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¹ 6, 2017

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  Toxicology
   
Title:

UDC 577.13:577.151.52 STUDY OF PEPTIDE METABOLITES FORMATION IN TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM F-1087 FUNGI AND THEIR GENERAL TOXIC PROPERTIES

   
Authors: 1Zalyalyutdinova L.M. – postgraduate student; 2Valiullin L.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Mychammadiev R.S. – Research Assistant; 1Bagaeva Ò.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Kazan Federal University, Kazan (e-mail: public.mail@kpfu.ru).

2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru). 

   
Abstract:
Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are producers of secondary metabolites of a wide spectrum of action. Synthesis of secondary metabolites depends on environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of formation of Trichoderma asperellum F-1087 secondary metabolites and the study of toxic properties. Water extract from liquid culture (QL) Trichoderma asperellum was cultivated during 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 days. Toxicity was studied using Stylonychia genus in the number of surviving protozoa after the addition of aqueous extracts. We found that the aqueous extract of Trichoderma asperellum F-1087 liquid culture is not toxic for protozoa and is of a peptide nature. The concentration of protein substances in the liquid culture depended on the number of strain cultivation days and reached its maximum value of 0.571 mg/ml at 12 days. The previous studies showed that at 12 days of cultivation the fraction xylanase and cellulase activity was 25.17 IU / mL and 1.13 FPU, respectively. This allows to consider secondary metabolites as biologically active additives in feed for farm animals containing rye and barley.

   
Keywords: toxicity, secondary metabolites, enzymatic activity, protozoa, feed
   
References:
1. Kubicek, C.P. Trichoderma and Gliocladium [Text] / C.P.Kubicek, G.E.Harman // Basic biology, taxonomy and genetics. – 2002. – Vol.1. – Ð. 3.
2. Hermosa, R. Secondary metabolism and antimicrobial metabolites of Trichoderma [Text] / R.Hermosa, R.E.Cardoza, M.B.Rubio, S.Gutierrez, E.Monte // The open Mycology Journal. – 2014. – Vol.8. – P.127-139.
3. Fox, E. M. Secondary metabolism: regulation and role in fungal biology [Text] / E.M.Fox, B.J.Howlett // Curr. Opin. Microbiol. – 2008. – Vol. 11. – P. 481-487.
4. Newman, D.J. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010 [Text] / D.J.Newman, G.M.Cragg // J Nat Prod. – 2012. – Vol.75(3). – Ð.311–335.
5. Abd El-Rahman, A. A.Cytotoxicity of Trichoderma spp. cultural filtrate against human cervical and breast cancer cell lines /A.A.Abd El-Rahman, S.M.El-Shafei, E.V.Ivanova, A.N.Fattakhova, A.V.Pankova, M.A.El-Shafei, M.A. El-Morsi, F.K.Alimova //Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. – 2014. – Vol.15(17). – P. 7229-7234.
6. Morozova, YU.A. Ksilanazy Trichodermareesei – biosintez i primenenie dlya gidroliza zernovyh kormov] / YU.A.Morozova, E.V.Skvorcov, F.K.Alimova // Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. – 2013. – Vol. 155, ¹ 2. – P.127-137.
7. Morozova, YU. A. Biosintez ksilanaz i cellyulaz gribami roda Trichoderma na poslespirtovoj barde / YU.A.Morozova, E.V.Skvorcov, F.K.Alimova, A.V.Kanarskij // Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. – 2012. – Vol. 15, ¹ 19. – P. 120-122.
8. Rebuffat, S. Antibiotic peptides from Trichoderma harzianum: harzianins HC, proline-rich 14-residue peptaibols / S.Rebuffat, C.Goulard, B.Bodo // J.ChemSoc Perkin Trans. – 1995. – V.1. – P.1849–1855.
9. Gniadek, A. Occurrence of fungi and cytotoxicity of the species: Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from the air of hospital wards / A.Gniadek, P.Krzysciak, M.Twaruzek, A.B.Macura // Int J Occup Med Environ Health.- 2017. – Vol.30(2). – P.231-239.
10. Keller N.P. Fungal secondary metabolism from biochemistry to genomics / N.P.Keller, G.Turner, J.W.Bennett // Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2005. V. 3. ¹ 12. P. 937-947.
11. Konig J., Determination of xylanase, beta-glucanase, and cellulase activity / J.Konig, R.Grasser, H.Pikor, K.Vogel // Anal. Bioanal. Chem. – 2002. – Vol. 374. – P.80–87.

  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

UDC 619:612.015.6:636.22/28 ON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN COWS FROM THE FARMS IN CENTRAL REGION OF RUSSIA

   
Authors: Papin N.E. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Shaposhnikov I.T. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Kotsarev V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Shipilov V.V. – Research Assistant; Denisenko L.I. – Research Assistant.
   
Address:
All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (e-mail: ldmvdc@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article represents the data on vitamin C provision of cows from commercial dairy farms of 23 husbandries of 4 oblasts in Central region of Russia: Voronezh, Lipetsk, Belgorod and Oryol. The studies were realized on 293 samples of blood serum, in which vitamin C concentration was measured according to the reaction with ?, ?-dipyridyl by colorimetric method with the use of spectrophotometers SF-46A and SF-2000. Significant dispersion of indices of blood serum ascorbic acid in cows was stated. So, blood serum vitamin C content in 42.6% of cows from farms of Voronezh oblast varied within 3,0-14,6 µmol/L that was lower than the norm (15-86 µmol/L), its amount varied from 15.1 µmol/L to 49.9 µmol/L in 52,8% of animals that was at the level of minimum and average indices of the norm (50 µmol/L) and its indices were 53,2-72,1 µmol/L only in 4,6% of cows that exceeded the value of normal standard. Farms of Lipetsk oblast demonstrated 32,5% of cows with low indices of blood serum vitamin C that were 7,0-14,8 µmol/L. Farms of Belgorod oblast demonstrated 18,8% of cows with blood serum vitamin C content (10,6-13,4 µmol/L) lower than the norm. Farms of Oryol oblast demonstrated 47,7% of cows with low indices of vitamin C from 4,4 µmol/L to 14,4 µmol/L. Hypovitaminosis C was detected in 40,6% of animals from total amount of examined cows in the region. Average indices of ascorbic acid content in animals of Belgorod, Voronezh, Lipetsk and Oryol oblasts were 22,4±1,9 µmol/L, 21,1±5,4 µmol/L, 20,0±5,0 µmol/L and 15,1±4,1 µmol/L, respectively. So, they corresponded with or insignificantly exceeded minimal normal value and its average concentration in cows from all examined farms of these oblasts was 19,7±4,1 µmol/L and corresponded with the indices of the lower bound of the norm. The studies realized stated low provision of cows with vitamin C in this region that requires a systematic inspection of its blood level in animals, addition of ascorbic acid into mixed feeds and premixes and accounting of its content in feeds when composing rations for cows. Special attention should be paid to this question in winter period because of vitamin C deficiency in vegetable and other feeds of the ration. 

