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น 3, 2018



Authors: Konyukhova V.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Kadikov I.R. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

In the territory of the Russian Federation there are a number of regions where a high concentration of population and various kinds of production worsen the ecological situation. Anthropogenic loads in such regions reach a critical value when the resistance of natural complexes is completely exhausted or close to this state. The work presents information about the level of heavy metal contamination of feed and water for animals in the Ryazan region. Heavy metals have a wide toxic effect. Some of them, for example lead, have a pronounced effect on numerous organs whereas others – cadmium – have a more limited area of toxic effect. The peculiarity of metals as contaminants is that, unlike the organic contaminants undergoing decomposition processes, metals are only capable of redistribution. Therefore, it is possible to accumulate them in the soil, water and feed up to considerable levels that can have a negative impact on the health and productivity of animals. To study the quality of feed and water, samples were taken in the livestock farms of LLC “Zarya”, “Rassvet” of the Ryazan district, LLC “Zhito”, “Vakinskoe agro” of the Rybnovsky district. The determination of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc) was carried out according to GOST 30178-96 (atomic absorption method), arsenic quantity - according to GOST 26930-86 (colorimetric method), mercury concentration - in accordance with GOST 26927-86 (cold vapour method on the analyzer “Juliya-5K”). The heavy metals and arsenic content in most samples of animal and vegetable raw materials is not found to exceed the maximum permissible level. Some samples of feed and water show high content of heavy metals. 

Keywords: animal feed, drinking water, contamination, heavy metals.
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Authors: 1Gertman A.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Naumova O.V. – postgraduate; 2Zukhrabova M.Z. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
1South Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk (e-mail: kdiagugavm@inbox.ru).

2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: terapia_kgavm@mail.ru).

Bronchopulmonary pathology of growing calves in the conditions of technogenic-contaminated areas is widespread, it causes significant economic damage to agricultural production due to decrease in growth and development of animals, their premature culling, and sometimes mortality, and the applied schemes of treatment in these conditions have a low therapeutic effect. With a marked pathology there is a disturbance of all types of metabolism, but the most pronounced changes are in the protein metabolism indexes. The causes of bronchopneumonia in calves are various, but in the conditions of high technogenic load the leading place belongs to heavy metal salts, which through feed rations regularly enter the body, change the course of all metabolic processes, reduce the factors of nonspecific protection of an organism and involve in the pathological process the central organ of metabolism- the liver, altering its functional state. A constant contamination of the organism with heavy metals leads to damage of hepatocytes of liver, which contributes to the disorder of its protein-synthesis functions, changing the class composition of blood proteins and activity of key enzymes of transamination. The studies found that 32% of examined calves had clinical signs characteristic of pneumonia. Traditional methods of applied treatment of this pathology do not fully provide a high therapeutic effect, which requires immediate development of a method for the treatment of pneumonia in the conditions of technogenesis. Scientifically-developed method of treatment of bronchopneumonia in calves by combined use of mineral enterosorbent vermiculite and chemotherapeutic drug baytril as well as methods of symptomatic therapy allows in a relatively short time to normalize the parameters of protein metabolism, the clinical status of calves with bronchopneumonia, to reduce the toxic loads on basic organs "targets" (liver, kidneys), to stop the inflammatory process.

Keywords: technogenic provinces, heavy metals, contamination, enterosorbents, detoxification therapy, chemotherapeutic drugs.
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Authors: Sarukhanov V.Y. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Kobyalko V.O. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Mirzoev E.B. – Doctor of Biological Sciences
Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology, RIRAE (e-mail: nar@obninsk.org).

