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Authors: Birukova N.P. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Rusakov S.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Napalkova V.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
The All-Russian State Center for Quality and Standardization of Veterinary Drugs and Feed (VGNKI), Moscow (e-mail: vgnki-vet@mtu-net.ru).

The definition of degree of efficacy and safety of medicines is based on the results of a whole range of scientific studies, the most important of which is the safety evaluation, which should be harmonized with International Standards. The main purpose of preclinical study is to prevent the adverse effects of the drug in clinical trials. The reproduced drugs need studying the general toxic properties in comparison with the registered analogue, for the original medicines - the study of general toxic properties, specific types of toxicity, pharmacological safety, specific pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics. The study of general toxicity is divided into two stages: study of acute toxicity, toxicity study with repeated administration. Clinically significant effects can be characterized by administration of the maximum possible dose, or in the range up to the maximum tolerated dose. To study the general toxic properties, several species of laboratory sexually mature animals (mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs) of both sexes are used, with the exception of products intended for the manufacture of preparations, as well as for newborns, immature, pregnant animals. The features of drug study including the method and frequency of administration depend on physical and chemical properties of tested substance, on the main path of the expected entry into the body of target animals, and also on the objectives of the study. According to the results of preclinical safety study of drugs, the report containing primary data in the form of tables and / or graphs that should be statistically processed is prepared, and inferences and conclusions of the possibility of clinical study should be based on statistical conclusions. The reporting is carried out in accordance with the established requirements and rules of laboratory practice.

Keywords: preclinical study, laboratory animals, safety evaluation, general toxic properties
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Authors: 1Mukhammadiev Rich.S. – postgraduate; 1Mukhammadiev Rin.S. – postgraduate; 1Bagaeva T.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Valiullin L.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
1Kazan Federal University, Kazan (e-mail: public.mail@kpfu.ru).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

In the present study, eighteen isolates of fungi belonging to Fusarium solani, were screened for the presence of surface lectins. All the fungal isolates showed different degree of activity of surface lectins depending on fungal strain. Among pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F.solani fifteen of them were found to possess lectin activity. Fungal isolates of F.solani and F.solani 6 indicated the presence of high lectin activity (titre 64 and titre 128, respectively) compared to the other strains. Trypsin, pronase and neuraminidase treatment of erythrocytes increased the sensitivity to hemagglutination by fungal lectins. Trypsin treatment increased the degree of binding of surface lectins to erythrocytes by 2-4 times, while neuraminidase treatment increased by 2-32 times. The highest level of lectin activity was observed after treatment with pronase. The lectin activity was 2-64 times higher with pronase treated erythrocytes than with untreated ones. This modification of erythrocytes allowed to reveal the activity of agglutinins in the isolates of fungi F.solani 9, F.solani 11 and F.solani 16. Treatment of erythrocytes like in case of neuraminidase treatment has shown significant impact on surface agglutinins of F.solani 1, F.solani 8 and F.solani 12. 

Keywords: fungi, Fusarium solani, surface lectins, activity
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Authors: Salnikova M.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Kadikov I.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Zakirova G.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Kolganova E.A. – postgraduate; Baymukhametov F.Z. – Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Saitov V.R. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

The ultrastructure stydies of combined exposure of various groups of toxicants and a number of other harmful factors both on biological systems and on separate organs help to understand the mechanism of such exposure, to define the expected effects and make possible to use the obtained data in case of the real occurrence of such pathologies. The aim of the research was to study ultrastructure features of the corn material of rats timus both normal and exposed by various factors such as: (ionizing radiation of 5 gr dose; the combined exposure of dioxin 1/100 LD 50 and ionizing radiation 5 gr dose). The ultrastructure of rats timus was examined using electronic microscopy. The samples were fixed in 1 % solution of glutaraldehyde in 0,1 M phosphate buffer (Ph 7,4).The postfixation was carried out in 2% solution of tetraoxide osmic. Then the dehydration of the material in alcohol series of gradually increasing alcohol concentration (30, 50, 70, 80, 96, 100) was carried out, and then the corn material was immersed in acetone. After dehydration the parts of tissues were placed in the mixture of epon and acetone (Epon 812+DDSA+MNA+DMP-30 Fluka) for gradual saturation. The results indicated the tested dioxin and ionizing radiation doses both separately and combined to cause the structure and functional changes mainly in reticule cells. The timus cells themselves suffer changes in less degree.

