Our address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety - All Russian Research Veterinary Institute, 2-Nauchny gorodok, Kazan, 420075, Russia

Tel. / Fax:(843) 239-53-20 (editorial)

E-mail: vetvrach@vnivi.ru

The journal is registered

The journal is registered in Federal Service for Oversight of Mass Media, Telecommunications, and Protection of Cultural Heritage.

The Registration Certificate number is ÏÈ ¹ÔÑ77-29757 

Decision of the Presidium

of the Russian Higher Attestation Committee

The Veterinarny Vrach journal is one of the Russian peer-viewed research journals eligible to publish main research findings and results of theses pending a scientific degree of Doctor or Cadidate of Sciences.
















¹ 3, 2017

Ñêà÷àòü íîìåð æóðíàëà â ôîðìàòå .pdf (1,22 ÌÁ)


Authors: Semenov E.I. – Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; Tanaseva S.A. – Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; Valiev A.R. – Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; Gubeeva E.G. – Ñandidate of Medicine Sciences, Biktashev R.U. – Doctor of Medical Sciences.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

The aim of the research was to trail "Modibent" adsorbent as a means of preventing mycotoxicosis of animals. The drug efficacy evaluation was evaluated on male nonlinear white rats with an average body weight of 150 g. Four groups of animals with 10 rats in each were formed. The first group served as biological control group receiving the basic diet. Animals of the second group received toxic food containing T-2 toxin mycotoxin at concentration of 200 ?g/kg. The third group of animals received both toxic food and Mobident enterosorbent at dosage of 0.25% per food mass. The fourth group of rats received both toxic food and Mobident enterosorbent in ratio 0.5% per food mass. The experiment lasted for 30 days. At 30 days of the experiment the animals in the second group had lower living weight that the controls for 11.8%, in animals from other experimental groups body weight was for 4.9-6.3% lower the controls. The rats from the second group had lower number of red blood cells by 16.4%, hemoglobin - by 11.5%, and leukocytes - by 15.2%. ESR increased for 20.6%. In the experimental groups number of erythrocytes reduced by 5.3-8.5%; leukocytes - 10.2-11.6%, hemoglobin - 3.7-4.8%, while ESR increased for 13.6-17.2%. In the blood serum, the rats in the second group observed significant in comparison with the control group. The effect of T-2 toxin in the second group resulted in lower level of glucose by 30.89% and a significant increase in AST, ALT, APF and total bilirubin by 12.1%, 13.8%, 9.3% and 17.1% respectively. In the groups which received both toxic food and drug, the increase was less significant. Animals from the group which received toxic food only total protein reduced by 16.7%, while in the preventive groups, the decrease was 11.0%. In the excrement of rats both received T-2 food and the adsorbent at dose of 0.25% the T-2 toxin content was 137% higher compared to the group of animals fed with toxic food only (without the adsorbent) and in the group fed with toxic diet and 0. 5% of the Modibent adsorbent level of T2 toxin was higher for 160.5%. The histological study of internal organs confirmed the effectiveness of the adsorbent. Thus, the dynamics of live weight, hematologic and biochemical parameters, the histological structure of internal organs and the content of residual amounts of toxin in T-2 mycotoxicosis modeled on male white rats suggest that the use of Modibent in a dose of 0.25% and 0.5% in the diet has a preventive effect. A 0.5% dose protects the animals more efficiently.