In the regions of the Russian Federation there is an increase in the anthropogenic load on environment. One of the most significant components of this process is the contamination of agrobiocenosis with heavy metals and, in particular, with lead. When keeping agricultural animals in areas contaminated with heavy metals, the concentration of cells in the peripheral blood decreases, against the background of increased incidence of young animals, which may be a consequence of disorder of the natural resistance of organism. Reduction in humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance was demonstrated when evaluating the effect of lead on laboratory animals. At the same time, it is of interest studying its chronic effect on natural resistance of farm animals. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of lead on humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance of the sheep organism during chronic intake of metal nitrate with feed in concentrations of 1, 5 and 30 MRL. The experiments were performed on 12 sheep of Romanov breed, divided into 4 groups according to the principle of analogues. Sheep feeding was performed twice a day with free access to water. The animals of the three experimental groups were fed 1, 5 and 30 MRL of lead in the diet (5, 25, 150 mg/kg of feed). Lead nitrate was fed with mixed feed once a day during morning feeding. The fourth group was เ control. Blood was taken from the jugular vein of the sheep in the morning, before feeding, before the start of the experiment, and on the 7th, 14th, 28th, 42nd, 56th, 70th, and 90th day of the study. The natural resistance of sheep was assessed by bactericidal, lysozyme, betta-lytic and phagocytic activity of blood plasma. Chronic intake of lead with diet in the organism of sheep in concentrations of 1, 5 and 30 MRL revealed a differently directed nature of changes in humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance. A comparative analysis of the parameters assessed showed a clear reaction of the bactericidal and ?-lytic activity of the blood plasma, as well as the phagocytic number on the entrance of metal in the animals. The most pronounced changes in humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance were noted at the maximum concentration of lead in feed. The obtained results indicate a decrease in the natural resistance of the organism. And besides, the degree of change in humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance depends not only on the concentration of lead in the feed, but also on the duration of its intake into the body. So, in the real conditions of livestock keeping in technologically contaminated areas, the chronic effects of lead compounds may be the cause of an increased incidence of productive animals. The obtained experimental data give grounds for more strict control of lead contents in animals diet.

Keywords: sheep, lead nitrate, chronic intake, natural resistance of the organism, bactericidal activity, betta-lytic activity, lysozyme activity, phagocytic number.
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Authors: 1Sadykov N.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Mustafina E.N. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Nizamov R.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Mustafin T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
1Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

2The Company "PromAseptika", Kazan (e-mail: swa862@mail.ru).

At the moment, there is no common opinion about the path through which parts of the digestive tract the causative agent of anthrax penetrates into the host's body during alimentary infection. Considering the contradictory nature of the available literature data and in accordance with the assignment, we conducted studies on the evaluation of various methods of infection and the development of the most effective technology for experimental infection of cattle, which could be used in veterinary practice to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive means of anthrax. To solve this problem, 3 series of experiments were conducted on a 7-8-month-old youngster of cattle that was not immunized against anthrax. Thus, as a result of the studies, a method for infecting cattle with a 100% lethal outcome has been developed. The developed method of infection opens up wide opportunities for studying immunogenesis in anthrax, duration of immunity, determination of optimal vaccinedoses used for the prevention of this disease and, thereby, will improve the means of immunization of anthrax of cattle.

Keywords: Bacillus Anthracis, alimentary infection, mortality, digestive tract, infection gates.
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Authors: Poryvaeva A.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Vyalykh I.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Pechura E.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Tomskikh O.G. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Nurmyeva V.R. – Senior Research Officer.
Ural Federal Agrarian Scientific Research Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (e-mail: info@urnivi.ru).

The most important condition for the normalization of the epizootic situation for bovine viral diarrhea and the reduction of economic losses from this infection is the implementation of the complex program for the control of this infection, including specific vaccine prevention. The aim of the study was to research the effect of the vaccination of reproductive herd with inactivated monovalent vaccine Bovilis BVDV (MSD Animal Health, Netherlands) on the conservation in calves. Cows before insemination were vaccinated with Bovilis BVDV. The level of specific postvaccination antibodies to BVDV in cows in 1 month before delivery was 6.1 ฑ 1.9 log2.In non-colostrum calves born from them, the titer of specific antibodies in the blood serum was at the level of 2.0 ฑ 0.7 log2, and after drinking of the colostrum – 6.4 ฑ 1.7 log2.Passive specific immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves persisted for 30 days. Before the injection of routine vaccination of cows before insemination with vaccine Bovilis BVDV culling out of calves due to factor infections in the model farm was 15.6%. When implementing the program of active vaccination of the reproductive herd against bovine viral diarrhea virus, during the period of 5 years, the level of embryonic loss decreased by 20%, the rate of calf rejection due to factor infections was 4 times. Vaccination of the reproductive herd before insemination with inactivated monovalent vaccine Bovilis BVDV provides a high level of passive immunity against bovine viral diarrhea virus in newborn calves, reduces the risk of infection of calves and the development of acute forms of the disease during the physiological formation of calves.

Keywords: bovine viral diarrhea, reproductive herd, calves, vaccination, postvaccinal immunity.
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Authors: 1Vatsayev S. V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Chernykh O.Yu. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 3Chernov A.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 4Lysenko A.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
1Chechen State University, Grozny (e-mail: Chgu@mail.ru).

