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Ή 4, 2017

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  Toxicology
   
Title:

NORMOTROPHIN EFFECT ON MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF BURSA OF FABRICIUS IN TURKEYS

   
Authors: Shchukareva E.A. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: Elensare@yandex.com).

   
Abstract:
The work was carried out on industrial poultry breeding farm. The results of the morphometric parameters of  bursa of Fabricius in turkeys in the age aspect are described for normal development and with the use of Normotrophin drug. The object of the study was a clinically healthy turkey chicken of meat hybrid-converter cross breed. The experimental turkey chicken were intramuscularly injected with Normotrophin drug in dose of 0.2 ml /animal three times: at 1, 3, and 7 days. According to the results of the research, the length and width of bursa of Fabricius had the lowest values in the first day of life, then it increased evenly both in the control group and in the experimental group. In turkeys the maximum values of the linear indicators of bursa of Fabricius in both groups were recorded on the 90th day of life, after which a tendency to decrease was registered. The absolute mass of  bursa of Fabricius was larger in the animals receiving the drug since the 7th day of life until the end of the experiment. In turkeys the highest values of weight parameters of bursa Fabricius  reached at 90 days of development and was 4.76 g in the control group and  6.19 g at P≤0.05 in the experimental, respectively. At 120 days the organ weight decreased by 0.74 g in the experimental group and by 0.99 g in the control counterparts, which indicates the onset of involution of bursa of Fabricius. The use of Normotrophin in turkeys in the first days of life allows to stimulate the dynamics of the development of the factory bag, which is confirmed by a comparative analysis of the results.

   
Keywords: turkey, Normotrophin, bursa of Fabricius, development, weight.
   
References:
1. Direktiva 2010/63/eu evropeyskogo parlamenta i soveta evropeyskogo soyuza po ohrane zhivotnyh, ispol'zuemyh v nauchnyh celyah [The directive of European Parliament and European Union on Animal Health of experimental animals]. – Saint Petersburg, 2012. – 48 p.
2. Konopatov, Yu. V. Osnovy immuniteta i kormleniya sel'skohozyaystvennoy pticy [The basics of immunity and feeding of poultry birds] / YU.V.Konopatov, E.E.Makeeva. – Saint Petersburg: «Petrolazer», 2000. – 204 p.
3. Krivutenko, A.I. Morfologicheskoe formirovanie organov immunnoy sistemy indeek v vozrastnom aspekte [Morphological development of organs of immune system in turkeys with age aspect] / A.I.Krivutenko // Collection of articles from Odessa state agrarian institute. – Odessa, 1984. – P. 30–36.
4. Kuznik, B.I. Immunogenez, gemostaz i nespecificheskaya rezistentnost' organizma [Body immunogenicity, homeostasis, and nonspecific resistance] / B.I.Kuznik, N.V.Vasil'ev, N.N.Cybikov. – Moscow: Medicina, 1989. – 320 p.
5. Lyapustina, T.A. Rezul'taty izucheniya stimuliruyushhego deystviya preparatov eleuterokokka na produktivnost' kur i cyplyat [Trial of eleuterococci-based drug effect on production rate in hens and chicken] / T.A.Lyapustina // Primenenie biostimulyatorov v zhivotnovodstve i izuchenie mekhanizma ih deystviya. – Moscow – Borovsk, 1972. – P. 122–124. 
6. Medethanov, F.A. Farmako-toksicheskie svoystva rastitel'nogo preparata Normotrofin i ego primenenie v veterinarii [Pharmacological and toxicological features of Normotrophin herbal drug and its veterinary use]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Doctor of Biology / F.A.Medethanov. – Kazan': FGBOU VPO KGAVM, 2014. – 47 p.
7. Medethanov, F.A. Vliyanie preparata «Normotrofin» na pokazateli rosta i razvitiya cyplyat krossa «Hayseks Braun» [The effect of Normotrofin drug on performance of chicken of Highsex Brown cross]/ F.A.Medethanov // Vestnik veterinarii. – 2011. – Ή 4 (59). –P. 142–143.
8. Mullakaeva, L.A. Sostoyanie i puti povysheniya estestvennoy rezistentnosti kur v promyshlennom pticevodstve [The state and ways of increasing natural resistance in industrial poulry-breeding]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of Veterinary Medicine / L.A.Mullakaeva. – Kazan', 1991. – 24 p.
9. Papunidi, K.H. Vliyanie «Normotrofina» na soderzhanie tyazhelyh metallov v organah i tkanyah cyplyat-broylerov myasnogo krossa [The effect of Normotrofin drug on content of heavy metals in organs and tissues of broiler chicken of meat cross] / K.H.Papunidi, F.A.Medethanov, E.K.Papunidi // Aktual'nye voprosy veterinarnoy farmakologii, toksikologii i Farmacii – Current issues of veterinary pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacy: proceedings from IV meeting of veterinary pharmacologists and toxicologists of russia. – Moscow, 2013. – P. 449–452. 
10. Yudichev, Yu.F. Sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya morfologii domashnih ptic [State of the art and prospects of morphological development of poultry birds] / Yu.F.Yudichev // Zonal'naya nauch. konf., posvyashh. 90-letiyu so dnya rozhd. N.I.Akaevskogo – Areal scientific conference dedicated to 90th jubilee of N.I. Akaevsky. – CHelyabinsk: Troic. vet. in-t, 1990. – P. 8–10.
11. Glick, B. The bursa of Fabricius: ΰ central issue / B.Glick // Bioscience. – 1970. – Vol. 20, Ή 20. – P. 602−604.
12. Khenenou, T. Morpho-histological study of the bursa of fabricius of broiler chickens during post-hashing age / T.Khenenou, M.Melizi, H.Benzaoui // International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation. – 2012. – Ή 6. – P. 12–13.
   
   
Title:

APPLICATION OF T-2 TOXIN CONJUGATE WITH POLYLYSINE FOR DETECTION OF T-2 TOXIN USING COMPETITIVE ELISA

   
Authors: Mishina N.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Semenov E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to test the possibility of using a toxin-T-2 conjugate with polylysine to detect a T-2 toxin using ELISA. T-2 toxin conjugates with high-molecular carriers - bovine serum albumin and polylysine - were synthesized. Rabbits were immunized in the same way, the plates was sensitized and the ELISA was performed under the same conditions for the both conjugates. The studies showed that T-2 toxin conjugate with polylysine under the experimental conditions cannot be used as a sensitizing antigen in plates. The conjugate of T-2 toxin with polylysine has a high immunogenicity and can be used to obtain specific polyclonal antibodies against T-2 toxin. The comparative studies of T-2 toxin conjugate with polylysine and T-2 toxin with bovine serum albumin under the same experimental conditions showed that T-2 toxin conjugate with polylysine has higher immunogenicity (titer 1: 500,000). Using ELISA with specific serum performance and sensitivity rate were higher than that of the specific serum to T-2 toxin with BSA. Immunization of toxin-T-2 conjugate with polylysine does not require additional purification of specific serum.

