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¹ 5, 2017

Ñêà÷àòü íîìåð æóðíàëà â ôîðìàòå .pdf (1,55 ÌÁ)
  Toxicology
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.032:636.7 SKIN-RESORPTIVE EFFECT OF THE MEDICATION CONTAIN FIPRONIL AND PERMETHRIN

   
Authors: Gerunova L.K. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Smyslova P.Y. – postgraduate student.
   
Address:
P.A.Stolypin Omsk State Agrarian University, Omsk, (e-mail: adm@omgau.ru).

   
Abstract:
This article is dedicated to the problem of safety of insectoacaricide medications based on Fipronil and Permethrin after contact with animal skin. The authors compiled the available data of skin resorption, toxic and unwanted effects of the medications based on Fipronil and Permethrin used with spot-on and pour-on methods, collar and aerosol form of production. The article lists the information about distribution and accumulation of Fipronil and Permethrin in pets after contact with skin. Fipronil belongs to the group of phenylpyrazoles. It blocks the receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid and as a results it causes cramps, paralysis and death of arthropods. Permethrin belongs to the third-generation of synthetic pyrethroids. It changes ionic currents through the sodium channels and disturbs polarization process in nerve cells membranes in insects. Also Fipronil and Permethrin have undesirable and toxic effects such as localized skin allergic reactions, systemic neurological disorders, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, some adverse effects such as reproductive disorders for males and females, carcinogenicity effects were also observed. The article provides the data of species-based feline sensitivity to Permethrin and describes the causes and symptoms of acute poisoning in cats. Also the article results include the data on species-based sensitivity to Fipronil for rabbits and guinea pigs. The authors insist that it is necessary to take into account the skin resorption effect by Fipronil and Permethrin medications after contact with the animals skin, some unwanted and toxic effects and contraindications.

   
Keywords: insectoacaricide, Fipronil, Permethrin, spot on drops, collar.
   
References:
1. Arisov, M.V. Klinicheskoe issledovanie insektoakaricidnoy aktivnosti «RolfKlub 3D osheynika dlya sobak» [Clinical study insectoacaricide activity of the "RolfClub 3D collar for dogs"] // Veterinariya, Zootekhniya i Biotekhnologiya - Veterinary, Zootechny and Biotechnology - 2014. - Vol. 8. - P. 53 – 60.
2. Gerunova L.K., Smyslova P.Y. Opredelenie fipronila i permetrina v organizme zhivotnyh posle odnokratnogo primeneniya v forme kapel na holku [Determination of permethrin and fipronil in the animal organism after a single application in the form of spot-on] // Aktualnye problemy sovremennoy veterinarnoy nauki i praktiki - Current problems of modern veterinary science and practice- Krasnodar, 2016. - P. 16-18.
3. Danilevskaya, N.V. Osobennosti sovremennyh insekticidnyh i akaricidnyh preparatov, primenyaemyh dlya melkih domashnih zhivotnyh [Features of modern insecticides and acaricides applied for small animals] // Veterinar - Vet. - 2005. - Vol. 2. - P. 40 - 44.
4. Smyslova P.Y. Sovremennyj assortiment i mekhanizmy dejstviya insektoakaricidov dlya melkih domashnih zhivotnyh [Modern range of insectoacaricides and mechanism of their action on small pets] // Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoj biologii - Topical issues of Veterinary Biology- 2013.- Vol. 3(19). - P 61-65.
5. Tolokonnikov V.P., Truhachev V.I., Lysenko I.O. Ektoparazity zhivotnyh [Ectoparasites of animals] //Stavropol.- 2004. - P. 320-325.
6. Bloomquist, J.R. Ion channels as targets for insecticides / J.R.Bloomquist // Annual Review of Entomology. – 1996. – ¹ 41. – P. 163–190.
7. Brayden, D.J. Novel drug delivery strategies in veterinary medicine / D.J.Brayden // Irish Veterinary Journal. – 2003. – ¹ 56. – P. 310–316.
8. Cheng, T. Dermal absorption of 14C-fipronil REGENT 80WDG in male rats / T.Cheng // Report No. HWI 6224-210 from Hazleton Wisconsin, Inc., 1995. – P.40.
9. Cheng, T. Dermal absorption of 14C-MB 46513 in male rats / T.Cheng // Report No. CHW 6224-230 from Hazleton Wisconsin, Inc., 1996. – Ð. 83.
10. Gfeller, R.W. Handbook of Small Amimal Toxicology and Poisoning / R.W.Gfeller, S.P.Messonnier. – St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 2005. – 230 ð. 
11. Johnston, M.S. Clinical toxicology of domestic rabbits / M.S.Johnston // Vet Clin Exot Anim. – 2008. – ¹ 11. – Ð. 315–326.
12. Joyce, J. Notes on small animal dermatology / J.Joyce // Ames, Iowa: Blackwell, 2010. – Ð. 970–1114.
13. Keister, E. M. Pharmaceutical Group of North America / E.M.Keister // Rhone Merieux, letter to practitioners. – 1996. – 25 ð.
14. Canine and feline dermatology drug handbook / S.N.Koch, M.Sheila. F.Sheila, D.C. Torres // Ames, Iowa: Blackwell, 2012. – P. 669–674.
15. Small Animal Toxicology / G.D.Osweiler, L.R.Hovda, A.G.Brutlag, J.A.Lee // Ames, Iowa: Blackwel, 2011. – Ð. 636–643.
16. Peterson, M. Small Animal Toxicology / M.E.Peterson, P.A.Talcott. – St. Louis, Missour: Elsevier, 2013. – P. 743–744, 751.
17. Plumb, D. Veterinary drug handbook / D.C.Plumb // Ames, Iowa: Blackwell, 2008. – Ð. 72–75.
18. Roberts, M.S. Skin Transport / M.S.Roberts // Dermatological and Transdermal Formulations; edited by K.A.Walters. – Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001. – P. 89–196.
19. Romich, J.A. Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians / J.A.Romich. – 2-nd edition. – Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning, 2010. – 427 ð.
20. Tiwari, R.M. Veterinary Toxicology / R.M.Tiwari, M.Sinha. – Jaipur: Oxford Book Company, 2010. – 38 ð.
21. Webster, M. Product warning: Frontline / M.Webster // Aust Vet J. Mar. – 1999. – ¹ 77 (3). – P. 202.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:615.33.637 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ANIMAL ANTIBIOTICS OF ZINCBATYTRACINE