   
Keywords: cows, blood serum, ascorbic acid
   
References:
1. Bakanov, V.N. Kormlenie selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Feeding of farm animals] / V.N.Bakanov, V.K.Menkin. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1989. – 511 p.
2. Afanasyev, V.A. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii dlya podscheta retseptov kombikormovoy produktsii [Guidelines for counting recipes of feed mill production] / V.A.Afanasyev, L.A.Nikolaenko, N.V.Lisitsina [et al.] – Moscow, 2003. – 161 p. 
3. Kalashnikov, A.P. Normy i ratsiony kormleniya selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Norms and feeding rations of farm animals] / A.P.Kalashnikov, V.V.Shcheglov, N.I.Kleymenov [et al.] // Spravochnoe posobie [Handbook]. – Moscow, 2003. – 456 p. 
4. Afonskiy, S.I. Biokhimiya zhivotnykh [Biochemistry of animals] / S.I.Afonskiy. – Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 1970. – 612 p.
5. Khening, D. Mineralnye veshchestva, vitaminy, biostimulyatory v kormlenii zhivotnykh [Mineral substances, vitamins, biostimulants in feeding of animals] / D.Khening. – Moscow: Kolos. 1976. – 560 p. 
6. Metsler, D. Khimicheskie reaktsii v zhivoy kletke [Chemical reactions in living cell] / D.Metsler // Biokhimiya. – Moscow: Mir, 1980. – Vol.2. – P. 441-443.
7. Kuznetsov, A.F. Gigiena kormleniya selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Feeding hygiene of farm animals] / A.F.Kuznetsov. – Leningrad: Agropromizdat, Leningradskoe otd., 1989. – 160 p.
8. Kamyshnikov, V.S. O chem govoryat meditsinskie analizy [What do medical analyses say” /V.S. Kamyshnikov //Spravochnoe posobie [Handbook]. – Minsk: «Beloruskaya navuka», 2000. – 184 p.
9. Rebrov, V.G. Vitaminy i mikroelementy [Vitamins and microelements] / V.G.Rebrov, O.A.Gromova. – Moscow: Alev-V, 2003. – 670 p. 
10. Sudakov, N.A. Spravochnik po patologii obmena veshchestv u zhivotnykh [Manual on metabolic pathologies in animals] / N.A.Sudakov, A.D.Grachev, V.I.Bereza et al. – Kiev: Urozhay, 1984. – 240 p. 
11. Shabunin, S.V. Gipovitaminozy krupnogo rogatogo skota, profilaktika i lechenie [Hypovitaminoses in cattle, prophylaxis and therapy] / S.V.Shabunin, V.I.Belyaev, N.E.Papin // Veterinariya, zootekhniya i biotekhnologiya. – 2014. – ¹ 6. – P. 19-27.
12. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki [Methods for veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics] / I.P.Kondrakhin, A.V.Arkhipov, V.I.Levchenko [et al.]. – Moscow: Kolos, 2004. – 520 p. 
13. Asatiani, V.S. Novye metody biokhimicheskoy fotometrii [New methods for biochemical photometry] // V.S.Asatiani. – Moscow: Nauka, 1965. – 544 p. 
14. Holod, V.M. Spravochnik po veterinarnoy biokhimii [Manual on veterinary biochemistry] / V.M.Holod, G.F.Ermolaev. – Minsk: Urodzhay, 1988. – 167 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616-08:616.24-002:636.2 PHYSIOTHERAPEUTIC ASPECTS OF TREATING YOUNG CATTLE WITH BRONCHOPNEUMONIA IN INDUSTRIAL FARMS

   
Authors: 1Popov S.V. – postgraduate student; 1Kalyuzhny I.I. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 2Gataullin D.Kh – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 2Zakirova G.Sh. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1N.I.Vavilov Saratov State Agrarian University, Saratov (e-mail: kalugnivan@mail.ru).

2Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The work was carried out in farms from February to April, a period of high bronchopneumonia sickness rate among calves. During this period, DENS-therapy was applied to 56 calves aged from early neonatal to six months and having bronchpneumonia. The control of non-infectious bronchopneumonia was carried out in accordance with the existing rules - complex diagnosis with laboratory confirmation. The basic part, in the complex scheme of calve treatment was dynamic electroneurostimulation using DENS device-based therapy. The DiaDENS-PC apparatus was used in accordance with user guideline. The DENS technology included the “Therapy” mode: E-2 electropulse power at 60 Hz frequency; electropuncture treatment of trigger points diagnosed using "BIOREPER" method of the DiaDENS-PC device; each point was exposed to the device for 5 minutes, once a day during 14 days. At acute form of bronchopneumonia electropuncture-based detection of trigger points was performed using "test route" for 14 corporeal biologically active points. The treatment efficacy was monitored clinically by determining the nature of the physical changes and weight gain in calves. At treatment of animals using DENS therapy  calves aged under 8 weeks recovered at 10.2 ± 1.5 days; calves of 3-4 months old recovered at 9.3 ± 1.5 days; and calves aged over 4 months recovered at 7.5 ± 1.5 days. Partial improvement in the clinical state of calves was observed after three days of application of DiaDENS-PC apparatus to trigger biologically active points. The animals showed significant improvement of the disease symptoms at 5-7 days of treatment. At earlier terms, the manifestations of general intoxication syndrome decreased, the physical symptoms of bronchopneumonia were relieved. The use of this regimen increased the weight gain from 432 to 600 g. The effectiveness of treatment measures was 93.36%.

   
Keywords: physiotherapy, dynamic electroneurostimulation therapy, "DiaDENS-PC", nonspecific bronchopneumonia
   
References:
1. Barinov, N.D. Kliniko-biohimicheskie izmeneniya u telyat pri bronhopnevmonii [Clinical and biochemical alterations in calves with bronchpneumonia] / N.D.Barinov, I.I.Kalyuzhnyj // Aktual'nye problemy perspektivy razvitiya veterinarnoj mediciny, zootekhnii i akvakul'tury – Current problems of further development of veterinary medicine, zootechny, and fishery: proceedings from the International scientific conference dedicated to 85th jubilee of the Honored Scientist of Russia, DVM, prof. G.P.Demkin. – Saratov, 22-24 March, 2016. – Saratov, 2016. – P. 15–17. 
2. Danilov, S.Yu. Respiratornye zabolevaniya telyat v promyshlennom zhivotnovodstve [Respiratory diseases in livestock farming] / S.Yu.Danilov // Veterinariya. – 2011. – ¹ 3. – P. 12–15. 
3. Zhukov, M.S. Funkcional'no-metabolicheskie narusheniya u telyat pri bronhopnevmonii v period rekonvalescencii i ih farmakoterapevticheskaya korrekciya [Functional and metabolic disorders in calves with bronchopneumonia and its farmacological correction]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Veterinary Scineces: 16.00.04 / M.S.Zhukov. – Voronezh, 2017. – 19 p.
4. Kabirov, G.F. Klinicheskaya ocenka diagnostiki i lecheniya bronhopnevmonii molodnyaka sel'skohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Clinical evaluation of bronchopneumonia detection and treatment in young livestock]/ G.F.Kabirov, G.A.Pahomov // Veterinarny vrach. – 2005. – ¹ 1. – P. 63–65.
5. Kalyuzhnyj, I.I. Laboratorno-klinicheskie aspekty terapevticheskogo primeneniya tekhnologii ehlektrodinamicheskoj stimulyacii na telyatah neonatal'nogo perioda razvitiya [Laboratory and clinical aspects of electrodynamic stimulation of therapeutic use in calves at neonathal period] / I.I.Kalyuzhnyj, Yu.V.Kalinkina // Agrarny nauchny zhurnal. – 2016. – ¹ 1. – P. 10–13.
6. Pokazaniya k primeneniyu DENAS-terapii – Prescription for application of DENAS therapy [Electronic resourse]. Available at: http://www.diadens.ru/medicine/dens-therapy/. 
7. Rukovodstvo po ehkspluatacii apparata DiaDEHNS-PK [Guidelines for using of DiaDANS – PC]. – Ekaterinburg, Russia: «RC APT», 2007.
8. Osobennosti i perspektivy ispol'zovaniya DEHNS v veterinarnoj medicine [Peculiarities and prospectives of using DANS therapy in veterinary medicine] / B.V.Usha, V.I.Rodin, V.V.Svetlichkin, A.A. Koncevova // Dinamicheskaya ehlektronejrostimulyaciya: teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty diagnostiki i terapii – Dynamic electrostimulation: theoretical and practical aspects of diagnosis and therapy: proceedings from the International symposium dedicated to the 9th anniversary of DENAS-MC corporation. – Ekaterinburg: OOO «RIF «SANEHD», 2007. – P. 165–171.
9. Shpicyn, A.G. Razrabotka kompleksnoj sistemy meropriyatij po diagnostike, preduprezhdeniyu i farmakoterapii bronhopnevmonii telyat v usloviyah Severnogo Kavkaza [Development of complex system of detection, prevention, and therapy of calves bronchopneumonia in Northern Caucasus]: abstract from dissertation for DVM: 16.00.04 / A.G.Shpicyn. – Krasnodar, 2001. – 50 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.3.034:619:615.036.8 APPLICATION OF ANTIOXIDANT PREPARATIONS AS A PART OF INTEGRATED PREVENTION AND THERAPY OF MASTITIS IN COWS

   
Authors: Kireev I.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Orobets V.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Denisenko T.S. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:
Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol (e-mail: kireev-iv@mail.ru, orobets@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents preventive and therapeutic efficiency of new medicinal forms of antioxidant drugs for application as a part of veterinary measures to treat mastitis in dairy cows. Cows of black-and-white breed were the object of the research. In the first part of the experiments, the cows starting dry period were treated with "Septogel" drug  for preventive purposes and additionally "Extraselen", "Polyoxidol" and "Antioxidant drug for animals" were applied in different groups. Some parameters of the antioxidant protection system and postpartum mastitis sickness rate in cows were investigated. In the second part, "Septogel" was used as a specific therapy and additionally the studied drugs were applied in cows with signs of mastitis. The activity of glutathione peroxidase, the level of ceruloplasmin and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products in blood were determined. The experiments showed that during the dry period and when clinical forms of mastitis occur in cows, intensive accumulation of malonicdialdehyde and diene conjugates occurs because of low activity of glutathione peroxidase and insufficient level of ceruloplasmin. The inclusion of antioxidant drugs in the prophylactic regimen contributed to the normalization of the antioxidant system and led to a reduction of mastitis cases after calving. The use of investigational drugs as a supplement to the main treatment of mastitis allowed to optimize biochemical blood parameters and shorten the terms of animal recovery. The application of antioxidant agents allows to increase the efficiency of treatment and prevention measures to control mastitis in cows. "Extraselen", "Polyoxidol", and "Antioxidant drug for animals" drugs have an antioxidant effect and can be recommended for use as a part of complex prevention and therapy of mastitis in dairy cattle.

