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น 4, 2018

  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

UDC 619: 615: 616.99 STUDY OF ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE DRUG FOR VETERINARY USE "INSPECTOR QUADRO"

   
Authors: 1ArisovM.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 2Belykh I.P. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Artemov V.V. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
1All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants named after K.I.Skryabin (e-mail: arisov_vet@mail.ru).

2JSC "Research and Production Company "Ekoprom" (e-mail: belykh@ekoprom.org).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of studying the allergenic properties of the new combined drug for veterinary use "Inspector Quadro" (praziquantel, fipronil, pyriproxifen, moxidectin) intended for the treatment and prevention of arachnoentomosis, nematodosis, cestodosis in dogs and cats. For the study, 50 guinea pigs weighing 300-320 g were taken. Epicutaneous sensitization was carried out on 40 guinea pigs by 20 repeated (5 times per week) cutaneous applications on the sides of the trunk without wool 2 x 2 cm in a dose of 0.05 ml (1 drop) solution, applying a uniform layer on the entire site. Ten days after sensitization, the cutaneous (epicutaneous), intradermal, conjunctival and nasal samples were performed; serum from sensitized and control animals was tested in an indirect mast cell degranulation (NTDT) reaction. 10 sensitized guinea pigs and 10 non-sensitized controls were used for each sample (saline was applied). When assessing the epicutaneous test, it was established that within 72 hours after the application of the preparation to the sensitized and control animals, the treated areas did not differ in the pattern of the skin reaction (absence of hyperemia, infiltration) in the experimental and control guinea pigs. When the intradermal test was performed after 48 hours, slight peeling was observed on the skin of the sensitized and control guinea pigs. Fixed deviations during 12 hours of observation, with conjunctival and nasal samples in both groups, indicate a mild effect of the drug on the mucous membranes. The indicators obtained during the reaction of indirect degranulation of mast cells did not differ in the groups of sensitized and control animals, which also indicated the absence of allergic properties in the preparation. On the basis of the obtained test results the preparation with a 20-fold cutaneous sensitization in a dose of 0.05 ml is not found to cause allergenic activity of animal’s organism.

   
Keywords: drug, solution, praziquantel, fipronil, pyriproxifen, moxidectin, sensitization, degranulation, guinea pigs.
   
References:
1. Ado, A.D. Obshchaya allergologiya [General Allergology] / A.D.Ado. – M.: Medicine, 1978. – 426 p.
2. Alekseeva O.G. Allergiya k promyshlennym himicheskim soedineniyam [Allergy to industrial chemicals] / O.G.Alekseeva, L.A.Dueva. – M.: Medicine, 1978. – 271 p.
3. Kurochkina, K.G. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po opredeleniyu allergennyh svojstv novyh protivoparazitarnyh preparatov [Guidelines for determining the allergenic properties of new antiparasitic drugs] / K.G.Kurochkina. – M., 2009. – 15 p.
4. Metody opredeleniya sensibilizacii organizma zhivotnyh. Metodicheskie rekomendacii [Methods for determining the sensitizing animals. Guidelines]. – Novocherkassk, 1987. – 31 p.
5. The Rules of work with experimental animals: ๎rder of the Ministry of Health of the USSR number 755 of 12.08.77. – ฬ., 1977. – 7 ๐.
6. Radunskaya, S.F. Test nepryamoj degranulyacii TK krys, kak metod ocenki specificheskoj aktivnosti infekcionnyh allergenov: abstract dis. … candidate of biological sciences: 14.00.36 [Test of indirect degranulation of mast cells of rats, as a method of evaluation of the specific activity of infectious allergens] / S.F.Radunskaya. – M., 1982. – 16 p.
7. Fradkin, V.A. Allergodiagnostika in vitro [Allergodiagnostics in vitro] / V.A.Fradkin. – M.: Medicine, 1975. –143 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.371 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTION OF THE CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM A NEW NEUROTOXIC COMPLEX TYPE A BY CONCENTRATION AND EMBOSSING BY SULFURIC AMMONIUM

   
Authors: 1Mustafina E.N. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Mustafin T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Sadykov N.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

2The company "PromAseptika", Kazan (e-mail: swa862@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
One of the main tasks for developing new ways of diagnosing and treating botulism is to study its toxins. For this reason, in this study we compare and evaluate two methods of obtaining and accumulating a native neurotoxic complex (toxin) Cl. Botulinum type A. The first method of obtaining and accumulating a neurotoxic complex is the toxin concentration by an inorganic binary compound, an ammonium salt of sulfuric acid. The second method follows the way of salting out the native neurotoxic complex (toxin) Cl. Botulinum type A, the same ammonium sulfate, but under other conditions, the amount and method of introducing it into the culture liquid. Along with the foregoing, the methods differ in the preparation of the culture fluid obtained from Clostridium botulinum type A. Based on the results of experiments comparing methods of production and accumulation of the native neurotoxic complex (toxin) Cl. Botulinum type A, the most effective and specific, is the method of concentration of toxin by ammonium sulfate.

   
Keywords: botulism, toxin, ammonium sulfate, concentration, salting out.
   
References:
1. Nikiforov, V.V. Botulizm: uchebno -metodicheskoye posobiye dlya vrachey [Botulism: educational and methodological manual for physicians] / V.V.Nikiforov, N.A.Malyshev, B.I.Sanin // – M., 2003. – 32 p.
2. Mezhgosudarstvennyy standart (GOST 10444.7-86) ซMetody vyyavleniya botulinicheskikh toksinov i Clostridium botulinumป [Interstate Standard (GOST 10444.7-86) "Methods for the detection of botulinum toxins and Clostridium botulinum"] – M., 2002. – 28 p.
3. Nikiforov, V.N. Botulizm [Botulism ] / V.N.Nikiforov, V.V.Nikiforov // – M.: Medicine, 1985. – 198 p.
4. Ivanova, M.A. Botulizm: ucheb.-metod. posobiye [Botulism: the teaching method. allowance]  / MA Ivanova // – Minsk: BSMU, 2009. – 24 p.
5. Lindstrom, M. Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection and Identification of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B, E and F in food and fecal material / M.Lindstrom, R.Keto, A.Markkula, S.Hielm, H.Korkeala // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. – Dec 2001. – P. 5694–5699.
6. Kislenko, V.N. Veterinarnaya mikrobiologiya i immunologiya [Veterinary microbiology and immunology] / V.N.Kislenko, N.M.Kolichev, R.G.Gosmanov // GEOTAR-Media, 2012. – 746 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616-001.28/.29:636:612.014.482 INFLUENCE OF APIPHYTOPREPARATION “VITA-FORCE M” ON OXIDATIVE RADIATION STRESS

   
Authors: Tukhfatulov M.Z. – applicant.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The model of the experimental radiation stress (RS) was applied on 40 white rats divided into four groups: 1 group – experimental animals; 2 group – animals exposed to radiation; 3 group – irradiated and taken stress protector apiphytopreparation “Vita-Force M” followed by exposure. The modeling of radiation stress was carried out by once external exposure of animals at a dose of 7.7 g on the gamma-installation “Puma” with radiation source of Co 60. Every day, the animals was taken 0.1 g/kg apiphytopreparation “Vita-Force M” with feed for 10 days before exposure (3 group) and for 10 days after exposure (4 group). To evaluate antioxidant efficacy of the preparation we studied degree of malonic dialdehyde accumulation as well as activity of one of the main enzymes of antioxidant protection - peroxidase. The radiogenic stress was found to induce the intensification of lipid peroxidation processes, increasing the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the blood serum by 39.8% compared to the control while inhibiting the activity of peroxidase enzyme. The use of apiphytopreparation on the background of radiogenic stress was accompanied by a favorable course of acute radiation sickness (survival rate of 66% with 100% death of lethally irradiated animals), at which peroxidase activity and MDA concentration were close to those of the control (nonirradiated) group.
   