   
Keywords: T-2 toxin, polylysine, ELISA.
   
References:
1. Tutel'yan, V.A. Mikotoksiny (medicinskie i biologicheskie aspekty) [Mycotoxins (medical and biological aspects) / V.A.Tutel'yan, L.V.Kravchenko. – Moscow: Medicina, 1985. – 320 p.
2. Smirnov, V.V. Mikotoksiny: fundamental'nye i prikladnye aspekty [Mycotoxins: fundamental and aapplied aspects] / V.V.Smirnov, A.M.Zajchenko, I.G.Rubezhnyak // Sovremennye problemy toksikologii. – 2000. – Ή 1. – P. 10–17.
3. Mikotoksikozy zhivotnyh (ehtiologiya, diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika)[Animal mycotoxicoses (etiology, diagnostics, treatment, and prevention)] / A.V.Ivanov, M.YA.Tremasov, K.H.Papunidi, A.K.Chulkov. – Moscow: Kolos, 2008. – 140 p.
4. Mikotoksikozy (biologicheskie i veterinarnye aspekty) [Mycotoxins (medical and biological aspects) ] / A.V.Ivanov, V.I. Fisinin, M.YA.Tremasov, K.H.Papunidi. – Moscow: Kolos, 2010. – 392p.
5. Problema mikotoksikozov zhivotnyh [The problem of animal mycotoxicoses]/ M.Ya.Tremasov, A.V.Ivanov, K.H.Papunidi, E.I.Semyonov // Veterinarnyj vrach. – 2010. – Ή 5. – P. 16–19.
6. Voennaya toksikologiya [Military toxicology] / N.A.Loshadkin, B.A.Kurlyanskij, G.V.Bezhenar', L.V.Dar'ina; pod red. B.A.Kurlyanskogo. –  Moscow: Medicina, 2006. – 208 p.
7. Zajchenko, A.M. Makrociklicheskie trihotecinovye mikotoksiny: producenty, rasprostranenie, opredelenie, fiziologiya toksinoobrazovaniya, toksigennyj potencial [Macroclinical trychocetinic mycotoxins: products, spread, identification,  toxin formation physiology, toxinogenic potential]/ A.M.Zajchenko, I.G.Rubezhnyak, O.P.Kobzistaya // Sovremennye problemy toksikologii. – 2001. – Ή 2. –P. 11–14.
8. Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins on cultivated forage grasses / T.Yu.Gagkaeva, O.P.Gavrilova, A.A.Burkin, G.P.Kononenko / Fusarium: pathogenicity, mycotoxins, taxonomy, genomics, biosynthesis, metabolomics, resistance, disease control. Bookofabstracts: 13th European fusarium seminar. –  Moscow, 2015. P. 149.
9. Teoriya i praktika immunofermentnogo analiza [Theory and practice of ELISA method]/ A.M.Egorov, A.P.Osipov, B.B.Dzantiev, E.M.Gavrilov. – Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 1991. – 288 p.
10. Belyaeva, L.L., Indikaciya mikotoksinov metodom IFA [detection of mycotoxins using ELISA method] / L.L.Belyaeva, M.YA.Tremasov // Veterinariya. – 1995. – Ή 1. – P. 26.
11. Obnaruzhenie mikotoksina T-2 razlichnymi variantami tverdofaznogo immunofermentnogo analiza / [Detection of T-2 toxin using various versions of ELISA method] A.A.Kytmanov [et al.] // Laboratornaya diagnostika. – 2009. – Ή 3. – P. 27–29.
12. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po obnaruzheniyu T-2 toksina v ob"ektah vetnadzora metodom IFA: utv. GUV SSSR 27.03.1991 [Methodology guidelines on T-2 toxin detection in veterinary facilities using ELISA method: approved by the USSR Chief Veterinary Administration of 27.03.1991] / L.L.Belyaeva, K.H.Papunidi, M.Ya.Tremasov, P.K.Smetov. – Moscow, 1991. – 7 p. 
13. Immunofermentnyj metod opredeleniya T-2 toksina v kontaminirovannom zerne [ELISA-based detection ofmycotoxins in contaminated grain]/ G.P.Kononenko, A.A.Burkin, N.A.Sobolev, E.V.Zotov // Prikladnaya biohimiya i mikrobiologiya. – 1999. – Vol. 35, Ή4. – P. 457–462. 
14. Urusov, A.E. Immunohimicheskie metody analiza mikotoksinov (obzor) [Immunochemical amethods of mycotoxins analyses (a review)]/ A.E.Urusov, A.V.Zherdev, B.B.Dzantiev // Prikladnaya biohimiya i mikrobiologiya. – 2010. – Vol. 46, Ή 8. – P. 276–290. 
15. Sergejchev, A.I. Obespechenie standartnymi obrazcami laboratorij po indikacii mikotoksinov [providing laboratories with standard samples for identification of mycotoxins] / A.I.Sergejchev // Nauchnye osnovy obespecheniya zashchity zhivotnyh ot ehkotoksikantov, radionuklidov i vozbuditelej opasnyh infekcionnyh zabolevanij – scientific basics of providing animal health from mycotoxins, radionuclides, and agents of dangerous contagious diseases: proceedings from the Int. symposium, Kazan', 28-30 Nov., 2005. Part 1. – Kazan', 2005. – P. 240–243.
16. Mycotoxic Fungy, Mycotoxins, Mycotoxicoses / T.D.Wyllie [et al.] // An Encyclopedic Handbook. – 1977. – Vol. 1. – P. 356–361.
17. Means, G E. Chemical modification of proteins / G E Means, E Feeney. – San Fransisco: Holden-Day, 1971. – 144 p. 
18. Burkin, A.A. Obnaruzhenie mikotoksina T-2 razlichnymi variantami tverdofaznogo immunofermentnogo analiza[ Detection of T-2 toxin using various versions of ELISA method] / A.A.Burkin, G.P.Kononenko, V.G.Zoryan // Prikladnaya biohimiya i mikrobiologiya. – 2000. – Vol. 36, Ή 4. – P. 428–432.
   
   
Title:

MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT BODIES IN CHICKEN RECEIVING VILOMIKS FEED ADDITIVE

   
Authors: 1Sabyrzhanov A. U. – postgraduate; 1Mullakayev O.T. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Kushaliyev K.Zh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 3KhayrullinA.G. – master.
   
Address:
1Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: arman__1983@mail.ru).

2Research Institute Zhangir Khan West-Kazakhstan agrarian and technical University, Uralsk, Republic of Kazakhstan (e-mail: gosha196060@mail.ru).

3Uralsk poultry farm, Uralsk, Republic of Kazakhstan (tel. +7(705)811-10-10).