2Kropotkin Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Kropotkin (e-mail: gukkvl50@kubanvet.ru).

3Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

4Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar.
The article is dedicated to the problem of nodular dermatitis of cattle – a disease caused by the Neethling virus from the genus Capripox of the Poxviridae family. The disease tends to spread widely, resulting in a threat to the economy and food security of not only one region, but also of the country as a whole. Nodular dermatitis in cattle in the Chechen Republic is established to be widespread and cause significant economic damage to livestock. Conducting a complex of studies is due to the need of ensuring veterinary well-being for this disease and developing a scientifically grounded system of therapeutic and prophylactic measures for improving the territory of the Chechen Republic from nodular dermatitis of cattle. These studies are based on analysis of the epizootic situation of nodular dermatitis in the Chechen Republic for the period of 2015-2016.

Keywords: nodular dermatitis, spread, environment, extensity, focality index, contagious index, mortality.
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Authors: Khusainov F.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Evstifeev V.V. – Doctor of Biological Science; Khusainova G.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Khamidullina R.Z. – Research Assistant; Fazulzyanov I.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Yakovlev S.I. – postgraduate.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

The article presents epizootological data on disease of goats caused by Chlamydia. The clinical symptoms of goat chlamydiosis accompanied by abortions, stillbirth and birth of kids-hypotrophs are described. Abortioned fetuses and stillborn kids were of 4-5-month age and had hypotrophy signs: the body weight below the standard level, absence of hair cover in areas of head and limbs. The newborn kids were observed clinical symptoms manifestation on the 5-6th day after birth. The disease manifested itself in the form of bronchopneumonia, conjunctivitis, arthritis of wrist or ankle joints. When laboratory studying serum samples for chlamydia in the complement fixation reaction with a specific chlamydial antigen, 23% of the examined animals responded. The highest percentage of chlamydia infection was detected in rams-producers - 40% and newborn kids - 20%. In microscopy of impression smears from pathological materials of abortioned fetuses and stillborn kids, Chlamydia were detected in 75 % of cases. The microscopy studies were confirmed by the isolation of the causative agent of Chlamydia from pathological materials (abortioned fetuses, kids-hypotrophs) by serial passages in developing chicken embryos in 50% of the studied samples.

Keywords: chlamydiosis, goats, abortions, antibodies.
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6. Evstifeev, V.V. Razrabotka i usovershenstvovanie biologicheskikh preparatov dlya diagnostiki i spetsificheskoy profilaktiki khlamidioza zhivotnykh: avtoref. dis … d-ra biol. nauk [Development and improvement of biological preparations for diagnostics and specific prevention of chlamydiosis of animals: the author’s abstract of the thesis of doctor biol. sciences] V.V.Evstifeev. – Kazan, 2015. – 46 p.



Authors: Belomitceva E.S. – postgraduate; Safiullin R.T. – Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor.
K.I.Skryabin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants (e-mail: secretar@vniigis.ru).

The article presents data about high invasiveness of ticks Dermacentor that transmit babesiosis and erlichiosis of carnivores, extensinvasion was 76%. In total, 873 live ticks were collected: 414 from vegetation and 459 from dogs. The absolute majority in the ixodofauna of the Moscow Region is made up of ticks Dermacentor reticulates and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but in recent years the foundlings of Taiga Ixodes persulcatus in the Moscow region have become more frequent. To confirm the diagnosis of babesiosis the microscopy of blood smears, staining according to Romanovsky-Giemsa were used as well as by serum testing by ELISA and PCR method. The most invasion of babesiosis was noted in dogs of 1 till 6 ages and older than EI – 28.9-29.7%.In dogs of hunting breeds the EI was 25.9%, in service dogs – 44.9%, and in decorative – 29.2%. We used the drug Diprokarb at a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight once subcutaneously which showed 100% efficiency during spontaneous babesiosis of dogs of various breeds. After the injection, the drug is quickly absorbed into the blood and is held at the pyroplasmostatic level for 4-6 weeks. Imidocarb is accumulated mainly in the kidneys and liver; is excreted from the body mainly with urine. During the treatment of babesiosis patients, symptomatic therapy was also used. With the preventive purpose, Diprocarb was used in clinically healthy hunting dogs at a dose of 0.25 ml per 10 kg of animal weight, because of non-effectiveness of other protective measures like a collar and drops at the time of hunting.