Keywords: radiogenic stress, gamma-exposure, enzyme of antioxidant protection – peroxidase, the product of peroxidation malondialdehyde, apiphytopreparation “Vita-Force M”.
   
References:
1. Baraboy, V.A. Perekisnoe okislenie I radiatsiya [Peroxide oxidation and radiation] // V.A.Baraboy, V.E.Orel, I.M.Karnoukh. – Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1991. – 256 p.
2. Patent RF น 2522339, ฬPส ภ23ส 1/16, A23K 1/00. Naturalnaya biologicheski aktivnaya kormovaya dobavka “Vita-Force M” [Natural biologically active additive “Vita-Force M”] / A.V.Ivanov [et al]; applicant and patentee FGBU “FCTRB-VNIVI”. – น 2013108131/13; declared 22.02.2013; published 10.07.2014, Bulletin น 19. – 8 p. 
3. Zinkov, N.K. Okislitelny stress [Oxidative stress] / N.K.Zinkov, V.Z.Lomkin, E.B.Menshikova. – M.: Nauka, 2004. – 343 p.
4. Kudryashov, Yu.B. Rol radiotoksinov v realizatsii luchevykh porazheniy [The role of radiotoxins in the implementation of radiation damages] / Yu.B.Kudryashov, E.N.Goncharov // Informatsionny blog Radiobiologii. – 1964. – Issue 30. – P. 3–5.
5. Kushmanova, O.D. Rukovodstvo k laboratornym zanyatiyam po biologicheskoy khimii [Manual to laboratory studies in biological chemistry] / O.D.Kushmanova, G.M.Ivanchenko. – M.: Medicina, 1983. – 267 p.
6. Halliwell, B. Free Radicals in biology and medicine. – Oxford: Univ. Press, 2002. – 936 p.
  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

UDC 619:599.735.5:616-002.5:579.873.21:616-097 SYNTHETIC POLYPEPTIDE pMPB70 DETECTS SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE WITH TUBERCULOSIS

   
Authors: 1,2Shuralev E.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Faizov T.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Professor; 1Khammadov N.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Osyanin K.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Usoltsev K.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1,2Aleksandrova N.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

2Kazan Federal University, Kazan (e-mail: public.mail@kpfu.ru).

   
Abstract:
The evaluation of the antigenic activity of the engineered synthetic polypeptide of the immunogenic epitope MPB70 for the detection of specific antibodies in cattle tuberculosis (CRS) is considered. Using the bioinformatic analysis, the antigenic determinant of the MPB70 protein, the most specific for the virulent strains of Mycobacterium bovis, was determined. At the next step, a polypeptide pMPB70m was designed and synthesized which was used as an antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The readings of the IFA response with serum samples from 54 animals from healthy farms were 0.050 ... 0.350 OD, which was interpreted as a negative. When 47 samples of blood serum from the farm with persisting tuberculosis were tested by ELISA, the antibodies to pMPB70m were detected at a high level (0.500 ... 3.500 OD) in 19 animals and were interpreted as positive, in 6 animals the results were at a low level (0.360 ... 0.470 OD) and interpreted as. Inconclusive. In 22 animals, the specific antibodies were not detected, and the ELISA results were in the range of 0.050 ... 0.350 OD, which were interpreted as negative. The ELISA mean values of the optical density in the groups were: 0.175ฑ0.102 OD for negative, 0.415ฑ0.044 OD for inconclusive, and 1.199ฑ0.788 OD for positive samples. The interpretation of the ELISA results with the antigen pMPB70m was statistically confirmed to be reliable (p<0.05) when using the criteria: ≤0.350 OD – the result was negative; 0.350 ... 0,500 OD – the result was inconclusive; ≥0.500 OD – the result was positive. Thus, the high antigenic activity of pMPB70m for the detection of specific antibodies in cattle with tuberculosis was confirmed.

   
Keywords: Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, cattle, antigens, antibodies, serological diagnosis.
   