   
Abstract:
The forages used in agriculture especially in poultry farming do not always meet the requirements of biosafety. Often fodders are affected by mycotoxins, thereby bring an extensive economic harm to poultry farms. Therefore Vilomiks premix containing vitamins, macro and microelements, amino acids, enzymes, phytase, and antioxidants, enriches forages with minerals and vitamins, promotes their comprehensibility, increase egg efficiency in poutry. Histological researches of immunocompetent organs of hens of the egg direction from one to six monthly age of breed of "Haqseks White", "Haqseks Braun" were conducted. The drugs were stained using the conventional techniques. The studies of the control group showed that at six-months laying hens change in spleen is expressed in significant edema and clump of follicles in perivascular sites. In thymus, cerebral substance consisted generally of retiρular epithelial cells, macrophages, follicles, and also pseudo-eosinophilic granulocytes. In four-months old chicken the lymphoepithelial tissue of a bursa of Fabricius is subject to the maximum involution because of atrophy of adenoid tissue. In the experimental group the histological pictures of micropreparations showed positive affect in spleen development, in thymus and bursa of Fabricius the processes of accidental involution slowed down. In the experimental group immunocompetent organs develop and influence the whole body longer than in the control group.

   
Keywords: morphology, thymus, Bursa Fabritius, spleen, cortical substance, brain substance.
   
References:
1. Avakyanc, S.A. Vitaminno-mineral'nye premiksy «Mul'tivit» [Multivit vitamin and mineral premix] / S.A.Avakyanc // Pticevodstvo. – 2000. – Ή 6. – P. 27–30. 
2. Homich, V.T. Strukturno-funkcional'nye osobennosti kloakal'noj sumki domashnih i dikih ptic [Structural and functional peculiarities of Bursa Fabricius in wild birds and poultry]/ V.T.Homich [et al.] // Naukovijv³snik LNUVMBT ³m³ni S.Z. Gzhic'kogo. – 2015. – Vol. 17, Ή 1 (61), Chastina 2. – P. 181–186 p.
3. Sabyrzhanov, A.U. Aktual'nost' ispol'zovaniya kormovyh dobavok v promyshlennom i chastnom pticevodstve [Significance of applying feeding additives in industrial and domestic poultry breeding]/ A.U.Sabyrzhanov, O.T.Mullakaev, K.ZH.Kushaliev // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM. – 2016. – Vol. 226 (II). – P. 138–141. 
4. Egorov, I.A. Ispol'zovanie vitaminov v pticevodstve [Application of vitamins in poultry breeding]/ I.A.Egorov // Pticevodstvo. – 2002. – Ή 7. – P. 19–23.
5. Lebedeva, I. Selezenka, timus, fabricieva bursa cyplyat-brojlerov pri vozdejstvii antibiotika i probiotika [The study of broiler chicken spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius at associated usage of antibiotic and probiotic]/ I.A.Lebedeva // Agrarnyj vestnik Urala. – 2011. – Ή 8. – P. 33. 
6. Dimitrov, D.S. Histological and histochemical studies of Harderian gland, lacrimal gland and bursa of Fabricius in Mulard ducks (AnasSterilis)with chlamydial infection / D.S.Dimitrov, I.P.Nikiforov // Bulg. J. Vet. Med. – 2005. – Vol. 2. – P. 119–127. 
7. Morfologicheskie izmeneniya immuniteta v organah i myshcah cyplyat, vakcinirovannyh protiv IBB, s ispol'zovaniem polifama pri ehksperimental'nom hronicheskom mikotoksikoze [Morphological changesin organs and muscules of chicken vaccinated against IBB using Polypham at experimental chronic challenge with mycotoxins]/ F.S.Alaradzhi, I.N.Gromov, E.I.Bol'shakova, S.A.Bol'shakov // Uchenye zapiski UO «Vitebskaya ordena «Znak pocheta» gosudarstvennaya akademiya veterinarnoj mediciny». – 2016. – Vol. 52, vypusk 1. – P. 14–18. 
8. Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: a review / F.Galvano [ et al.] // J. Food Prot. – 2001. – Vol. 64, Ή 1. – P. 120–131.
9. Merkulov, G. Kurs patogistologicheskoj tekhniki [A course of pathohistological techniques]/ G.A.Merkulov. – Leningrad: Medgiz, 1961. – 336 p.

   
   
Title:

ANTISEPTIC SPRAY EFFICIENCY IN TREATMENT OF SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES IN DOGS AND CATS

   
Authors: 1Danilevskaya N.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Arisov M.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 3Belykh I.P. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Indyuhova E.N. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
1Skryabin K.I. Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow (e-mail: danilevskaja@mgavm.ru).

2All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants named after K.I. Skryabin, Moscow (e-mail: arisov_vet@mail.ru).

3JSC «Ekoprom» Research and production company, Moscow (e-mail: belykh@ekoprom.org).

   
Abstract:
This article presents the results of studying of the efficacy of a new antiseptic spray (chlorhexidine digluconate, dioxidine) in the treatment of purulent non suppurative wounds (including postoperative), burns, gingivitis, stomatitis and vaginitis in dogs and cats. The studies included 150 dogs and 149 cats of both sexes, age (from 6 months to 3 years) and breeds. At clinical examination registered skin and mucous membranes lesions of various origins in the animals. The animals were divided into two groups (control and test), based on the diagnosis: primary stomatitis, gingivitis, sores, purulent wounds, burns of first and second degree, vaginitis (mild form). In all diseases spray was applied uniformly onto the affected skin or mucous membranes for 1-3 minutes, 2-3 times a day, at distance of l at 20 cm from the surface. It was noted a faster wound healing and tissue repair in animals of experimental groups compared to control animals. Side effects and complications in the application of antiseptic spray were absent. The antiseptic spray (chlorhexidine digluconate and dioxidine) is effective and safe drug in the treatment of dogs and cats with purulent and purulent wounds, including postoperative wounds, and also animals withburns, stomatitis, gingivitis and vaginitis.

   
Keywords: drug, chlorhexidine digluconate, dioxidine, dogs, cats, efficiency, wound.
   
References:
1. Savel'ev, V.S. Hirurgicheskie infekcii kozhi i myagkih tkanej [Post-surgery infections of skin and tissues] / V.S.Savel'ev. – Moscow: OOO «BORGES», 2009. – 88 p.
2. Spravochnik veterinarnogo vracha [A reference book of veterinary doctor] / A.V.Aganin, G.P.Demkin, I.I.Kalyuzhnyj, A.P.Korobov. – Saratov: Privolzh. kn.izd-vo, 1995. – 560 p.
3. Obshchaya hirurgiya zhivotnyh [Animal basic surgery]/ S.V.Timofeev [et al.]; ed.by. S.V.Timofeev. – Moscow: Zoomedlit, 2007. – 687 p.
4. Shebnic, H. Operativnaya hirurgiya sobak i koshek [Cats and dogs surgery]/ H.SHebnic, V.Brass; per. s nem. V.V.Pulinec. – M.: Akvarium-Print, 2010. –326 p.
5. American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2003 / ed. by G.K.McEvoy. – Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 2003. – 3749 p.
6. Aloe Vera – A Miracle Herb / A.S.Madhuri [et al.] // IJRID. – 2014. – Vol. 4, Ή 2, Mar-Apr. – P. 2. – P. 1–7.
7. A clinical evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate spray as compared with iodophor scrub for preoperative skin preparations / T.R.Brown [et al.] // Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics. – 1984. – Vol. 158. – P. 363–366.
8. Snelling, C.F. Comparison of 1% silver sulfadiazine with and without 1% chlorhexidine digluconate for topical antibacterial effect in the burnt infected rat / C.F.Snelling, F.J.Roberts // J. Burn. Care Rehabil. – 1988. – Vol. 9. – P. 35–40.
ΣΔΚ  636.592:612.017.12