Keywords: carnivores, ixodid ticks, babesiosis, infection, drugs for treating, Diprocarb, efficiency.
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Authors: 1Witkowska T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Latypov D.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 2Gaysina L.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
1Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: gtr110285@rambler.ru).
2Kazan Cooperative Institute, Kazan (e-mail: ya40360@mail.ru).

The aim of the research was to study intestinal nematodes in horses in the farms of the Republic of Tatarstan. In a helminthovoscopic study of 154 horses aged 3 months to 8 years it was found widespread distribution of intestinal nematodes among animalsin the farms of Agro-5 and Miras Ltd. The invasive extensiveness by nematodes of the gastrointestinal tract of horses was 79.2% on the average. The horses from "Agro-5" (93.3%) were most heavily invaded, since in this farm there was no deworming of animals for 2 years. In Miras LLC, the EI was 77%, and the same drug was used for deworming for a long time in this farm and as a result resistant isolates of parasites appeared. Monoinvasions in farms are predominant in horses and make up 48.3%, and mixinvases – 15.6%. Of the monoinvasions, the nematodes of the suborder Strongylata were prevalent, and besides the extensinvasion in Miras LLC was 49.3%, and in Agro-5 – 33.3%. The damage of horses with nematodes Parascaris eguorum was somewhat lower and ranged from 12.9 to 13.3%. The smallest invasive index was found in nematodes Oxyurisequi, which was registered only in 5 (3.6%) horses in the farm of Miras LLC and 1 (6.7%) of the animal from Agro-5. The intensity of nematode infestation for strongylatosis invasion on average was 63.5 ฑ 10.7, parasaskarous-16.9 ฑ 3.5, and oxyurotic– 5.5 ฑ 2.9 eggs / g. The mixinvases are -15.6%, they were represented by Strongylata + Parascaris eguorum eggs – 18.8% and Strongylata + Oxyurisequi eggs – 0.65%. Thus, in the farms we surveyed, the horses from "Agro-5" were most severely invaded, and the monoinvasions represented by the nematodes of the suborder Strongylata predominate in animals.

Keywords: horses, nematodes, parascaridosis, oxyurosis, intestinal strongylatosis, monoinvasion, polyinvasion, invasive extensiveness, invasive intensity.
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Authors: Lysko S.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Zadorozhnaya M.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gofman A.A. – Research Officer; Krasikov A.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Poultry Farming – Branch of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "Omsk Agrarian Scientific Center" (ๅ-mail: vet@sibniip).

Particular attention deserves infectious diseases associated with the damage of the respiratory tract, in which there is a rapid spread of pathogens to a significant number of birdsby means of airborne transmission, regardless of the keeping system. Respiratory infections often occur in an associated form, which makes diagnosis difficult and reduces the effectiveness of treatment. According to the results of the experiment, the most effective scheme for the treatment of broiler chickens in association with respiratory infections was tested in production conditions with use of propolis tincture (100 g propolis is infused in 80% alcohol, the obtained solution is adjusted to 1000 ml with water). The studies were carried out in the department of veterinary medicine of SibNIIP(Siberian Poultry Farming Research Institute) and in poultry farm of the Omsk region on 22-day-old chickens-broilers of cross "Ross-308" with clinical signs of respiratory infection confirmed by bacteriological examination. The new treatment includes the use of propolis tincture in a dose of 1 ml / 1 l of water in combination with a broadspectrum antibiotic by the method of watering for five days in combination with aerosol propolis (dilution 1:20 1 l / 100 m3 room, exposure 60 min.) for three days. In the control group the same antibioticwas used, and the disinfectant was aerosolized used. The application of the developed scheme for the treatment of broiler chickens in associated respiratory infection, when compared with the control, reduces the number of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora, restores physiological processes and metabolism, increases natural resistance, reduces the negative influence of antibiotics on the birds and speeds up their recovery. This contributes to the increase of safety, the average daily gain of live weight with a decrease in feed costs per 1 kg of increment and an increase in the economic efficiency of veterinary measures per one ruble of costs.

Keywords: propolis tincture, chicken-broilers, เssociations, respiratory infection, therapy, antibiotic.
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Authors: Aliyev A.Yu. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru).