References:
1. Problema nespetsificheskikh reaktsii na tuberkulin i sovershenstvovaniye simultannoi probi dlya diagnostiki tuberkuleza krupnogo rogatogo skota [The problem of nonspecific reaction to tuberculin and development of simultaneous probe for bovine tuberculosis diagnostics] / A.H.Naymanov, G.I.Ustinova, N.G.Tolstenko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2015. – น 6. – ะ. 20–25.
2. Sovershenstvovaniye simultannoi tuberkulinovoi probi dlya differentsiatsii nespetsificheskikh reaktsii u KRS [Development of simultaneous probe for differentiation of nonspecific reactions in cattle] / A.H.Naymanov, G.I.Ustinova, N.G. Tolstenko [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormleniye. – 2016. – น 1. – ะ. 11–13.
3. Oschepkov, V.G. Novyi perspektivnyi allergen (NPA) dlya diagnostiki tuberkuleza u zhivotnikh [New promising allergen (NRA) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in animals] / V.G.Oschepkov, N.N.Koshcheev // Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK. – 2015. – น 29 (10). – ะ. 91–94.
4. Makarov, Yu.A. Viyavleniye nekultiviruyemykh form mikobakterii tuberkuleza pri latentnom techenii infektsii [Detecting noncultivated forms Mycobacteria of tuberculosis at the latent course of an infection] / Yu.A.Makarov, N.E.Gorkovenko, I.Yu.Makarov // Rossiysky zhurnal ซProblemy veterinarnoi sanitarii, gigieny i ekologiiป. – 2017. – น 2. – ะ. 54–58.
5. Makarov, Yu.A. Viyavleniye krupnogo rogatogo skota so skritym techeniem tuberkuleznoy infektsii [Identification of cattle with a hidden course of tuberculosis infection] / Yu.A.Makarov, N.E.Gorkovenko // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2015. – น 6. – ะ. 4–5.
6. PCR na sovremennom etape borbi s tuberkulezom krupnogo rogatogo skota [Using PCR for bovine tuberculosis control in the present time] / A.K. Naimanov, E.P. Vangely, N.G. Tolstenko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2016. – น 2. – ะ.20–23.
7. Differentsialnaya diagnostika tuberkuleza u cheloveka i zhivotnikh s primeneniem multipleksnoi test-sistemy [Differential diagnostics of tuberculosis in humans and animals using a multiplex test system] / N.M.Aleksandrova, N.I.Khammadov, E.A.Shuralev [et al.] // Molekularnaya diagnostika 2017: proceedings of IX Russian research conference with international participation. – M.: ซYulisป, 2017. – P. 493.
8. Valeeva, A.R. Vliyaniye intoksikatsii kadmiyem na antitelogenez krolikov pri eksperimentalnom infitsirovanii Mycobacterium bovis [Cadmium-intoxication impact on antibody response of experimentally Mycobacterium bovis infected rabbits] / A.R.Valeeva // Veterinarny vrach. – 2016. – น 3. – ะ. 48–55.
9. Funktsionirovaniye i serologicheskaya aktivnost ekstrakta kletok i produktov ekspressii Mycobacterium bovis [Functioning and serological activity of the extract of cells and products of Mycobacterium bovis expression] / E.A.Shuralev, K.S.Khaertynov, A.R.Valeeva [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormleniye. – 2017. – น 3. – ะ. 103–105.
10. Iziskaniye ekspress metoda diagnostiki tuberkuleza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Finding a rapid method of bovine tuberculosis diagnostics] / R.G.Ilyazov, T.A.Yakhno, R.A.Khamzin [et al.] // Ucheniye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsini im. N.E. Baumana. – 2014. – น 220 (4). – ะ. 115–118.
11. Ispolzovaniye ekspress-testa Bovine TB dlya provedeniya skriningovykh issledovaniy na tuberkulez krupnogo rogatogo skota [Using express-test Bovine TB for undertaking screening studies on bovine tuberculosis] / D.N.Mingaleev, R.Ch.Ravilov, N.I.Sadykov [et al.] // Ucheniye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsini im. N.E.Baumana. – 2016. – น 225 (1). – ะ.50–52.
12. Jakait, J.A. Dot-blot IFA test-sistema dlya viyavleniya antitel k mikobakteriyam tuberkuleza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Dot-blot immunoanalysis test-system for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacteria of bovine tuberculosis] // Ucheniye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsini im. N.E.Baumana. – 2017. – น 231. – ะ. 37–40.
13. Viyavleniye spetsificheskikh antitel u vapiti pri tuberkuleze [Detection of specific antibodies in elk infected by tuberculosis] / E.A.Shuralev, M.N.Mukminov, C.Whelan [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2013. – น 8. – ะ. 54–57.
14. Shuralev, E.A. Mikobakterialnye antigeny: sinteticheskie peptidy i rekombinantnye belki [Mycobacterial antigens: synthetic peptides and recombinant proteins] / E.A.Shuralev // Ucheniye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsini im. N.E.Baumana. – 2013. – น 216. – ะ. 403–407.
15. Multiplex immunoassay for serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle / C.Whelan, E.Shuralev, G.O'Keeffe [et al.] // Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. – 2008. – น 15 (12). – ะ. 1834–1838. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00238-08.
16. Performance of the Enferplex TB assay with cattle in Great Britain and assessment of its suitability as a test to distinguish infected and vaccinated animals / C.Whelan, A.O.Whelan, E.Shuralev [et al.] // Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. – 2010. – น 17 (5). – ะ. 813–817. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00489-09.
17. Use of a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect a subpopulation of Mycobacterium bovis-infected animals deemed negative or inconclusive by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin skin test / C.Whelan, E.Shuralev, H.F.Kwok [et al.] // Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. – 2011. – น 23 (3). – ะ. 499–503.
18. Multipleksniy IFA s khemilyuminestsentoy metkoy dlya diagnostiki tuberkuleza u kabanov [Multiplex ELISA with chemiluminescent label for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in wild boars] / E.A.Shuralev, M.N.Mukminov, A.R.Valeeva [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2013. – น 2. – ะ. 25–28. 

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.824.11 EVALUATION OF SUITABILITY OF THE ISOLATED ANTIRABIC GLOBULINS FOR METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS: ELISA AND MFA

   
Authors: 1Efimova M.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1Mukhamedzhanova A.G. – postgraduate; 1Chernov A.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1,2Khaertynov K.S. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Akhmadeev R.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Nasyrov Sh.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Samerkhanov I.I. – Researcher Officer; 1Aleeva Z.Z. – Researcher Assistant; 1Arutyunyan G.S. – Researcher Assistant; 1Yarullina G.M. – Researcher Assistant.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: antonina-95@yandex.ru).
2Kazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Kazan.

   
Abstract:
To isolate and purify antirabic immunoglobulins we used serum of sheep immunized with a highly purified rabies virus antigen from the strain “Ovechiy” of the GNKI. The globulin isolating was carried out by the method of triple reprecipitation with a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, with subsequent dialysis in the buffer system, which resulted in the preparation of purified fractions. For the preliminary evaluation of these fractions activity we used electrophoresis in a 7.5% separating polyacrylamide gel. This characteristic of the investigated fractions was confirmed by the method of indirect immunoenzyme (ELISA) with homologous and heterologous antigens of the rabies virus. Subsequently, the obtained immunoglobulins were labelled with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) followed by gel filtration using gel Sefadex G-250. The activity and specificity of fluorescent immunoglobulins were assessed by the method of fluorescent antibodies (MFA) in brain prints of mice infected with rabies virus and Aujeszky's disease virus, in brain prints of intact mice as well as according to indicators of concentration of labelled protein and the molar ratio of FITC / protein. We identified the most active immunoglobulin fractions and determined their optimal working dilutions, that in prospects will make it possible their using as specific components of express test systems to diagnosing rabies based on ELISA and MFA.

   
Keywords: rabies virus, antirabic immunoglobulin, electrophoresis, immunoenzyme analysis, immunofluorescence.
   
References:
1. Gulyukin, A.M. Znachimost sovremennyh metodov laboratornoy diagnostiki I indikatsii vozbuditelya beshenstva dlya immunologicheskogo monitoringa dannogo zoonoza [The importance of modern methods of laboratory diagnosis and indications of rabies for the immunological monitoring of this zoonosis] / A.M.Gulyukin // Voprosy virusologii. – 2014. – น 3. – P. 5–10.
2. Monitoring beshenstva u dikih zhivotnyh v Bryanskoy oblasti [Monitoring of rabies in wild animals in the Bryansk region] / A.L.Elakov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2015. – น1. – P. 11–14.
3. Vydelenie, ochistka I otsenka serologicheskoy aktivnosti antigenov virusa beshenstva [Isolation, purification and evaluation of serological activity of rabies virus antigens] / M.A.Efimova [et al.] // Problemy osobo opasnyh infekciy. – 2017. – น 4. – P. 27–30.
4. Razrabotka I primenenie immunoglobulinov diagnosticheskih fluoresciruyushchih dlya vyyavleniya vozbuditeley kampilobakterioza, leptospiroza [Development and using immunoglobulins diagnostic fluorescent for detection of causative agents of campylobacteriosis, leptospirosis] / I.V.Zharnikova [et al.] // Meditsinskiy vestnik Severnogo Kavkaza. – 2006. – น1. – P. 12–14.
5. Movsesyants, A.A. Beshenstvo: osobennosti sovremennoy epizooticheskoy I epidemiologicheskoy situatsii v Rossii [Rabies: features of the modern epizootic and epidemiological situation in Russia] / A.A.Movsesyants // Epidemiologiya I vaktsinoprofilaktika. – 2011. – น5(60). – P.4–5.
6. Cherkasskiy, B.L. Epidemiologicheskiy nadzor za beshenstvom v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Epidemiological surveillance of rabies in the Russian Federation] / B.L.Cherkasskiy, O.S.Hadartsev, A.A.Movsesyants // Bulleten ซVakcinatsiya. Novosti vaktsinoprofilaktikiป. – 2005. – น1 (37). – P. 7–8.
7. Laemmli, U.K. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4 / U.K. Laemmli // Nature. – 1970. – น 227(5259). – ะ. 680–5.
8. Meslin, F.X. Laboratory techniques in rabies / F.X.Meslin, M.M.Kaplan, H.Koprowski // Laboratory techniques in rabies. 4-th ed. – Geneva: WHO, 1996. – P. 9–27.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:579.841.93 STUDY OF CULTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BRUCELLAS ABORTUS IN VARIOUS DEGREES OF DISSOCIATION