   
Authors: Galyautdinova G.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Bosyakov V.I. – inzhener lab. Chem. Analysis; Shangaraev N.G. – Head.Lab. Chem. Analysis; Egorov V.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of these studies was to search for optimal modes and conditions for chromatography by HPLC to identify the antibiotic zincbacitracin. rials and methods. In the experiments, a standard of zincbacitracin containing 90% active ingredient (European Pharmacoponia Reference Standard) was used. To conduct research and develop the definition of zincbacitracin, liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinitu with diode array detector, Spectra Physics Spectra 100 with UV detector, fluorescence spectrometer Hitachi 850 with a flow cell as a detector was used. The separation was carried out on ReproSil-Pur ODS 150 x 4 mm 5 ìm Repro Sil ODS -AC 18 (5 ìm) (250: 4 mm), Equisil BDS-C18 (250 x 4.6 mm) in the gradient elution mode of the mobile phase. An HPLC system was established for the analytical and preparative separation of the components of the zincbacitracin antibiotic. Optimum analytical results were obtained using a Reprosil ODS -AC18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol (1: 3 v / v) -an aqueous solution of KH2PO4 (0.05M pH = 6.0) (60:40 v/v). The aforementioned chromatography regimes produced satisfactory results for both the UV and the fluorescent detector. Isolation of BC-A, BC-B1, BC-B2 and BC-B3 and BC-F was achieved without decomposition of components in UV detection using Agilent 1260 Infinitu and Spectra Physics Spectra 100 chromatographs at a wavelength of 254 nm. Using pre-columnar derivatization with ortho-phthalic dialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, it was possible to identify the major component of BC-A on a Hitachi 850 chromatograph at concentrations of 5-10 ìg/ml. A 0.1 M solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) in the aqueous part of the mobile phase was selected as a mobile phase modifier to enhance the sensitivity of bacitracin peaks at low concentrations. Based on the conducted studies using HPLC methods, using diode-matrix, UV and fluorescent detectors, the composition of zincbacitracin was analyzed. The possibility of increasing the sensitivity of HPLC analysis when adding an equimolar amount of EDTA to the mobile mobile phase is shown. A method for identifying ZnB using reverse phase HPLC with pre-columnar derivatization with ortho-phthalic dialdehyde was developed to enhance fluorescence.

   
Keywords: antibiotics, zincbacitracin, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mixed fodder.
   
References:
1. Baram, G.I. Novye vozmozhnosti vysokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii v farmakopeynom analize [Novel opportunities for using HPLC method in pharmacopoeia] / G.I.Baram , D.V.Reykhart , Ye.D.Gol'dberg // Byulleten' eksperimental'noy biologii i meditsiny. - 2003. - Vol.135, ¹1. – P.75-79.
2. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu antibiotikov pri vyrashchivanii i otkorme s / kh zhivotnykh [A guideline on using antibiotics at livestock breeding and fattening]: approved by the USSR Ministry of Agriculture in 08.12.1980. – Moscow: Kolos, 1982. – 7 p.
3. MU 3049-84. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po opredeleniyu ostatochnykh kolichestv antibiotikov v produktakh zhivotnovodstva [Methodological guideline on assessment of number of residual antibiotics in animal products]. – Moscow: «Standartinform», 1984. – 24 p.
4. Analytical methodologies for identifying a polypeptide antibiotic. Journal of Trends in Analytical Chemistry / Della Wai-mei Sin, Yiu-chung Wong // Trends in Analytical Chemistry – 2003/ – Vol.22 (11). – P. 799-809.
5. Improvement of chemical analysis of antibiotics. Journal of Chromatography. / Hisao Oka, Masuo Yamada // Chromatography – 1989. – Vol.462. – P. 315-322.
6. Optimization of HLPC method for stability testing of bacitracin. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis / Viljem Pavli, Vojko Kmetec // Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis – 2001. – Vol.24 (10). - P. 977-980.
7. Validation of quantitative HLPC method for bacitracin and zinc bacitracin using EDTA as a mobile-phase modifier. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis /Alan R. Potts, Tatiana Psurek // Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis – 2012. – Vol.70. – P. 619-623.
8. Rapid assay for the determination of zinc bacitracin in feed by liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. Journal Liq. Chrom.& Rel. Technol./ Victor Hormazabal, Magne Yndestad // Journal Liq. Chrom.& Rel. Technol. – 2000. – Vol.21 (7). – P. 1083-1088. 
9.High-performance liquid chromatography determination zinc bacitracin in animal feed by post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. / L.F.Capitan-Vallvey, A.Titos // Chromatography – 2002. – Vol.943. – P. 227-234.

   
   
Title:

UDC 632:937.1.05 FINDING THE MOST EFFICIENT MEANS OF BIOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND FODDER AGAINST ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS MICROMYCETE

   
Authors: 1Idiyatov I.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Gallyamova S.R. – master; 1Valiullin L.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Birulya V.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Kazan Federal University, Russia, Kazan.