   
Keywords: mastitis, cows, antioxidants, antioxidant system, enzymes, lipid peroxidation
   
References:
1. Ermakova, N.V. Protsessi perekisnogo okisleniya lipidov u korov, bolnih mastitom [The processes of peroxidation lipids in cows suffering from mastitis] / N.V.Ermakova // Vestnik nauchnih konferentsiy. – 2016. – ¹ 4(8). – P. 34-35.
2. Karpenko, L.Yu. Vozrastnie osobennosti sostoyaniya antioksidantnoy sistemi organizma zdorovih sobak [Age-related peculiarities of antioxidant system in healthy dogs] / L.Yu.Karpenko, A.A.Bahta, O.K.Suhovolskiy // Uspehi gerontologii – Advances in Gerontology. – 2008. – Vol. 21. ¹ 1. – P. 49-52.
3. Zavisimost mezhdu ostrofaznim otvetom, oksidativnim statusom i mastitom u korov [Dependence between acute phase response, oxidative status and mastitis of cows]/ M.Klechkovskiy, V.Klyuchinskiy, T.Yakubovskiy, E.Kudiba //Rossiyski yveterinarniy zhurnal. Selskohozyaystvennie zhivotnie– 2012. – ¹ 3. – P. 46-51.
4. Kryukova, V.V. Sostoyanie molochnogo skotovodstva Leningradskoy oblasti po zabolevaemosti mastitami [The state of dairy cattle breeding in the Leningrad region on the incidence of mastitis]/ V.V.Kryukova // Voprosi normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii – 2009. – ¹ 3. – P. 72-80.
5. Niderkvel V.A., Pleshakova V.I. Mastiti korov v hozyaystvah Omskoi oblasti s razlichnoy proizvodstvennoi effektivnostyu [Mastitis of cows in farms of Omsk region with different production intensity] / V.A.Niderkvel, V.I.Pleshakova // Agrarniy vestnik Urala –  2011. – ¹ 12-2. – P. 37-38.
6. Parikov, V.A. Mastit u korov: etiologia, profilaktika i terapiya [Mastitis in cows: etiology, prevention and therapy] / V.A. Parikov // Veterinariya – 1986. – ¹ 12. – P. 7-10.
7. Patent 2392944 Russian Federation, IPC A 61 K31/785, A 61 K 33/04, A 61 P 3/02. Preparat dlya lecheniya i profilaktiki narusheniya obmena selena dlya selskohozyaystvennih zhivotnih [The drug for the treatment and prevention of metabolic disorders of selenium for farm animals] / V.A.Orobets, A.V.Serov, V.A.Belyaev, I.V.Kireev, M.V.Miroshnichenko; proprietor: Stavropol State Agrarian University. Application 2008137463/15; applied in 18.09.2008; published in 27.06.2010, Bulletin 18.
8. Patent 2435572 Russian Federation, IPC A 61 K 31/00, A 61 P 39/06. Antioksidantniy preparat dlya zhivotnih [Antioxidant drug for animals] / I.V.Kireev, V.A.Orobets, V.S.Skripkin, P.F.Kovalev; proprietor: Stavropol State Agrarian University. Application 2010143411/15; applied in 22.10.2010; published 10.12.2011, Bulletin 34.
9. Patent 2538666 Russian Federation, IPC A 61 K 31/4412, A 61 K 31/375, A 61 K 33/04, A 61 P 3/00. Preparat dlya normalizatsii protsessov perekisnogo okisleniya lipidov u zhivotnih [The drug for normalization of lipid peroxidation processes in animals] / I.V.Kireev, V.A.Orobets, V.A.Belyaev, A.V.Serov, V.S.Skripkin, M.N.Verevkina, T.S.Chernova, E.V.Rakovskaya; proprietor: Stavropol State Agrarian University. Application 2013111243/15; applied 12.03.13; published in 10.01.15, Bulletin 1.
10. Metodicheskie pologenia po izucheniyu protsessov svobodnoradikalnogo okisleniya i sistemi antioksidantnoy zaschiti organizma / M.I.Retskiy, S.V.Shabunin, G.N.Bliznetsov [et al.]. – Voronezh: RSRVIPPT, 2010. – 70 p.
11. Pahmutov, I.A. Korrektsiya okislitelnogo stressa i endogennoy intoksikatsii pri kompleksnoy himioterapii dizenterii sviney [Oxidatire stress and endogenous intoxication in complex chemotherapy of swine dysentery (SD)] / I.A.Pahmutov, O.A.Osokin, V.N.Skvortsov // Uchenie zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsini im. N.E.Baumana. – 2010. – Vol. 201. – P. 306-311.
12. Samohin, V.T. Patologiya obmena veschestv i problemi vosproizvodstva selskohozyaystvennih zhivotnih [Pathology of metabolism and the problem of reproduction in farm animals] / V.T.Samohin // Materiali nauchnoy i uchebno-metodicheskoy konferentsii poacusherstvu, ginekologii i razmnozheniyu zhivotnih– Proceedings from scientific, academic and methodical conference on obstetrics, gynecology and reproduction of animals. – Voronezh, 1994. – P. 6-7.
13. Tregubova, I.A. Antioksidanti: sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivi [Antioxidants: current status and prospects] / I.A.Tregubova, V.A.Kosolapov, A.A.Spasov // Uspehi fiziologicheskih nauk – 2012. – Vol. 43. ¹ 1. – P. 75-94.
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  Zootechny
   
Title:

UDC 636.2.084.41 CHANGES IN BLOOD CONTENT DEPENDING ON COW FEEDING CONDITIONS

   
Authors: 1Andreev A.I. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 2Menkova A.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 3Erofeev V.I. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 4Shilov V.N. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
1National Research Mordovia State University, Saransk (e-mail: kafedra_zoo@agro.mrsu.ru).

2Bryansk State Agrarian University (e-mail: aamenkova@mail.ru).

3Mordovian Institute for Retraining of Agrobusiness staff, Saransk (e-mail: ipka-rm@mail.ru).

4Tatar Institute of Retraining of Agrobusinesses, Kazan (e-mail:shilovvn@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
Hematologic and biochemical parameters of blood are influenced by various factors. A set of indicators has been studied that characterizes the impact of silage from corn and Sudan grass in combination with alfalfa on the morphological and biochemical composition of the blood of milk cows. The experiment was carried out by the method of analog groups. Studies have established that the inclusion in the ration of cows of the second group of Sudan-Luciferous silage compared with animals that received corn and Sudan silage contributed to an increase in the content of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, the total protein in the blood of animals. Activity of aspartate aminotransferase, reflecting the efficiency of amino acid use in biosynthetic processes, was also higher in cows fed sudanko-lucerne silage. The activity of alanine aminotransferases in the blood of cows did not differ significantly. During the period of the experiment (100 days) from the cow of the second group receiving the Sudanko-Lucerne silage, 15,584 kg of basic fat milk was milked, which is 3293 and 2,800 kg of milk, respectively, compared to the cows of the first and third group.