   
Authors: Kosarev M.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Fomin A.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Safina G.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Science; Grigorieva S.A. – Research Assistant; Tuhvatullina L.A. – Research Assistant.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The purpose of the research was to study the cultural and morphological properties of Brucella in different degrees of dissociation. Cultural and morphological properties of strain of Brucella B. abortus R-1096 were studied in comparison with control strains B. abortus 19 (S-form) and 82 (SR-form) in the set of tests: speed and character of growth on nutrient elective media – liver-peptone glucose-glycerol agar (PPGA), growth on nutrient media with dyes (thionin 1:25 million, 1:50k; 1:100k; 1:50k; 1:100 thousand), hydrogen sulfide ability, the need for an increased content of carbon dioxide, color of the colonies at white-Wilson, sensitivity to penicillin (0.5; 5; 50; 100 U/ml), antigenic properties of cultures using specific Brucella S- and R-serums and minor "A" and "M" of the serum, the sample of thermoagglutination, test with trypaflavine (acriflavine). The culture of the strain R-1096 in all terms of thermoagglutination registring as well as in the sample with tripaflavin showed a positive results. The most intense release of hydrogen sulfide was registered in R-1096 in comparison with other vaccine strains of B. abortus – 19 and 82. Strain R-1096 showed the growth in all dilutions of aniline dyes and also showed continuous growth in media where the concentration of drug was 0.5 – 5.0 and 50 U/ml. The study of cultural and morphological properties of Brucella in different degrees of dissociation showed the distinctive properties of the culture of the R-1096 strain in comparison with other studied strains in all tests.

   
Keywords: brucellosis, dissociated form, cultural and morphological properties.
   
References:
1. The new global map of human brucellosis / G.Pappas, P.Papadimitriou, N.Akritidis, L.Christou // Lancet Infect Dis. – 2006. – Vol. 6. – P. 91-99.
2. Brucella as a biological weapon / G.Pappas, P.Panagopoulou, L.Christou, N.Akritidis // Cellular and molecular life sciences CMLS. – 2006. – Vol. 63. – P. 2229–2236.
3. Solera, J. Update on brucellosis: therapeutic challenges / J.Solera // International journal of antimicrobial agent. – 2010. – Vol. 36. – P. 18–20.
4. Modulation of Brucella-induced macropinocytosis  by lipid rafts mediates intracellular replication / M.Watarai, S.Makino, Y.Fujii, K.Okamoto // Cellular Microbiology. – 2002. – Vol. 4. – P. 341–355.
5. Pizarro-Cerda, J. Invasion and intracellular trafficking of Brucella abortus in nonphagocytic cells / J. Pizarro-Cerda, E.Moreno, J.P.Gorvel // Microbes and Infection. – 2000. – Vol. 2. – P. 829–835.
6. Vector development for the expression of foreign proteins in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S 19 / D.J.Comerci, G.D.Pollevick, A.M.Vigliocco, A.C.Frasch // Infect Immun. – 1998. – Vol. 66. – P. 3862–3866.
7. Metabolic control of virulence genes in Brucella abortus. HutC coordinates virB expression and the histidine utilization pathway by direct binding to both promoters / R.Sieira, G.M.Arocena, L.Bukata, D.J.Comerci // J.Bacteriol. – 2010. – Vol. 192. – P. 217–224.
8. Extensive cell envelope modulation is associated with virulence in Brucella abortus / J.Lamontagne, H.Butler, E. Chaves-Olarte [et al.] // J Proteome Res. – 2007. – Vol. 6. – P.1519–1529.
9. Zhilina, N.J. Brucelles v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2001 – 2005 godah [Brucellosis in the Russian Federation in 2001-2005] / N.J.Zilina // Sanitarnij vrach. – 2007. – Vol. 6. – P.14–21.
10. Rusanova, D.V. Epidemiologicheskie osobennosti brucellesa v Stavropolskom krae [Epidemiological features of brucellosis in the Stavropol region] / D.V.Rusanova, G.I.Lyamkin // Problemi osobo opasnih infekcij. – 2010. – Vol. 3. – P.27–30.
11. Lyamkin, G. I. Epidemiologicheskaj obstanovka po brucellesu v Yuzhnom federalnom okruge [The Epidemiological situation for brucellosis in the Southern Federal district] / G.I.Lyamkin // Problemj sovremrnnoj epidemiology. Perspektivnie sredstva i metodi laboratornoi diagnostiki i profilaktiki aktualnih infectij: Tr. Vseros nauch. conf.; 19–20 Noyabr. 2009. – SPb, 2009. – P. 242. [The problems of modern epidemiology. Prospective means and methods for laboratory diagnostics and prevention of actual infections: proceedings of All-Russian conf., November 2009. – SPb, 2009. – P. 242.]
12. Kologorov, A.I. Epidemiologicheskaya situatsiya po prirodno-ochagovym i zoonoznym infektsiaym v Privolzhskom federalnom okruge v 2000 – 2009 i prognoz na 2010 [The Epidemiological situation on natural-focal and zoonotic infections in the Volga Federal district in 2000 – 2009 and forecast for 2010] / A.I.Kologorov // Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsiy. – 2010. – Vol. 104. – P. 5–10.

  GENETICS OF FARM ANIMALS
   
Title:

UDC 636.082.232 THE ORETICAL ASPECTS OF ENSURING INFECTIOUS WELL-BEING IN POULTRY FARMING AND SWINE BREEDING BY USING BREEDING METHODS AND MOLECULAR-GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DNA

   
Authors: 1Afonyushkin V.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Donchenko N.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Bushmeleva P.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Barsukova M.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 3Frolova ฮ.ภ. – Research Assistant.
   
Address:
1Siberian Federal Scientific Centre of Agro-BioTechnologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoobsk (e-mail: lisocim@mail.ru).

2Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk (e-mail: rector@nsau.edu.ru).

3Krasnoyarsk Research Institute of Animal Husbandry – Separate Division of the Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center” of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (e-mail: kristal_o@bk.ru).

   
Abstract:
The high intensity of production, the high concentration of animals and poultry per unit area, the large size of agricultural enterprises in the Russian Federation – all have a significant impact not only on the growth of animal infection but also create the prerequisites for the emergence of new infections, including potentially dangerous for humans. Associative genetic studies are needed to find markers of resistance to infection by vertically transmitted infectious agents or to more carefully select breeding animals that are not infected with actual infectious agents (pathogens of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in birds, pathogens of the reproductive and respiratory syndrome, swine fever in pigs). Modern methods for assessing genetic diversity should be used more widely, including when controlling the movement of livestock products from epizootic unsuccessful farms and vaccine preparations (for the source of origin of the appropriate batch of vaccine). The molecular genetics control of the breeding centers of birds and pigs both domestic and supplied from abroad is of great importance. Identifying the genetic heterogeneity of the party of parental forms makes us doubt that these animals really came from the corresponding tribal center, and are not rejected individuals from an epizootically unsuccessful enterprise. Molecular genetics methods for estimating the genetic diversity of agricultural animals are of more utilitarian interest. For example, the identification of counterfeit vaccines by identifying cell culture lines or lots of developing chick embryos on which vaccine strains of viruses were cultivated plays an important role in ensuring the country's infectious safety. It seems promising to adapt the SNP analysis to the minimum park of equipment available in veterinary and genetic laboratories and institutions, as well as the development of point-of-care testing for the most popular tests. The latter direction is developing especially quickly and is closely connected with informatization and application of various kinds of household mobile devices.