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

THE EFFECT OF APIPHYTODRUG ON MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS OF CULTURE MEDIA

   
Authors: Churina Z.G.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the work was to evaluate the activity of biopolymer – chitosan and chitin-containing drug – apiphytoextract produced from biological active products of bee breeding. Chitosan biopolymer was purchased from LLC “Pharmacor”, Saint-Petersburg. Apiphytoextract was obtained from biological active composition of “Vita-Force” using ethanol-based extraction of chitin-containing preparation. Mesophilic aerobic and optionally anaerobic microorganisms isolated from calves muscles, which is usually used for cell cultivation at viral vaccines production, were used as test microorganisms. For obtaining antimicrobial effect from the tested drugs 0.1-1.0%-solutions of chitosan and apiphytoextracts were prepared. The solutions were placed into tubes containing mesophilic aerobic and optionally anaerobic microorganisms in concentration of 2×105 CFU/ml for 1-48 hours at 22°Ρ. By the end of the exposure time microorganisms were suspended and passed with the tested drugs in meat peptode broth  and meat peptode agar followed by counting the number of recovered microorganisms.The microbiological studies showed that the both drugs have sufficiently high bactericidal activity killing test-microbes at 24 hours of exposure to 0.44%-chitosan and 1%-apiphytoextract solutions on test agents. Therefore, the apiphytiextract from biological active products of bee breeding has high antibactericidal activity and safety and can be applied as antimicrobial agent for cell cultivation removing antibiotics-decontaminants. 

   
Keywords: cell culture, cultural nutrient media, apidrugs, biopolymers, chitin, chitosan.
   
References:
1. Bazzaev, T.V. Apiterapiya v lechenii gnoynyh ran [Using apitherapy for teating purulent wounds] / T.V.Bazzaev, S.I.Shishkov // Apiterapiya segodnya s biologicheskoy aptekoy pchel v 21 vek – Apitherapy today with biological pharmacy of bees to XXI century: proceedings from 2nd International scientific conference. – UFA, 2000. – P. 167–169.
2. Bakirov, A.A. Pokazateli dinamiki T-limfocitov, ih populyaciy i B-limfocitov pri stimulyacii organizma kompozicionnymi formami s produktami pchelovodstva / A.A.Bakirov, R.T.Mannapova // Apiterapiya segodnya s biologicheskoy aptekoy pchel v 21 vek - Apitherapy today with biological pharmacy of bees to XXI century: proceedings from 2nd International scientific conference. – UFA, 2000. – P. 262.
3. Mannapova, R.T. Vliyanie propolisa i novogo preparata iz gruppy pirimidinov na estestvennuyu rezistentnost' [The effect of propolis and a new drug from the group of pyrimidines on natural resistance]/ R.T.Mannapova, N.V.Greben'kova, V.P.Krivonogov // Apiterapiya segodnya s biologicheskoy aptekoy pchel v 21 vek - Apitherapy today with biological pharmacy of bees to XXI century: proceedings from 2nd International scientific conference. – P. 304–307.
4. Antimikrobnaya aktivnost' produktov pchelovodstva [Antimicrobial activity of bee breeding products]/ V.I.Prisakar', N.G.Eremiya, T.S.Chayka, T.G.Plot // Apiterapiya segodnya – Apitherapy today: proceedings from the IV scientific conference on apitherapy. – Rybnoe, 1995. – P.38.
5. Izuchenie antimikrobnoy aktivnosti suppozitoriev s preparatami propolisa [The study of antimicrobial activity of of suppositories with propolis drugs] / A.M.Tihonov [et al.] // Apiterapiya segodnya s biologicheskoy aptekoy pchel v 21 vek - Apitherapy today with biological pharmacy of bees to XXI century: proceedings from 2nd International scientific conference . – UFA, 2000. – P. 280–281.
6. Shagivaleev, A.D. Mikrobiocenoz kishechnika loshadey pod vliyaniem propolisa, ceolitov i biotrina [Intestinal microbiocenosis in horses under the influence of propolis, zeolites, and biotrin] / A.D.Shagivaleev, R.T.Mannapova // Apiterapiya segodnya s biologicheskoy aptekoy pchel v 21 vek- Apitherapy today with biological pharmacy of bees to XXI century: proceedings from 2nd International scientific conference – UFA, 2000. – P. 230–232.
7. Shagimuhametov, R.B. Immunnyy status, estestvennyy mikrobiocenoz kishechnika i metody korrekcii pri streptokokkovo-kriptosporidioznom zabolevanii telyat [Immune status, natural intestinal microbiocenosis and its correction methods at streptococci and cryptosporadic sickness of calves] / R.B.Shagimuhametov // Apiterapiya segodnya s biologicheskoy aptekoy pchel v 21 vek-Apitherapy today with biological pharmacy of bees to XXI century: proceedings from 2nd International scientific conference. – UFA, 2000. – P. 209–223.
8. Wang, T. Selected properties of pH-sensitive, biodegradable chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel / T.Wang, M.Turhan, S.Gunasekaran // Polym. Int. – 2004. – Vol. 53. – P. 911.
9. Tan, T. Preparation of PVA/ chitosan lipase membrane reactor and its application in synthesis of monoglyceride / T.Tan, F.Wang, H.Zhang // Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. – 2002. – Vol. 18. – P. 325.
10. Development of Chitosan / Poly(vinyl alcohol) blend membranes as burn dressings / E.Mangala, T.S.Kumar, S.Baskar, K.P.Rao // Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs. – 2003. – Vol. 17, Ή 1. – P. 34.
11. Sorption Characterization of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Chitosan Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogels / S.J.Kim [et al.] // J.Appl. Polym. Sci. – 2003. – Vol. 90. – P. 86.
12. Uchida, Y. Antibacterial activity by chitin and chitosan / Y.Uchida // Fisheries Science. – 2002. – Vol. 68. – P. 170–177.

   
   
Title:

THE EFFICIENCY OF USING FUSOBAKSAN IN DIARY CATTLE BREEDING

   
Authors: Khouzin D.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Makayev H.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Khouzin R.D. – Research Officer; Lukina G.R. – Research Assistant.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Translation cattle on industrial technology led to widespread disease toes and hooves. In this case, the cattle quickly lose productivity, because it is important to treat the animal as soon as possible. Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety developed “Fuzobaksan” drug, which has many advantages with respect to similar drugs used in veterinary practice for the disease treatment. Value, treatment efficacy, timing recovery clinical disease of cattle with mild, moderate absence of disease recurrence, undesired reactions at the administration site, a small amount of treatment dose, easy to use drug in the form of an emulsion, allows obtaining the maximum therapeutic effect. The efficiency of  “Fuzobaksan” is confirmed by its positive application for 25 years, the results of comparative tests with other similar drugs in the treatment of cattle with different clinical and epizootic situation. Economic efficiency of “Fuzobaksan” disease hoof 1rub is based on costs is 15.88 rubles.