Keywords: mycotoxicosis, T-2 toxin, T-2 toxicosis, adsorbents, prophylaxis.
1. Tutelyan, V.A. Mikotoksiny (medicinskie i biologicheskie aspekty) [The mycotoxins (medical and biological aspects)] / V.A.Tutel'yan, L.V.Kravchenko. – Moscow: Medicina, 1985. – 320 p.
2. Profilaktika mikotoksikozov zhivotnyh [Prevention of animal mycotoxicoses] / B.A.Hmelevskij [et al.]. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985. – 271 p.
3. Kotik, A.N. Mikotoksikozy ptic: monografiya [Avian mycotoxicoses: manuscript] / A.N.Kotik. – Borki: Donechchina, 1999. – 267 p.
4. Mikotoksikozy (biologicheskie i veterinarnye aspekty) [The mycotoxins (biological and veterinary aspects)] / A.V.Ivanov, V.I.Fisinin, M.YA.Tremasov, K.H.Papunidi. – Moscow: Kolos, 2010. – 392 p.
5. Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins on cultivated forage grasses / T.Yu.Gagkaeva, O.P.Gavrilova, A.A.Burkin, G.P.Kononenko // Fusarium: pathogenicity, mycotoxins, taxonomy, genomics, biosynthesis, metabolomics, resistance, disease control: proc 13th European Fusarium seminar. Bookofabstracts. – Martina Franca, Italy, 2015. – P. 149–152.
6. Vzaimosvyaz' citokinovogo profilya i oksidantno- antioksidantnogo statusa belyh krys pri ehksperimental'nom T-2 toksikoze [Correlation of cytokine profileand oxidaann-antioxidantstatus in white rats at induced T-2 toxicosis] / A.G.Shahov [et al.] // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2016. – ¹ 1. – P. 15–18.
7. Valiev, A.R. Immunosupressiya v patogeneze T-2 mikotoksikoza i eyo farmakokorrekciya [Immune suppression at T-2 mycotoxicosis pathogenesis and its pharmacocorrection] / A.R.Valiev, E.I.Semyonov, F.G.Ahmetov // Veterinarnyj vrach. – 2011. – ¹ 2. – P. 4–6.
8. Effektivnost' novogo preparata pri ehksperimental'nom mikotoksikoze na laboratornyh zhivotnyh [Efficiency of novel drug at challenged mycotoxicoses of laboratory animals]/ P.V.Miroshnichenko, A.N.Troshin, E.V.Panfilkina, A.H.Shantyz // Rossijskij zhurnal "Problemy veterinarnoj sanitarii, gigieny i ehkologii". – 2016. – ¹ 3 (19). – P. 105–109.
9. Problema mikotoksikozov zhivotnyh [The problem odfanimaal mycotoxicoses]/ M.YA.Tremasov, A.V.Ivanov, K.H.Papunidi, E.I.Semyonov // Veterinarnyj vrach. – 2010. – ¹ 5. – P. 16–19.
10. Tremasov, M.YA. Agromineral'noe syr'e - ehffektivnoe sredstvo profilaktiki smeshannyh mikotoksikozov [Agromineral raw material as an efficient means to prevent associated mycotoxicoses]/ M.YA.Tremasov, EH.I.Semenov // Vestnik veterinarii. – 2009. – ¹ 4 (51). – P. 36–40.
11. Efficiency of Application of a Polysaccharide Enterosorbent of "Fitosorb" For Prevention of the Combined Mycotoxicoses / E.I.Semenov [et al.] // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. – 2016. – Vol. 7, ¹ 4. – P. 2229–2237.
12. Kondrahin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoj klinicheskoj laboratornoj diagnostiki [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics]/ I.P.Kondrahin. – Moscow: Kolos, 2004. – 520 p.
13. Antonov, B.I. Laboratornye issledovaniya v veterinarii. Biohimicheskie i mikologicheskie Laboratory research in veterinary medicine. Biochemical and mycological] / B.I.Antonov. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1991. – 288 p.



Authors: Blednykh L.V. – Ñandidate of Veterinary Sciences; Nikolaev S.V. – senior lecturer; Konopeltsev I.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov (e-mail info@vgsha.info).

The scientific search for environmentally safe medications with non-specific antimicrobial activity to provide medical care to animals with obstetric-gynecological pathology is one of the priorities of veterinary obstetrics. Its relevance is due to the increased resistance of microorganisms, the demand for high quality livestock products, the need to extend the economic use of the genetic potential of highly productive animals. The purpose of the research was to study the antimicrobial and toxicological properties of ozonated flaxseed oil. Unrefined sunflower, flax, corn, olive and mustard oil was used in the studies. The saturation of the oil with ozone was carried out by a certified medical ozone generator. Antimicrobial properties, the ozone-treated oils were determined according to Staphylococcus àureus and Escherichia ñoli reference strains. The suspension of bacteria mixed with ozonized medium was incubated during 30 minutes or 2 hours. The acute toxicity of ozonated linseed oil was evaluated on healthy mature white mice males with body weight ranging from 22 to 26 grams. The reaction of delayed-type sensitization in mice was studied by twofold intraperitoneal administration of ozonated linseed oil in a tolerance dose of 0.1 ml, diluted with saline solution in 1:4 ratio with a day-long interval. Of the vegetable oils linseed oil had the highest antimicrobial activity after treatment with ozone. At shuttle-bay treatment of ozonated oils and microorganisms for 2 hours the oils inhibited the growth of the reference bacteria cultures in culturing 108 m. t/ ml. At incubation of ozonized oils with reference bacteria culture suspension for 30 minutes ozonated linseed oil inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations of 104, and E. coli – 105 m. t./ml. The optical density of linseed oil significantly changes during the first 5.5 hours of bubbling ozone-oxygen mixture. For parenteral administration of ozonated Flaxseed oil the tolerated dose for mice was 4000 ?/kg, toxic dose was 6600 mg/kg, and LD40 was 10000 ?/kg. According to the State standard # 12.1.007-76 linseed oil belongs to the 4th class of toxicity (LD50 more than 1000 mg/kg).The recommended single dose of ozonated Flaxseed is 187.2ml for cows with body weight of 600 kg. Ozonated Flaxseed oil does not cause the manifestation of the reaction of delayed-type. Ozonated linseed oil at 30 minute incubation, the suspension culture inhibits the growth of Staph.àureus at a concentration of 104, and E. coli at a concentration of 105 M.T./ml. Linseed oil in the amount of 400.0 ml must be ozonated during at least 5 hours. It has a slight irritating effect and belongs to the 4 th class of toxicity and does not cause hypersensitivity reaction of the delayed type.

