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¹ 1, 2018

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  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

UDC 57.084.1:619:615 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PRECLINICAL SAFETY EVALUATION OF PHARMACOLOGICAL DRUGS FOR VETERINARY USE

   
Authors: Birukova N.P. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Rusakov S.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Napalkova V.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
The All-Russian State Center for Quality and Standardization of Veterinary Drugs and Feed (VGNKI), Moscow (e-mail: vgnki-vet@mtu-net.ru).

   
Abstract:
The definition of degree of efficacy and safety of medicines is based on the results of a whole range of scientific studies, the most important of which is the safety evaluation, which should be harmonized with International Standards. The main purpose of preclinical study is to prevent the adverse effects of the drug in clinical trials. The reproduced drugs need studying the general toxic properties in comparison with the registered analogue, for the original medicines - the study of general toxic properties, specific types of toxicity, pharmacological safety, specific pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics. The study of general toxicity is divided into two stages: study of acute toxicity, toxicity study with repeated administration. Clinically significant effects can be characterized by administration of the maximum possible dose, or in the range up to the maximum tolerated dose. To study the general toxic properties, several species of laboratory sexually mature animals (mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs) of both sexes are used, with the exception of products intended for the manufacture of preparations, as well as for newborns, immature, pregnant animals. The features of drug study including the method and frequency of administration depend on physical and chemical properties of tested substance, on the main path of the expected entry into the body of target animals, and also on the objectives of the study. According to the results of preclinical safety study of drugs, the report containing primary data in the form of tables and / or graphs that should be statistically processed is prepared, and inferences and conclusions of the possibility of clinical study should be based on statistical conclusions. The reporting is carried out in accordance with the established requirements and rules of laboratory practice.

   
Keywords: preclinical study, laboratory animals, safety evaluation, general toxic properties
   
References:
1. Berezovskaya, I.V. Klassifikaciya himicheskih veshhestv po parametram ostroj toksichnosti pri parenteralnyh sposobah vvedeniya [Classification ofchemicals byacute toxicity parameters for parenteral rout of administration] / I.V.Berezovskaya // Himiko-farmatsevticheskij zhurnal. – 2003. – Vol. 37, ¹ 3. – P. 12–15.
2. Berezovskaya, I.V. Aktualnye problemy bezopasnosti dzhenerikov [Current problems of generic safety] / I.V.Berezovskaya, V.M.Ivanova // Byulleten VNTS BAV. – Staraya Kupavna, 2002. – P.37–52.
3. Laboratornye zhivotnye. Razvedenie, soderzhanie, ispolzovanie v eksperimente [Laboratory animals. Breeding, keeping, using in the experiment] / I.P.Zapadnyuk, V.I.Zapadnyuk, E.A.Zahariya, B.V.Zapadnyuk. – 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. – Kiev: Vishha shkola, 1983. – 230 p.
4. Karkishhenko, N.N. Rukovodstvo po laboratornym zhivotnym i alternativnym modelyam v biomeditsinskih issledovaniyah [Guide to laboratory animals and alternative models in biomedical research] / N.N.Karkishhenko, S.V.Gracheva. – M.: Profil, 2010. – 200 p.
5. O merah po dalnejshemu sovershenstvovaniyu organizatsionnyh form raboty s ispolzovaniem eksperimentalnyh zhivotnyh: prikaz Minzdrava SSSR ot 12.08.1977. – ¹ 755. [Guide to laboratory animals and alternative models in biomedical research] – M., 1977. – 7 p. 
6. Pravila nadlezhashhej laboratornoj praktiki Evrazijskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza v sfere obrashheniya lekarstvennyh sredstv: reshenie Soveta Evrazijskoj ekonomicheskoj komissii ot 03.11.2016. – ¹ 81 [Rules of good laboratory practice of the Eurasian Economic Union in the sphere of medicinal products circulation: the decision of the Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission of 03.11.2016. – ¹ 81] // Farmatsevticheskij vestnik: sajt. Dokumenty EAES. – P. 1.
7. Rukovodstvo po provedeniyu doklinicheskih issledovanij lekarstvennyh sredstv. Chast pervaya [The guide for preclinical studies of drugs. Part one] / pod red. A.N.Mironova. – M., 2012.
8. Sanitarnye pravila po ustrojstvu, oborudovaniyu i soderzhaniyu eksperimentalno-biologicheskih klinik (vivariev): prikaz MZ ot 06.04.1973. [Sanitary rules on the arrangement, equipping and maintenance of experimental-biological clinics (vivariums): order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR of 06.04.1973]. – ¹ 1045-73. – M., 1973.
9. Sistema standartov po informatsii, bibliotechnomu i izdatelskomu delu. Otchet o nauchno-issledovatelskoj rabote. Struktura i pravila oformleniya. GOST 7.32-2001: vveden Postanovleniem Gosstandarta RF ot 04.09.2001 g. – ¹ 367-st (red. ot 01.12.2005). [System of standarts on information, librarianship and publishing. Research report. Structure and rules of registration. GOST 7.32-2001: was introduced by the resolution of Gosstandart of the Russian Federation of 04.09.2001 ã. – ¹ 367- former editing of 01.12.2005)]. – M., 2005.
10. Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology / S.M.Barlow [et al.] // Food. Chem. Toxicol. – 2001. – ¹ 40. – Ð. 145–191.
11. Chronic Toxicity Studies. OECÐ Test ¹ 452.
12. Combes, R.D. A Scientific and Animal Welfare Assessment of the OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines for the Safety Testing of Chemicals under the European Union REACH System / R.D.Combes, I.Gaunt, M.Balls // ATLA. – 2004. – ¹ 32. – Ð. 163–208.
13. Draft consultant’s proposal OECD TG // Draft OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals. Acute Oral Toxicity-Fixed Dose Procedure. – 2008. – ¹ 13, Vol. 8, November. – P. 452.
15. EEC Council Directive 86/609/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes // Official Journal. – 1986. – ¹ 29, 18th December. – Ð.358.
16. European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and  other Scientific Purposes (ETS 123). – Strasbourg, 1986.
17. Guidance Document on Acute Oral Toxicity Testing. – 2001. – ¹ 24. – 23 Jul. – 24 p.
18. ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline (M3). Timing of Non-clinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials for Pharmaceuticals. – 1997.
19. ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline (S6). Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biotechnology-derived Pharmaceuticals. – 1997.
20. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. – No. 19. Guidance Document on the recognition, assessment, and use of clinical signs as humane endpoints for experimental animals used in safety evaluation. – 2000.
21. Gad, S.C. Preclinical Development: handbook-toxicology, 2008 
22. Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. OECÐ Test ¹407. Mezhdunarodnyj standart. Metody ispytaniya po vozdejstviyu himicheskoj produktsii na organizm cheloveka. Opredelenie toksichnosti pri povtornom / mnogokratnom peroralnom postuplenii veshhestva na gryzunah. 28-dnevnyj test: Gost 32641-2014. [International Standart. Trials methods for effects of chemical products on human body. Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. OECÐ Test ¹ 407.Gost 32641-2014 ]. – M.: Standartinform, 2015.
23. Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. OECR Test¹ 408. Mezhdunarodnyj standart. Metody ispytaniya po vozdejstviyu himicheskoj produktsii na organizm cheloveka. Opredelenie toksichnosti pri povtornom / mnogokratnom peroralnom postuplenii veshhestva na gryzunah. 28-dnevnyj test: Gost 32641-2014. [International Standart. Trials methods for effects of chemical products on human body.Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. OECÐTest ¹407.Gost32641-2014 ]. – M.: Standartinform, 2015.
24. Report of the Consultation Meeting on Sub-chronic and Chronic Toxicity // Carcinogenicity Testing. OECD. – 1995.