   
Abstract:
The article presents the results of investing the antagonistic potential of bacterial saprophytes in natural biotopes against Aspergillus flavus phytopathogen. For this purpose Aspergillus flavus microscopic mold fungi was isolated from fodder, samples were taken from natural biotopes and a pure culture of microorganisms was isolated, antifungal activity of isolates against test micromycete was studied. Using the method of counter cultures in the studies showed that antifungal action against Aspergillus flavus micromycete was established in SB10 and SB15, the width of the inhibition zone was 22.72±0.68 mm and 21.33±0.47 mm, in SB11, SB13, SB20 and SB23 while pathogenic mycelium growth from the seed block was 17.17±0.43 mm, 19.43±0.47 mm, 15.33±0.47 mm and 23.81±0.54 mm, respectively. The efficiency of using agar blocks was shown by the isolates SB12, SB16, SB20 and SB22, their activity was 1.86±0.12, 1.04±0.06, 1.05±0.02, 1.22±0.08. The isolates SB11, SB12 and SB16 showed efficacy when the modified streak method was used, the zone of delay in their growth of the test strain of the fungus was 24.67±0.41mm, 25.17±0.20mm and 18.00±0.00mm, respectively. SB12, SB16, SB20, SB21, SB22 and SB23 were determined using the method of delayed antagonism, the degree of inhibition of micromycete growth was 100%. Thus, the most promising bacterial isolates that showed an antifungal effect against Aspergillus flavus micromycete type fungistatic nutritional activity are SB11 and SB13, antibiotic activity was shown by SB10, SB15 and SB21. High antifungal activity during growth and activity of metabolites were characterized by isolates SB12, SB16, SB20, SB22 and SB23.

   
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, natural biotopes, isolates, antagonism.
   
References:
1. Azizbekyan, R.R. Biologicheskaya zashita rasteniy – ispolzovanie shtammov sporoobrazyushih bacteriy dlya borbi s fitopatogenami gribami v teplicah [Biological protection of plants: using strains of spore-forming bacteria with phytopathogenic fungi in glasshouses] / R.R.Azizbekyan, N.I.Kyznecova, A.I.Kyzin, M.A.Nikolaenko // «Biologicheskaya zashita rasteniy – osnova stabilizacii agroekosistem» - Biological protection of plants is a basics for stabilisation of agroecosystems: proceedings from scientific and practical conference Sept. 20 – 22, 2016. Vol. 9 – Krasnodar, 2016. – P. 202-204.
2. Metodicheskie ukazaniyakzanya k zanyatiyam specpraktiky maporazdely «Mikologiya. Metody experimentalnogo izycheniya mikroskopicheskih gribov» dlya studentov 4 kyrsa dnevnogo otdeleniya specialnosti «G 31 01 01 – Biologiya» [Methodological guidelines for courses in special disciplines “Mycology. Methods of experimental studies of microscopic fungi”for 4th year students in specialty “G31 01 01- Biology”] / authors V.D.Polixenova, A.K.Hramcov, S.G.Piskyn. – BGY, 2004. – 36 p.
3. «Metodicheskie ukazaniya po sanitarno – mikologicheskoy ocenke i ylychsheniu kachestva kormov» ot 25.02.1985 [“Methodic guidelines on sanitation and mycological evaluation and improvement of fodder quality” of 25.02.1985].
4. The State standard requirement 13496.6-71 "Kombikorm. Metody vudeleniya mikroskopicheskich gribov" – [State standard 13496.6-71 “Mixed fodders. Methods of microscopic fungi isolation”]. – Moscow, 2011. – 6 p.
5. Laboratornuy practicum po microbiologii. Ychebno-metodicheskii kompleks [Laboratory practice guideline on microbiology. Academic and methodological complex]. - Minsk.YO«Belorusskii gosudarstvennuy pedagogicheskii universitet imeni Maksima Tanka», 2012. – 129 p.
6. Pestinskaya, T.V. O vzaimootnosheniyah gribov obitauchih v pochve [On interrelation of fungi living in soil] / T.V. Pestinskaya // Botan.zhurnal. - 1958. – Vol. 43, ¹ 9. – P. 1270-1277.
7. Montealegre, J.R. Selection of bioantagonistic bacteria to be used in biological control of Risoctoniasolani in tomato/ J.R. Montealegre, R. Reyes, L.M. Perez et al. // Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. – 2003. – Vol. 6, ¹ 2. – P. 116-127.
8. Egorov, N.S. Vudelenie microbov-antogonistov i biologicheskie metodu ycheta ih antibioticheskoi aktivnosti [Isolation of antogonistic microbes and biological methods of accounting their antibiotic activity]/ N.S.Egorov. – Moscow:Izd-voMGU, 1957. – 78 p. 9. Obuchov, U.I. Metodu ocenki effectivnosti biocidnoi obrabotki tekstilnuh materialov [Methods of efficiency evaluation of biocide-based treatment of textile materials] / U.I.Obuchov, A.V.Razuvaev // Runoklegkoi promashlennosti– 2010. – ¹80.

   
   
Title:

UDC 636.087.72:619:615.9 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FEATURES OF DOLOMITE FLOUR AND ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL AND TOXIC EVALUATION

   
Authors: 1Apostolidi K.Y. – postgraduate student; 1Chehodaridi F.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Aslanov R.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Korchemkin A.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Konyuchova V.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
1Gorsky State Agrarian University, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (e-mail: ggau.vet@mail.ru).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Acute toxicity of dolomite flour from Bosnian deposit in the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania was determined on white rats. The animals with body weight of 180-200 g were divided into groups with six animals in each group. The rats received sorbent orally once using the probe. The first group served as biological control and received distilled water. The second group of rats received drug in the amount of 1500 mg/kg of body weight, third – 3000 mg/kg of body weight, fourth – 5,000 mg/kg of body weight, the fifth – 7000 mg/kg of body weight, the sixth – 1000 mg/kg of body weight, seventh – 15000 mg/kg of body weight, the eighth – 20000 mg/kg of body weight. During the following 14 days animals were observed for their general condition, appearance, motor activity and behavior. Sorbent (dolomite flour) cumulative properties was determined on 10 white rats with body weight of 180-200 g., the drug was administered using a probe. The initial dose was 1/10 of the maximum input doses and every subsequent 4 days the dose was increased for 1.5 times. The irritating and skin-resorptive action of the sorbent (dolomite powder) was determined using 9 rabbits with body weight of 3.0-3.2 kg (3 rabbits for the study of irritation and 6 for the study of skin-resorptive action). During the trial all the animals were in the same conditions of maintenance and feeding. The studies showed that according to all the toxic and physico-chemical parameters dolomite flour can be used as sorbent, as well as for the normalization of mineral metabolism in animals.