   
Keywords: selection, broiler chicken, swine, productivity, resistance to disease, PCR, DNA.
   
References:
1. Krasota, V.F. Razvedenie selskohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Farm animals breeding]. / V.F.Krasota, T.G.Dzhaparidze, N.M.Kostomahin. – 5-e izd., pererab. i dop. - M.: KolosS, 2005. – 424 ๐.
2. Stender, David R. "Swine Feed Efficiency: Influence of Market Weight" / David R. Stender. – Iowa Pork Industry Center, 2012 Fact Sheets. 9.https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/ipic_factsheets/9.
3. Resursosberegajushhie tehnologii v molochnom zhivotnovodstve i kormoproizvodstve [Resource-saving technologies in dairy cattle breeding and fodder production] / V.M.Taratorkin, E.B.Petrov. – M.: Kolos, 2009. – 211 ๐.
4. Sovremennye metody kontrolja salmonelleza [Modern methods of controlling salmonellosis] / V.N. Afonjushkin, E.V. Dudareva, L.I. Malaheeva [et al.] // Pticevodstvo. – 2008. – น. 9. – P. 43–44.
5. Biologicheskie problemy zhivotnovodstva v XXI veke [Biological problems of animal husbandry in the 21st century] / L.K.Jernst, H.A.Zinoveva. – M.: RASHN, 2008. – 81 ๐.
6. Association between multiple sclerosis risk-associated SNPs and relapse and disability a prospective cohort study / R. Lin [et al.] // Mult. Scler. – 2014. – Vol. 20, น 3. – P. 313-321.
7. Efficiency of microsatellite markers of the international standard panel for parentage control in German horse population / K. Wimmers [et al.] // Zuchtungskunde. – 1998. – Vol.70, น 4. – P. 233-241.
8. Detection and characterization of SNP useful for identity control and parentage testing in major European dairy breeds / F.A.O.Werner [et al.] // Anim. Genet. – 2004. – น 35. – P. 44-49.
9. Prediction of heterosis using genome-wide SNP-marker data: application to egg production traits in white Leghorn crosses / E.N.Amuzu-Aweh [et al.] // Heredity. – 2013. – น 111. – ะ. 530–538, doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.77.

 
   
Title:

UDC 619:616-089.843 PATTERN OF CHANGING IMPLANT BIOACTIVE LAYER DEPENDING ON THE TECHNIQUE OF ITS APPLYING (AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN VITRO)

   
Authors: Kononovich N.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Popkov A.V. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor; Gorbach E.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Stogov M.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Popkov D.A. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
   
Address:
Russian Ilizarov Center “Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics” of the RF Ministry of Health, Kurgan (e-mail: office@rncvto.ru).

   
Abstract:
The implant surface should have osteoinductive properties in order to provide the best osteointegration and, accordingly, the strength of implant-bone fixation. Calcium-phosphate compounds resemble bone tissue chemical composition best of all. There are various techniques of applying such compounds to implants. The specific characteristics of the kinetics of calcium and phosphate releasing from the bioactive layer applied to a metallic titanium-containing substrate were studied in experiments in vitro. Samples were incubated in electrolyte solution for 28 days. In Group 1 the layer was applied by microarc oxidizing method (MAO), in Group 2 – by the method of high-frequency magnetron spraying (HFMS). At the end of the experiment the calcium-phosphate layer condition was studied visually and by scanning electron microscopy technique. The higher adhesion strength of the bioactive layer to the metal substrate was determined in MAO. In Group 1 the ัเ content was 3.1-fold reduced; ะ content – 1.13-fold reduced. In Group 2 the ัเ was 6.54-fold decreased; ะ – 2.38-fold decreased. The study results had demonstrated that the mechanisms of osteoinductive action of the calcium-phosphate spraying might be related to the Ca diffusion from the implant surface into surrounding tissues. The degree of activity of these processes may depend on the technique of bioactive coating applying. In case of HFMS using the stimulating action is more short-term comparing with MAO method. These data should be taken into consideration when treating injuries and other pathological conditions of bones with using products coated with bioactive calcium-phosphate spraying. 

   
Keywords: experiment, bone, implant, bioactive coating, diffusion, calcium, phosphorus.
   