   
Keywords: feeding, cows, silage, morphological and biochemical indicators of blood, milk productivity, fat content of milk, protein content
   
References:
1. Aleksandrov, Yu.A. Dinamika biohimicheskih pokazateley krovi korov s raznym urovnem molochnoy produktivnosti [Dynamics of biochemical indices of blood of cows with different levels of milk productivity] / Yu.A.Aleksandrov // Agrarnaya nauka Yevro-Severo-Vostoka. – 2010. – ¹ 1 (16). – P. 58-62.
2. Andreev, A.I. Molochnaya produktivnost I kachestvo moloka korov pri ispolzovanii v ratsionah silosa iz sudanskoy travy [Milk productivity and quality of cow milk when used in silage from Sudan grasses] / A.I.Andreev, A.A.Rasstrigin // Zootehniya. – 2007. – ¹ 2. – P. 23-25.
3. Andreev, A.I. Pokazateli krovi doynyh korov pri ispolzovanii v ratsionah raznyh vidov silosa [Indicators of blood of milk cows fed with various diets of silage] / A.I.Andreev, V.I.Chikunova, A.M.Guryanov // Agrarnaya nauka Yevro-Severo-Vostoka. – 2012. – ¹ 4. – P. 42-45.
4. Primeneniye silosa iz sudanskoy travy v ratsionah doynyh korov [Application of silage from Sudan grass in diets of milk cows] / A.I.Andreev, I.P.Tarakin, V.I.Kargin, A.A.Rastrigin // Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii selskohozyaystvennyh nauk . – 2007. – ¹ 5. – P. 86-87.
5. Kachestvo silosa, prigotovlennogo iz sorgo saharnogo I sorgo v smesi s kleverom [Quality of silage made from sorghum sorghum and sorghum in a mixture with clover] / I.F.Kargin, A.I.Andreev, I.P.Tarakin, V.V.Demin // Kormoproizvodstvo. – 2010. – ¹ 4. – P. 36-39.
6. Men'kova A.A. Vliyaniye protein-energeticheskogo kontsentrata na morfologicheskiye pokazateli krovi korov cherno-pestroy porody [Influence of protein-energy concentrate on morphological indicators of blood of cows of black and motley breed] / A.A.Menkova, V.N.Tarasenko, G.N.Bobkova // Vestnik of Bryanskoy gosudarstvennoy selskohozyaystvennoy akademii. –  2014. – ¹ 1. – Ð.9-11.
7. Silusuyemost amaranta po fazam vegetatsii [Amaranth silvability in the vegetative phase] / V.N.Shilov [et al.] // Kormoproizvodstvo. – 2008. – ¹ 8. – P. 29-32.
8. Lebedev, P.T. Metody issledovaniya kormov, organov I tkaney zhivotnyh [Methods of research of animal feed, organs and tissues] / P.T.Lebedev, A.T.Usovich. – Moscow: Rosselkhozizdat, 1976. – 389 p.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.4.082 EXPRESSION OF ESTRUS IN REPLACEMENT GILTS IN CONTACTS WITH BOAR SPECIMEN

   
Authors: Dzhamaldinov A.Ch. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Tikhomirov A.I. – Candidate of Economic Sciences; Narizhny A.G. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
All-Russia Research Institute of Animal husbandry named after academy member L.K.Ernst, Moscow region, Podolsk district (e-mail: tikhomirov991@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
One of the methods for stimulation of a sexual function in replacement gilts is their dozed contacts with boar specimens. The objectives of the given researches were to study an expression of estrus in replacement gilts in contacts with a boar specimen, as well as to determine the reproductive performance indicators based on the estrus detection rate. The experiment was conducted with the Large White replacement gilts. After the gilts were transferred to a mating-control unit, they were placed in individual cages; the boar was daily run across the unit at a speed sufficient for its contact with each sow during 30-45 second. All the gilts were checked for estrus detection daily. In addition, the number of gilts with detected heat at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks from the initial stimulation was registered. When studying the effect of a boar specimen on the estrus expression in gilts, it was identified that the most number of gilts (64.6 %) came on heat during 2-3 weeks from the initial stimulation, while 14.6 % of gilts did not show heat even after 6 weeks of stimulation. The reproductive performance indicators based on the estrus detection rates in replacement gilts after boar-specimen stimulation revealed that the best conception rate was in sows, which came on heat during 2-4 weeks from the initial stimulation, and comprised 76.0-81.0 %. The piglet survival rates were highest in groups of sows, which came on heat in 2 weeks and later. Therefore, boar specimen stimulation of heat in replacement gilts is the effective method for the expression of estrus in them; however, any other stimulation methods can be reasonable for gilts showing delayed puberty. 

   
Keywords: specimens of boars, replacement gilts, estrus detection, conception rate
   
References:
1. Abuzyarov, A.A. Effektivnost ispolzovaniya preparata Beksin-vet pered iskusstvennyim osemeneniem matok [Efficiency of using Beksin-vet drug before sow artificial insemination] // A.A.Abuzyarov, A.G.Narizhnyiy, A.Ch.Dzhamaldinov / Aktualnyie problemyi sovremennoy veterinarnoy nauki i praktiki – Current issues of modern veterinary science and practice: proceedings from the International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Krasnodar research veterinary institute; Kuban state agrarian university. 2016. – P. 358-360.
2. Akkuzin, G.D. Vosproizvoditelnyie kachestva remontnyih svinok i produktivnyie kachestva poluchennogo molodnyaka [Reproductive features of replacement pigs and production features of their offspring] / G.D.Akkuzin, A.V.Filatov, M.S.Dursenev// Sovremennyie nauchnyie tendentsii v zhivotnovodstve – Current scientific tendencies in animal breeding: proceedings from the international scientific and practical conference. – Kirov, 2009. – P.11-14.
3. Narizhny, A.G. Tehnologicheskie parametryi povyisheniya reproduktivnoy funktsii remontnyih svinok [Technological parameters of improving reproductive features of replacement pigs] // A.G.Narizhnyiy, A.Ch.Dzhamaldinov / Veterinariya. 2016. - ¹ 3. – P. 34-36.
4. Pohodnya, G.S. Vliyanie razlichnyih usloviy soderzhaniya na produktivnost remontnyih svinok [The effect of various maintenance conditions on production rate of replacement sows] / G.S.Pohodnya, E.G.Pomorova // Veterinariya selskohozyaystvennyih zhivotnyih. 2007 – ¹ 11. – P.24-29.
5. Okolyishev, S. Vyiraschivanie svinok dlya remonta stada [Breeding sows for replacement] // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2006. – ¹4. – P.30-31.
6. Volodin, V.A. O srokah prodolzhitelnosti ovulyatsii i osemeneniya remontnyih svinok v usloviyah promyishlennogo kompleksa [on terms of ovulation and insemination duration in rearing sows at industrial farms]// S.-h. biologiya, 1991. – P.67-71.
7. Dzhamaldinov A.Ch. Vliyanie massy i tela svinok pri pervom osemenenii na ih dalneyshuyu produktivnost [the influence of live weight in sows at first insemination on their future production rate] // A.Ch.Dzhamaldinov, A.G.Narizhnyiy / Vestnik Ulyanovskoy gosudarstvennoy selskohozyaystvennoy akademii. – 2016. – ¹ 1 (33). – P. 81-84.
8. Sein, O.B. Fiziologicheskie osobennosti formirovaniya polovoy funktsii u sviney. Monografiya [Physiological features of repruductive function formation in pigs. Manuscript] / O.B.Sein, D.O.Sein // Kursk, 2010. – 295 p.
9. Shipilov, V.S. Fiziologicheskaya stimulyatsiya polovoy funktsii remontnyih svinok [Physiological stimulation of reproductive function in replacement sows]/ V.S.Shipilov, V.A.Volodin // Vestnik s.-h. nauki, 1987. – ¹ 12. – P.114-119.
10. Abuzyarov, A.A. Vliyanie skarmlivaniya svinomatkam biologicheski aktivnyih dobavok na ih produktivnyie kachestva / [The effect of feeding sows with biologically active additives on their reproductive functions] / A.A.Abuzyarov [et al.] / Svinovodstvo i tehnologiya proizvodstva svininy - Swine breeding and pork production technologies: a collection of articles of prof.G.S.Pohodnya's research school. – Belgorod, 2008. – P. 83-85.
11. Hlopitskiy, V.P. Stimulyatsiya i sinhronizatsiya polovoy funktsii u remontnyih svinok [Stimulation and synchronization of reproductive function in replacement sows] // Svinovodstvo, 2012. – ¹ 8. – P.63-65.
12. Narizhnyiy, A.G. Tehnologiya vyiraschivaniya i reproduktivnogo ispolzovaniya remontnyih svinok [Technology of breeding and reproductive use of replacement sows] // A.G.Narizhnyiy [et al.]. – Kirov, 2016. – 131 p.
13. Dzhamaldinov, A.Ch. Povyishenie effektivnosti vyiraschivaniya porosiyat [Improving the efficiency piglet breeding] / A.Ch.Dzhamaldinov, A.G.Narizhnyiy, G.S.Pohodnya // «Sovremennyie dostizheniya i problemyi biotehnologii selskohozyaystvennyih zhivotnyih BioTehZh-2016» - “Current achievements and problems of livestock breeding biotechnology BioTechZh-2016”: proceedings from the 11th All-Russian conference for Russian and foreign young researchers. – Moscow, 2016. – P.41-46.

  Physiology
   
Title:

UDC 619:618.4:618.6:615.017:636.2.034 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT ON THE PERFORMANCE UTERINE ACTIVITY IN COWS OXYTOCIN, UTEROTONIC, OXALATE AND OZONATED ISOTONIC SOLUTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE

   
Authors: Konopeltsev I.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov (e-mail info@vgsha.info).