   
Keywords: Keywords: fusobaksan, cattle, toes and hooves disease, necrobacteriosis, treatment.
   
References:
1. Lekarstvennye sredstva: 5000 naimenovanij lekarstvennyh preparatov i ih form: spravochnik [Therapeutic drugs: 5000 items of therapeutic drugs and their forms: a reference book] / edited by M.A.Klyuev. – Moscow: Knizhnyj dom Lokus, Ripol Klassik, 2004. – 768 p. 
2. Makaev, H.N. Baktericidnaya aktivnost' i vozmozhnye otdalennye posledstviya pri primenenii fuzobaksana [Bactericidal activity and possible distance complication at using Fusobaksan] / H.N.Makaev, D.A.Huzin, R.M.Potekhina // Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoj veterinarii – Current problems of modern veterinary: proceedings from International scientific and practical conference dedicated to 65th anniversary of veterinary science in Kuban. Part 2]. – Krasnodar, 2011. – P. 198–201.
3. Mashkovskij, M.D. Lekarstvennye sredstva: spravochnik. T. 2 [therapeutic drugs: a reference book Vol.2] / M.D.Mashkovskij. – Moscow: Medicina, 1993. – 470 p.
4. Mozgov, I.N. Farmakologiya [Pharmacology] / I.N.Mozgov. – Moscow: Kolos, 1969. – 340 p. 
5. Samolovov, A.A. Nekrobakterioz krupnogo rogatogo skota [Cattle hooves and toes disease] / A.A.Samolovov. – Novosibirsk: IEHVSiD, 1998. – 140 p.
6. Spravochnik po klinicheskoj farmakologii i farmakoterapii [A reference book on clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy] / edited by. I.S.Chekman, A.P.Poleshchuk, O.A.Pyatak. – Kiev: Zdorov'e, 1987. – 696 p.
7. Opyt ozdorovleniya krupnogo rogatogo skota ot zabolevanij kopytec [An experience of cattle prevention from toes and hooves disease] / D.A.Huzin [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2011. – Ή 11. – P. 20–21.

   
   
Title:

EPIZOOTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ANIMAL RABIES MANIFESTATION IN MOSCOW REGION

   
Authors: 1Paroshin A.V. – head of (Department) the center for the prevention of rabies; 1Astrakhantsev V.A. – veterinarian (Department) the center for the prevention of rabies; 1Voskresensky S.B. – Candidate of Technical Sciences; 2Metlin A.E. – Candidate Veterinary Science; 3Chernov A.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; 2Gruzdev K.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1The Main Veterinary Department of Moscow region Government Institution of Veterinary of Moscow region Leninskaya Regional Station against animal diseases, Vidnoe (e-mail: vetlen1@mail.ru).

2Federal Centre for Animal health, Vladimir (e-mail: mail@arriah.ru).

3Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Rabies is one of the oldest infectious diseases and is a constant threat to human life and animals. In most regions of Russia, including in the Moscow region (MO) animals are infected with rabies. A large number of natural foci of this infection and a wide spread of rabies among animals in the neighboring areas result in a high incidence of rabies among farm animals and pets. The aim of this research was to analyze rabies epidemic situation of rabies in Moscow region. Epidemiological and statistical analysis was performed using the financial data of the Main Veterinary Department of Moscow region. Monitoring of rabies in the Moscow region was carried out using IFA and ELISA. The article presents the results of study of rabies epizootic situation and peculiarities of its manifestation in Moscow region. During the period from 2010 to 2016 he number cases registered in different animal species was as high as  1,538 cases, the total number of rabies-infected animals in livestock herds was 34 (0.22%), pets – 414 (26.9%) and wild – 691 (44.9 per cent), respectively. In Moscow region the main rabies source and vector  are foxes and raccoon dogs, which share among those wild animals for the period amounted to 63.2 per cent. The manifestation of epizootic diseases is characterized by 3-5 year interval. The maximum number of rabies-infected animals is registered in the autumn and spring months – 54.7%. The studies determined the pattern of epizootic rabies manifestation in Moscow region, characterized by the seasonality of the symptoms of this infection. Also, the investigations established the territorial confinement of the infection in Moscow region, identified stationary natural foci that will develop the epizootic map with the division of the infected districts. In Moscow region the main rabies source and vector are foxes, which among sick wild animals for a specified period account for 57.6 per cent. In this article, the results of rabies epizootic situation, features of its manifestation in the Moscow region and infection rate in various animal species are presented. The results obtained in this study can be taken into account at developing and implementing rabies control measures.

   
Keywords: rabies epizootology, cyclicity, seasonality, immunologic monitoring, Moscow region.
   
References:
1. Avilov, V.M. Epizooticheskoe sostoyanie i ehffektivnost' provodimyh meropriyatij protiv beshenstva zhivotnyh v Rossii [Epidemic situation and efficiency of measures against animal rabies in Russia] / V.M.Avilov, A.A.Gusev, A.V.Savin // Veterinariya. – 2002. – Ή 6. – P. 3–6.
2. Gulyukin, A.M. Epizootologicheskij monitoring i sovershenstvovanie serologicheskogo kontrolya ehffektivnosti vakcinoprofilaktiki beshenstva [Epidemic monitoring and improvement of serological control of vaccine-based prevention of rabies]: abstract from thesis for Candidate of Biology / A.M.Gulyukin. – Kazan', 2011. – 27 p.
3. Makarov, V.V. Aktual'nye problemy beshenstva: prirodnaya ochagovost', metodologiya issledovaniya i kontrolya v centre Rossii [Urgent problems of rabies: natural foci, methods of analysis and control in Central Russia] / V.V.Makarov, A.A.Vorob'ev // Veterinarnaya patologiya. – 2004. – Ή 3. – P. 102–116.