References:
1. Baeva, L.S. Sovremennye tekhnologii additivnogo izgotovleniya obyektov [Modern technologies of additive manufacturing of objects] / L.S. Baeva, A.A. Marinin // Vestnik MGTU. – 2014. – Vol. 17(1). – P. 7–12.
2. Vlasov, T.D. Mexanizmy gumoralnoy regulyatsii sosudistogo tonusa [Mechanisms of humoral regulation of vascular tone] / T.D. Vlasov  // Regionarnoe krovoobraschenie i mikrotsirkulyatsiya. – 2002. – Vol. 4. – P. 68–73.
3. Vozmozhnosti osteogennoy aktivnosti intramedullyarnykh implantatov v zavisimosti ot tekhnologii naneseniya kalciy-fosfatnogo pokrytiya (eksperimentalnoe issledovanie) [Features of osteogenic activity of intramedullary implants depending on technique of applying calcium-phosphate coating (experimental study)] / A.V.Popkov [et al.] // Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. – 2015. – น 5. – P. 142–145.
4. Zames๑henie obshirnykh diafizarnykh defektov dlinnykh kostey [Building of extensive diaphysis defects in long bones] / A.P.Barabash, L.A.Kesov, Yu.A.Barabash, S.P.Shpinyak // Travmatologiya i ortopediya Rossii. – 2014. – Vol.2 (72). – P. 93–99.
5. Kalciyfosfatnye pokrytiya, sozdannye metodom vch-magnetronnogo raspyleniya gidroksiapatita: osteogenny potentsial in vitro i in vivo [Calcium phosphate coatings created by the HF magnetron sputtering method of hydroxyapatite: osteogenic potential] / M.A.Surmeneva, R.A.Surmenev, I.A.Xlusov [et al.] // Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo. universiteta. – 2010. – Vol. 317(2). – P. 101–106. 
6. Nanoporistaya struktura pokrytiy, sformirovannykh gazotermicheskim napyleniem elektrokorunda i posleduyuschim mikrodugovym oksidirovaniem na implantatakh iz titanovogo splava VT6 [Nanoporous Structure of Coatings Formed by Thermal Spraying of Aluminum Oxide with Further Microarc Oxidation on Titanium Alloy VT6 Implants] / V.A.Kashuro, M.A.Fomina, I.V.Rodionov, A.A.Fomin // Medicinskaya texnika. – 2016. – Vol.1. – P. 38–41.
7. Polyanskiy R.K. Ocenka effektivnosti ispolzovaniya mezhpozvonkovykh implantatov iz uglesitalla u sobak v sheynom otdele pozvonochnogo stolba [Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Intervertebral Uglesitall Implants Usage in the Cervical Spine in Dogs] / R.K. Polyanskij, N.A. Kozlov // Ros. veterinar. zhurnal. Melkie domashnie i dikie zhivotny`e. – 2013. – Vol.4. – P. 11-13.
8. Reakciya tkaney pri ispolzovanii implantatov s bioaktivnym pokrytiem [Tissue response when using implants with bioactive coating] / Kononovich N.A., Popkov A.V., Shastov A.L., Popkov D.A. // Rossiyskiy fiziologicheskiy zhurnal im. I.M. Sechenova. – 2017. - Vol.103(12). – P. 1361–1369. 
9. Testirovanie additivnykh materialov na kulturakh kletok fibroblastov cheloveka [Testing of additive materials in human fibroblast cell cultures] / G.P. Kotelnikov, A.V. Kolsanov, A.N. Nikolaenko [et al.] // Klinicheskaya. i eksperimentalnaya. khirurgiya. Zhurnal. imeni akad. B.V. Petrovskogo. – 2018. – Vol. 6 (น 2). – P. 67–73.
10Funkcionalnye pokrytiya dlya implantacionnykh materialov [Functional coatings for implants] / S.V.Gnedenkov, Yu.P.Sharkeev, S.L.Sinebryuxov [et al.] // Tikhookeanskiy medicinskiy zhurnal. – 2012. - Vol.1. – P. 12–19.
11. Eksperimentalnoe issledovanie effektivnosti primeneniya implantatov s pokrytiyami na osnove sverkhtverdykh soedineniy [Experimental study of the effectiveness of the use of implant coatings based on superhard compounds] / Zh.K.Manirambona, F.V.Shakirova, I.F.Axtyamov, E .B.Gatina // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy mediciny im. N.E.Baumana. – 2013. – Vol. 215. – P. 218–221.
12. Eksperimentalnoe primenenie biokompozitnykh materialov v veterinarnoy travmatologii [Studying the possibility of applying biocomposite materials in veterinary travmatology] / Yu.V.Pichugin, A.V.Sapozhnikov, V.A.Ermolaev, S.N. Zolotuxin // Vestnnik Ulyanovskoy gosudarstvennoy. selskokhozyaystvennoy akademii. – 2011. – Vol. 3. – P. 78–80.
13. Enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis by mesoporous hydroxyapatite microspheres-derived simvastatin sustained release system for superior bone regeneration / Yu Wei-Lin [et al] // Sci Rep. – 2017. – Vol. 7 – ะ. 44129. 
14. Hu, C.J. Preparation  of  hydroxyapatite-containing coatings on pure titanium by linearly increasing the voltage in the pulsed bipolar microarc oxidation process / C.J. Hu., JR. Lu // Int J Electrochem Sci. –2015. – น10. – P. 749–758.
15. Ryu, H.S. Biomimetic apatite induction of P-containing titania formed by microarc oxidation before and after hydrothermal treatment / H.S.Ryu., W.H.Song, S.H.Hong // Surface and Coating Tehnology. – 2008. – Vol. 202. – P.1853–1858.
16. Biomimetic apatite deposited on microarc anatase-based ceramic coatings / D.Wei [et al.] // Ceramic International. – 2008. – Vol. 34. – P. 1139–1144.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.03:616.2:636.2 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF NSAIDS ON THE HEMOSTASIS SYSTEM OF CALVES WITH BRONCHOPNEUMONIA

   
Authors: Zhukov M.S. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Alekhin Yu.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Science; Nikulina I.R. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
State Scientific Institution All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (e-mail: maxim.zhukoff2015@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
The paper presents the results of a study on the effect of ketoprofen and flunexin miglumine on the hemostasis system of calves with acute respiratory diseases. The study involved 4-5 month old animals (n=24) diagnosed with acute catarrhal pneumonia and clinically healthy. From the number of these calves, according to the principle of selection of analogues, 4 groups of 6 heads each were formed. Group 1 (n=6, positive control) included clinically healthy animals that did not receive pharmacological drugs, in No.2, No.3 and No.4 – animals with bronchopneumonia receiving a course of antimicrobial drugs. In addition, calves in group 3 were injected with intramuscular injection of ketoprofen, at a dose of 3 mg / kg intramuscularly, and No. 4 (n=6) - flunixin meglumine, at a dose of 3.69 mg/kg. The data obtained showed that the use of NSAIDs in bronchopneumonia in calves had antipyretic effect, which was more pronounced after the administration of flunixin meglumine. The koprofen and flunixin meglumine was also found to have an effect on the hemostasis system of calves with bronchopneumonia. The beginning of this influence begins after 2 hours, but clinically significant changes are observed after 4 hours. However, the most pronounced and long-lasting effect was rendered by flunixin meglumine.

   
Keywords: calves, ketoprofen, flunixin meglumine, hemostasis, bronchopneumonia.
   
References:
1. Alekhin, Yu.N. Patologiya fibrinoliticheskoj sistemy: klinicheskoe proyavlenie i diagnostika (metodicheskie rekomendatsii) [Pathology of the fibrinolytic system: clinical manifestations and diagnostics (methodical recommendations)] / Yu.N.Alekhin, S.V.Kurkin. – Voronezh, 2007. – 30 p.
2. Vorobyev, V.B. ภnaliz sostoyaniya gemostaza s ispol'zovaniem novykh vozmozhnostej differentsirovannoj ehlektrokoagulografii [าhe analysis of a condition of a hemostasis with use of new opportunities of differentiated elektrocoagulography] / V.B.Vorobyev, N.A.Bekhtereva, T.V.Uskova // Fundamental research. – 2004. – Vol. 5. – P. 19–21.
3. Grzhibovskiy, A.M. Opisatelnaya statistika s ispolzovaniem paketov statisticheskikh programm STATISTICA i SPSS [Descriptive statistics using STATISTIKA and SPSS software] / A.M.Grjibovski, S.V.Ivanov, M.A.Gorbatova // Science & Healthcare. – 2016. – Vol. 1. – P. 7–23.
4. Zaslavskaya, R.M. Legochnye sindromy i problema terapii (Bronkhospasticheskij sindrom, gemostaz, zastojnye lyogkie, vremennaya organizatsiya) [Pulmonary syndromes and the problem of therapy (bronchospastic syndrome, hemostasis, congestive lungs, temporary organization)] / R.M.Zaslavskaya, G.V.Veklenko, S.ภ.Sejtmagambetova. – M. ID ซMEDPRภKTIKภ-Mป, 2007. – 208 p.
5. Zakharenko ภ.G. Nesteroidnye protivovospalitelnye sredstva [Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs] / ภ.G.Zakharenko // V์snik farmac์๏. – 2006. – Vol. 1 (31). – P. 57–69.
6. Ismoilov, K.I. Osobennosti razlichnykh zven'ev gemostaza pri pnevmonii u detej grudnogo vozrasta [Features of the various components of hemostasis of pneumonia in infants] / K.I.Ismoilov, S.T.Davlatov, M.ภ.Ismoilova // Health care of Tajikistan. – 2015. – น 4. – P. 16–20.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616. 995. 1-07. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT HELMINTHOSCOPIC METHODS IN DIAGNOSTICS OF ASSOCIATE INVASION OF HORSES

   
Authors: 1Schitkovskaya T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1D.G.Latypov – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 2Gaysina L.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: gtr110285@rambler.ru).

