. – ¹ 7. – P.25-27.
2. Virulentnost izolyatov virusa ACHS [Virulence of isolates of African swine fever virus] / S.A.Belyanin [et al.] // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2011. – ¹ 5. – P. 9-10. 
3. Sereda, A.D. Antigennoe raznoobrazie virusov afrikanskoy chumy sviney [Antigenic diversity of African swine fever viruses] / A.D.Sereda, V.M.Balyshev // Voprosy virusologii. – 2011. – Tom. 56, ¹ 4. – P. 38-42. 
4. Shevchenko, I.V. Biologicheskie svoystva i analiz polnykh genomov rossiyskikh izolyatov virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney, vydelennykh v 2013-2014 gg: dis. … cand biol. nauk. [Biological properties and analysis of full genoms of Russian isolates of African swine fever viruse, isolated in 2013-2014: dissertation for Candidate of Biological Sciences] / I.V.Shevchenko. – Vladimir, 2017.
5. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya po ACHS v RF i stranakh vostochnoy Evropy (po dannym MEB na 27.10.2017 g.) [Elektronny resurs] [Epizootic situation for African swine fever in Russian Federation and countries of Southern Europe (according to OIE for 27.10.2017]. – Rezhim dostupa: http://www.fsvps.ru/fsvps-docs/ru/iac/asf/2017/10-27/05.pdf (30.10.2017).
6. Serodiagnosis of african swine fever using the recombinant protein p30 expressed in insect larvae / M.G.Barderas, A.Wigdorovitz, F.Merelo [et al.] // J. Virol. Methods. – 2000. – Vol. 89. – Ð. 129-136.
7. Genotyping field strains of African swine fever virus by partial p72 gene characterization / A.D.Bastos [et al.] // Archives of Virology. – 2003. – Vol. 148. – P. 693–706. 
8. African swine fever virus serodiagnosis: a general review with a focus on the analyses of African serum samples / C.Cubillos [et al.] // Virus Res. – 2013. – Vol. 173 (1). – P.159-67.
9. Current of ASF situation in Latvia / S.Cvetkova [et al.] // Workshop on Laboratory Diagnosis and Control of CSF and ASF. – Hannover, Germany, 2016. – P. 11. 
10. Epidemiological analyses of African swine fever in the Baltic States and Poland: (Update September 2016–September 2017) / K.Depner [et al.] // EFSA Journal November 2017. – 15(11), DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5068 
11. Freitas T.R.P. African swine fever virus low and moderate virulence strains infections in Brazilian outbreaks / T.R.P.Freitas, T.M.de Paula Lyra – New York, 1978 / https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259570847.
12. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs / C.Gallardo [et al.] // Journal of Clinical Microbiology. – 2015. – Vol. 53(8). – P.2555-2565.
13. Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Antibodies in Serum and Oral Fluid Specimens Using a Recombinant Protein 30 (p30) Dual Matrix Indirect ELISA. PLOS ONE / L.G.Giménez-Lirola [et al.] | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0161230 September 9, 2016.
14. Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization / P.Gomez-Puertas [et al.] // J.Virol. – 1996. – Vol. 70. – P. 5689–5694.
15. The African Swine Fever Virus Proteins p54 and p30 Are Involved in Two Distinct Steps of Virus Attachment and Both Contribute to the Antibody-Mediated Protective Immune Response / P.Gomez-Puertas [et al.] // Virology. – 1998. – Vol. 243. – P.461-471.
16. Recombinant Protein p30 for Serological Diagnosis of African Swine Fever by Immunoblotting Assay / A.S.Kazakova [et al.] // Transbound Emerg Dis. – 2017. – Oct. – ¹ 64 (5). – P. 1479-1492. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12539. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
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18. Genetic characterization of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks at the wildlife/domestic interface in Mozambique and identification of a novel genotype / C.J. [et al.] // Transbound Emerg Dis. – 2017. – P. 1–12. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12700.
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Title:

UDC 619:614.2: 334:636.7/.8 METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINING ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF VETERINARY MEASURES IN DISEASES OF SMALL UNPRODUCTIVE ANIMALS