Keywords: rats, ultrastructure, corn material, timus, dioxin, ionizing radiation.
1. Erofeeva, L.M. Morfologiya timusa pri modelirovanii ehkstremalnyh vozdejstvij: gipergravitacii ioniziruyushchih izluchenij [Morphology of timus in modelling extreme exposures: hypergravitations of ionizing radiation] abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Biological Sciences. – M., 2002. – 312 p.
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Authors: Gofman A.A. – Research Officer; Lysko S.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Krasikov A.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Siberian Research Poultry Institute (å-mail: vet@sibniip).

Treating of hatching eggs by steams of formaldehyde is widespread in the poultry farms, however, the use of formaldehyde has a negative impact both on development of embryos and staff. As the results of the xperiment, the most effective treatment scheme of hatching eggs by alcoholic tincture of propolis was industrially tested (100 g of propolis is infused in 80 % alcohol, then they obtained tincture is diluted with 1000 ml of water). Studies were carried out at the Department of veterinary science of the Siberian Poultry Institute and in the poultry farm of the Omsk region. The scheme of aerosol treatment with tincture of propolis was tested on the hatching egg of cross "Ross-308" (1:10 dilution from the calculation of 0.25 l/1m3 of air before laying and on 11.5, 18.5, and 21.5 days of incubation, 60 minutes exposure). In the control group, gasification with steam of formaldehyde was carried out before laying (per 1 m3 of chamber 30 ml of formalin, 20 g of potassium manganate and 15 ml of water), the exposure - 30 min.; while handling and till the moment of hatching – formalin was half diluted with water. Aerosol application of tincture of propolis during incubation suppressed the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora in the air of incubatory and hatchery cabinets, in the washings from the shell of incubating eggs by 18.5 days the amount of staphylococcus decreased by 40%, bacteria of the Esherichia coli group – by 60%, which indicated bactericidal action of propolis tincture. Its application had a positive effect on the development of embryos, increased hatchability of eggs by 4.8%, the output of young by 4.2%, disinfected the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract of hatched chicken, contributed to the prevention of respiratory infections in the hatchery.

Keywords: incubation, propolis tincture, respiratory infections, chickens, microflora, embryo, formalin
1. Baktericidnaya aktivnost propolisa na vozbuditelej respiratornyh infekcij ptits [The bactericidal activity of propolis on the causative agents of respiratory infections of birds] [Text] / A.A.Gofman, S.B.Lysko, A.P.Krasikov, N.M.Kolychev // Sovremennye tendencii nauchnogo obespecheniya v razvitii APK: fundamentalnye i prikladnye issledovaniya. – Omsk, 2016. – P. 251–254.
2. Lysko, S.B. Mikrobiologicheskij monitoring v inkubatoriyah [Microbiological monitoring of hatchery] [Text] / S.B.Lysko, O.V.Makarova // Pticevodstvo. – 2009. – ¹ 8. – P. 43–44.
3. Lysko, S.B. Alternativnyj sposob obrabotki inkubacionnyh yaits [An alternative method of handling hatching eggs ] [Tekst] / S.B.Lysko // Pticevodstvo. – 2014. – ¹ 5. – P. 34–38. 
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6. Gofman, A.A. Profilaktika respiratornyh infekcij ptits v inkubatore [Prevention of respiratory infections of birds in the incubator] [Text] / A.A.Gofman, S.B.Lysko, A.P.Krasikov // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2017. – ¹ 6. – P. 31–36.
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11. Monitoring zaraznyh boleznej ptits v Omskoj oblasti [Monitoring of infectious diseases of birds in the Omsk region] [Text] / A.V.Portyanko, S.B.Lysko, A.A.Gofman, A.P.Krasikov // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2017. – ¹ 9. – P.34–38.