   
Keywords: dolomite powder, absorbent, accumulation, toxicity, lead, potassium copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel.
   
References:
1. Sukhina, I.S. Opredeleniyeostroytoksichnostiprepararta “Ranikon” [Determining acute toxicity of “Ronikon” drug] / I.S.Sukhina, V.A.Yermalayev // Aktualniyeproblemyveterinarnoyhirurgii – current problems of veterinary surgery: proceedings from the international scientific conference. – Ulyanovsk: Ulyanovsk state agrarian academy, 2001. – P.302-305.
2. Yermalayev, V.A. Doklinicheskiyeissledovaniyapreparata “ranikon” [Preclinic trials of “Ranikon” drug] / V.A.Yermolayev, I.S.Sukhina // VestnikUlyanovskoygosudarstvennoyselskohozyaystvennoyakademii. – Ulyanovsk. – 2010. – ¹ 1 (11). – P. 93-96.
3. Kalnitsky, B.D. Mineralniyeveschestva v kormleniizhivotnyh [Using mineral substances in animal feeding] / B.D.Kalnitsky// Leningrad: Agropromizdat, 1985. – 207 p.
4. Leontyev, L.B. Primeneniyepreparatafotocorbondlyaprofilaktikinarusheniyaobmenaveschestvirodovyhiposlerodovyhzabolevaniykorov [Using Fotocorbon drug to prevent metabolism disorders, natal and postnatal diseases in cows]: abstract from dissertation for candidate of veterinary medicine. / L.B.Leontyev // – Kazan. – 2000. – 29 p.
5. Ismailova, A.F. Antitoksicheskiyesvoystvanovogoproizvodnogoperimedina [Antitoxic features of novel perimidin derivative] / À.F.Ismailova, I.R.Kintetova, E.N.Skovorodin // Veterinariya. – 2006. – Vol. 9. – P. 43-45.
6. Korotkov, A.V. Otsenkarazdrazhayuschih I allergiruyuschihsvoystvspirtovogorastvorahlorofilipta in vivo i in vitro nakrolikah. Yegoantimikrobnayaaktivnostnanekotoruyupatogennuyumikroflory [Evaluation of irritating and allergic features of chlorophyllide alcohol solution in vivo and in vitro on rabbits. Its antimicrobial activity on some pathogen microflora] / À.V.Korotkov, E.K.Papunidi // IzvestiyaGoskogoGAU . – Vol.50, Part 2. – 2013. – P. 165-169.
7. Belov, À.Å. Mestno-razdrazhayuschiyesvoystva 9-ODK [Local irritating features of 9-ODK] / À.Å.Belov, A.F.Ismailov, G.Yu.Ishmuratov // Sovremenniyeproblemyveterinarnoyfarmakologii I toksikologii – Current problems of veterinary pharmacology and toxicology: proceedings from the 2nd meeting of Russian pharmacologists and toxicologists. – Kazan: FCTRBS-ARRVI, 2009. – P.209-211.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

UDC 619:616.98:578.833.31 AFRICAN SWINE FEVER: CURRENTSTATE, EPIZOOTOLOGICALFEATURES, AND PROSPECTS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL (REVIEW)

   
Authors: Gruzdev K.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Zakutsky N.I. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Diev V.I. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Governmental State –Financed Institution «Federal Centre for Animal Healhs», Vladimir (FGBI «ARRIAH) (e-mail: gruzdev@arriah.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article presents information on space-time features Epizootic situation in the world on African swine fever (ASF) over the past 15 years, an analysis of the main causes and factors contributing to the emergence and spread of ASF, describes the activities necessary to prevent the introduction and spread of infection in safe territorial zones, as well as measures to eliminate this Disease on the example of a specific region of Russia. The methods of systematic review of primary publications of original works, the results of their own research were used in the work. Qualitative and quantitative meta-analysis was used for statistical generalization of data. Evidence is obtained from databases (ProMed, WAHID), data from the Rosselkhoznadzor and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, IAC FGBU "VNIIZH". The nosoareal of ASF is shown in the historical aspect at the present stage of panzooticism, the danger of unpredictable drift to various regions of Russia and other countries of the world, the role of natural and socio-economic factors, and a number of measures to stabilize the epizootic situation of ASF in the Russian Federation (RF). African swine fever poses a serious threat to pig production. The emergence of the twenty-first century. ASF in Georgia, a significant expansion of the spread of the disease confirms the ability of the virus to spread rapidly over long distances. To successfully combat ASF in the Russian Federation, it is necessary to consolidate the work of various departments and comply with veterinary and sanitary requirements.

   
Keywords: African swine fever, swine, boars, outbreaks, foci, mites, warthogs, prevention.
   