The work was carried out in the PC "Remontniki" of the Gergebilsky district of Dagestan Republic on the ewes of the Dagestan rock breed, at the age from 3 to 5 years. The aim of the work was to study the role of Staphylococcus aureus in the occurrence, course and development of mastitis in ewes after experimental infection. The daily culture was administered to ewes intracisternally, in amount of 3 billion microbial cells in the right lobe, and the left one served as control. Studies have established that when intracisternal infecting lactating ewes with a live daily culture of staphylococcus aureus, two ewes fell within 24 hours after infecting. One ewe up to 12 hours had a subclinical form of an inflammation which ended in complete recovery and restoration of function of the mammary gland. In 9 experimental ewes inflammation of the udder began to develop as subclinical, in 7 animals the disease became a clinical form, in 7 animals it was complicated by gangrene and atrophy of the infected fraction. In a bacteriological study of the mammary gland secretion, uterine mucus of diseased ewes during experimental infection, as well as from the contents of the mammary gland, uterus, liver and kidneys from the fallen ewes, a microflora was isolated identicalto that taken before infection. According to the results of the research, it can be concluded that the mammary gland of agricultural animals, although it has its own autonomy, mastitis is a disease of the whole organism, the main etiological factor of which is the microorganism, its virulence and pathogenicity.

Keywords: ewes, mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, experimental infection.
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Authors: 1Velikanov V.I. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Klyapnev A.V. - postgraduate; 2Kharitonov L.V. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Terentiev S.S. - postgraduate; 1Gorina A.V. - postgraduate.

1N.Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, N.Novgorod (e-mail: anatomifarmitox@mail.ru).

2All-Russian Institute of Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Nutrition, Institute township, the branch of Federal State Budget Scientific Institution L.K.Ernst Federal Science Center for Animal Husbandry, Borovsk (e-mail: vniifbib@mail.ru).

The article presents the results of studies of the physiological, biochemical and morphological indexes of newborn calves blood after injection ซSinoestrolum-2%ป in a dose of 0,8 ml on animal once subcutaneously into the scapula area, then ซRoncoleukinป in a dose of 0,8 ml 400000 ME on animal once subcutaneously into the neck area to down-calving cows 3-6 days before calving. Use of the drugs positively affected the health of calves. Besides, the biochemical and morphological composition of the newborn calves blood improved to the next day after born: the level of total protein increased by 18.5% (P<0.05) compared to the control group of calves, albumin –by 39.4% (P<0.05), alpha-globulin –by 13.6% (P<0.05), gamma-globulin – by 35.4% (P<0.05), leukocyte number increased by 9.7% (P<0.05). Ten days after birth, the contents of albumin, alpha- and gamma- globulin decreased in calves of the control and experimental groups, but it was reliably higher in calves of the experimental group. The number of leukocytes was higher in calves of the experimental group, and the contents of individual types of leukocytes remained similar to the control ones, after 10 days the contents of leukocytes in calves of the test group was higher mainly due to lymphocytes.

Keywords: ซSynoestrolum-2%ป, ซRonkoleukinป, colostrum, newborn calves, down-calving cows, immunoglobulins.
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Authors: Khisamutdinov A.G. – Head of the General Department of Veterinary Science of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan.
General Department of Veterinary Science of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan (e-mail: guv@tatar.ru).

Veterinary sanitary is one of the most important branches of Veterinary Science. It develops and implements in practice of husbandry the activities focused on prevention and treatment of animal diseases, human health protection from infectious agents and invasions, which are common in humans and animals and supporting the realization of high quality sanitary livestock products and feeds. Scientific data and practical experience show that the activities on destruction of microorganisms – disinfection, desinsection, sterilization are the most significant and reliable methods of preventing animal diseases. And besides it should be noted that along with laboratory researches of breadth of antimicrobic activity the tests of sampled products are fundamental in a production conditions. The purpose of the research was testing the import-substituting disinfectant Rekodez. The studies, carried out in laboratory using test-objects, have shown the high disinfecting activity of Rekodez against gram-negative (gr n), gram-positive (gr p) spore forming organisms, mycoflora and M.tuberculosis. The industrial tests established that when using 1% solution of the Rekodez at exposure time of 2 hours in bacteriological analysis of samples, taken after disinfection, there was no evidence of sanitary-indicating microorganisms with abundant growth in the control, taken before disinfection. The quality of the disinfection performed is satisfactory. When industrial testingof Rekodez at un favourable for tuberculosis farms, it was shown that when using 2% of solution of the Rekodez product at exposure time of 2 hours, there was no evidence of the growth of sanitary-indicating microorganisms – mycobacteria and staphylococcus at the final disinfection.All that state satisfactory disinfection qualities.

Keywords: disinfectants, stock breeding complexes, surface-active agents, tuberculosis, sanitation.
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