   
   
Title:

UDC 582.28 INFLUENCE OF SURFACE ERYTHROCYTES ABO GROUPS AND ITS MODIFICATION ON HEMAGGLUTINATING ACTIVITY OF LECTINS OF FUSARIUM SOLANI

   
Authors: 1Mukhammadiev Rich.S. – postgraduate; 1Mukhammadiev Rin.S. – postgraduate; 1Bagaeva T.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Valiullin L.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Kazan Federal University, Kazan (e-mail: public.mail@kpfu.ru).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
In the present study, eighteen isolates of fungi belonging to Fusarium solani, were screened for the presence of surface lectins. All the fungal isolates showed different degree of activity of surface lectins depending on fungal strain. Among pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F.solani fifteen of them were found to possess lectin activity. Fungal isolates of F.solani and F.solani 6 indicated the presence of high lectin activity (titre 64 and titre 128, respectively) compared to the other strains. Trypsin, pronase and neuraminidase treatment of erythrocytes increased the sensitivity to hemagglutination by fungal lectins. Trypsin treatment increased the degree of binding of surface lectins to erythrocytes by 2-4 times, while neuraminidase treatment increased by 2-32 times. The highest level of lectin activity was observed after treatment with pronase. The lectin activity was 2-64 times higher with pronase treated erythrocytes than with untreated ones. This modification of erythrocytes allowed to reveal the activity of agglutinins in the isolates of fungi F.solani 9, F.solani 11 and F.solani 16. Treatment of erythrocytes like in case of neuraminidase treatment has shown significant impact on surface agglutinins of F.solani 1, F.solani 8 and F.solani 12. 

   
Keywords: fungi, Fusarium solani, surface lectins, activity
   
References:
1. Alimova, F.K. Promyshlennoe primenenie gribov roda Trichoderma [Industrial application of Trichoderma fungi] / F.K.Alimova. – Kazan: UNIPRESS DAS, 2006. – 268 p.
2. Khan, F. Fungal lectins: Current molecular and biochemical perspectives / F.Khan, M.Khan // Int. J. Biol. Chem. – 2011. – Vol. 5, ¹ 1. – P. 1–20.
3. Isolation and homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds / X.Ye, T.Ng, P.Tsang, J.Wang // J.Protein Chem. – 2001. – Vol. 20, ¹ 5. – P. 367–375.
4. First isolation and characterization of a novel lectin with potent antitumor activity from a Russula mushroom / G.Zhang, J.Sun, H.Wang, T.Ng // Phytomedicine. – 2010. – Vol. 17, ¹ 10. – P. 775–781.
5. She, Q. A novel lectins with potent immunomodulatory activity isolated from both fruiting bodies and cultured mycelia of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea / Q.She, T.Ng, W.Liu // Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. – 1998. – Vol. 247, ¹ 1. – P. 106–111.
6. Mamenko, P. N. Funktsii lektinov rastenij pri abioticheskih i bioticheskih stressah [Lectins functions of plants at abiotic and biotic stresses] / P.N.Mamenko // Fiziologiya rastenij i genetika. – 2014. – Tom. 46, ¹ 2. – P. 95–107.
7. Sharon, N. History of lectins: from hemagglutinins to biological recognition molecules / N.Sharon, H.Lis // Glycobiology. – 2004. – Vol. 14, ¹ 11. – P. 53–62.
8. Barak, R. The properties of L-fucose-binding agglutinin associated with the cell wall of Rhizoctonia solani / R.Barak, Y.Elad, I.Chet // Archives of Microbiology. – 1986. – Vol. 144. – P. 346–349.
9. Barak, R. Lectins: a possible basis for specific recognition in the interaction of Trichoderma and Sclerotium rolfsii / R.Barak, D.Mirelman, I.Chet // Phytopathology. – 1985. – Vol. 75, ¹ 4. – P. 458–462.
10. A soluble fucose-specific lectin from Aspergillus fumigatus conidia-structure, specificity and possible role in fungal pathogenicity / J.Houser [et al.] // PLoS One. – 2013. – Vol. 8, ¹ 12. – P. 1–15.
11. Singh, R.S. Screening of Aspergillus species for occurrence of lectins activity and their characterization / R.S.Singh, A.K.Tiwary, R.Bhari // J. Basic Microbiol. – 2008. – Vol. 48. – P. 112–117.
12. Muhammadiev, R.S. Mycelial and Extracellular Lectins of Lower Fungi / R.S.Muhammadiev, T.V.Bagaeva // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. – 2015. – Vol. 6, ¹ 6. – P.1737–1743.
13. Purification, elicitor activity, and cell wall localisation of a glycoprotein from Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, a fungal pathogen of tobacco / N.Sejalon-Delmas [et al.] // Phytopathology. – 1997. – Vol. 87, ¹ 9. – P. 899–909.
14. Lutsik, M.D. Lektiny [Lectins] / M.D.Lutsik, E.N.Panasyuk, A.D.Lutsik. – Lvov: Vysshaya shkola, 1981. – 156 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 612.438:619:615.917:616-001.28/.29 STUDY OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE CORN MATERIAL OF RATS TIMUS UNDER THE COMBINED EXPOSURE OF DIOXIN AND IONIZING RADIATION

   
Authors: Salnikova M.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Kadikov I.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Zakirova G.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Kolganova E.A. – postgraduate; Baymukhametov F.Z. – Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Saitov V.R. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The ultrastructure stydies of combined exposure of various groups of toxicants and a number of other harmful factors both on biological systems and on separate organs help to understand the mechanism of such exposure, to define the expected effects and make possible to use the obtained data in case of the real occurrence of such pathologies. The aim of the research was to study ultrastructure features of the corn material of rats timus both normal and exposed by various factors such as: (ionizing radiation of 5 gr dose; the combined exposure of dioxin 1/100 LD 50 and ionizing radiation 5 gr dose). The ultrastructure of rats timus was examined using electronic microscopy. The samples were fixed in 1 % solution of glutaraldehyde in 0,1 M phosphate buffer (Ph 7,4).The postfixation was carried out in 2% solution of tetraoxide osmic. Then the dehydration of the material in alcohol series of gradually increasing alcohol concentration (30, 50, 70, 80, 96, 100) was carried out, and then the corn material was immersed in acetone. After dehydration the parts of tissues were placed in the mixture of epon and acetone (Epon 812+DDSA+MNA+DMP-30 Fluka) for gradual saturation. The results indicated the tested dioxin and ionizing radiation doses both separately and combined to cause the structure and functional changes mainly in reticule cells. The timus cells themselves suffer changes in less degree.

   
Keywords: rats, ultrastructure, corn material, timus, dioxin, ionizing radiation.
   