   
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to determine the parameters of contractility of the uterus in cows after calving when the use of oxytocin, uterotonic, oxalate and ozonized isotonic solution of sodium chloride. Preparation of ozonated isotonic solution of sodium chloride (OFR) was carried out using a certified domestic generator medical ozone "Ozone-m-50".Cows of the first group intramuscular injected 50 IU of oxytocin, the animals of the second group was administered 10.0 ml of uteroton, the third group of cows were injected intramuscularly 10.0 ml of oxalate, the fourth group of animals was intravenously injected ozonized physiological solution of sodium chloride in the amount of 1000.0 ml with the concentration of dissolved ozone of 2.2 mg. The control group consisted of cows untreated with drugs. Registration of uterine contractions was assessed by means of internal hysterography after 3, 24 and 72 hours from the time of prescribing. 3 hours after the introduction of oxytocin in the increase of the amplitude of the reduction of the myometrium in 2.1 times, while registered over a long period of decline (30%). Contractional index significantly 2.6 times higher than that of animals in the control group. After 24 hours from the start of the experiment contractional index of experimental cows was significantly 4.6 times higher than in the control. After 72 hours contractional index significantly decreased in 7 times. 3 hours after the introduction of uterotonic there is a decrease in frequency of uterine contractions by 5.2%, while increasing their amplitude was 56.5% and the duration by 2.2 times. Contractional index reliably 2.9 times higher than that of animals in the control group. After 24 hours contractional index of experimental cows was 1.6 times higher than in controls. After 72 hours contractional index significantly decreased in 2.6 times. 3 hours after the introduction of oxalate noted an increase in the frequency of uterine contractions at 20%, with the increase in the amplitude 3 times and the period of decline 2.4 times contractional index reliably 8 times higher than that of animals in the control group. After 24 hours contractional reliably at 4.7% was higher than in controls. A reduction of experimental animals in relation to the previous study amounted to 4.1 times. 72 hours of observation contractional index significantly decreased 16.3 times. 3 hours after the appointment OFR contractional index significantly 1.6 times higher than that of animals in the control group. After 24 hours contractional index of experimental cows was significantly 4 times higher than in controls. 72 hours of observation contractional index significantly decreased in 2.5 times. Should encourage veterinary professionals to assign animals oxilate in cases when it is necessary to simultaneously stimulate the contractile activity of uterine structures. In the schemes of complex therapy of patients with endometritis cows, for prolongation of the contractile activity of the uterus is more preferable to use uteroton. Intravenous introduction of ozonized physiological solution of sodium chloride will be possible to potentiate the action myotropic funds.

   
Keywords: cows, postpartum period, contractile activity of the uterus, oxytocin, oxalat, uteroton, ozonized physiological solution
   
References:
1. Konopeltsev, I.G. Harakteristika reproduktivnoy funktsii u korov i telok na meroptiyatiyah APK Kirovskoy oblasti v zavisimosti ot razlichnyh faktorov [Peculiarities of reproductive function in cows and heifers in agricultural farms in Kirov region, depending on various factors] / I.G.Konopeltsev, N.N.Shupletsova, E.L.Chastikov // Sovremenniye nauchno-prakticheskiye dostizheniya v veterinarii - Modern scientific and practical achievements in veterinary medicine: a collection of articles from the All-Russian scientific and practical conf. – Issue 6. – Kirov, 2015. – P. 20-23.
2. Harakter matochnyh sokrascheniy pod deystviyem razlichnyh uterotropnyh preparatov [The character of the uterine contractions under the influence of various uterotrophic drugs uterotrophic] / S.V.Nikolaev, M.M.Prozorova, E.A.Vakhrusheva, I.G.Konopeltsev // Znaniya molodyh: nauka, praktika I innovtsii – Knowledge in youth: science, practice and innovation: a collection of the articles from the scientific and practical conference for young scientists, postgraduate students and applicants. – Kirov, 2014. – P. 169-170.
3. Baymishev, H.B. Reproduktivnaya funktsiya korov I faktory yeyo opredelyayuschiye: monografiya [Reproductive function of cows and its determining factors: manuscript] / H.B.Baymishev, M.H.Baymishev. – RIC Samara state agricultural Academy, 2016. – 166 p.
4. Regulyatorniye mehanizmy I biologicheskiye stimulyatory sokratitelnoy deyatelnosti matki u korov [Regulatory mechanisms and biological stimulants of the contractile activity of the uterus in cows] /A.G.Nezhdanov, V.A.Safonov, S.G.Postovoy, V.V.Filin // Sovremenniye problemy veterinarnogo akusherstva I biotehnologii vosproizvedeniya zhivotnyh - Modern problems of veterinary obstetrics and biotechnology of reproduction animals: proceedings from the Intern. science - pract. Conf. Dedicated to the 85th birthday of Professor G. A. Cheremisinov and the 50th anniversary of the Voronezh school of veterinary obstetricians. – Voronezh, 2012. – P. 358-365.
5. Gorpinchenko, E.A. Faktory, sposobstvuyuschiye vozniknoveniyu funktsionalnyh rasstroystv rodopolovogo apparata u korov [Factors contributing to the emergence of functional disordersgeneric-sex apparatus in cows] / E.A.Gorpinchenko, I.S.Koba, M.N.Livintsova // Polythematic network electronic scientific journal of the Kuban state agrarian University, 2016. – ¹ 121. – P. 1818-1827.
6. Konopeltsev, I.G. Vliyaniye ozonirovannogo fiziologicheskogo rastvora na sokratitelnuyu funktsiyu matki I korov I oplodotvoryayemost [Influence of ozonized physiological solution on the contractile function of the uterus of cows and their fertility] / I.G.Konopeltsev, A.I.Popov, N.V.Pletenev // Ozonoterapiya. Nizhny Novgorod medical journal, 2003. – P. 305-306.
7. Metodicheskoye posobiye po profilaktike zabolevaniy organov reproduktivnoy sistemy u vysokoproduktivnyh korov: metodicheskoye posobiye [A guide to the prevention of diseases of reproductive organs in high-yielding cows] / M.V.Ryaposova, I.A.Shkuratova, I.M.Donnik [et al.]. // Methodical instructions. – Yekaterinburg, 2013. – P. 38.
8. Nizkaya sokrartelnaya deyatelnost matki kak prichina endometrita u korov [Low contractile activity of the uterus as a cause of endometritis in cows] / O.Yu.Bespyatykh, I.G.Konopeltsev, M.L.Sazanova [et al.] // Kirov science and technology center. – 1997. – 4 p.
9. Svidetelstvo na polezznuyu model ¹ 27478 Ustroystvo dlya gisterografii [The certificate on useful model No. 27478 Device for hysterography] / I.G.Konopeltsev, N.V.Pletnev, S.V.Surkov [et al.]. – Kirov science and technology center, 2003. – 4 p.
10. Noakes, David E. Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics / David E. Noakes, Timothy J.Parkinson; ådited by, Gary.C.W. – 9-th ådition. – England, 2009. // W.B.Saunders Elsevier. Ltd. – 2009. – P. 407–425, 198–201.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.2.053:615.272.6:612.017.1 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL INDICIES OF CALVES BLOOD UNDER THE ACTION "SYNOESTROLUM 2%" IN ANTENATAL PERIOD

   
Authors: Klyapnev A.V. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:
N. Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, N.Novgorod (e-mail: garmaxisone@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of studies of the physiological and biochemical indicies of the blood of newborn calves after the application of Sinoestrolum 2% in a dose of 1 ml to down-calving cows 3-6 days before calving. Use of the drug positively affected the health of calves. At the same time, the biochemical and morphological composition of the blood in newborn calves improved to the next day after born: increased the level of total protein for 9.75% compared to the control group of calves, albumin - 13.7%, alpha-globulin - 31%, gamma globulin - 21.8%, leukocyte number increased for 17.2%. Ten days after birth, the content of alpha- and gamma- globulin decreased in the calves of the control and experimental groups, but it was significantly higher in the calves of the experimental group. The level of albumin both in the control and in the experiment increased. The number of leukocytes was higher in the calves of the experimental group, mainly due to neutrophils.