Authors: 1Samuylenko A.Ya. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, Academician of RAS; 1Melnik N.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Grin S.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor, Corresponding member of RAS; 1Melnik R.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Fedorova O.Y. – applicant; 1Stoyanov I.V. – applicant; 1Fedorova N.V. – applicant; 1Stoyanova I.E. – applicant; 1Pazhnov S.V. – applicant; 1Kruglov A.A. – applicant; 2Litenkova I.Y. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Kryukova E.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Elnikov V.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
1 All-Russian Research and Technological Institute of Biological Industry, Moscow region (e-mail: vnitibp@mail.ru).
2FSE «Shchelkovo Biokombinat», Moscow region (e-mail: comerc@biocombinat.ru).

The epizootic situation of Aujeszky’s disease, foot-and-mouth disease and rabies persists tense both in the Russian Federation and in other countries of the world. In connection with that the improvement of industrial technologies of vaccines manufacture against these diseases is an actual problem. The article presents the research results of the industrial cultivation of a monolayer suspension of BHK-21/13-13 finite cells culture that formed the basis for the optimization of the culture process in an automatic mode for the subsequent manufacture of vaccines against Aujeszky's disease, rabies, and foot-and-mouth disease. The optimization of the industrial cultivation process was carried out at the FSE "Shchelkovo Biocombinat" in the reactors with a capacity of 5.0-2000 liters to be intended for the production of vaccines against Aujeszky's disease, rabies and foot-and-mouth disease. The cell’s biomass obtained according to the developed technology is high sensitive to viral infection of foot-and-mouth disease, rabies and Aujeszky’s disease, and the obtained virus material has a high antigenic activity. 

Keywords: cell culture, Aujeszky's disease virus, rabies, foot-and-mouth disease, culture medium, reactors, fermenters, industrial regulations, strains
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8. Chuvstvitelnost zhivotnyh raznyh vidov k virusu bolezni Aueski [Sensitivity of animals of different species to the Aujeszky's disease virus] / V.A.Mishchenko, E.P.Baborenko, L.N.Kornienko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 1994. – ¹ 5. – P. 20–22.
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12. Akinshina, T.V. Razrabotka nabora reagentov dlya ocenki effektivnosti postvakcinalnogo immuniteta k virusu beshenstva v serologicheskih reakciyah [Development of a reagent kit for assessing the effectiveness of postvaccinal immunity to rabies virus in serological reactions] abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Biological Sciences / T.V.Akinshina. – Schelkovo, 2005. – 28 p.



Authors: Skvortsov V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Nevzorova V.V. – Junior researcher; Skvortsova T.A. – Junior researcher; Prisnyi A.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences.
Belgorod Department of Ya.R. Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV), Belgorod, Russian Federation (e-mail: andreyprisny@gmail.com).

The rabies was widespread in the Ostrogozhsk district in the studied period of time. In the veterinary report of 1890 the first animal rabies in the district is mentioned. The disease was recorded every year, but the economic losses registration has been extremely difficult for the disease. A lot of money was spent for the treatment of bitten people. The statistics indicate that 2326 peoples died from rabies in 1891-1896 in Voronezh province (on average 387 people per year). The projects of measures to eliminate rabies were finalized in 1902. The owner was obliged to lock the animal in a separate room and immediately notify the local police, district council or veterinarian, when a first signs of the disease is appearing. The animal must is immediate slaughter with the issuance of compensation after the conclusion of a veterinarian. The destroy rabid animals and stray dogs, and in some cases – isolate of rabid farm animals in the eliminate against rabies applied. The bites by rabid dogs were the main cause of the spread of rabies among the farm animals. The individual cases of rabies were due from wolves’ bites. The all information about infectious diseases of animals specified in the reports was far from the truth at that time, as the population is not yet accustomed to declare dead animals to the veterinarian. The peasants removed the skin from dead animals for sale, and bodies were thrown to be devoured by dogs. Thus, the pet owners contributed to the spread of infection. The payment skin of rabid dead animals with a view to urging the population to the timely information of disease, as well as damages compensation stemming from the loss of an animal. The population reported more often about the emergence of rabies in agricultural animals after the realization of this measure.

Keywords: rabies, epizootology, stray dogs, unfavorable settlement, control measures, the rules against rabies, veterinarian
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Authors: 1Pozov S.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Porublyov V.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Orlova N.E. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
1Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol (e-mail: porvlad@mail.ru). 
2Russian State Agrarian Correspondence University, Moscow region, Balashikha (e-mail: nadorlov@mail.ru).