2Kazan Cooperative Institute, Kazan (e-mail: ya40360@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to test various helminthoscopic methods in the diagnostics of associative horse infestations. The improved Darling method with the use of trichingredient flotation fluid was the most effective for horses' nematodes. This method has an optimal combination of various factors: density (ρ-1.460), viscosity (η-2.86), transparency of the surface film, slow crystallization of droplets on the glass, which contributes to increased diagnostic efficiency. We tested flotation solutions from these same ingredients and with a higher density of p-1.480-1.520, but with increased density, the viscosity increases and the crystallization time of droplets on the glass also increases, and the surface film becomes contaminated with undigested particles of the feed, making it difficult to detect helmintThus, the improved Darling method with trichingredient flotation mixture ZnCl2, NH4NO3, C3H8O3, where the density of the flotation solution is 1.460, and the viscosity of η-2.86, makes it possible to diagnose causative agents of associative infestations of horses, even at low invasion rates. 

   
Keywords: diagnostics, horses, nematodes, parascarosis, oxyurosis, intestinal strongylatoses.
   
References:
1. Demidov, N.V. Gelmintozy zhivotnykh [Helminthiasis of animals] / N.V.Demidov. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1987. – 335 p.
2. Kanokova, A.S. Gelminty loshadey i ikh sorodichey v Kabardino-Balkarskoy Respublike [Helminths of horses and their relatives in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic] / A.S.Kanokova // Bulleten WIGIS. – 2003. – Issue 53. – P. 213–217.
3. Klenova, I.F. Gelmintozy loshadey I mery borby s nimi [Helminthiasis of horses and measures to combat them] / I.F.Klenova, V.V.Gorokhov, L.A.Bundina // Veterinariya – 2001. – น 10. – P. 26–29.
4. Rasprostranenie gelmintozov u loshadey tabunnogo soderzhaniya v Respublike Sakha (Yakutiya) [Distribution of helminthiases in horses of herd maintenance in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)] / L.M.Kokolova, L.Y.Gavrilieva, Z.K.Ivanova [et al.] // Rossiysky parazitologichesky zhurnal – 2014. – น. 3. – P. 30–33.
5. Kotelnikov, G.A. Diagnostika gelmintozov zhivotnykh [Diagnostics of helminthiases of animals] / G.A.Kotelnikov. – M.: Kolos, 1974. – 240 p.
6. Latypov, D.G. Gelmintoovoskopicheskaya diagnostika assotsiativnykh invaziy krupnogo rogatogo skota [Helminthoscopic diagnostics of associative invasions of cattle] / D.G.Latypov, L.A.Gaisina // Veterinarny vrach. – 2010. – น 1. – P.50-52.
7. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po diagnostike, profilaktike I meram borby s gelmintozami tsirkovykh zhivotnykh [Methodical recommendations on diagnostics, prevention and measures to combat helminthiases of circus animals] / V.E.Pasechnik, A.V.Uspensky, Y.I.Mikuletz, V.Y.Zhdanova. – M.: Rosselkhozakademiya, 2008. – 50 p.
8. Sidorkin, V.A. Spravochnik po diagnostike I terapii gelmintozov zhivotnykh I ptits [Handbook of diagnostics and therapy of helminthiases of animals and birds] / V.A.Sidorkin. – M.: Akvarium, 2001. – 128 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636:612.1:637.5 AGE-RELATED CHANGES OF BLOOD CORPUSCLES OF CATTLE HEREFORD BREED IN DIFFERENT SEASONS OF THE YEAR

   
Authors: Raickaya V.I. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Institute of Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, Abakan (ๅ-mail:raickaya19@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article analyzes the changes of some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood of different age and sex groups cattle of Hereford breed in different seasons of the year. The spring blood parameters differ significantly from autumn and summer ones, while in the same seasons these parameters are very close to each other. Reducing the number of red blood cells in the blood of animals of different age groups may be caused by inadequate feeding in winter due to lack of proteins. In winter, the content of red blood cells in the blood of bulls was 3.7 g/l, of cows – 4.1 g/l, heifers 4.4 g / l, which were below than the physiological norm by 41.27%, 34.92%, 30.16%, respectively, and in the spring, summer and autumn seasons - stabilized. In winter, calcium decreases in all age and sex groups: in manufacturing bulls - up to 6.6 mg/%, bulls (weaning) – up to 6.1 mg/%, cows – up to 7.8 mg/%, heifers – up to 6.6 mg/%, which are below the physiological norm, respectively – by 30.32%, 36.00%, 16.95 and – 30.74%, and in the spring, summer and autumn periods  - corresponds the established norm. There are slight changes in cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase in animals blood serum, which may be caused by lack of individual minerals in feed (zinc, magnesium) and vitamins. Therefore, in winter and spring it is necessary to carry out preventive measures aimed at the normalization of carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin and protein metabolism.

   
Keywords: Hereford breed, hematological and biochemical parameters of blood.
   
References:
1. Dunin, I. Rezultaty funkcionirovaniya otrasli myasnogo skotovodstva v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The results of functioning of the beef cattle breeding industry in the Russian Federation] / I.Dunin, V.Sharkaev, A.Kochetkov. // Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo. – 2011. – น 5. – P. 2-4. 
2. Nikolaeva, O.N. Gematologicheskie pokazateli telyat pri ispolzovanii kompozitsii fitoprobiotikov i polisoley mikroelementov / O.N.Nikolaeva [Hematologic parameters of calves when using a composition of phytoprobiotics and microsilica polysaccharides] // Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya agrarnogo proizvodstva: tezisy Mezhdunar. nauch. konf., g. Smolensk, 31 dek. – 1 yanv. 2007 g. – Smolensk, 2007. – P. 289–291 [Problems and prospects for the development of agrarian production: the theses of the Intern. sci. conf., Smolensk, 31 December. - Jan. 1 2007. – P. 289–291].
3. Effektivnost otbora proizvoditeley po sobstvennoy produktivnosti v myasnom skotovodstve [Efficiency of selecting producers for their own productivity in meat cattle breeding] / H.Amerhanov, V.Hajnackij, F.Kajumov, S.Tjulebaev. // Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo. – 2011. – น 3. – P.2–5. 
4. Pozov, S.A. Mikroelementy plazmy krovi i eritrocitov u ovets pri bronkhopnevmonii v assotsiatsii s sarkotsistozom [Microelements of blood plasma and erythrocytes in sheep with bronchopneumonia in association with sarcocystosis] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Jeziev // Diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/kh zhivotnykh: sb. nauch. tr. Stavropol, 2010. – P. 41-42 [Diagnostics, treatment, prevention of farm animals diseases: collection of scientific papers. – Stavropol, 2010. – P. 41-42]. 
5. Sobol, N. Proizvodstvo govyadiny mozhet i dolzhno byt pribylnym [Beef production can be and should be prifitable] / N.Sobol // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2012. – น8. –P. 2-5. 
6. Delyan, A.S. Vliyanie vozrasta pervogo otela na produktivnost i dolgoletie korov [The influence of the age of the first calving on the productivity and longevity of cows] / A.S.Delyan, A.I.Ivashkov // Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo. – 1999. – น 8. – P. 14–17.
7. Nikolaeva, O.N. Gematologicheskie pokazateli telyat pri ispolzovanii kompozitsii fitoprobiotikov i polisoley mikroelementov / O.N.Nikolaeva [Hematologic parameters of calves when using a composition of phytoprobiotics and microsilica polysaccharides] // Problemy i perspektivy razvitija agrarnogo proizvodstva: Mezhdun. nauch. konf., g. Smolensk, 31 dek. – 1 janv. 2007 g. – Smolensk, 2007. – P. 289–291 [Problems and prospects for the development of agricultural production: Intern. sci. conf., Smolensk, 31 December. – Jan. 1 2007 – Smolensk, 2007. – P. 289-291.].