   
Keywords: Synoestrolum, newborn calves, down-calving cows, colostral immunity, immunoglobulins
   
References:
1. Zahurdaeva, L.D. Estrogeny: biologicheskie i farmakologicheskie effekty [Estrogens: biological and pharmacological effects] / L.D.Zahurdaeva // Medicinskie aspekty zdorovya zhenshhin. – 2010. – ¹ 8(37). – P. 41-51.
2. Zubovich, V.K. Gormonalniy kriz novorozhdennyh [Hormonal crisis of newborn] / V.K.Zubovich // Minsk, Belarus. – 1978. – P.90.
3. Kondrahin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki: Spravochnik [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics: a handbook] / I.P.Kondrahin. – Moscow: KolosS, 2004. – 520 p.
4. Litvinova, D.N. Soderzhanie kletok krovi s polovym hromatinom u novorozhdennyh bychkov [The count of blood cells with sexual chromatin in new-born bull-calves] / D.N.Litvinova, A.V.Butylev // Vestnik Novgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. – 2015. – ¹ 86. – P. 9-10.
5. Orlova, E.G. Gormonalnaya regulyaciya timicheskoi differencirovki kletok pri beremennosti (obzor) [Hormonal regulation of thymic cells differentiation during pregnancy (review)] / E.G.Orlova, S.V.Shirshev, I.V.Nekrasova, O.L.Gorbunova, I.P.Maslennikova, O.A.Loginova // Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. – 2016. – Issue 4. – P. 395-401.
6. Tatarchuk, T.F. Endokrinnaya ginekologiya [Endocrine gynecology] / T.F.Tatarchuk, Ya.P.Solskiy // AMN Ukrainy. – 2003. – 300 p.
7. Shirshev, S.V. Vliyanie zhenskih polovyh steroidnyh gormonov na mikrobicidnuyu aktivnost neytrofilov [The effect of female sex steroid hormones on the microbicidal activity of neutrophils] // S.V.Shirshev, I.V.Nekrasova // Problemy endokrinologii. – 2010. – ¹ 1. – P. 26-30.
8. Shirshev, S.V. Vliyanie estradiola na fagocitarnuyu i okislitelnuyu aktivnost monocitov i neytrofilov [The effect of estradiol on the phagocytic and oxidative activity of monocytes and neutrophils] / S.V.Shirshev, E.M.Kuklina, U.S.Gudina // Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. – 2008. – Issue 9 (25). – P. 96-99.
9. Shirshev, S.V. Vliyanie reproduktivnyh gormonov na osnovnye funkcii neytrofilov cheloveka [The effect of reproductive hormones on the basic functions of human neutrophils] / S.V.Shirshev, E.M.Kuklina, I.V.Bessonova // Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. – 2004. – Issue 2. – P.174-176.
10. Tuboly, S. Intestinal Absorption of Colostral Lymphoid Cells in Newborn Piglets / S.Tuboly, S.Bernath, R.Glavits, I.Medveczky // Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. – 1998. – ¹ 20. – P. 75-85.

  VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY WITH TOXICOLOGY
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.917:616-001.28/.29 EFFICINECY OF PROTECTION MEANS AT ANIMAL ASSOCIATED DEFEAT WITH DIOXIN AND IONIZING RADIATION

   
Authors: Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Kadikov I.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Zakirova G.Sh. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Korchemkin A.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Mayorova E.N. – external postgraduate student.
   
Address:
Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Dioxins have global effect on human and animal health. These substances are one of the most important factors in inducing a progressive deterioration in the gene pool of a number of living organisms populations. Large-scale environmental pollution with radioactive decay products and increased natural radiation background in the biosphere at the present day is recognized as one of the most important negative change. Therefore, the aim of our study was the development of schemes for the protection of animals under combined lesions of dioxin and ionizing radiation. Experiments were conducted on 60 white rats live weight 180-200 g. Ànimals were divided into 5 groups with 12 animals in each group according to the principle of analogues. The first group served as a biological control. The second, third, fourth and fifth groups of albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation dose of 5G and daily were injected with dioxin dose Ld50 of 1/100 during 45 days. The second group was untreated, the third group animals were injected with anti-radiation treatment-and-prophylactic antibody (PLPI) at dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, and the feed was enriched with bentonite at rate of 2% of dry matter; the fourth group of animals received ASD-2 in amount of 1 ml per head and entonite-enriched feed; the fifth group received both SDA-2 and PLPI. Thus, the synergy is installed lethality of gamma-radiation and dioxin at associated effects on white rat body and selected remedies from such defeats. The use of ASD-2 dose 1 ml/goal and 2% bentonite from the diet of the animal PLPI at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight and bentonite, ASD-2 and the above mentioned sorbent in doses has a beneficial effect on the organism, normalizes hematologic indicators, the content of T-and B- lymphocytes and is characterized by reducing concentrations of lipid peroxidation.

   
Keywords: dioxins, ionizing radiation, sorbents, immunoglobulin, tissue stimulators
   
References:
1. Vereshchak, N.A. Primeneniye sorbentov v rayonah ekologicheskogo blagopoluchiya [Application sorbents in areas of ecological trouble] / N.A.Vereshchak, A.D.Shusharin // Veterinariya. – 2007. – ¹. 11. – P. 36-38.
2. Vliyaniye ASD i bentonita na organism kur-nesushek pri sochetannom vozdeystvii dioksinom i mikotoksinom [Influence of ASD and bentonite on layer hen organism at associated effects of dioxin and mycotoxin] / I.R.Kadikov, A.A.Korchemkin, A.A.Ivanov, I.I.Idijatov // Effektivniye I bezopasniye lekarstvenniye sredstva v veterinarii – Effective and safe medicines in veterinary medicine: proceedings from the III International Congress of veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology – St.Petersburg, 2014. – P. 108-109.
3. Primeneniye tseolita pri sochetannom otravlenii zhivotnyh dioksinom i kadmiyem [Application of zeolite at animal associated poisoning with dioxin and cadmium] / I.R.Kadikov, K.Kh.Papunidi, I.F.Vafin, I.I.Idijatov // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarnoy farmakologii i farmatsii – Current issues of Veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmacy: proceedings from inter-regional scientific and practical Conference. – Krasnodar, 2012. – P. 149-152.
4. Vliyaniye preparatov krovi na techeniye kombinirovannogo porazheniya ovets T-2 toksinom i gamma-oblucheniyem [The effect of hematological drugs on progression of sheep associated defeat with T-2 toxin and gamma irradiation] / G.V.Konyukhov, M.Y.Tremasov, E.Y.Lodvigov [et al.] // Vestnik Rossiyaskoy voyenno-meditsinskoy akademii. – St. Petersburg. – 2008. – P. 198.
5. Korablev, Yu. A.Nekotoriye patogeneticheskiye mehanizmy pri porazhenii radiatsiyey I T-2 toksinom [Some pathogenetic mechanisms at defeat with radiation and T-2 toxin] / Dissertation for Candidate for Biology. – Kazan. – 2004. – 141 p.
6. Papunidi, K.Kh.Cytomorphological Changes Hepatorenal System Combined With Fever Poisoning Xenobiotics / K.Kh.Papunidi, I.R.Kadikov, V.R.Saitov [et al.] // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 7(4). 2016. – P. 2214 – 2220.
7. Pokazateli perekisnogo okisleniya lipidov pri sochetannoy intoksikatsii porosyat dioksinom I T-2 toksinom I primeneniye sredstv terapii [Parameters of lipid peroxidation with associated intoxication of pigs with dioxin and T-2 toxin and application of therapeutical means] // K.Kh.Papunidi, A.A.Ivanov, I.I.Idiatou, I.R.Kadikov // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarnoy farmakologii, toksikologii, i farmatsii – Current problems of veterinary pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy: proceedings from IV Congress of Russian veterinary pharmacologists and toxicologists. - Moscow, 2013. – P. 455-457.

  VETERINARY VIROLOGY, EPIZOOTOLOGY AND ANIMAL THERAPY
   
Title:

UDC 619:576.851.42.576.809.53 NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR CULTIVATION OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS 19 TO PRODUCE ANTIGEN FOR IHT

   
Authors: Kabakhova P.M. – Research Officer; Yusupov O.Yu. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Mikailov M.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Yanikova E.A. – Research Officer; Shehilalieva G.M. – Research Assistant; Gulieva A.T. – Research Assistant.
   
Address:
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents the design of nutrient medium and its trial for cultivation of B.abortus strain 19 brucella used to produce erythrocyte antigen for indirect hemagglutination test (IHT). A new solid medium – the agar based on pancreatic casein hydrolizate and grain yeast extract was tested for cultivation of B.abortus 19 in comparison with a meat-and-peptone liver glucose-glycerin agar (MPLGGA). The medium was trialled for growth features, antigenic features against B.abortus strain 19 and suitability of brucella bacterial mass to produce erythrocyte antigen for IHT. The new nutrient medium based on pancreatic casein hydralizate and grain yeast extract showed better growth of B.abortus 19 brucella than MPLGGA.  With the new nutrient medium based on pancreatic casein hydralizate and grain yeast extract the bacterial mass yield of three-days brucella culture per 1 liter was 1.1 liters at a concentration of 80-90 microbial cells per 1 ml, while with MPLGGA the bacterial mass yield was 0.9-1 liter in the same concentration. Bacterial mass received using the new nutrient medium consisted of microbial cells with biological and high antigen properties typical for B.abortus 19 brucella. The nutrient medium from pancreatic casein hydrolyzate and grain yeast extract allows to receive B.abortus19 bacterial mass in required concentration and possessing biological properties, typical for brucellas, without the dissociated cells possessing high antigen properties. This medium can replace MPLGGA at production of a brucellar erythrocyte antigen for IHT.