Newborn calves receive maternal humoral and cell-like factors of immune protection with a colostrum. Immunoglobulins and leukocytes of a colostrum of cows mothers have an important role in resistance of newborn calves to dyspepsia disease. At the same time, if the gastrointestinal permeability for colostrum immunoglobulins plays an important role in the creation of common colostral immunity, then for the local gastrointestinal protection of calves the leukocytes of colostrum have the essential part. Even more important is the presence of these cells in the morphologically altered, abnormal gastrointestinal tract of calves with dyspepsia, so the presence of a sufficient number of leukocytes in colostrum causes the high resistance of newborn calves to gastrointestinal diseases. Before milk feeding of colostrums there are traces of immunoglobulins and rather small amount of leukocytes in blood of newborn calves. In a day after a milk feeding of a colostrum there are a great number of immunoglobulins in blood of calves, the quantity of leukocytes considerably increases. The level of resistance of newborn calves depends first of all on well-timed coming colostrum of goof quality in its organism. However it is necessary to consider that resistance to diseases is also defined by a condition of a gastrointestinal tract because the immunoglobulins absorption is disordered at dyspepsia of calves. When immunoglobulins absorption disordered, the important role in animals resistance to dyspepsia has the presence of a sufficient number of leukocytes in colostrum. At the same time there is a correlative connection between the colostric contents of leukocytes and resistance of calves to gastrointestinal diseases. To prevent calves dyspepsia it needs early milk feeding of a colostrum as its first portions contain the greatest number of immunoglobulins and leukocytes having great importance in the forming of common and local immune protection of newborn animals.

Keywords: colostrum, resistance, stability, dyspepsia, immunoglobulins, leukocytes, milk feeding, cell-like factors, calfs, immune protection, newborn
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5. Pozov, S.A. Mikroehlementozy zhivotnyh v biogeohimicheskih provinciyah [Microelementoses animal in biogeochemical provinces] // Monografiya: Izd-vo LAP, Germaniya. – 2012. – P. 148. 
6. Pozov, S.A. Mikroehlementy plazmy krovi i ehritrocitov u ovec pri bronhopnevmonii v associacii s sarkocistozom [Trace elements of blood plasma and erythrocytes from sheep with pneumonia associated with sarcocystosis] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Eziev // Diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika zabolevanij s/h zhivotnyh: Sb. nauch. tr. Stavropol, 2010. – P. 41-42. 
7. Pozov, S.A. Znachenie mikroehlementov v profilaktike smeshannyh zabolevanij s/h zhivotnyh [The importance of micronutrients in prevention of mixed diseases of agricultural animals] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Porublev, N.E.Orlova, S.A.Eziev, E.A.Yashchenko // Veterinarnyj vrach. – ¹ 4. – 2014. – P. 64-66.
8. Pozov, S.A. Vliyanie obmena veshchestv u korov na razvitie dispepsii u telyat [The influence of metabolism in cows on the development of dyspepsia in calves] / S.A.Pozov, V.A.Porublev, N.E.Orlova // Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoj i zootekhnicheskoj nauki i praktiki: materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj internet-konferencii. T. 1. – Stavropol, 2015. – P. 139-144.



Authors: Akbashev I.R. – postgraduate; Evstifeev V.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Gumerov V.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Karimullina I.G. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Khusainova G.I. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

The article presents data on the study of the antigenic activity of the “Associated vaccine against PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis of the cattle inactivated emulsion” in laboratory animals. As laboratory models healthy, with seronegativity antigens to PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis rabbits weighing 2.5-3 kg were used. To determine the absolute vaccination dose, 16 rabbits were used, of which 3 experienced and 1 control groups were formed by analogy, of 4 heads in each. The antigenic activity of the associated vaccine was determined by double 14 days interval subcutaneous vaccination of rabbits with a certain dose, and their blood serums were studied to determine the level of specific antibodies to viral PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis antigens in 30, 60, 90, 180 and 360 days after vaccination. Taking blood from animals to determine the level of humoral immunity was performed in 30 days after the first administration of the vaccine. Thus, in the results of the experiment, the double 14 days interval rabbit vaccination in a dose of 1 ml. by “Associated vaccine against PG-3, IRT, VD-BS and chlamidiosis of the cattle inactivated emulsion” was found to cause the formation of high level antibodies to all 4 antigens. The duration of the effect of immunity to all 4 antigens within 1 year was studied.