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.2:612.3+636.087.7 DIGESTION IN THE RUMEN OF RUMINANT ANIMALS IN THE PRESENCE OF HIGH MOLECULAR WATER-SOLUBLE POLYMER

   
Authors: Grudina N.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Bydanova V.V. – Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Grudin N.S. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (e-mail: n.grudina2014@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
One of the ways of solving the problem of improving meat and milk productivity of farm animals is the use of different methods and means reducing the degree of decomposition of the protein in high concentrated protein feeds of the rumen. Each of the existing methods for reducing the protein disintegration in the rumen is effective in its own way. But these means of "protecting" the protein have significant drawbacks, which limit their application. Therefore, an important and promising task is development of new drugs for the effective "protection" concentrated protein feeds from microbial decay in the rumen of ruminant animals.  This article presents the results of the study, indicating the possibility of using high molecular weight water-soluble polymers (HWP) to reduce decay of protein in the rumen. HWP had a linear molecular structure and a molecular mass of 1x107 Da. The polymer was introduced into the diet with concentrated food. The experiment also shows that the effect of HWP is accompanied by an optimization of the habitat of the bacterial flora of the rumen, which contributes to the normalization of metabolic processes in ruminant animals, especially in case of the concentrating type of feeding cattle. 

   
Keywords: ruminant animals, rumen, protein, "protecting" the protein, high molecular weight water-soluble polymers.
   
References:
1. Mohammed O.E. Measurement of protein degradaition in  the rumen / O.E.Mohammed, R.M.Smith // Proc. Nut 4r. Soc. – 1977. – Vol. 36, น 1. – P. 152 A. 
2. Mehret A.Z. Processing factors affecting the degradability of fish meal in the rumen / A.Z.Mehret, E.R.Orskow // J.Anim. Sci. – 1979. – Vol. 50, น 3. – P. 737-744. 
3. McAllan A.B. Factors influencing the digestion of dietary carbohydrates between the month and abomasums of steers / A.B.McAllan, R.อ.Smith // Brit. J. Nutr. - 1983. – Vol. 50. – น 2. – P. 445–454.
4. Michaleten–Doreau B. Aliments concentres pour ruminantes: degradability in situ dans le rumen / B.Michaleten–Doreau // INRA Prod. Anim. – 1992. – Vol. – 5, น .5. – P. 371–377. 
5. Yegerskov E.P. Proteinovoe pitanie zhvachnyh zhivotnyh [Protein feeding of ruminants] / E.P.Yegerskov. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1985. – 80 ๐.
6. Aliev A.A. Noveyshiye operativnye metody issledovaniy zhvachnyh zhivotnyh [The newest operational methods of ruminant animals research] / A.A.Aliev. – ฬ: Agropromizdat, 1985. – 127 p.
7. Izuchenie mikroflory predzheludkov u  zhvachnyh: metodicheskie ukazaniya [Study of the proventriculi microflora in ruminants: guidelines]. – Borovsk: Izd-vo BiFiP, 1977.
8. Metody issledovaniya pishchevareniya zhvachnyh [Methods for studying the digestion of ruminants]. – Borovsk: Izd-vo BiFiP, 1987.
9. Proteinovoe pitanie molochnykh korov (Rekomendatsii po normirovaniyu) [Protein nutrition of dairy cows (Recommendations on rationing)]. – Borovsk: Izd-vo BiFiP, 1998.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636:612.1.03+636.084/.087 DYNAMICS OF HEMATOLOGICAL AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF BLOOD SERUM IN DRY AND FRESH COWS

   
Authors: Krupin E.O. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Shakirov Sh.K. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; Tagirov M.Sh. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, academic Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the RT
   
Address:
Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture – Subdivision of the Federal Research Center ซKazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciencesป, Kazan (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The results of a hematological study of blood, as well as the results of biochemical analysis of blood serum (protein metabolism parameters) in dry and fresh cows are presented. In studies, the effect of the use of various vitamin-mineral premixes (P60-3/2 and P60-3/P) in the diets of animal feeding in the complex with 1.2-propanediol and without it evaluated. The article is prepared within the framework of the state task of FASO Russia project ภภภภ-ภ18-118031390148-1. The methods of morphological investigation of blood, methods of biochemical study of protein metabolism parameters of blood serum, mathematical and statistical methods were used in the work. Studies have established that the use of various feeds in the rations of feeding animals and in different periods of time has an effect on the morphological and biochemical composition of blood and serum, respectively. Changes are established two weeks before calving and on the third day after calving. Using in the feeding of animals the third group of premix P60-3/P throughout the entire dry period in combination with 1.2-propanediol is accompanied by the most pronounced reliable increase in the content of erythrocytes in these individuals on the third day after calving (by 21.3%, P<0.05). Two weeks before calving, the content of the total protein in the blood serum increases significantly (25.2-30.1%, P<0.01) and also albumins (21.7% (P<0.05) – 52.2% (P<0.01) The use of the third group of premix P60-3/P in the feeding of animals from the first day of the dry period is accompanied by the most pronounced reliable increase in the total protein content of these individuals two weeks before calving (30.1% P<0.01).

   
Keywords: cows, feed, blood, indicator, metabolism.
   
References:
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Title:

UDC 636:612.1.087.7:636.2 THE LIVING WEIGHT AND THE BLOOD COMPOSITION OF CALVES DEPENDING ON THE FORM AND THE RATE OF SUPPLEMENTARY SAPROPEL-BASED FEEDS

   
Authors: 1Ezhkova A.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1Yapparov I.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1Ezhkov V.O. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Yapparov A.Kh. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 2Faizrakhmanov R.N. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
1Tatar Research Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science – Subdivision of the Federal Research Center ซKazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciencesป (Tatar Research Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS) (e-mail: niiaxp2@mail.ru; egkova-am@mail.ru).

2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: kgavm_baumana@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The research data on the different dosage effectiveness of new generation feed supplement nanostructured sapropel for increasing the productivity and improving the hematological parameters of young cattle are presented. The objects of study were Kholmogory breed calves of Tatarstan type at the age of one month, production tests were conducted in the Atninskiy region of the Republic of Tatarstan. The calves were affected by nanostructured sapropel in doses of 3.0; 1.8; 0.6% and fodder sapropel at the optimal dose of 3.0% to the dietary dry matter. Supplementary feeds had been injected for 60 days. Experiments proved that the use of fodder sapropel increased the living weight of calves by 3.3 kg, when using nanostructured sapropel - by 6.0; 7.7 and 7.1 kg, in comparison with control animals. The use of sapropels promoted an increase in the red blood cells number in the calves’ blood, the hemoglobin content, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein and alkalinity reserve index, which did not exceed the physiological norm. The nanostructured sapropel was more effective in animals than fodder sapropel. The best results for the living weight and optimization of blood parameters were achieved when using the nanostructured sapropel at a dose of 1.8%. The long-term nanostructured sapropel injection at a dose of 3.0% to the calves diet showed a high efficiency of average daily gain in the first half of the experiment, and then excessive nutrients supply led to a decrease in living weight. The nanostructured sapropel use at a dose of 0.6% improved productivity and hematological parameters, but did not reach the potential of larger dose. The supplementary feed based on sapropel can be recommended for replenishment of protein and mineral nutrition of animals.

   
Keywords: calves, supplement feed, nanostructured sapropel, average daily gain, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood.
   
References:
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