   
   
Title:

TO THE QUESTION OF SWINE DISEASES OF FACTOR-INFECTIOUS ORIGIN

   
Authors: Brigadirov Y.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Kotsarev V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Shaposhnikov I.T. – Doctor of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (e-mail: ldmvdc@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article represents the results of studying the spread and etiology of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in pigs on 10 pig breeding farms in various regions of the RF with different technologies and production quantity. Analysis of epizootic situation on the examined farms allowed to state that gastrointestinal pathology occurred in 59.7-98.7% of suckling piglets, in 19.9-26.7% of reared piglets, in 14.5-37.0% of fattened piglets and respiratory diseases occurred in 0.95-2.2%, 58.2-71.9%, 48.1-68.5% of piglets, respectively, in the general structure of pigs’ diseases. Pathological material after induced slaughtering and from murrained piglets with diarrheal syndrome demonstrated escherichia, salmonella, cytobacteria, enterococci, coronavirus - causative agent of epizootic diarrhea (ED) and causative agent of transmissible gastroeneteritis of swine (TGE of swine), rotavirus, brachyspira, clostridia, under respiratory diseases – circovirus-2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), mycoplasma, hemophil, pasteurella, salmonellae, chlamydiae in various associations under different degrees of spread among animals on pig breeding farms. Batches contaminated with mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, fumonisin, vomitoxin) in subtoxic concentrations in some cases containing two or four mycotoxins were detected when studying mixed feedings. Composite preparations, containing reactants, belonging to fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, nitrofurans, aminoglycosides, possessing various mechanisms of antimicrobial action possessed significant antimicrobial activity under the therapy of pigs with gastrointestinal and respiratory pathology. The application of adsorbents and antitoxic means, containing mineral and organic components for mycotoxin adsorption, is prescribed under the threat of contamination of feeds with microscopic pathogenic fungi. Thus, the leading role in etiology of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases of pigs of industrial pig breeding farms belongs to the association of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms in various combinations. Feeds contaminated with mycotoxins are an aggravating factor of their manifestation. It is necessary to take into account a mixed character of their course, use complex antimicrobial and antitoxic preparations with maintenance and improvement of animal feeding and keeping technologies. 

   
Keywords: pigs, gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, factor-infectious pathogens.
   
References:
1. Prudnikov, S.I. Faktornye infekcionnye bolezni svinej i ih profilaktika na krupnyh kompleksah i specializirovannyh fermah [Piglet contagious diseases and their prevention at industrial farms] / S.I.Prudnikov // Collection of articles of RASKHN. Siberian department. IEHVSiDV. – Novosibirsk: IEHVSiDV, 1995. – P. 183–189.
2. Ekologo-adaptacionnaya strategiya zashchity zdorov'ya i produktivnosti zhivotnyh v sovremennyh usloviyah: monografiya [Ecologic adaptation strategy of animal immunity and production rate: manuscript] / A.G.SHahov [et al.]. – Voronezh: Voronezhskij GAU, 2001. – 206 p.
3. Kontaminirovannost' mikotoksinami kormov dlya krupnogo rogatogo skota v hozyajstvah CCHZ [Cattle fodder contamination with mycotoxins] / L.I.Efanova [et al.] // Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK. – 2012. – Ή 1. – P. 25–28. 
4. Shahov, A.G. Faktornye infekcii svinej [Factor infections in pigs] / A.G.Shahov, A.I.Anufriev, P.A.Anufriev // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2005. – Spec. vypusk po svinovodstvu. – P. 24–27.
5. Ekologicheskie osobennosti zabolevanij pishchevaritel'noj sistemy novorozhdennyh telyat [Ecological peculiarities of diseases of digestion system in calves] / V.A.Mishchenko [et al.] // Veterinarnaya patologiya. – 2005. – Ή 3. – P. 34–38. 
6. Novye metody issledovanij po problemam veterinarnoj mediciny: sb. nauch. tr. CH. IV [New investigation methods on problems of veterinary medicine: collection of articles, Part IV] /ed.by acad. A.M.Smirnov. – Moscow: RASKHN, 2008. – 620 p.
7. Orlyankin, B.G. Infekcionnye respiratornye bolezni svinej [Swine infectious respiratory diseases] / B.G.Orlyankin, T.I.Aliper, E.A.Nepoklonov // Veterinariya. – 2005. – Ή 11. – P. 3–6.
8. Prudnikov, S.I. Kontrol' associirovannyh ehpizooticheskih processov infekcionnyh boleznej molodnyaka svinej tekhnologicheskimi metodami [Control of associated epidemic processes in young piglet infections using technologic methods] / S.I.Prudnikov, T.M.Prudnikova // Nauchnoe obespechenie veterinarnyh problem v zhivotnovodstve – Scientific justification of veterinary problems in livestock breeding: Collection of articles of RASKHN. Siberian department. IEHVSiDV. – Novosibirsk: IEHVSiDV, 2000. – P. 299–310.
9. Subbotin, V.V. Zheludochno-kishechnye bolezni porosyat s simptomokompleksom diarei: prichiny, profilaktika i terapiya [Piglet gastrointestinal diseases with symptoms of diarrhea: principles, reasons, prevention, and therapy] / V.V.Subbotin // Veterinariya i kormlenie. – 2005. – Ή 3. – P. 12–13.

   
   
Title:

PROBIOTIC EFFECT ON DIGESTIVE TRACT MIKROFLORA IN NEWBORN CALVES

   
Authors: 1Pavlenko O.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Suleymanov S.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 1Parshin P.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 2Mironova L.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
1Emperor Peter the Great Voronezh State Agrarian University, Voronezh (e-mail: suleimanov@List.ru).
2North Caucasian Areal Research Veterinary Institute, Novocherkassk (e-mail: skznivi@novoch.ru).

   
Abstract:
In cows having mastitis cows during the dry period remains the infection until calving period. However, as the lactation period starts the exudates which has been collected in the infected breast part  can easily remain unnoticed after the repeated delusion with colostrum. Entering the newborn calve gastrointestinal tract the inflammation products can cause heavy digestive disorders with toxic signs and high lethal rate. At treatment of mastitis with antibiotics they are taken up with a colostrum. The aim of the studies was to study the effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - based probiotic additive intoroduced to newborn calves with milk from cows with mastitis, three groups of animals were formed. During the experiment calves were fed with the milk received from the cows under the treatment. The samples of calves feces was studied using conventional microbiological methods. The probiotic drug was introduced into mammary gland of cows with subclinical mastitis two weeks before the supposed calving day at 4 days of lactation. Fecal samples were selected before the experiment, at one day and five days of the experiment. Also the calves clinical state, daily weight gain, days with diarrhea, survival rate were taken into consideration. The studies showed that use of probiotics in cows with subclinical mastitis improved a microbial ecosystem in digestive tract at newborn calves. The number of useful microflora increased due to the content of lactic microflora, colibacillus, inhibition of growth and reproduction of opportunistic microflora, while sickness rate with gastrointestinal diseases reduced by 2.7 times.

   
Keywords: calves, probiotic, microflora, intestines, excrements.
   