   
Keywords: nutrient medium, pancreatic hydralyzate of casein, extract of grain yeast, B.abortus 19, erythrocyte antigen for IHT
   
References:
1. Alton, D. Laboratory techniques in brucellosis / D.Alton, L.M.Johns // World Health Organization. – Geneva, 1968. – 84 p.
2. A. s. 382682 the USSR. Pitatelnaya sreda dlya vyraschivaniya mikroorganizmov [Nutrient medium for growing microorganisms] / M.M.Ivanov, N.A.Mikhaylov – ¹ 1675773/30-15; applied in 18.06.1971; published in 23.05.1973, Bulletin ¹ 23. – 4 p.
3. Vershilova, P.A. Brutsellez [Brucellosis] / P.A.Vershilova, A.A.Golubeva, Ye.I.Kaytmazova. – Moscow: MedGiz, 1961. – 414 p.
4. Gidrolizat kazeina sredney stepeni rasshchepleniya kislotnyy sukhoy: Mikrobiologicheskiye pitatelnyye sredy [ Acidic dry casein hydrolyzate of medium degree of cleavage: Microbiological nutrient media]: catalog edited by Sh.M.Medzhidov. – Makhachkala. 2001. – P. 9.
5. Korotich, A.S. Pitatelnyye sredy, uskoryayushchiye rost brutsell [Nutrient media accelerating brucella growth] / A.S.Korotich // Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunobiologii. – 1960. – Iss. 3.
6. Pitatelnaya sreda dlya vydeleniya i kul'tivirovaniya brutsell, sukhaya (eritrit agar) [Nutrient medium (dry erythritol agar) for isolation and cultivation of brucella]. Microbiological nutrient media]: catalog edited by Sh.M.Medzhidov. – Makhachkala. 2001. – P. 47.
7. Trilenko, P.A. Brutsellez selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Brucellosis of farm animals] / P.A.Trilenko. – Leningrad: Kolos, 1976. – P. 250-253.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616-001.28/.29:579.577.114:615.37 IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG BASED ON B. BIFIDUM AND E. COLI IN COMBINATION WITH A BIOPOLYMER AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS EFFECTIVENESS ON FARM ANIMALS

   
Authors: Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Nizamov R.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Gaynutdinov T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Idrisov A.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Shakurov M.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Sharifullina D.T. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru.).

   
Abstract:
In previous research nine of the tested variants of compositions based on E. coli, B. bifidum, aluminium silicate hydrate, aluminium hydroxide and a natural biopolymer-chitosan from dead bees were studied. Of nine compositions the two prepared from: 1) a mixture of culture liquid and the bacterial mass of E. coli in combination with episan and 2) a mixture of culture fluid and Bakassi B. bifidum in combination with apezanon had a high radioprotective activity, providing 65-75% protection of lethally irradiated laboratory animals. These compositions had different radiation efficiency for therapeutic and prophylactic use. The aim of this study was to to improve the technology production for radioprotector drug based on E. coli and B. bifidum in combination with a biopolymer and to evaluate its effectiveness on farm animals. To obtain a composiion for radioprotector based on E. coli and B. bifidum, bacteria were grown on liquid nutrient media for 48 hours. Then the culture liquid with biomass were mixed in a ratio of 1:1 and the mixture was dried in a drying cabinet until constant weight. The powder mixture of microorganisms wass diluted in physiological solution with a concentration of 2x109 µ/ml was added to apisan solution obtained using the improved technology in the ratio of 0.5 mass%. The drug named as RPKM (radioprotector composite microbial) was subjected to sterilization by irradiation with gamma rays at a dose of 2.0 kGy. After the drug toxicity and safety was determined its radioprotective activity was experimentally trialled on 9 Prekos sheep. The drug therapeutic activity was assessed by clinical and hematological parameters and survival rate of animals. The studies showed that the drug can be used for preventive purpose (single subcutaneous administration at a dose of 5 ml 24 hours before) and treatment purpose (24 hours after irradiation) and provides 66.6% survival rate in sheep from radiation death.

   
Keywords: culture liquid, immunomodulators, polysaccharides, biopolymers
   
References:
1. Andrushchenko, V.N. Protivoluchevoe dejstvie veshchestv mikrobnogo proiskhozhdeniya [Anti-irradiation effect of microbial substances] / V.N.Andrushchenko, A.A.Ivanov, V.N.Mal'cev // Radiacionnaya biologiya. Radioekologiya. – 1996. – Vol. 38, Issue. 2 – P. 195-207.
2. Bykova, V.M. Syr'evye istochniki i sposoby polucheniya hitina i hitozana [Raw materials and methods to produce chitosan and chitin]/V.M.Bykova, S.V.Nemcev. – Moscow: Nauka, 2002. – P. 7.
3. Duplishcheva, A.P. Vliyanie antigenov i produktov ih degradacii na radiorezistentnost' obluchennyh zhivotnyh [The effect of antigens and products of their degradation on radioresistance on irradiated animals] / A.P.Duplishcheva, N.G.Sinilova, K.K.Ivanov // Radiobiologiya. – 1965. – Vol. 5, Issue 5. – P. 243-252.
4. Zaroza, V.G. Esherihioz telyat [Calves escherihiosis] / V.G.Zaroza. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1991. – 239 p.
5. Ivanov, A.A. Protivoluchevye effekty immunoglobulinov [Anti-radiation effects of immunoglobulins] / A.A.Ivanov, N.N.Klemparskaya, G.A.Shal'nova. – Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1990. – P. 176.
6. Konoplyannikov, A.G. Radiobiologiya stvolovyh kletok [Radiobiology of stem cells] / A.G.Konoplyannikov. – Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1984. – 120 p.
7. Klemparskaya, N.N. Vosstanovlenie immunogeneza u obluchennyh zhivotnyh [Recovery of immunogenesis in irradiated animals] / N.N.Klemparskaya, G.A.Shal'nova // In: Vosstanovitel'nye processy pri radiacionnyh porazheniyah. Moscow, Atomizdat, 1964, – P. 89-95.
8. Mal'cev, V.N. Bakterioterapiya ostroj luchevoj bolezni [Microbial therapy of acute irradiation diseases]/V.N.Mal'cev, V.M.Korshunov, V.A.Strel'nikov [et al.] // Radiobiologiya. – 1978. – Vol. 18, Issue 5. – P. 757–760.
9. Mal'cev, V.N. Vliyanie bakterial'nyh preparatov na vyzhivaemost' obluchennyh zhivotnyh [The effect of microbial drugs on survival rate in irradiated animals] / V.N.Mal'cev, K.K.Gucenko, N.V.Emchenko //Radiac. biologiya. Radioekologiya. – 1994. – Vol. 34, Issue. 4-5. – P. 578-581.
10. Petrov, R.V. O toksikologicheskom dejstvii bakterial'nyh endotoksinov na organizm [On toxic effect of microbial endotoxins on body] / R.V.Petrov // Laboratornoe delo. – 1987. – ¹ 6. – P. 14-16.
11. Pert, S.J. Osnovy kul'tivirovaniya mikroorganizmov i kletok [Basics of microbial and cell cultivation] / S.J.Pert // Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Mir., 1978. – 331 p.
12. Skryabin, K.G. Hitin i hitozan: poluchenie, svojstva, primenenie [Chitine and chitosan: production, peculiarities, application] / edited by K.G.Skryabin, G.A.Vihoreva, V.P.Varlamov. – Moscow: Nauka, 2002. – 368 p.
13. Tkachenko, E.I. Eradikacionnaya terapiya, vklyuchayushchaya probiotiki [Eradication therapy including probiotics] / E.I.Tkachenko, E.B.Avanceva, Yu.P.Uspenskij [et al.] / /Klinicheskoe pitanie. – 2005. – ¹ 1. – P. 14-20.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.993:636.2(470.41) MONITORING EPIZOOTIC SITUATION ON PARASITIC DISEASES AT RUMINANTS IN PERSONAL FARMS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

   
Authors: Shangaraev R.I. – postgraduate student; Lutfullin M.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Lutfullina N.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gizzatullin R.R. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: parasitology-kazan@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Parasitic diseases of animals in household farms in comparison with industrial farms have a wide spread. The fact that cattle in private farmsteads are practically not investigated for parasites is the main reason, and also they generally are not exposed to antiparasitic processings. Study of epizootology of animal invasive diseases in private farmsteads can give the chance to plan and take veterinary measures against these diseases. The article provides the data of parasitic diseases spread among ruminants are in personal farms in Arsk and Atnya districts, the Republic of Tatarstan. The specific list of cattle, sheep parasites, the infection intensity are studied and prevalence of animals, and also the age dynamics of contamination are described. Cattle nematodirosis invasion intensity in the both studied areas varies from 182 to 284, moniyeziosis – from 182 to 395 eggs, eymeriyosis – from 264 to 434 oocysts in 1 g of excrements. The contamination percentage of these parasites was 48.7, 45.3 and 45.8 respectively. In sheep maximal nematodirosis invasion intensity was 362, moniyeziosis – 354 at 53.1% and 42% respectively. It is noted that cattle in private farmsteads of two areas most intensively catches causative agents of invasive diseases aged from the 6th month till 1 year. In Arsk district more than 50% of the studied sheep infected nematodirosis were aged from the 6th month till 1 year. The greatest number of eggs of moniyezies was revealed in fecal samples at 48.4% of the studied sheep aged to the 6th month. In Atnya district the greatest number of the sheep infected with nematodirosis 1 year were aged more senior. Sheep were infected by moniyeziosis intensively aged till 1 year.