References:
1. Biologicheskiye svoystva virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney, vydelennogo v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Biological properties of the virus of the African swine fever isolated in the Russian Federation] / V.M.Balyshev [et al.] // Veterinary. – 2010. – ¹7. – P. 25-27.
2. Vyavleniye virusa AChS v produktah, prigotovlennyh iz svininy [Detection of the ASF virus in products prepared from pork] / D.V.Kolbasov [et al.] // Veterinary Medicine. – 2011. – ¹10. – P. 54-563.
3. Gazayev, I.Kh. Sovershenstvovaniye metodov indikatsii genoma virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney v obyektah veterinarnogo nadzora [Perfection of methods of indications of the genome of the virus of African swine fever in the objects of veterinary surveillance]: dissertation for Cand. of Biol. Sciences: 03.02.02 / Gazaev Ismail Khizirovich. – Pokrov, 2011. – 130 l.
4. Likvidatsiya afrikanskoy chumy sviney v Respubliike Abhaziya [Elimination of African swine fever in the Republic of Abkhazia] / V.N.Gerasimov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2008. – ¹ 3. – P. 19-21.
5. Eksperimentalnaya otsenka kontsentrirovannoy liofilizirovannoy vaktsiny protiv AchS iz shtamma MK– 200 III serotipa [Experimental evaluation of a concentrated lyophilized vaccine against ASF from strain MK– 200 of the 3rd serotype] / S.V.Istomin, S.V.Mihalaychuk, S.G.Yurkov, A.L.Seminihin // Theses reports from the scientific conference All– Russian Research Institiute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology. – Pokrov, 1986. – Part 1. – P.301-304.
6. Kovalenko, Ya.R. Afrikanskaya chuma sviney [African swine fever] / Ya.R.Kovalenko, M.A.Sidorov, L.G.Burba. – Moscow: Kolos. – 1972. – 199 p.
7. Kurinnov, V.V. Diagnosticheskiya I monitoringoviye issledovaniya pri vspyshkah afrikanskoy chumy sviney v republikah Kavkaza v 2007– 2008 gg [Diagnostic and monitoring studies in outbreaks of African swine fever in the republics of the North Caucasus in 2007– 2008] / V.V.Kurinnov // Infektsionnaya patologiya zhivotnyh– Infectious pathology of animals: proceedings from the Intern. Scientific-practical conference / FGU ARIIH. – Vladimir, 2009. – P. 63-70.
8. Kurinnov, V.V.Diagnostika i monitoring pri vspyshkah afrikaskoy chumy sviney v respublikah Severnogo Kavkaza v 2007– 2008gg [Diagnosis and monitoring during outbreaks of African swine fever in the Caucasus republics in 2007– 2008] / V.V.Kunnov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2008. – ¹10. – P. 20-25.
9. Makarov, V.V. Afrikanskaya chuma sviney: monografiya [African swine fever: manuscript] / V.V.Makarov. – Moscow: Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 2011. – 268 p.
10. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po retrospektivnomu analizu epizooticheskoy situatsii [Methodical instructions on the retrospective analysis of an epizootic situation] / Î.N.Petrova, N.S.Bardina, E.E.Erastova. – Vladimir: FBU "VNIIZH", 2011. – 56 p.
11. Prognoz po afrikanskoy chume sviney v Rossiyskoy Federatsii na 2016 god [Forecast on African swine fever in the Russian Federation for 2016] / O.N.Petrova [et al.]. – Vladimir: FGBU "VNIIZH", 2016. – 32 p.
12. African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease / E.C.Anderson, G.H.Hutchings, N.Mukarati, P.J.Wilkinson // Veterinary Microbiology. – 1998. – Vol. 62. – Ð. 1-15.
13. Estimating the Basic Reproductive Number (R0) for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) Transmission between Pig Herds in Uganda / M.B.Barongo [et al.] // PLoS ONE. – 2015. – ¹ 10 (5). 
14. Co-circulation of two genetically distinct viruses in an outbreak of African swine fever in Mozambique: no evidence for individual infection / A.D.S.Bastos [et al.] // Veterinary Microbiology. – 2004. – Vol. 103. – Ð. 169-182.
15. Phenotype-based identification of host genes required for replication of African swine fever virus / A.C.Y.Chang [et al.] // Journal of Virology. – 2006. – Vol. 80. – Ð. 8705-8717.
16. African swine fever virus proteins involved in evading host defence systems / L.K.Dixon [et al.] // Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology. – 2004. – Vol. 100. – Ð. 117–134. 
17. Lyra, T.M.P. La erradicacion de la peste porcina africana en el Brasil, 1978-1984 / T.M.P.Lyra // Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. – 2006. – Vol. 25. – Ð. 93-103.
18. Mellor, P.S. Mechanical transmission of capripox virus and African swine fever virus by Stomoxys calcitrans / P.S.Mellor, R.P.Kitching, P.J.Wilkinson // Research in Veterinary Science. – 1987. – Vol. 43. – Ð. 109-112.
19. Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions / R.J.Nix [et al.] // Archives of Virology. – 2006. – Vol. 151. – Ð. 2475-2494. 
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21. Penrith, M-L. African swine fever / M-L.Penrith, G.R.Thomson, A.D.S.Bastos // J.A.W.Coetzer; edited by R.C.Tustin. Infectious diseases of livestock. Vol. 2. – 2-nd edition. – Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 2004. – Ð.1087-1119. 
22. African swine fever virus transmission cycles in Central Europe: Evaluation of wild boar-soft tick contacts through detection of antibodies against Ornithodoros erraticus saliva antigen / J.Pietschmann [et al.] // Veterinary Research. – 2016. – Vol. 12. – Ð. 1. DOI 10.1186/s12917-015-0629-9.
23. The African swine fever virus isolate introduced to Georgia 2007 is closely related to isolates from genotype II circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar and Zambia / R.J.Rowlands [et al.] // Emerging Infectious Diseases. – 2008. – Vol. 14 http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/12/1870.htm#cit (accessed 4 December 2008). 
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27. Wambura, P.N. Molecular epidemiology and diagnosis of African swine fever outbreaks in Tanzania / P.N.Wambura, J.Masambu, H.Msami // Veterinary Research Communications. – 2006. – Vol. 30. – Ð. 667-672.
28. Transmission studies with African swine fever virus. Infection of pigs by airborne virus / P.J.Wilkinson, A.I.Donaldson, A.Greig, W.Bruce // Journal of Comparative Pathology. – 1977. – Vol. 87. – Ð. 487-495.