Keywords: antigenic activity, IRT, VD-BS, PG-3, chlamidiosis, cattle, associated vaccine
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Authors: 1Shkaeva N.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Shkaev A.E. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
1South Ural State University (National Research University, Cheliabinsk (e-mail: info@susu.ru, shkna@rambler.ru).

2National Research Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Pokrov.

Rabies takes a special place among zooantroponozis diseases. The Chelyabinsk Region has been permanently unfit for rabies in recent years. The article presents the results of monitoring the epizootic situation of rabies in wild and domestic animals from 1985 to July 2016. The purpose of this work was to study the spread and manifestation of rabies among different species of wild and domestic animals on the territory of the Chelyabinsk region. The statistical data of the Chelyabinsk region Ministry of Agriculture veterinary department on registration of rabies outbreaks of wild, domestic, and agricultural animals in populated areas, the system of epizootic monitoring of particularly dangerous animal diseases, cartographic registration and the breadth of spread are used in the work. The analysis of all detected cases of rabies with an indication of their localization and species composition of diseased animals, including wild ones was carried out. The epizootic situation in the region persists tense. From 1985 to July 2016, there were 1572 outbreaks for rabies. Among wild animals, foxes accounted for more than 90% of all wild rabies cases in the period under review. The largest number of registered outbreaks occurred in the territories bordering the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Chebarkul region, where for the whole analyzed period 195 cases were recorded among the wild animals, followed by the Nagaibaksky -111, the Kizilsky-93, the Bredinsky-91, Kartalinsky - 83 respectively. The data obtained allow specialists to adjust and clarify the timing, scale of preventive vaccination of wild animals and to facilitate their incidence to be regulated in hunting populations.

Keywords: rabies of animals,monitoring of epizootic situation for rabies, mixed form of rabies, the activation of natural focuses of animal diseases
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Authors: 1Gazimagomedov M.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Kabardiev S.Sh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Bittirov A.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Ustarov R.D. – Researcher Assistant; 2Shakhmurzov M.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Chilaev A.S. – applicant; 2Bittirova A.A.– postgraduate; 2Badiev I.R. – applicant.
1Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru; gelmintiki@mail.ru).

2V.M.Kokov Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University, Nalchik (e-mail: bam_58a@mail.ru; kbgsha@ rambler.ru).

Common scab in sheep occurs in acute, subacute and chronic forms. In the first two forms firstly the regions of the back, rump, the shoulder and the shoulder-blades are affected. There are nodules, itching, scratching and injury. Existing methods of treatment and prevention of common scab of sheep are labour-consuming, requiring repeated course of treatment, but even repeated treatments do not always ensure relapse-free treatment of common scab. The aim of the study was improving methods of complex treatment and prevention of common scab of sheep with the task of improving effectiveness of treatment reducing its labour intensity. The work was carried out in production conditions in the farms of Kizlyar district on 80 sheep spontaneously infected with scabies Psoroptes ovis. All sheep were divided into 4 groups of 20 animals in each (3-experienced, 1-control). Processing was carried out with drugs Ivermek, Ivomek in dose 1 ml per 50 kg of bodyweight and Roncoleukin in dose of 5000 IU/kg subcutaneously. The results of acarological and clinical studies indicated that administration Ivermek in dose 1.0 ml per 50 kg of animal, Ronkoleykin - in dose 5,000 IU / kg subcutaneously once, and after 70 days - Ivomek administering in dose 1.0 ml / 50 kg of live weight of sheep prolong the therapeutic effect. This allows to extend the prevention of common scab until 110-120 days, and to increase the effectiveness of measures to control the invasion.