References:
1. Andreeva, N.L. Al'ternativa antibiotikam [Alternative to antibiotics] / N.L.Andreeva // Mezhdunarodnyj vestnik veterinarii. – 2009. – Ή 2. – P. 10-13.
2. Obryvkov, V.A. Morfologicheskaja harakteristika organov pishhevarenija teljat pri primenenii probiotika [The morphological characteristic of digestive organs of calfs at application of a probiotic] / V.A.Obryvkov, L.V Haritonov // Profilaktika i terapija boleznej sel'skohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh: Sbornik nauchnyh trudov. VGAU. – Voronezh, 1994. – P. 147-149.
3. Pavlenko, O.B. Lechebnaja jeffektivnost' biologicheskogo preparata pri subklinicheskom mastite u korov [Medical efficiency of biological medicine at subclinical mastitis at cows] / O.B.Pavlenko, B.A.Bulycheva // Jekologicheskie problemy v sel'skohozjajstvennom proizvodstve: materialy molodezhnoj nauchnoj konferencii. – Donskoj gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet, 2002. – P. 92-93.
4. Pavlenko, O.B. Morfofunkcional'noe obosnovanie primenenija probiotikov pri subklinicheskom mastite u korov [Morfofunktsionalny justification of application of probiotics at subclinical mastitis at cows]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine: 06.02.06 / Pavlenko Ol'ga Borisovna. – Novocherkassk, 2016. – 45 p.
5. Parikov, V.A. Razrabotka i sovershenstvovanie metodov diagnostiki, terapii, profilaktiki mastita u korov [Development and improvement of diagnostic methods, therapies, prophylaxes of mastitis at cows]: dis. v forme nauch. dokl.d-ravet.nauk: 16.00.07 / V.A.Parikov. – Voronezh, 1990. – 52 p.
6. Parikov, V.A. Sostojanie i perspektivy issledovanij po lecheniju i profilaktike mastita u korov [State and prospects of researches on treatment and prophylaxis of a mastitis at cows] / V.A.Parikov // Materialy vserossijskoj nauchnoj i uchebno-metodicheskoj konferencii po akusherstvu, ginekologii i biotehnike razmnozhenija zhivotnyh. – Voronezh, 1994. – P. 223-224.
7. Podbereznyj, V.V. Bioterapija i bioprofilaktika mastita u korov [Biotherapy and bioprevention of mastitis at cows]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of veterinary Medicine: 16.00.07 / V.V.Podberjoznyj. – Voronezh, 1995. – 45 p.
8. Poljancev, N.I. Mastit u korov v suhostojnyj period i zabolevaemost' teljat dispepsiej [Mastitis at cows during the sukhostoyny period and incidence of calf’s of dyspepsia] / N.I.Poljancev, L.G.Podkujko // Veterinarija. – 1987. – Ή 3. – P. 62-65.
9. Rasputina, O.V. Jetiopatogeneticheskie osobennosti i terapija massovyh boleznej korov i teljat [Etiopatogenetichesky features and therapy of mass diseases of cows and calfs] / O.V.Rasputina, M.N.Shadrina, N.A.Shkil' // Diagnostika, profilaktika i lechenie boleznej zhivotnyh: In-t jeksperim. veterinarii Sibiri i Dal. Vostoka. – Novosibirsk, 2008. – P. 56-60.
10. Jurina, N.A. Ispol'zovanie kormovyh dobavok «Sporotermin» i «Kovelos-sorb» v racionah zhivotnyh [Use of Sporotermin and Kovelos-sorb feed additives in diets of animals] / N.A.Jurina [et al.] // Sbornik nauchnyh trudov Severo-Kavkazskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo instituta zhivotnovodstva. – 2014. – Vol. 2, Ή 3. – P. 255-260.

   
   
Title:

ORGANIZATION OF VETERINARY SERVICE FOR WILD ANIMALS IN THE STATE INDEPENDENT CULTURAL INSTITUTION «KAZAN STATE CIRCUS»

   
Authors: Yusupov S.A. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: oevd@ksavm.senet.ru).

   
Abstract:
In the system of studying wild animals of various taxa the central issues are special researches focusing on treatment and prevention of diseases, as well as measures on its service. The purpose of the study was to analyze the veterinary service work in the Kazan State Circus, the Republic of Tatarstan. As a part of complex prevention measures it was important to consider the following issues: protective isolation of animals, supporting of optimal animal welfare and feeding, quality control of feeding, sanitary norms. Epizootological, monographic and statistical methods were used. The obtained data on quantitative and species composition of animals were analyzed. The data presented the significant diversity of exotic animal species. It was revealed as a result of the study that animals at the time of placing in «Kazan State Circus» were under the care of veterinary service at the place of their location.

   
Keywords: wild animals, organization, service, veterinary service, measures.
   
References:
1. Bakulov, I.A. Profilaktika ekzoticheskih i osobo opasnyh bolezney zhivotnyh [Prevention of exotic and particularly dangerous diseases in animals] / I.A.Bakulov, D.I.Kozlova, V.V.Kormilicina // Veterinariya. – 1990. – Ή 4. – P. 38–42.
2. Blohin, G.I. Zootekhnicheskie, zoogigienicheskie i veterinarnye aspekty zookul'tury [Zootechnic, hygienic, and veterinary aspects in zoos and circuses] / G.I.Blohin // Veterinarnaya patologiya. – 2006. – Ή 2. – P .4–7.
3. Nikitin, I.N. Osnovnye napravleniya nauchnyh issledovaniy po sovershenstvovaniyu veterinarnogo dela [Major fields in scientific investigations on improvement of veterinary practice] / I.N.Nikitin // Veterinariya. – 1999. – Ή 11. – P. 3–7.
4. Nikitin, I.N. Rascenki na veterinarnye raboty pri obsluzhivanii sobak, koshek i drugih melkih zhivotnyh [Pricing of veterinary services for cats, dogs, and other pets] / I.N.Nikitin // Aktual'nye problemy biologii i veterinarnoy mediciny melkih domashnih zhivotnyh – Current problems of Pet Biology and Veterinary Medicine]: collection of articles UGAVM. Vol. 3. – Troitsk: UGAVM, 2000. – P. 172–173.
5. Trofimova, E.N. Nauchnye osnovy sovershenstvovaniya veterinarnogo obsluzhivaniya melkih domashnih zhivotnyh[Scientific basics of improvement of pet veterinary service] / E.N.Trofimova // Uchenye zapiski KGAVM. – 2013. – Vol. 216. – S. 315–320.
6. Artois, M. Wildlife infectious disease control in Europe / M.Artois // J. Mt. Ecol. – 2003. – Vol. 7 (Suppl.). – P. 89–97.

   
   
Title:

NEW METHODS IN TREATMENT OF CATTLE NODULAR DERMATITIS (LUMPY SKIN DISEASE) IN THE CASPIAN SHORE REGION, THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

   
Authors: Anaev M.S. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Kabardiev S.Sh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Ozdemirov A.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Maksudova A.S. – Research Assistant; Ramazanova D.M. – Research Officer.
   
Address:
Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: alim72@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The article provides the result of application of new methods in treatment of cattle nodular dermatitis which has been registered for the first time in the Russian Federation in lowland farms, the Republic of Dagestan. The disease was registered before in the countries of South and East Africa, and in the countries of Middle East. The infected animals were selected from three farms in the lowland Caspian shore region according to their physiological state and the presence of expressed clinical signs of nodular dermatitis. The diagnosis of nodular dermatitis was confirmed by laboratory studies of pathological material in All-Russian Research Veterinary Institute of Animal Health, where DNA of cattle nodular dermatitis virus was isolated.  Of 96 infected calves of Red Steppe and Simmental breed three groups with 32 animals per each group were formed. All the infected animals were isolated and kept in a separate rooms during the treatment period. It was found that cattle nodular dermatitis is expressed with special clinical signs in the form of lumpy skin located in the head, neck, breast and lesions in oral cavity and internal organs. Beside the basic treatment (antibiotics and sulfamilamid drugs) the animals in the first group were intravenously injected with 40%-glucose solution intravenously, the animals in the second group were given sugar, dissolved in a liter of water and in the third group was treated with the basic treatment only. The best treatment results were obtained with intravenous injection (40% glucose solution in association with antibiotics, tincture of hellebore, caffeine - sodium benzoate 20%), where of 32 calves 31 animals recovered (treatment efficiency rate 96.9%), in the second group - 30 animals recovered ( 93.8%) and in the third group only 28 animals recovered (87.5%). Recovery period rated from 5 to 10 days. The efficiency of the therapeutic and anti-epidemic measures was determined by comparative evaluation of nonspecific methods and specific prevention of all vaccinated healthy livestock by sheep pox vaccine in a triple dose.