References:
1. Erofeeva, L.M. Morfologiya timusa pri modelirovanii ehkstremalnyh vozdejstvij: gipergravitacii ioniziruyushchih izluchenij [Morphology of timus in modelling extreme exposures: hypergravitations of ionizing radiation] abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Biological Sciences. – M., 2002. – 312 p.
2. Kirshin, V.A. Veterinarnaya protivoradiacionnaya zashchita [Veterinary antiradiation protection] / V.A.Kirshin, V.A.Budarkov. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1990. – 207 p.
3. Moskvichyov, E.V. Morfologicheskaya i immunogistohimicheskaya harakteristika vilochkovoj zhelezy pri ehksperimentalnom kancerogeneze v usloviyah vtorichnoj immunnoj nedostatochnosti [Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thymus in experimental cancerogenesis under secondary immune incompetence] abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Medical Sciences: 03.03.04. – Orenburg, 2013. – 30 p.
4. Transmissionnaya ehlektronnaya mikroskopiya v biologii i medicine: monografiya [Transmission electronic microscopy in Biology and Medicine: a monograph] / M.M.Salnikova, L.V.Malyutina, V.R.Saitov, A.I.Golubev. – Kazan: Kazanskij (Privolzhskij) Federalnyj Universitet, 2016. – 125 p.
5. Trufakin, V.A. Problemy gistofiziologii immunnoj sistemy [Problems of histophysiology of immune system] / V.A.Trufakin, A.V.Shurlygin // Immunologiya. – 2002. – ¹ 1. – P. 4–8.
6. Yarmonenko, S.P. Radiobiologiya cheloveka i zhivotnyh [Human and animals radiobiology] / S.P.Yarmonenko, A.A.Vajnson. – M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1988. – 594 p.
7. Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, bis (Tri-N-Butyltin) Oxideand Cyclosporineon Thymus Histophysiology / E.J.DeWaal, H.J.Schuurman, H.VanLoveren, J.G.Vos // Crit. Rev.Toxicol. – 1997. – Vol. 4, ¹ 27. – P. 381–430.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.5.082.474:619 ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE MEANS OF TREATING HATCHING EGGS

   
Authors: Gofman A.A. – Research Officer; Lysko S.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Krasikov A.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Siberian Research Poultry Institute (å-mail: vet@sibniip).

   
Abstract:
Treating of hatching eggs by steams of formaldehyde is widespread in the poultry farms, however, the use of formaldehyde has a negative impact both on development of embryos and staff. As the results of the xperiment, the most effective treatment scheme of hatching eggs by alcoholic tincture of propolis was industrially tested (100 g of propolis is infused in 80 % alcohol, then they obtained tincture is diluted with 1000 ml of water). Studies were carried out at the Department of veterinary science of the Siberian Poultry Institute and in the poultry farm of the Omsk region. The scheme of aerosol treatment with tincture of propolis was tested on the hatching egg of cross "Ross-308" (1:10 dilution from the calculation of 0.25 l/1m3 of air before laying and on 11.5, 18.5, and 21.5 days of incubation, 60 minutes exposure). In the control group, gasification with steam of formaldehyde was carried out before laying (per 1 m3 of chamber 30 ml of formalin, 20 g of potassium manganate and 15 ml of water), the exposure - 30 min.; while handling and till the moment of hatching – formalin was half diluted with water. Aerosol application of tincture of propolis during incubation suppressed the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora in the air of incubatory and hatchery cabinets, in the washings from the shell of incubating eggs by 18.5 days the amount of staphylococcus decreased by 40%, bacteria of the Esherichia coli group – by 60%, which indicated bactericidal action of propolis tincture. Its application had a positive effect on the development of embryos, increased hatchability of eggs by 4.8%, the output of young by 4.2%, disinfected the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract of hatched chicken, contributed to the prevention of respiratory infections in the hatchery.

   
Keywords: incubation, propolis tincture, respiratory infections, chickens, microflora, embryo, formalin
   
References:
1. Baktericidnaya aktivnost propolisa na vozbuditelej respiratornyh infekcij ptits [The bactericidal activity of propolis on the causative agents of respiratory infections of birds] [Text] / A.A.Gofman, S.B.Lysko, A.P.Krasikov, N.M.Kolychev // Sovremennye tendencii nauchnogo obespecheniya v razvitii APK: fundamentalnye i prikladnye issledovaniya. – Omsk, 2016. – P. 251–254.
2. Lysko, S.B. Mikrobiologicheskij monitoring v inkubatoriyah [Microbiological monitoring of hatchery] [Text] / S.B.Lysko, O.V.Makarova // Pticevodstvo. – 2009. – ¹ 8. – P. 43–44.
3. Lysko, S.B. Alternativnyj sposob obrabotki inkubacionnyh yaits [An alternative method of handling hatching eggs ] [Tekst] / S.B.Lysko // Pticevodstvo. – 2014. – ¹ 5. – P. 34–38. 
4. Lakin, G.F. Biometriya [Biometric] [Text] / G.F.Lakin. – M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1973. – 343 p.
5. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po inkubacii yaits selskohozyajstvennoj ptitsy [Guidelines for incubation of poultry eggs ] [Text]. – Sergiev Posad: FGBNU VNITIP, 2011. – 46 p.
6. Gofman, A.A. Profilaktika respiratornyh infekcij ptits v inkubatore [Prevention of respiratory infections of birds in the incubator] [Text] / A.A.Gofman, S.B.Lysko, A.P.Krasikov // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2017. – ¹ 6. – P. 31–36.
7. Rekomendacii po sanitarno-bakteriologicheskomu issledovaniyu smyvov s poverhnostej obektov, podlezhashchih veterinarnomu nadzoru: utv. 19.07.1988 [Recommendations for the sanitary and bacteriological examination of swabs from surfaces of objects subject to veterinary supervision: approved on 19.07.1988]. – M., 1988. – 9 p.
8. Rekomendacii po diagnostike, profilaktike i meram borby so stafilokokkozom ptits: utv. VPNO Soyuzptitseprom 28.11.1989 [Guidelines for diagnostics, prevention and measures to control staphylococcosis of birds: approved by ITNO Soyuzptitseprom of 28.11.1989]. – M., 1989. – 24 p.
9. Spravochnik veterinarnogo laboranta [Directory of veterinary technician] [Text] / F.Z.Androsov, A.I.Belyaev, R.T.Klochko [et al.]: pod red. V.Ya.Antonova. – M.: Kolos, 1981. – 248 p.
10. Chetvertichnye ammonievye soedineniya - perspektivnoe napravlenie v veterinarnoj dezinfektologii [Quaternary ammonium compounds – a promising way in Veterinary Disinfectology] / V.S.Ugryumova, P.S.Fahretdinov, O.V.Ugryumov [et al.] // Veterinarnyj vrach. – 2005. – ¹ 1. – P. 59–63.
11. Monitoring zaraznyh boleznej ptits v Omskoj oblasti [Monitoring of infectious diseases of birds in the Omsk region] [Text] / A.V.Portyanko, S.B.Lysko, A.A.Gofman, A.P.Krasikov // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2017. – ¹ 9. – P.34–38.

  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

UDC 576.3+619:615+619:616.98 THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL CULTIVATION PROCESS OF BHK-21/13-13 CELL CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF VACCINES AGAINST FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, AUJESZKY'S DISEASE AND RABIES

   
Authors: 1Samuylenko A.Ya. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, Academician of RAS; 1Melnik N.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Grin S.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor, Corresponding member of RAS; 1Melnik R.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Fedorova O.Y. – applicant; 1Stoyanov I.V. – applicant; 1Fedorova N.V. – applicant; 1Stoyanova I.E. – applicant; 1Pazhnov S.V. – applicant; 1Kruglov A.A. – applicant; 2Litenkova I.Y. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Kryukova E.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Elnikov V.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1 All-Russian Research and Technological Institute of Biological Industry, Moscow region (e-mail: vnitibp@mail.ru).
2FSE «Shchelkovo Biokombinat», Moscow region (e-mail: comerc@biocombinat.ru).