   
Authors: Zhuravel N.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Kolobkova N.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Scherbakov P.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Zhuravel V.V. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
South Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk (e-mail: scherbakov_pavel@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
In the field of veterinary care for small unproductive animals there is no precise methodology for the economic evaluation of veterinary measures. The basis for the formation of methodological principles for calculating the economic efficiency of veterinary measures in diseases of small unproductive animals were the provisions of normative legal documents, the results of current research of the scientific school under the guidance of Professor I.N.Nikitin, the results of own researches on the economic analysis of a number of measures which are carried out in veterinary institutions of Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Orenburg regions. An algorithm of actions is proposed that represents the complex and sequence of actions for calculating economic indicators determining the effectiveness of the proposed methods of prevention and treatment of small unproductive animals in veterinary facilities. Veterinary costs represent the payment for the services in a veterinary treatment and preventive institution. The value of the economic effect is determined by the cost of an animal, which can be established when taking into account various factors. A program has been developed in the Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet, which allows you to automate processes according to the recommended methodology, the use of which will enable animal owners to pre-evaluate measures carried out in a specific treatment and preventive institution. 

   
Keywords: small unproductive animals, veterinary treatment and preventive institutions, economic efficiency, economic effect, veterinary measures, actual economic damage, veterinary costs.
   
References:
1. Trofimova, E.N. Osobennosti normirovaniya truda veterinarnykh spetsialistov, obsluzhivayushchikh neproduktivnykh zhivotnykh [Specific features of labour standardization of veterinarians which care for unproductive animals] / E.N.Trofimova // Voprosy normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii. – 2011. – ¹ 3. – P. 31-35.
2. Metodika opredeleniya ekonomicheskoy effektivnosti veterinarnykh meropriyatiy [Metodology of determining the economic efficiency of veterinary measures] // Veterinarnoe zakonodatelstvo. T.1, pod redaktsiey V.M.Avilova. – M.: Roszoovetsnabprom, 2000. – P. 293-326.
3. Nikitin, I.N. Organizatsiya veterinarnogo dela [Veterinary Management] / I.N.Nikitin. – SPb.: Lan, 2012. – 288 p.
4. Nikitin, I.N. Praktikum po organizatsii veterinarnogo dela i predprinimatelstvu [Practical book on Veterinary Management and Veterinary Enterpreneurship] / I.N.Nikitin. – M.: KolosS, 2007. – 311 p.
5. Trofimova, E.N. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost profilakticheskikh protivoepizooticheskikh meropriyatiy pri boleznyakh sobak i koshek [Economic efficiency of preventive antiepizootic measures in dogs and cats diseases] / E.N.Trofimova // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsiny im. N.E.Baumana. – 2012. – T. 211. – P. 463-468.
6. Trofimova, E.N. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost hirurgicheskikh sposobov lecheniya sobak i koshek [Economic efficiency of surgical treatment of dogs and cats] / E.N.Trofimova // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsiny im. N.E.Baumana. – 2012. – T. 211. – P. 457-463. 
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Title:

UDC 619:617-089.67 THE USE OF A BREAST FLAP IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SKIN DEFECTS IN THE ELBOW JOINT AREA IN DOGS

   
Authors: 1,2Barsegyan L.S. – postgraduate student, veterinarian; 1,2Yagnikov S.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Center for Veterinary Surgery «VetProfAlliance», Moscow (e-mail: barsk.admin@gmail.com).

2Agrarian Technological Institute of People's Friendship University of Russia, Moscow.