Keywords: sheep, common scab, Ivermek, Ivomek, Ronkoleukin®, treatment, itch mites, numbers, effectiveness
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Authors: 1,2Safina N.Yu. – postgraduate;1Shakirov Sh.K. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 1Zinnatova F.F. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Yulmeteva Yu.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Tagirov M.Sh. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences.
1Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture – Subdivision of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science “Kazan Scientific Center of Russia Academy of Sciences” (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).
2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: natysafina@gmail.com).

Activation of lipid metabolism is an important process during lactation in cows, in which the internal reserves of the body are mobilized, and the burning of accumulated resources occurs. It has been established that the thyroglobulin gene is involved in this mechanism and has an impact on qualitative and quantitative composition of adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the thyroglobulin gene polymorphism (TG5) in relation to the growth dynamics and reproductive capacity of Holstein cattle. In the course of the work, DNA samples from the blood taken from 858 cow-heifers of Integrated Agricultural Production Centre “Stud farm named after Lenin” of Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan were examined. The PCR-RFLP method (polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism) was applied in the study of polymorphic variants using the thyroglobulin gene locus. As a result of genotyping, all possible alleles and genotypes were identified. The frequency of occurrence was as follows: C – 0.71 and T – 0.29 for alleles; CC – 52.1%, TC – 37.8%, TT – 10.1% for genotypes. The indicator of ?2 criterion between the observed and expected distributions was lower than the reliable value (P?0.05), which indicates the maintenance of genetic equilibrium in the studied livestock. The analysis of the growth dynamics of cow-heifers in relation to various TG5 genotypes showed that during all control weighing, the individuals with the TT genotype had live weight advantage, thus they were inseminated at an earlier age and also had the highest rate of live weight after calving. Other authors characterize animals with this genotype as having increased milk yield and fat yield capacity. However, the cow-heifers with the TG5TT genotype lag behind the herd mates with other genotypes in reproductive traits. TG5TC heterozygous individuals had the shorter service period and a high Dohy index of fertility after the first calving. It is likely that high milk production inherent at the genetic level reduces reproductive traits.

Keywords: gene, thyroglobulin, polymorphism, PCR-RLFP, cattle, growth rate, reproductive trait
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Authors: 1Ganiev A.S. – applicant; 1Sibagatullin F.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the Republic Tatarstan; 1Shaydullin R.R. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 2Faizov T.H. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Sharafutdinov G.S. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor.
1Kazan State Agrarian University, Kazan (e-mail: info@kazgau.ru).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

The aim of the research is to study the dependence of the dairy productivity of the first-line heifers of different genotypes for the genes kappa-casein (CSN3) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) on the live weight at the first fruitful insemination. The studies were carried out in the breeding reproducer of Limited liability company "Dusym" of the Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan on the first-line heifers of black-and-mottled breed. The first-line heifers were divided into 3 groups depending on the size of the sign, the 1-st group included cows with a live weight at the first productive insemination less than 380 kg, 2-nd - 381-400 kg, 3-d - more than 401 kg. With the increase in live weight at the first fruitful insemination, the productive qualities of animals were determined to rise. At animals of the 3-d group, with the genotype CSN3AB, compared with the first group the yieldis significantly higher by 787 kg (P<0.05), the amount of milk fat  -by 26.4 kg (P<0.05), the amount of milk protein - by 25.3 kg (P<0.05), the live weight - by 26 kg (P<0.001). A similar dependence in cows with the genotype CSN3BB, respectively, was 1028 kg (P<0.05), 33.2 kg (P<0.05), 33.1 kg (P<0.01), 34 kg (P<0.05). The advantage of the group 3 heifers for milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, live weight and milk protein index in the DGAT1AA genotype was 381 kg, 14.7 kg, 13.3 kg, 15 kg and 50; DGAT1AK - 994 kg (P <0.01), 34.2 kg (P<0.01), 31.7 kg (P<0.01), 27 kg (P<0.01) and 144 (P<0.01); DGAT1KK - 264 kg, 12.1 kg, 8.8 kg, 13 kg and 36, respectively. When animals of different genotypes are compared among themselves within the same group, the greatest difference between groups and high rates of productivity are characteristic of the first-stem cells of B- allele of the gene kappa-casein and the K-allele of the gene diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase.

Keywords: dairy productivity, living weight, first fruitful insemination, genotype, CSN3, DGAT1
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