   
Abstract:
The epizootic situation of Aujeszky’s disease, foot-and-mouth disease and rabies persists tense both in the Russian Federation and in other countries of the world. In connection with that the improvement of industrial technologies of vaccines manufacture against these diseases is an actual problem. The article presents the research results of the industrial cultivation of a monolayer suspension of BHK-21/13-13 finite cells culture that formed the basis for the optimization of the culture process in an automatic mode for the subsequent manufacture of vaccines against Aujeszky's disease, rabies, and foot-and-mouth disease. The optimization of the industrial cultivation process was carried out at the FSE "Shchelkovo Biocombinat" in the reactors with a capacity of 5.0-2000 liters to be intended for the production of vaccines against Aujeszky's disease, rabies and foot-and-mouth disease. The cell’s biomass obtained according to the developed technology is high sensitive to viral infection of foot-and-mouth disease, rabies and Aujeszky’s disease, and the obtained virus material has a high antigenic activity. 

   
Keywords: cell culture, Aujeszky's disease virus, rabies, foot-and-mouth disease, culture medium, reactors, fermenters, industrial regulations, strains
   
References:
1. Infekcionnaya patologiya zhivotnyh [Infectious pathology of animals] / A.Ya.Samujlenko, B.V.Soloveva, E.A.Nepoklonova, E.S.Voronina. – M.: IKC «Akademkniga», 2006. – 1911 p.
2. Dyakonova L.P. Zhivotnaya kletka v kulture (Metody i primenenie v biotekhnologii) [Animal cells in culture (Methods and application in biotechnology)] / L.P.Dyakonova. – M.: Izd-vo «Sputnik+», 2009. – 656 p.
3. Kultivirovanie kletok i tkanej zhivotnyh. 2 Chast [Cultivation of cells and tissues of animals. Part 2] / L.P.Dyakonov [et al.]. – Stavropol: Stavrop. Pravda, 1988. – 91 p.
4. Freshni, R. Metody. Kultura zhivotnyh kletok [Methods. Culture of animal cells] / R.Freshni. – M.: Mir, 1989. – 333 p.
5. Sergeev, V.A. Reprodukciya i vyrashchivanie virusov zhivotnyh [Reproduction and cultivation of animals viruses] / V.A.Sergeev. – M.: Kolos, 1976. – 303 p.
6. Dyakonov, L.P. Specializirovannaya Kollekciya kletochnyh kultur selskohozyajstvennyh i promyslovyh zhivotnyh [Specialized Collection of Cell Cultures of Agricultural and Commercial Animals] (SKHZH RASKHN) RKKK RAN i kriobank VIEHV, «Konservaciya geneticheskih resursov»: materialy XIV rabochego soveshchaniya, Pushchino, 28-30 maya 1996 g. [Conservation of genetic resources: proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop, Pushchino, May 28-301996] / L.P.Dyakonov. – Pushchino, 1996. – P. 76–79 
7. Ulasov, V.I. Problemy borby s boleznyu Aueski u svinej [Problems of control of Aujeszky's disease in pigs] / V.I.Ulasov, A.A.Olshanskaya // Veterinariya. – 2009. – ¹ 1. – P. 20–23.
8. Chuvstvitelnost zhivotnyh raznyh vidov k virusu bolezni Aueski [Sensitivity of animals of different species to the Aujeszky's disease virus] / V.A.Mishchenko, E.P.Baborenko, L.N.Kornienko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 1994. – ¹ 5. – P. 20–22.
9. Yaschur [Foot-and-mouth disease] / A.N.Burdov, A.I.Dudnikov, P.V.Malyarec [et al.]. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1990. – 320 p. 
10. Infekcionnaya patologiya zhivotnyh. Tom I. Yaschur [Infectious pathology of animals. Volume I. Foot-and-mouth disease] / A.Ya.Samujlenko [et al.]. – M., 2014. – 909 p. 
11. Gruzdev, K.N. Beshenstvo zhivotnyh [Rabies of animals] / K.N.Gruzdev, V.V.Nedosekov. – M.: Akvarium, 2001. – 304 p.
12. Akinshina, T.V. Razrabotka nabora reagentov dlya ocenki effektivnosti postvakcinalnogo immuniteta k virusu beshenstva v serologicheskih reakciyah [Development of a reagent kit for assessing the effectiveness of postvaccinal immunity to rabies virus in serological reactions] abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Biological Sciences / T.V.Akinshina. – Schelkovo, 2005. – 28 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619(091)(470.325) DISTRIBUTION AND MEASURES AGAINST RABIES IN THE OSTROGOZHSK DISTRICT OF THE VORONEZH REGION IN THE END OF XIX – BEGINNING OF XX CENTURIES

   
Authors: Skvortsov V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Nevzorova V.V. – Junior researcher; Skvortsova T.A. – Junior researcher; Prisnyi A.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Belgorod Department of Ya.R. Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV), Belgorod, Russian Federation (e-mail: andreyprisny@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
The rabies was widespread in the Ostrogozhsk district in the studied period of time. In the veterinary report of 1890 the first animal rabies in the district is mentioned. The disease was recorded every year, but the economic losses registration has been extremely difficult for the disease. A lot of money was spent for the treatment of bitten people. The statistics indicate that 2326 peoples died from rabies in 1891-1896 in Voronezh province (on average 387 people per year). The projects of measures to eliminate rabies were finalized in 1902. The owner was obliged to lock the animal in a separate room and immediately notify the local police, district council or veterinarian, when a first signs of the disease is appearing. The animal must is immediate slaughter with the issuance of compensation after the conclusion of a veterinarian. The destroy rabid animals and stray dogs, and in some cases – isolate of rabid farm animals in the eliminate against rabies applied. The bites by rabid dogs were the main cause of the spread of rabies among the farm animals. The individual cases of rabies were due from wolves’ bites. The all information about infectious diseases of animals specified in the reports was far from the truth at that time, as the population is not yet accustomed to declare dead animals to the veterinarian. The peasants removed the skin from dead animals for sale, and bodies were thrown to be devoured by dogs. Thus, the pet owners contributed to the spread of infection. The payment skin of rabid dead animals with a view to urging the population to the timely information of disease, as well as damages compensation stemming from the loss of an animal. The population reported more often about the emergence of rabies in agricultural animals after the realization of this measure.