   
   
Title:

UDC 619:618.7:636.2 THE STUDY OF ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS AT POSTNATAL ENDOMETRITISES IN COWS

   
Authors: Yusupov S.R. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Darmenova A.G. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: albina-uralsk@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Unbalanced ratio, including deficiency of carotene, disturbance of albuminous and mineral exchange, acid-base balance in animal body and lack of regular activity are one of the significant factors causing labors and the postpartum pathologies in cows (retention of afterbirth, puerperal endometritis). During autumn and spring months the blood serum sampled from the animal reference group showed deficiency of carotene, calcium, phosphorus and a lower level of alkalinity reserve. The biochemical analyses of blood serum showed that during the spring month carotene content was lower for 33.3% than that of the autumn period, inorganic phosphorus – 7.2%, calcium – 6.1% accordingly. Myometrium dysfunction during delivery and puerperal period are often caused by the lack of pasturing and outdoor runs. Dysfunction of uterine inertia can cause an immediate spread of obstetric and gynecologic diseases in cows. The bacteriological studies of uterine contents sampled from the cows with puerperal endometritis registered opportunistic microorganisms, ñolibacillus bacteria and single colonies of pathogenic Candida fungi. The antibiotics more specific to this group of microorganisms were selected. Bacterial contamination of uterine cavity with pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms entering uterus during the weakening of a body , violation of asepsis and antiseptics rules promote development of puerperal endometritis in cows. The study of the main and contributing factors promoting development of puerperal pathology in cows gives the opportunity for duly application of treatment and prevention measures in livestock enterprises.

   
Keywords: Pasturing, carotene, uterine contents, blood serum, endometritis, antibiotics.
   
References:
1. Griga, O.E. Factory, sposobstvuyushievoznicnoveniyugnoino-kataralnogoendometrita [The factors promoting emergence it is purulent - a catarrhal endometritis] / O.E.Griga, E.N.Griga, S.E.Bozhekov//Veterinarnayapathologya. – 2013. – Vol. 2(44). – P. 12-18.
2. Pankov, B.G. Profilaktikaalimentarnyx form akushersko-ginekologicheskixzabolevanyi [Prophylaxis of alimentary forms of obstetric and gynecologic diseases] / B.G.Pankov // Veterinary konsultant. – 2001. – Vol. 16. – P. 10 – 11.
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9. Hazipov, N. Z.Biokhimiyazhivotnyx s osnovamyfizioloidnoikhimii [Animal biochemistry with basics of physical and colloid chemistry] / N.Z.Hazipov, A.N.Askarova, R.P.Tyurikova. – Moscow: Colossus, 2001. – 328 p.
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  Parasitology
   
Title:

UDC 619:616-002.95(571.15) SOME ASPECTS OF THE EPIDEMIC AND EPIZOOTIC SITUATION OF TRICHINELOSIS IN NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

   
Authors: 1Bonina O.M. – Candidate of Biological Science; 1Efremova E.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Science; 2Udaltsov E.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Science.
   
Address:
1Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science of Siberia and Far East, Siberian Federal Scientific Centre of Agro-Biotechnologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoobsk (e-mail: alfa_parazit@mail.ru).

2Novosibirsk State Technical University, NSTU, Novosibirsk (e-mail: ugodnic@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the work is to study some aspects of the epidemic and epizootic situation of trichinelosis in the Novosibirsk region. Materials for research were data on the incidence of people (in absolute terms and per 100 thousand population) from 2001 to 2015, obtained in the Office of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in the Novosibirsk Region. The materials of the State reports "On the sanitary-epidemiological situation and compliance with the legislation in the field of consumer rights protection and human well-being in the Novosibirsk region" for 2007-2015 were analyzed. The standard statistical data processing was using computer program called Microsoft Excel. It was revealed that trichinosis was registered almost every year in the Novosibirsk region over the last 15 years. The incidence rate of the population ranged from 0.04 to 1.93 and averaged 0.39 per 100000 population. The average annual rate of decline in the incidence rate during the studied period was 4.5%. The dynamics of the manifestation of the disease in the city of Novosibirsk and in the whole region is very similar. This disease is registered in 15 administrative districts of the region from 30. Distribution of trichinelosis in the region is uneven. Outbreaks of trichinelosis were most often detected in the Suzun, Novosibirsk and Kochkovsky districts. The maximum number of cases per one outbreak (26 people, or 159.5 per 100000) was noted in the Kochkovo region. In 65.1% of cases, the cause of infection was the consumption of pork, almost 2 times less often – 30.3% – meat of wild animals and dogs, in 2 cases (4.65%) – the cause was not identified. Among wild animals in the Novosibirsk region, the most dangerous for trichinella was the badger (18.6% of cases). In most cases, infection of people with trichinelosis occurred when meat and meat products of local origin were used (43 cases), and only 5 cases of invasion were imported. According to the veterinary and sanitary examination for 2007 – 2015 in markets, meat-packing plants, slaughter houses and personal farmsteads of citizens in the Novosibirsk region, trichinella larvae were found in 67 carcasses of pigs, 5 carcasses of badgers and one carcass of wild boar. In one case, the source of trichinosis invasion is not established.