   
Keywords: Keywords: cattle, nodular dermatitis, the international epizootic (OIE), Dagestan, Lowlands.
   
References:
References

1. Shishkov, V.I. Kozhnaya bugorchatka [Lumpy skin disease] / V.I.Shishkov, A.V.Zharov, N.A.Naletov. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1987. – 147 p.
2. Syurin, V.I. Virusnaya bugorchatka rogatogo skota [Contagious cattle lumpy skin disease] / V.I.Syurin. – Moscow: Kolos, 1966. – 634 p.
3 Konopatkin, A.A. Epizootologiya i infekcionnye bolezni sel'skohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Livestock epidemic and contagious diseases]/ A.A.Konopatkin. – Moscow: Kolos, 1984. – 544 p.
4. Biryuchenkova, M.V. Rezul'taty genodiagnostiki nodulyarnogo dermatita v Dagestane i Chechenskoj Respubliki – pervoe oficial'noe podtverzhdenie bolezni na territorii Rossijskoj Federacii [Results of gene-based detection of lumpy skin disease in Dagestan and Chechnya – the first official confirmation of the infection in territory of the Russian Federation] / M.V.Biryuchenkova, A.M.Timina // Veterinariya segodnya. – 2015. – Ή 4 (15). – P. 43–45.
5. O meropriyatiyah po organizacii bor'by s nodulyarnym dermatitom krupnogo rogatogo skota, ospoj ovec i brucellezom zhivotnyh v respublike Dagestan [On control measures against cattle lumpy skin disease, sheep pox, and brucellosis in the republic of Dagestan] / M.Sh.Shapiev [et al.] // Veterinariya i zootekhniya. – 2016. – Ή 1. – P. 152–159. 
6. Nodulyarnyj dermatit krupnogo rogatogo skota [Cattle lumpy skin disease] / A.V.Mishenko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2016. – Ή 4. – P. 3–6.
7. Sharabrin, O.Yu. Diagnostika infekcionnyh i protozojnyh boleznej sel'skohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Detection of contagious and protozoa diseases in livestock animals] / O.Yu.Sharabrin, Yu.F.Borisovich. – Moscow: Kolos, 1968. – 72 p.

  Parasitology
   
Title:

STRONGYLATA SUBORDER HELMINTHS IN SHEEP AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION PECULIARITIES IN THE ALTAI REPUBLIC

   
Authors: 1Efremova E.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Science; 2Marchenko V.A. – Doctor of Biological Science, professor.
   
Address:
1Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science of Siberia and Far East, Siberian Federal Scientific Centre of Agro-Biotechnologies  of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (e-mail: alfa_parazit@mail.ru).

2Gorno-Altay Research Institute of Agriculture, village Mayma (e-mail: ganiish@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The results of investigations to determine the structural features of helminthocomplexes nematodes suborder Strongylata of sheep in different climatic zones in the Altai Republic and the characteristic of their territorial distribution were presented. There were recorded 3 species of trematodes, 8 species of cestodes, 28 species of nematodes in the animals of the Altai. Strongylata prevails in the structure of helmintocomplex of this region and has index parasitocomplex (IP) 90.1. It was established that the ubiquity of helminths, but the infestation of sheep by strongilyata and the ratio of representatives of different taxonomic groups in the structure helminthocomplex of animals in the Central and South-Eastern Altai were different. A more representative species composition helminthofauna and high infestation of sheep by helminthes were characteristic of Central Altai. Parasitocomplex animals of this region is represented by helminthes 10 genera and South – East Altai – 9. The dominant components are Ostertagiain the structure of the parasitocomplex of the sheep in both zones, respectively the index of parasitocomplex (IP) of which is 31.3 and 43.7. Subdominant are Nematodirus (IP= 15.7) and Mullerius(IP= 14.7) in the Central Altai, and Nematodirus in the South – East Altai, but the value IP is 24.8, which is 1.6 times higher than in the territory Central Altai. The ratio of Protostrongylus: Mulleriuis in these zones is expressed as 1:1.7 and 7.3:1, respectively. It was revealed that for the mountainous territories there are distinct intra-zonal differences in the structure of helminth complexes and the invasiveness of animals. The spatial distribution of nematodes of the suborder Strongylata is not homogeneous, that is due to the complexity of the natural-geographical, climatic conditions of the terrain, the diversity of landscapes and their fragmented location.

   
Keywords: helminths, strongylata, infection of sheep, species composition, Central Altai, South-East Altai, territorial distribution, structure of helminth complexes.
   
References:
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  Zootechny
   
Title:

THE ACTION OF CARBOHYDRATE-VITAMIN-MINERAL COMPLEX «LIZUNETS-SOLEVIT» ON DAIRY COWS

   
Authors: Khairullin D.D. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: ddhairullin@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:
The study of the action of the modern carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral complex (UVMC) "Lizunets-Solevit" on productive indicators of milking cows was carried out. "Lizunets-Solevit" is a multifunctional fodder additive, which includes sugar, protected proteins of non-protein origin, macro- and microelements, vitamins and biological active substances. According to the principle of analogs, two groups of milk cows were formed, an experimental and control group of 4 heads in each, the control group was given the usual salt-licking (sodium chloride), and the experimental group of animals was given to LMZ "Lizunets-Solevit". Additives were not limited, the duration of the experiment was 40 days. At 20 and 40 days daily average milk yield and milk quality and parameters (density, mass fraction of fat and protein) were determined in experimental cows. By the end of the experiment the yield of cows in the experimental group increased by 19% in comparison with the control group, the mass fraction of fat increased by 5.4%, the mass fraction of the protein increased by 3.4%. The density of milk was 1028.0 - 1028.5 kg / m3. The average daily consumption of UVMC "Lizunets-Solevit" was 19.2% more than the usual salt of Lizunets (sodium chloride). There was a decrease in the cost of feed per unit of production by 15-20%. Side effects and complications with the use of feed additives are not revealed, there are no contraindications. The data obtained make it possible to recommend the application of LMZ "Lizunets-Solevit" to increase the productivity of cows, stabilize cicatricial digestion, improve feed intake and digestibility, prevent metabolic disorders.

   
Keywords: cows, milk productivity, fodder additive, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins.
   
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