   
Keywords: rabies, epizootology, stray dogs, unfavorable settlement, control measures, the rules against rabies, veterinarian
   
References:
1. Verevkin, A.I. Epizootija beshenstva v Voronezhskoj gubernii v 1903 godu [The epizootic of rabies in the Voronezh province in 1903] / A.I.Verevkin // Veterinarnaja hronika Voronezhskoj gubernii. – 1903. – ¹ 2. – P. 17-21.
2. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1891 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1891]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1891. – P. 172-179.
3. Skvortsov, V.N. Stanovlenie i razvitie zemskoj veterinarii v Ostrogozhskom uezde Vo-ronezhskoj gubernii. Ch.1. [Formation and development of zemstvo veterinary medicine in the Ostrogozhsky district of the Voronezh province. Part 1] / V.N.Skvortsov, V.D.Buhanov, D.V.Jurin, O.A.Stopkevich // Mezhdunarodnyj vestnik veterinarii. – 2011. – ¹ 2. – P. 58-61.
4. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1900 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1900]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1901. – P. 636-645.
5. Zhurnaly Voronezhskogo gubernskogo zemskogo sobranija 1899 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1899]. – Voronezh, 1900. – P. 345-346.
6. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1901 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1901]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1902. – P. 631-633.
7. Verevkin, A.I. Doklad ob izdanii objazatel'nyh postanovlenij protiv jashhura, chesotki, beshenstva, poval'nyh boleznej svinej, tuberkuljoza i obshhih pravil po bor'be s zaraznymi boleznjami i peresmotr obshhih osnovanij organizacii veterinarnogo personala s predstavleniem proektov sih pravil [The report on the issuance of mandatory regulations against foot and mouth disease, scabies, rabies, swine disease, tuberculosis and general rules for the control of contagious diseases and revision of the general grounds for the organization of veterinary personnel with the submission of drafts of these rules] / A.I. Verevkin // Trudy 3 soveshhanija predstavitelej zemstv i veterinarnyh vrachej Voronezhskoj gubernii 16-22 avgusta 1908. – Voronezh: Tipo-Litografija «Tovarishhestvo N. Kravcov i Ko», 1908. – P. 112-143.
8. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1904 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1904]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1905. – P. 721-740.
9. Skvortsov, V.N. Stanovlenie i razvitie zemskoj veterinarii v Ostrogozhskom uezde Vo-ronezhskoj gubernii. Ch.2. [Formation and development of zemstvo veterinary medicine in the Ostrogozhsky district of the Voronezh province. Part 2] / V.N.Skvortsov, V.D.Buhanov, D.V.Jurin, O.A.Stopkevich // Mezhdunarodnyj vestnik veterinarii. – 2011. – ¹ 3. – P. 55-59.
10. Guljukin, M.I. Zemskaja veterinarija Ostrogozhskogo uezda [Zemsky Veterinary Medicine of Ostrogozhsky Uyezd] / M.I.Guljukin, V.N.Skvortsov, I.V.Rogozha, O.N.Pankova. – Belgorod: IPC «POLITERRA», 2010. – 215 p.
11. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1910 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1910]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1911. – P. 1460-1469.
12. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1911 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1911]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1912. – P. 1214-1228.
13. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1912 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1912]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1913. – P. 922-930.
14. Otchet o sostojanii veterinarnogo dela v gubernii i dejatel'nosti veterinarnogo personala gubernskogo zemstva za 1912 god [Report on the state of veterinary affairs in the province and the activities of the veterinary staff of the provincial zemstvo for 1912]. – Voronezh: Tipo-Litografija Tovarishhestva «Pechatnik», 1913 – P. 105-109.
15. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1914 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1914]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1915. – P. 1106-1120.
16. Zhurnaly Ostrogozhskogo ocherednogo uezdnogo zemskogo sobranija 1915 goda [The Journals of Ostrogozhsk county assembly in 1915]. – Ostrogozhsk, 1916. – P. 1345-1354.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.33-002:636.22/28 THE INFLUENCE OF COLOSTRUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DYSPEPSIA IN CALVES

   
Authors: 1Pozov S.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Porublyov V.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Orlova N.E. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol (e-mail: porvlad@mail.ru). 
 
2Russian State Agrarian Correspondence University, Moscow region, Balashikha (e-mail: nadorlov@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Newborn calves receive maternal humoral and cell-like factors of immune protection with a colostrum. Immunoglobulins and leukocytes of a colostrum of cows mothers have an important role in resistance of newborn calves to dyspepsia disease. At the same time, if the gastrointestinal permeability for colostrum immunoglobulins plays an important role in the creation of common colostral immunity, then for the local gastrointestinal protection of calves the leukocytes of colostrum have the essential part. Even more important is the presence of these cells in the morphologically altered, abnormal gastrointestinal tract of calves with dyspepsia, so the presence of a sufficient number of leukocytes in colostrum causes the high resistance of newborn calves to gastrointestinal diseases. Before milk feeding of colostrums there are traces of immunoglobulins and rather small amount of leukocytes in blood of newborn calves. In a day after a milk feeding of a colostrum there are a great number of immunoglobulins in blood of calves, the quantity of leukocytes considerably increases. The level of resistance of newborn calves depends first of all on well-timed coming colostrum of goof quality in its organism. However it is necessary to consider that resistance to diseases is also defined by a condition of a gastrointestinal tract because the immunoglobulins absorption is disordered at dyspepsia of calves. When immunoglobulins absorption disordered, the important role in animals resistance to dyspepsia has the presence of a sufficient number of leukocytes in colostrum. At the same time there is a correlative connection between the colostric contents of leukocytes and resistance of calves to gastrointestinal diseases. To prevent calves dyspepsia it needs early milk feeding of a colostrum as its first portions contain the greatest number of immunoglobulins and leukocytes having great importance in the forming of common and local immune protection of newborn animals.

   
Keywords: colostrum, resistance, stability, dyspepsia, immunoglobulins, leukocytes, milk feeding, cell-like factors, calfs, immune protection, newborn
   
References:
1. Orlova, N.E. Biogeohimicheskie provincii i svyazannye s nim mikroehlementozy zhivotnyh [Biogeochemical provinces and related Microelementoses animal] / N.E.Orlova, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Pozov // Stavropol: «AGRUS». – 2008. – P. 123. 
2. Orlova, N.E. Biogeohimicheskie provincii i svyazannye s nimi mikroehlementozy zhivotnyh [Biogeochemical provinces and related microelementoses animal] / N.E.Orlova, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Pozov // Monografiya. Stavropol, «AGRUS» – 2008. – P. 132. 
3. Pozov, S.A. Ispolzovanie lekarstvennyh rastenij pri diaree u telyat [The use of medicinal plants for diarrhea in calves] / S.A.Pozov, A.A.Belyaev, V.A.Belyaev // Diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika zabolevanij s/h zhivotnyh: Sb. nauch. tr. Stavropol, 1999. – P. 63 – 66.
4. Pozov, S.A. Vliyanie razlichnyh doz medi na nekotorye biohimicheskie pokazateli syvorotki krovi telyat [Effect of different doses of copper on some biochemical parameters of blood serum of calves] / S.A.Pozov, L.N.Komarova // Diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika zabolevanij s/h zhivotnyh: Sb. nauch. tr. Stavropol, 2000. – P. 111 – 113. 
5. Pozov, S.A. Mikroehlementozy zhivotnyh v biogeohimicheskih provinciyah [Microelementoses animal in biogeochemical provinces] // Monografiya: Izd-vo LAP, Germaniya. – 2012. – P. 148. 
6. Pozov, S.A. Mikroehlementy plazmy krovi i ehritrocitov u ovec pri bronhopnevmonii v associacii s sarkocistozom [Trace elements of blood plasma and erythrocytes from sheep with pneumonia associated with sarcocystosis] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Eziev // Diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika zabolevanij s/h zhivotnyh: Sb. nauch. tr. Stavropol, 2010. – P. 41-42. 
7. Pozov, S.A. Znachenie mikroehlementov v profilaktike smeshannyh zabolevanij s/h zhivotnyh [The importance of micronutrients in prevention of mixed diseases of agricultural animals] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Porublev, N.E.Orlova, S.A.Eziev, E.A.Yashchenko // Veterinarnyj vrach. – ¹ 4. – 2014. – P. 64-66.
8. Pozov, S.A. Vliyanie obmena veshchestv u korov na razvitie dispepsii u telyat [The influence of metabolism in cows on the development of dyspepsia in calves] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Porublev, N.E.Orlova // Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoj i zootekhnicheskoj nauki i praktiki: materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj internet-konferencii. T. 1. – Stavropol, 2015. – P. 139-144.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.822.2 DEFINITION OF THE ANTIGENIC ACTIVITY OF VACCINE AGAINST IRT, VD-BS, PG-3 AND CHLAMIDIOSIS OF CATTLE IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