   
Keywords: trichinelosis, epidemic and epizootic situation, sources of trichinelosis invasion
   
References:
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Title:

UDC 619:616.9-036.22:619:616.993.192.6 EPIZOOTIC SITUATION OF CATTLE PIROPLASMOSES IN TEREK-SULAK LOWLAND AREA, DAGHESTAN

   
Authors: 1Gazimagomedov M.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 1Kabardiev S.Sh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 1Zubairova M.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1Abdulmagomedov S.Sn. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Bittirov A.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1Machieva B.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Bittirova A.A. – postgraduate; 2Chilayev A.S. – external postgraduate student; 2Dikaev S.-Kh. – external postgraduate student; 2Badiev I.R. – external postgraduate student.
   
Address:
1Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru).

2V.M.Kokov's Kabardino-Balkarian state agrarian university, Nalchik (e-mail: bam_58a@mail.ru; kbgsha@ rambler. ru).

   
Abstract:
Piroplasmoses is dominant among cattle piroplasmoses and is transmitted by B.annulatus ticks. The incidence of cattle piroplasmoses in Terek-Sulak Lowland area reaches 15-18%. Cattle piroplasmoses always occur in an acute form during three enzootic outbreak periods in April-May, July, September. On the territory of the Terek-Sulak Lowland of 22 isolated tick species two ticks were identified as Ixodes genus, six - Hyalomma, three - Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus , five - Haemophysalis, one - Boophilus. The main transmitters of theileriosis are Hyalommaanatolicum, H.detritum, H.scupense (in winter) tick species. On cattle body the highest number of B.annulatus, H.detritum, H.anatolicum, R.bursa, H.punctata ticks was registered in July, August, September: 550-760 ticks. In Terek-Sulak Lowlands H.anatolicum, H.scupense, B.annulatus, D.marginatus, H.punctata, R.bursa species dominate in ixodids fauna. Ticks are active in habitats until mid-April to late October, when the temperature + 14+ 16°C. B.annulatus has the highest number from July to September, Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Haemophysalis species has the highest number in July and August. Cattle piroplasmoses outbreaks are annually registered on the territory of the Terek-Sulak Lowland from early spring to late autumn, depending on ticks activity. In Terek-Sulak Lowland cattle piroplasmosis develops in tricrotic scheme with the largest number of infected animals registered in the summer - 46.3% of cases.

   
Keywords: Dagestan, Terek-Sulak Lowland, ticks, piroplasmoses, type, number, pastures, epizootology
   
References:
1. Parazitologia i invazionnye bolezni sel'skohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Parasitology and invasive diseases of agricultural animals] / K.I.Abuladze [et al.]. – Moskow: Agropromizdat, 1990. – 464 p.
2. Abdulmagomedov, S.SH.. Rezul'taty ispytaniya nekotoryh himioterapevticheskih preparatov pri tejlerioze krupnogo rogatogo skota [The test results of certain chemotherapeutic drugs at cattle teleiose] / S.SH.Abdulmagomedov, S.S.Kabardiev, A.A.Rashidov // Vestnik of Veterinarii – Journal of Veterinary Medicine. – 2002, ¹ 5/3. – P. 43.
3. Abdulmagomedov, S.Sh. Kroveparazitarnye bolezni krupnogo rogatogo skota gornoj zony Dagestana [Cattle blood and parasite diseases highland area of Dagestan]/S.Sh.Abdulmagomedov [et al.] // «Problemy veterinarnoj mediciny v usloviyah reformirovaniya sel'skohozyajstvennogo proizvodstva» - «Problems of veterinary medicine at reforming agricultural production». - Proceedings from the International scientitfic and practical conference dedicated to the 45th Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute. – Mahachkala. 2012. – P. – 184-186.
4. Abdulmagomedov S. Sh., Kabardiev S.Sh.Kroveparazitarnye bolezni krupnogo rogatogo skota gornoj zony Dagestana [Blood protozoan diseases in cattle of the mountain zone of Dagestan] / S.Sh.Abdulmagomedov, S.Sh.Kabardiev // «Problemy veterinarnoj mediciny v usloviyah reformirovaniya sel'skohozyajstvennogo proizvodstva» – «Problems of veterinary medicine at reforming agricultural production». - Proceedings from the International scientitfic and practical conference dedicated to the 45th Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute. – Mahachkala. 2012. – P. – 168-171.
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9. Pamerancev, B.I. Fauna SSSR. Paukoobrazniye. T.4, vypusk 2. Iksodovie kleshchi (Ixodidea) fauny SSSR, paukoobraznye [The USSR fauna. Vol.4, issue 2.Arachnids. Ixodic ticks (Ixodidea) fauna in the USSR] / B.I.Pomerantsev. – Moscow: Printed by the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1950. – 224p.
10. Lechenie piroplazmidozov krupnogo rogatogo skota v usloviyah Dagestana [Treatment of cattle piroplasmosis in Dagestan] / Ursilov D.T.M. [et al.] // Sbornik nauchnyh trudov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvyashchennoj 70-letiyu Pobedy i 40-letiyu inzhenernogo fakul'teta. Dagestanskij gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet imeni M.M. Dzhambulatova – Collection of scientific works of International scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Victory and the 40th anniversary of the faculty of engineering. – Mahachkala: Dagestan state agrarian University named after M.M.Dzhambulatova, 2015. – P. 95-97.

  Zootechny
   
Title:

UDC 636.033:636.087.72 THE MEAT PRODUCTIVITY AND MEAT QUALITY OF YOUNG CATTLE AT USING MINERAL ADDITIVES IN THEIR RATIONS

   
Authors: Volostnova A.N. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; Yakimov A.V. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; Salakhov V.V. – Research Associates.
   