   
Keywords: ruminants, parasitic diseases, personal farms, epizootic situation
   
References:
1. Parasitologia i invasionnie bolezni selskochosyaistvennych zhivotnych [Parasitology and invasive diseases of agricultural animals] / K.I.Abuladze [et al.]. – Moscow: Kolos, 1975 – 472p.
2. Parasitologia I invasionie bolezni zhivotnych [Parasitology and invasive diseases of animals] / M.Sh.Akbayev, A.A.Vodyanov, N.E.Kosminkov. – Moscow: Kolos, 1998. – P. 26.
3. Andrushko, E.A. Epizootologicheskiy monitoring eymeriosa molodnyaka crupnogo rogatogo skota v hozyastvakh Ivanovskoi oblasti [Epizootological monitoring of an eymeriosis of young growth of cattle in farms of the Ivanovo region] / E.A.Andrushko, S.V.Egorov // Rossiski parasitologicheski zhurnal – 2015. – ¹ 2. – P. 27-31.
4. Epizooticheskaya situacya po osnovnym gelmintozam v Rossiskoy Federacii [Epizootic situation on the main helmithiases in the Russian Federation] / V.V.Gorokhov [et al.] // Teoria i practika borby s parasitarnymi boleznyami. – 2009. – ¹ 10. – P. 137-141.
5. Latypov D.G. Monitoring epizooticheskoi situacii po gelmintozam crupnogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Tatarstan [Monitoring of an epizootic situation on helminthiases of cattle in Republic of Tatarstan] / D.G.Latypov, M.H.Lutfullin, N.A.Gaisin // Veterinarny vrach. – 2001. – ¹ 4. – P.24-26.
6. Latypov, D.G. Monitoring epizootologicheskoy situacii po gelintozam cpupnogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Tatarstan [Monitoring of an epizootological situation on helminthiases of cattle in Republic of Tatarstan] / D.G.Latypov, M.H.Lutfullin, P.G.Nikiforov // Sost. i perspect. Razvitiya proizvodstva vet. boipreparatov – “State of the art and prospectives in development of animal biodrugs”: proceedings from the 3rd Int.Conference. – Alma-Ata.—2006. 
7. Lutfullin, M.H. Monitoring epizooticheskoi situacii po kishechnym strongylatozam melkogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Tatarstan [Monitoring of an epizootic situation on intestinal strongylatosis of an small cattle in Republic of Tatarstan] / M.H.Lutfullin, A.M.Idrisov, P.G.Nikiforov // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM. – 2008. – Vol.195. – P.149-152.
8. Safiullin, R.T. Rasprostraneniye i economicheski ucherb ot osnovnykh gelintozov zhvachnykh zhivotnykh [Distribution and economic damage from helmithiasesof ruminants] / R.T.Safiullin // Veterinariya ? 1997. – ¹ 6. ? P. 28-32.

  GENETICS OF FARM ANIMALS
   
Title:

UDC 636.082.2:636.034 ASSOCIATION OF POLYMORPHISM IN LEPTIN CANDIDATE GENE WITH ENERGY OF GROWTH AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

   
Authors: 1Safina N.Yu. – postgraduate student; 2Yulmeteva Yu.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Ahmetov T.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 2Shakirov Sh.K. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; 2Zinnatova F.F. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail:natysafina@gmail.com).

2Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture, Kazan (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Intensive breeding of heifers provides an opportunity to implement their insemination at an earlier age and to give the earlier assessment of the productive capacity, provides the possibility of increasing economic efficiency of dairy production and spurs the process of genetic improvement of livestock. The aim of this study was to examine the correlational study between leptin candidate gene polymorphisms in Holstein cows with their growth and physical development. To conduct DNA testing on the LEP candidate gene blood samples were selected from 301 Holstein cows. Animal genotyping according to the leptin candidate gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).All possible genotypes of the LEP candidate gene were identified in the course of DNA testing. Frequency of occurrence of polymorphisms and alleles was ranked as follows: CC – 29.9%, TC – 55.5%, TT – 14.6% and C – 0.58, T – 0.42.The analysis of the expected and observed distribution of genotypes according to the LEP candidate gene by chi-square test between genotypes CC, TC and TT has showed that the variability is 1.2, which suggests that genetic equilibrium in the studied candidate gene is not broken. Heterozygous animals have the largest live weight at birth, animals with genotype CC have a larger weight during the follow-up weighing: 6, 12, 18 months and at the first parturition. Animals with genotype TT turned out to lag behind by weight for all check weighings at different ages. In different age periods the following pattern was observed: animals with genotype CC had the highest relative weight gain in the first two intervals between weighings, but lagged behind in this indicator by the time of parturition. An inverse relationship was observed with genotype TT, animals with genotype TC had average results between the reference measurements with the exception of gain in the period from 12 to 18 months. These trends persist when considering the absolute average daily gain. The results of this study show that animals with genotype LEPCC can be useful in breeding for the improvement of population of Holstein cattle by economic traits related to the growth power, body composition and physical development.

   
Keywords: gene, leptin, DNA, polymorphism, PCR, productivity, cattle, growth
   
References:
1. Volkova, I.A. Intensivnost' rosta telok cherno-pestroj porody i ihposleduyushchie produktivnye kachestva [Intensity of growth of heifers of black-motley breed and their subsequent productive qualities]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of veterinary medicine: 06.02.04. – Omsk: OGAU, 2001. – 26 p.
2. Polimorfizm po genam somatotropina, prolaktina, leptina, tireoglobulinabykov-proizvoditelej [Polymorphism in the genes of somatotropin, prolactin, leptin, thyroglobulin of bulls-producers] / S.V.Tyul'kin, T.M.Ahmetov, E.R.Valiullina, R.R.Vafin // Vavilovskij zhurnal genetiki i selekcii, 2012. – Issue 16. – Vol. 4/2. – P. 1008-1012.
3. Rekomendacii po genomnoj ocenke krupnogo rogatogo skota [Recommendations for genomic evaluation of the cattle] / L.A.Kalashnikova [et al.] – Lesnye Polyany: VNIIplem, 2015. – 35 p.
4. Komisarek, J. Impact of LEP and LEPR gene polymorphismos functional traits in Polish Holstein Friesian cattle / J.Komisarek // Animal Science Paper and Reports. – 2010. – Vol. 10. – P. 133–141.
5. DGAT1 and LEP polymorphisms in Nelore cattle / Souza [et al.] // Animal Science. – 2010. – Vol. 88. – Ð. 435–441.
6. Merkur'eva, E.K. Genetika s osnovami biometrii [Genetics with the basics of biometrics] / E.K.Merkur'eva, G.N.Shangin-Berezovskij – Moscow: Kolos, 1983. – 400p.
7. Associaciya polimorfizma genov TG5 i LEP s dinamikoj laktacii korov-pervotelok [Association of gene TG5 and LEPpolymorphism with the dynamics of lactation heifers] / E.N.Rachkova, F.F.Zinnatova, Yu.R.Yul'met'eva [et al.] // Veterinarnyj vrach, – 2016. – Vol. 6. – P. 61-66.
8. Shojaei, M. Association of growth trait and Leptin gene polymorphism in Kermani sheep/ Moslem Shojaei, Mohammadreza Mohammad Abadi, Masood Asadi Fozi, Omid Dayani, Amin Khezri and Masoumeh Akhondi // Journal of Cell and Molecular Research, 2010, – Vol. 2 (1). – P. 67-73.