   
Authors: Akbashev I.R. – postgraduate; Evstifeev V.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Gumerov V.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Karimullina I.G. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Khusainova G.I. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents data on the study of the antigenic activity of the “Associated vaccine against PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis of the cattle inactivated emulsion” in laboratory animals. As laboratory models healthy, with seronegativity antigens to PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis rabbits weighing 2.5-3 kg were used. To determine the absolute vaccination dose, 16 rabbits were used, of which 3 experienced and 1 control groups were formed by analogy, of 4 heads in each. The antigenic activity of the associated vaccine was determined by double 14 days interval subcutaneous vaccination of rabbits with a certain dose, and their blood serums were studied to determine the level of specific antibodies to viral PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis antigens in 30, 60, 90, 180 and 360 days after vaccination. Taking blood from animals to determine the level of humoral immunity was performed in 30 days after the first administration of the vaccine. Thus, in the results of the experiment, the double 14 days interval rabbit vaccination in a dose of 1 ml. by “Associated vaccine against PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis of the cattle inactivated emulsion” was found to cause the formation of high level antibodies to all 4 antigens. The duration of the effect of immunity to all 4 antigens within 1 year was studied.

   
Keywords: antigenic activity, IRT, VD-BS, PG-3, chlamidiosis, cattle, associated vaccine
   
References:
1. Ahmetsafin, R.G. Smeshannye respiratornye infektsii molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [Mixed respiratory infections of young cattle] / R.G.Ahmetsafin, R.R.SHarafieva // Aktualnye problemy veterinarii: materialy nauch.-prakt. konf. molodyh uchenyh i spetsialistov. – Kazan, 2007 – P. 102–104.
2. Ivanov, A.V. Etiopatogenez respiratorno-genitalnyh infektsij krupnogo rogatogo skota, problemy i perspektivy ih diagnostiki, profilaktiki i borby s nimi [Etiopathogenesis of respiratory genital infections of cattle, problems and prospects of their diagnostics, prevention and control] / A.V.Ivanov, H.Z.Gaffarov // Veterinarnyj vrach. – 2008. – ¹ 4. – P. 2–7.
3. Mitrofanov, P.M. Klinika i patogenez hlamidioza [Clinical picture and pathogenesis of chlamydiosis ] / P.M.Mitrofanov // Veterinariya. – 1980. – ¹ 6. – P. 37–39.
4. Mitrofanov, P.M. Hlamidioz krupnogo rogatogo skota i mery borby s nim [Chlamydiosis of cattle and measures to control it] / P.M.Mitrofanov, V.A.Semenov, R.H.Hamadeev. – Cheboksary: RITS «Granit», 2001. – 54 p.
5. Virusnye bolezni zhivotnyh [Viral animals diseases] / V.N.Syurin, A.Ya.Samujlenko, B.N.Soloviev, N.V.Fomina. – M.: VNITIBP, 1998. – 927 p.
6. Syurin, V.N. Chastnaya virusologiya: spravochnaya kniga [Private virology: a reference book] / V.N.Syurin, N.V.Fomina. – M.: Kolos, 1979. – 472 p.
7. Shabunin, S.V. Bakterialnye i virusnye infektsii v patologii vosproizvoditelnoj funktsii u korov [Bacterial and viral infections in the pathology of the reproductive function in cows] / S.V.Shabunin, A.G.SHahov, A.G.Nezhdanov // Veterinariya. – 2012. – ¹ 10. – P. 3–8.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.824.11-036.22(470.55) EXTENSION OF RABIES IN WILD LIFE IN THE CHELYABINSK REGION

   
Authors: 1Shkaeva N.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Shkaev A.E. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1South Ural State University (National Research University, Cheliabinsk (e-mail: info@susu.ru, shkna@rambler.ru).

2National Research Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Pokrov.

   
Abstract:
Rabies takes a special place among zooantroponozis diseases. The Chelyabinsk Region has been permanently unfit for rabies in recent years. The article presents the results of monitoring the epizootic situation of rabies in wild and domestic animals from 1985 to July 2016. The purpose of this work was to study the spread and manifestation of rabies among different species of wild and domestic animals on the territory of the Chelyabinsk region. The statistical data of the Chelyabinsk region Ministry of Agriculture veterinary department on registration of rabies outbreaks of wild, domestic, and agricultural animals in populated areas, the system of epizootic monitoring of particularly dangerous animal diseases, cartographic registration and the breadth of spread are used in the work. The analysis of all detected cases of rabies with an indication of their localization and species composition of diseased animals, including wild ones was carried out. The epizootic situation in the region persists tense. From 1985 to July 2016, there were 1572 outbreaks for rabies. Among wild animals, foxes accounted for more than 90% of all wild rabies cases in the period under review. The largest number of registered outbreaks occurred in the territories bordering the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Chebarkul region, where for the whole analyzed period 195 cases were recorded among the wild animals, followed by the Nagaibaksky -111, the Kizilsky-93, the Bredinsky-91, Kartalinsky - 83 respectively. The data obtained allow specialists to adjust and clarify the timing, scale of preventive vaccination of wild animals and to facilitate their incidence to be regulated in hunting populations.

   
Keywords: rabies of animals,monitoring of epizootic situation for rabies, mixed form of rabies, the activation of natural focuses of animal diseases
   