Address:
Research Center of Feed Additives, Kazan (e-mail: centrkd@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the research was to study the use of mineral additives in the fattening of young cattle and its effect on meat production and meat quality. The control slaughter confirmed that the use of the mineral supplement "Stimul+" made it possible to obtain more heavy carcasses. The average weight of the paired carcass in the second test group was greater than in the control group by 9.39% (P<0.05). The best indicators of the morphological composition of the carcasses were also possessed by the bulls of the second experimental group.According to the content of flesh in the carcass, the bulls of the second test group outperformed the steers of the control group by 10.33% and its yield by 0.59%.The more complete was the meat of the bulls of the second experimental group, who received the mineral supplement "Stimul+". In the average test of meat from the second group of bulls, compared to the control one, there was more dry matter by 1.05%, protein by 0.57% and fat by 0.44%. The increase in the energy value of the meat of the bulls of the second test group by 0.27 MJ relative to the control group is due to an increase in protein and fat content. The results of studies on the ratio of tryptophan and hydroxyproline in the longest muscle of the back of the bull-calves evidence that the meat of the bull-calves of the second experimental group who received the mineral supplement "Stimul+" in comparison with the control analogs was biologically more complete. Greater moisture holding capacity and lesser weldability characterized the longest muscle of the back of the bulls of the second experimental group, so the culinary and technological indicator increased by 0.05 units. This gives reason to recommend the supplement "Stimulus+" for increasing the mineral nutrition of young cattle during the fattening period, increasing their meat production and improving the quality of meat.

   
Keywords: cattle, feed additives, meat productivity, meat quality
   
References:
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Title:

UDC 636.082.265 INFLUENCE OF DUROC STUD BOAR ON REPRODUCTIVE FEATURES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MILK IN BRED AND MONGREL SOWS

   
Authors: Kabirov G.F. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Iskandarov R.Ch. – postgraduate; Rakhmatov L.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: iskandar116@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of boars the producers of Duroc breed on reproductive qualities and chemical composition of milk in Large White sows and their hybrids large white?landras in Pashkov S.I. Agricultural farm. For the experiment 2 groups of sows of different breed, age, and body weight were formed. The animals were fed and maintained in conditions common to all the rest sows in the farm. Lactating sows and wining piglets were maintained in individual pens during 30 days after farrowing. Milk was taken at 5 days of lactational period by a short-term suckling of saw udder udder by a piglet without introduction of Oxytacin. Chemical composition of milk samples was studied using Clover-2M equipment, in laboratory of the department of Technology of Livestock Breeding in Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine [4.6]. The data obtained as a result of a research are processed biometrically with use of a package of the Microsoft Excel programs for personal computers. The duroc breed boar number 141433 by the time of the research was at peak of his biological opportunities. Of 332 inseminations only 4% failed and resulted in saws regular and not regular hunting and repeated insemination. All results of crossing with the duroc boar No. 141433 showed higher results comparing to that of the average values from the herd. The multiple pregnancy of purebred sows the boar No.141433 was higher than that of the average values in herd for 2.4 animals, in mixed bred sows for 1.27 animals. By the weaning period the survival rate was higher in White Large pigs for 2.4 animals, in hybrids of large white?landras survival rate was 1.93 animals. Parameters of chemical composition of milk had pedigree distinctions. Purebred sows had more fat milk (7.87%) with lower protein content (3.98%), lactose (5.89%) and salts of milk (0.93%). In mongrel sows the parameters of protein and fat were 6.75% and 6.35%, and content of lactose and milk salts was higher for 50% than that of the large white breed. The studies showed that duroc breed boar No.141433 at two pedigree crossing indexes of reproductive qualities are higher than at three pedigree crossings, and their milk is fatter and has less protein. In mixed breed sows milk indexes of fat and protein were within 6%, and lactoses and salts were higher for 50% in purebred sows.

   
Keywords: durok, large white, hybrids, fat, protein, lactose, milk salts
   
References:
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4. Kabirov, G.F. Ispolzovaniye biologicheskih vozmozhnostey svinomatok pri vyraschivanii porosyat [Use of biological resources of sows at piglets farming] / G.F.Kabirov, M.A. Sushentsova, L.A. Rakhmatov // Ucheniye zapiski KGAVM. – 2012. – Vol. 209. – P. 147-151.
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Title:

UDC 636.087.72:636.082:636.592 THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS "TSEOSTIMUL" ON THE EFFICIENCY OF GROWING TURKEYS

   
Authors: Aimetov. R.V. – postgraduate studente.
   
Address:
N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: ai.ru92@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Control over chicken physiological status and performance, prediction of poultry productivity are of special importance in large poultry industrial farms. The purpose of research was to study the effect of different doses of "Tseostimul" mineral supplement on turkey physiological status, meat productivity and determine economic efficiency of using mineral additives. The scientific and economic experiment was conducted in JSC «Agriciltural farm «Zalesny» in Zelenodolsk, the Republic of Tatarstan, using turkeys of «Hybrid Converter» cross. Four groups of female turkeys was formed with 40 animals in each group. The first group was a control group and received a basic diet. Additionally to the basic diet they also received “Tseostimul” mineral supplement at a dose of 10 g/kg mixed feed. The second and third test group received 30g/kg and 50 g/kg of mineral supplements. Researches showed that the introduction of the “Tseostimul” supplement had a positive impact on the increase in daily gains of body weight in turkeys. By the end of the experiment body weight of the experimental animals was higher than that of the controls for 205g (p?0,05) in the first experimental group, for 765 g (p?0,001) in the second test group, and for 730g (p?0,001) in the third test group or 2.3%, 8.7% and 8.4% respectively. Weight of internal organs was significantly higher in the experimental groups, spleen weight higher than that of the controls for 0.3g, 0.6g and 0.5g in the first experimental group, the second and the third groups respectively. The economic efficacy 1 ruble of additional costs was 2.6 rubles in the first experimental group, 3.7 rubles in the second experimental group, and 1.6 rubles in the third experimental group.

   
Keywords: feeding, turkeys, body weight, safety, meat productivity, slaughter yield, weight of internal organs
   
References:
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