   
Abstract:
The article considers the use of a full-layer return breast flap in the reconstruction of canine skin defects in the elbow joint area after elbow hygroma excision when there are chronic wounds in the elbow joint area. A retrospective evaluation of primary and long-term results of surgical intervention are presented. Six clinical cases are considered. In the early postoperative period on day 2-3, edema of the tissues of the return flap and active transudation through the drainage system was noted in all the cases. Edema of the flap abated on the 7-8th day. In the early postoperative period the condition of the displaced flap was assessed as good in 3 of 6 cases. In one case, local necrosis of the skin flap of 3.0 sm diameter and suture failure in the area of perifocal inflammation was detected. The suture failure was revealed in two cases with a chronic wound in the elbow appendage. Subsequently, it needed surgical treatment and installing external fixation device for immobilization of the elbow joint for the time till the suture coalesce. When considering the results of the wound reconstruction in the long-term period (on 40-180 days) all the dogs had a cosmetic defect in the form of an excessive cutaneous covering in the area of the operating wound. Despite the described complications, the use of a breast tissue flap for reconstruction of cutaneous defects in the area of elbow joint may be considered effective and less traumatic comparing to other displaced return full-layer flaps. 

   
Keywords: chronic wound, elbow hygroma, skin plastic, plastic with breast tissue flap, reconstructive surgery, dog.
   
References:
1. Anderson, D.M. A novel axial pattern skin flap based on the lateral thoracic artery in the dog / D.M.Anderson, T.C.Charlesworthi, R.A.S.White // Veterinary and Comparative Orthopedics and Traumatology. – 2004. – Vol. 17, ¹ 02. – P. 73-77. 
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Title:

UDC 619:618.14-002.2: 615.38:636 APPLICATION OF OZONE MINOR AUTOHEMOTHERAPY IN CASE OF CHRONIC AND SUBCLINICAL ENDOMETRITIS IN COWS

   
Authors: Skopin A.E. – postgraduate; Konopeltsev I.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov (e-mail info@vgsha.info).

   
Abstract:
One of the main problems of dairy cattle breeding is low reproductive function of cows, because of their high disease rates of various forms of endometritis, its chronic progress is of special problem. So, the purpose of the article was to study the therapeutic effectiveness of complex therapy with the use of ozone minor autohemotherapy in case of chronic and subclinical chronic endometritis in cows. The studies were performed with the cows of round the year stable keeping in the Kuibyshev collective farm of the Nizhny Novgorod region. A certified medical ozone generator was used in the work. In the complex treatment of cows with chronic and subclinical endometritis, we used minor autohemotherapy. Blood from the jugular vein canned with citric acid sodium was treated with an ozone-oxygen mixture with an ozone concentration of 20 mg / l at the ratio of 1:1. Then this blood was administered subcutaneously four times at doses of 50, 75, 100, 75 ml with the interval of 48 hours. The use of ozonated autoblood in complex treatment of animals with chronic endometritis increases the effectiveness of measures by 12.1%, and it reduces the period from cows recovery to pregnancy (by 24.2 days). In the process of treatment, the amount of introducing antimicrobial agents into the metra decreases by 0.5, and in case of the artificial insemination of experimental animals it decreases spermodosis by 0.9. Recovering of cows occurred against a background of a significant increase in several characteristics: blood serum bactericidal activity increased by 58.4%, immunoglobulins increased by 41.5%, and also small and medium circulating immune complexes increased by 35.8%, large circulating immune complexes increased by 21.0 %. The use of ozonated blood  in 86.4% of cases ensures the restoration of reproductive ability in cows recovered from subclinical endometritis, with the fertility rate being 1.7, and it reduces the number of endometrial injections of etiotropic agents by 1.3 and it reduces the infertility period by 23 days. In their blood, blood serum bactericidal activity increased from 20.5% to 51.5%, and the number of circulating immune complexes, depending on their size increased by 20% ... 34.4%, the level of total immunoglobulins decreased from 22.2 to 12.5 g / l. Ozonated autoblood as a part of complex schemes of cows therapy against chronic and subclinical chronic endometritis ensures their recovery and insemination in 77,3 % and 86,4 % of cases with insemination rates 1,9 and 1,7, respectively, reduces the period from the treatment beginning to pregnancy by 24,2 and 23 days and by 0,5-1,5 – the amount of introducing antimicrobial agents into the metra. 

   
Keywords: chronic endometritis, subclinical endometritis, therapy, ozonated autoblood, immunity, cows.
   
References:
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