References:
1. Beshenstvo: etiologiya, epizootologiya, diagnostika: uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie v illyustratsiyah [Rabies: etiology, epizootology, diagnostics: an illustrated teaching manual] / A.V.Ivanov, N.A.Hismatulina, A.N.CHernov, A.M.Gulyukin. – M.: Kolos, 2010. – 54 p.
2. Gruzdev, K.N. Beshenstvo zhivotnyh [Rabies of animals] / K.N.Gruzdev, V.V.Nedosekov. – M.:Akvarium LTD, 2001. – 304 p.
3. Epizootologicheskaya situatsiya po beshenstvu v Novosibirskoj oblasti v 2001 – 2003 g [Epizootological situation for rabies in the Novosibirsk region in 2001 – 2003]. / A.V.Zajkovskaya [et al.] // Bolezni dikih zhivotnyh: trudy Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt.konf. 28-30 sentyabrya 2004 g. – Pokrov: GNU VNIIVViM, 2004. – P. 51–56.
4. Kompleksnoe izuchenie beshenstva zhivotnyh i mery bor'by s nim [Complex study of animals rabies, and measures to control it] / A.Z.Ravilov, N.A.Hismatullina, R.H.Yusupov[i dr.] // Veterinariya. – 2000. – ¹ 6. – P. 7–10.
5.Spravochnik administrativno-territorialnogo deleniya Chelyabinskoj oblasti po sostoyaniyu na 1 iyunya 1997 g. [Reference book of the administrative-territorial division of the Chelyabinsk region for June 1, 1997]. – Chelyabinsk: Izd-vo Dom pechati, 1997. – 224 p.
6.Sistema epizootologicheskogo monitoringa osobo opasnyh, ekzoticheskih, maloizuchennyh, v tom chisle zooantroponoznyh boleznej zhivotnyh [The system of epizootological monitoring of particularly dangerous, exotic, little-studied including zooantroponosis animal diseases] / V.M.Kotlyarov, I.A.Bakulov, N.V.Dmitrenko [et al.] VNIIVViM. – M, 2001. – 73 p.
7. Ivanov, A.V. Epizootologicheskij i immunologicheskij nadzor za beshenstvom [Epizootological and immunological supervision of rabies] / A.V.Ivanov, N.A.Hismatullina, A.M.Gulyukin // Veterinarnyj vrach. –2010. – ¹ 4. – P.3–6.
8. Profilaktika i borba s beshenstvom zhivotnyh na territorii Chelyabinskoj oblasti na 2014-2016 gody: godovoj otchet o hode realizatsii vedomstvennoj tselevoj programmy, utv. prikazom Minsel'hoza CHelyabinskoj oblasti ot 08.05.2014 g [Prevention and control of animal rabies in the Chelyabinsk region for 2014-2016 years: annual report on the implementation of the departmental target program approved by the Chelyabinsk region Ministry of agriculture on the 8-th of may in 2014. – ¹ 235]. – Chelyabinsk, 2014. – 21 p.
9. Shabejkin, A.A. Obzor epizooticheskoj situatsii po beshenstvu v Rossijskoj Federatsii za period s 1991 po 2015 gody [Investigation of the epizootic situation for rabies in the Russian Federation for the period from 1991 to 2015] / A.A.Shabejkin, A.M.Gulyukin, O.N.Zajkova // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2016. – ¹ 4. – P. 4–6.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.995.428 IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS OF INTEGRATED-IMMUNOCORRECTIVE CAUSAL THERAPY AND PREVENTION OF COMMON SCAB OF SHEEP

   
Authors: 1Gazimagomedov M.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Kabardiev S.Sh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Bittirov A.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Ustarov R.D. – Researcher Assistant; 2Shakhmurzov M.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Chilaev A.S. – applicant; 2Bittirova A.A.– postgraduate; 2Badiev I.R. – applicant.
   
Address:
1Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru; gelmintiki@mail.ru).

2V.M.Kokov Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University, Nalchik (e-mail: bam_58a@mail.ru; kbgsha@ rambler.ru).

   
Abstract:
Common scab in sheep occurs in acute, subacute and chronic forms. In the first two forms firstly the regions of the back, rump, the shoulder and the shoulder-blades are affected. There are nodules, itching, scratching and injury. Existing methods of treatment and prevention of common scab of sheep are labour-consuming, requiring repeated course of treatment, but even repeated treatments do not always ensure relapse-free treatment of common scab. The aim of the study was improving methods of complex treatment and prevention of common scab of sheep with the task of improving effectiveness of treatment reducing its labour intensity. The work was carried out in production conditions in the farms of Kizlyar district on 80 sheep spontaneously infected with scabies Psoroptes ovis. All sheep were divided into 4 groups of 20 animals in each (3-experienced, 1-control). Processing was carried out with drugs Ivermek, Ivomek in dose 1 ml per 50 kg of bodyweight and Roncoleukin in dose of 5000 IU/kg subcutaneously. The results of acarological and clinical studies indicated that administration Ivermek in dose 1.0 ml per 50 kg of animal, Ronkoleykin - in dose 5,000 IU / kg subcutaneously once, and after 70 days - Ivomek administering in dose 1.0 ml / 50 kg of live weight of sheep prolong the therapeutic effect. This allows to extend the prevention of common scab until 110-120 days, and to increase the effectiveness of measures to control the invasion.

   
Keywords: sheep, common scab, Ivermek, Ivomek, Ronkoleukin®, treatment, itch mites, numbers, effectiveness
   
References:
1. Kratkij spravochnik veterinarnogo feldshera [Short reference for veterinary assistant] / sost. kand. vet. nauk G.A.Kononov. – M. – L.: Selhozgiz, 1960. – 448 p.
2. Parazitologiya i invazionnye bolezni selskohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Parasitology and invasive diseases of agricultural animals] / K.I.Abuladze [et al.]. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1990. – 464 p.
3. Veterinarnaya receptura s osnovami terapii i profilaktiki [Veterinary compounding with the basics of treatment and prevention] / pod red.I.E.Mozgova. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1988. – 383 p.
4. Veterinarnye preparaty: spravochnik [Veterinary drugs: reference book] / pod red. A.D.Tretyakova. – M.: Agropromizdat, 1988. – 319 p.
5. Akaricidnaya effektivnost ivomeka [Acaricidal effectiveness of Ivomek] / Yu.A.Timofeev [et al.] // Primenenie himioterapevticheskih preparatov v veterinarii i razrabotka metodov ih kontrolya [Use of chemotherapeutic drugs in veterinary medicine and development of methods for their control]. – M., 1989. – P. 3–5.
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  GENETICS OF FARM ANIMALS
   
Title:

UDC 636.082.2:636.034 ASSOCIATION OF THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE POLYMORPHISM WITH THE GROWTH RATE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

   
Authors: 1,2Safina N.Yu. – postgraduate;1Shakirov Sh.K. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 1Zinnatova F.F. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Yulmeteva Yu.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Tagirov M.Sh. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
1Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture – Subdivision of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science “Kazan Scientific Center of Russia Academy of Sciences” (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).
 
2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: natysafina@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
Activation of lipid metabolism is an important process during lactation in cows, in which the internal reserves of the body are mobilized, and the burning of accumulated resources occurs. It has been established that the thyroglobulin gene is involved in this mechanism and has an impact on qualitative and quantitative composition of adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the thyroglobulin gene polymorphism (TG5) in relation to the growth dynamics and reproductive capacity of Holstein cattle. In the course of the work, DNA samples from the blood taken from 858 cow-heifers of Integrated Agricultural Production Centre “Stud farm named after Lenin” of Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan were examined. The PCR-RFLP method (polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism) was applied in the study of polymorphic variants using the thyroglobulin gene locus. As a result of genotyping, all possible alleles and genotypes were identified. The frequency of occurrence was as follows: C – 0.71 and T – 0.29 for alleles; CC – 52.1%, TC – 37.8%, TT – 10.1% for genotypes. The indicator of ?2 criterion between the observed and expected distributions was lower than the reliable value (P?0.05), which indicates the maintenance of genetic equilibrium in the studied livestock. The analysis of the growth dynamics of cow-heifers in relation to various TG5 genotypes showed that during all control weighing, the individuals with the TT genotype had live weight advantage, thus they were inseminated at an earlier age and also had the highest rate of live weight after calving. Other authors characterize animals with this genotype as having increased milk yield and fat yield capacity. However, the cow-heifers with the TG5TT genotype lag behind the herd mates with other genotypes in reproductive traits. TG5TC heterozygous individuals had the shorter service period and a high Dohy index of fertility after the first calving. It is likely that high milk production inherent at the genetic level reduces reproductive traits.

   
Keywords: gene, thyroglobulin, polymorphism, PCR-RLFP, cattle, growth rate, reproductive trait
   
References:
1. Vilver, D.S. Vlijanie vozrasta pervogo osemenenija tjolok na molochnuju produktivnost korov chjorno-pjostroj porody raznogo vozrasta [The influence of heifers’ first insemination age on milk yields of black-spotted cows of different ages] // Izvestija Orenburgskogo agrarnogo universiteta. – 2015. – ¹ 6 (56). – P. 140-142.
2. Ivanov, V.A. Molochnaja produktivnost simmental-golshtinskih pomesej v zavisimosti ot zhivoj massy i vozrasta pervogo osemenenija [Interrelation ship between live weight and age by first insemination on milk yield of crossbreeds simmental-holstein cows] / V.A.Ivanov, K.P.Tadzhiev // Skotovodstvo. – 2014. – ¹ 1. – P. 6-8.
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4. Grummer, R.R. Nutritional and management strategies for the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cattle // Veterinary Journal. – 2008. – Vol. 176. – P. 10-20.
5. Tehnologija proizvodstva produkcii zhivotnovodstva: Uchebnoe posobie; pod redak. F.S.Sibagatullina, G.S.Sharafutdinova [Technology of production of livestock products: Textbook] / 2-e izd., pererab. i dopoln. – Kazan: Idel-Press, 2010. – 672 p.
6. Brickell, J.S. A descriptive study of the survival of Holstein-Friesian heifers through to third calving on English dairy farms / J.S.Brickell, D.C.Wathes // Journal of Dairy Science. – 2011. – Vol. 94. – P. 1831–1838. 
7. Kalashnikova, L.A. Sovremennoe sostojanie i problemy ispolzovanija metodov analiza DNK v geneticheskoj jekspertize plemennyh zhivotnyh [The Contemporary Condition and Problems of Dna-Analysis Methods Use in Genetic Expert Examination of Stock Animals] // Agrarnaja Rossija. – 2002. – ¹ 5. – P. 7-11. 
8. Anton, I. Effect of DGAT1, leptin and TG gene polymorphisms on some milk production traits in different dairy cattle breeds in Hungary / I.Anton, K.Kovacs, G.Hollo // Archiv Tierzucht. – 2012. – Vol. 4. – P. 307-314.
9. Polimorfizm po genam somatotropina, prolaktina, leptina, tireoglobulina bykov-proizvoditelej [Polymorphism of genes for somatotropin, prolactin, leptin, and thyroglobulin in stud bulls] / S.V. Tjul'kin, T.M. Ahmetov, Je.F. Valiullina [et al.] // Vavilovskij zhurnal genetiki i selekcii. – 2012. – T. 16. – ¹ 4/2. – P. 1008-1011.
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11. Zinnatova, F.F. Rol genov lipidnogo obmena (DGAT1, TG-5) v uluchshenii hozjajstvenno-poleznyh priznakov krupnogo rogatogo skota [Role of lipid metabolism genes (DGAT1, TG5) in improvingeconomically valuable traits cattle] / F.F.Zinnatova, F.F.Zinnatov // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoj gosudarstvennoj akademii veterinarnoj mediciny im. Baumana. – 2014. – ¹ 3. – P. 164-168. 
12. Gan, Q.-F. Association analysis of thyroglobulin gene variants with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle / Q.-F. Gan, L.-P. Zhang, J.-Y. Li [et al.] // Journal of Applied Genetics. – 2008. – Vol. 49. – P. 251-255.
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Title:

UDC 636.082:636.034:577 INFLUENCE OF LIVING MASS AT THE FIRST INSEMINATION ON DAIRY PRODUCTIVITY OF COWS WITH DIFFERENT GENOTYPES CSN3 AND DGAT1

   
Authors: 1Ganiev A.S. – applicant; 1Sibagatullin F.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the Republic Tatarstan; 1Shaydullin R.R. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 2Faizov T.H. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Sharafutdinov G.S. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Kazan State Agrarian University, Kazan (e-mail: info@kazgau.ru).
 
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the research is to study the dependence of the dairy productivity of the first-line heifers of different genotypes for the genes kappa-casein (CSN3) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) on the live weight at the first fruitful insemination. The studies were carried out in the breeding reproducer of Limited liability company "Dusym" of the Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan on the first-line heifers of black-and-mottled breed. The first-line heifers were divided into 3 groups depending on the size of the sign, the 1-st group included cows with a live weight at the first productive insemination less than 380 kg, 2-nd - 381-400 kg, 3-d - more than 401 kg. With the increase in live weight at the first fruitful insemination, the productive qualities of animals were determined to rise. At animals of the 3-d group, with the genotype CSN3AB, compared with the first group the yieldis significantly higher by 787 kg (P<0.05), the amount of milk fat  -by 26.4 kg (P<0.05), the amount of milk protein - by 25.3 kg (P<0.05), the live weight - by 26 kg (P<0.001). A similar dependence in cows with the genotype CSN3BB, respectively, was 1028 kg (P<0.05), 33.2 kg (P<0.05), 33.1 kg (P<0.01), 34 kg (P<0.05). The advantage of the group 3 heifers for milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, live weight and milk protein index in the DGAT1AA genotype was 381 kg, 14.7 kg, 13.3 kg, 15 kg and 50; DGAT1AK - 994 kg (P <0.01), 34.2 kg (P<0.01), 31.7 kg (P<0.01), 27 kg (P<0.01) and 144 (P<0.01); DGAT1KK - 264 kg, 12.1 kg, 8.8 kg, 13 kg and 36, respectively. When animals of different genotypes are compared among themselves within the same group, the greatest difference between groups and high rates of productivity are characteristic of the first-stem cells of B- allele of the gene kappa-casein and the K-allele of the gene diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase.

   
Keywords: dairy productivity, living weight, first fruitful insemination, genotype, CSN3, DGAT1
   
References:
1. Vilver, D.S. Vliyanie paratipicheskikh faktorov na molochnuyu produktivnost i vosproizvoditelnye kachestva korov: Rekomendatsii [Influence of paratypic factors on milk productivity and reproductive qualities of cows] / D.S.Vilver. – Troitsk, 2015. – 52 p.
2. Vilver, D.S. Molochnaya produktivnost korov cherno-pestroy porody raznogo vozrasta i eyo svyaz s zhivoy massoy telok pri pervom osemenenii [Dairy productivity of black-motley cows of different ages and its relation to the live weight of the heifers during the first insemination] / D.S.Vilver // Izvestiya Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. – 2016. – ¹ 3(59). – P. 128-130.
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6. Rusanova, V.V. Vliyanie vozrasta i zhivoy massy pri pervom oplodotvorenii telok sozdavaemogo altayskogo tipa krasnogo skota na produktivnye kachestva [Influence of age and live weight during the first fertilization of heifers of the Altai-type red cattle created for productive qualities]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Agricultural Sciences: 06.02.04. – Barnaul, 2002. – 22 p.
7. Sharafutdinov, G.S. Molochnaya produktivnost pervotelok raznoy selektsii v zavisimosti ot vozrasta pervogo otela [Milk productivity first-calves of different breeding depending on the age of the first calving] / G.S.Sharafutdinov, R.R.Shaydullin S.V.Tyulkin, I.I.Khatypov // Vestnik Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. – 2008. – ¹ 4 (10). – P. 119-122.
8. Shishin, N.I. Vliyanie vozrasta pri plodotvornom osemenenii na molochnuyu produktivnost i biologicheskie osobennosti golshtinizirovannykh pervotelok [Influence of age with fruitful insemination on milk productivity and biological characteristics of golshtinized first-calf]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Agricultural Sciences: 06.02.04. – Novosibirsk, 2007. – 23 p.