Keywords: ozonated Flaxseed oil, antimicrobial properties and toxicity
1. Dubovikova, M.S. Mikrobnaya kontaminaciya genitalij korov, bol'nyh hronicheskim ehndometritom [Microbial contamination of the genitalia of cows with chronic endometritis] / M.S.Dubovikova, I.S.Koba, N.I.Kryukov // Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoj veterinarnoj nauki i praktiki – Current problems of modern veterinary science and practice:proceedings from Int.sci.and pract.conference dedicated to 70th anniversary of Krasnodar Veterinary Research Institute. – Krasnodar, 2016. – P.367-371.
2. Inozemcev, V.P. Akushersko-ginekologicheskie bolezni u korov v sel'hozpredpriyatiyah Rossii [Obstetric and gynecological diseases in cows in farms of Russia] / V.P.Inozemcev // Itogi i perspektivy nauchnyh issledovanij po problemam patologii zhivotnyh i razrabotke sredstv i metodov terapii i profilaktiki- Results and perspectives of scientific. Investigations of problems of animal pathology and development of means and methods of therapy and prevention: proceedings from coordination. meeting. – Voronezh, 1995. – P.254–258.
3. Konopel'cev, I.G. Primenenie ozonirovannoj ehmul'sii pri poslerodovom ostrom ehndometrite u korov-pervotelok [Use of ozonated emulsion in treatment of heifers with acute postpartum endometritis] / I.G.Konopel'cev, S.V.Nikolaev // Veterinariya meditsina. – 2016. – Vol. 6. – P. 36-41.
4. Konopel'cev, I.G. Antimikrobnaya aktivnost' novogo nositelya ozonidov[Antimicrobial activity of new source of ozonides] / I.G.Konopel'cev, D.A.Troegubov, V.A.Platonov // Povyshenie ehffektivnosti lecheniya i profilaktiki akushersko-ginekologicheskih zabolevanij i biotekhniki razmnozheniya zhivotnyh - Increase the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of obstetric-gynecologic diseases and Biotechny and animal reproduction: proceedings from Int.sci.and pract.conference - Kirov, 2005.- P. 71.
5. Konopel'cev, I.G. Ozonoterapiya i ozonoprofilaktika vospalitel'nyh zabolevanij i funkcional'nyh rasstrojstv matki u korov [Ozone-based therapy and prevention of inflammatory diseases and functional disorders of the uterus in cows]: abstrat from dissertation of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. - I.G.Konopel'cev. – Voronezh, 2004. – 40p.
6. Konopel'cev, I.G. Ul'trastrukturnye izmeneniya u mikroorganizmov pri obrabotke ozonirovannym ryb'im zhirom [Ultrastructural changes in microorganisms at processing with ozonized cod liver oil] / I.G.Konopel'cev, E.V.Vidyakina, A.A.Kostyaev // Nizhegorodskij medicinskij zhurnal. – 2005. – Appendix. – P. 236-237.
7. Muravina, E.S. Razrabotka i ehffektivnost' sposoba terapii bol'nyh poslerodovym ehndometritom korov s primeneniem ozonirovannoj ehmul'sii [Development and efficiency of ozonized emulsion-based treatment of cows with postpartum endometritis]: dissertation thesis for Candidate of veterinary Sciences / E.S.Muravina. – Voronezh, 2013. – 149p.
8. Nikolaev, S.V. Zabolevaemost' korov raznogo vozrasta poslerodovym ehndometritom v usloviyah privyaznogo soderzhaniya i ego profilaktika s primeneniem ozonirovannoj ehmul'sii [Postnatal endometritis sickness rate in cows of different ages and its prevention with the application of ozonized emulsion]/ S.V.Nikolaev, I.G.Konopel'cev // Permskij agrarnyj vestnik. – 2016 – Vol.2. – P. 133-140.
9. The Russian Federation Patent 2240556 IPC7 G01N033/02. Sposob opredeleniya antimikrobnoj aktivnosti rastitel'nyh masel invitro [A method of in-vitro identification of antimicrobial activity of herbal oils] / V.A.Platonov, E.V.Kopylova, E.R.Klabukova, I.G.Konopel'cev, I.M.Zemcova; patent owner: Kirov medical academy. – ¹ 2002130225/13; applied on 10.11.2002; published on 20.11.2004, Bulletin ¹ 32. – 6p.
10. Habriev, R.U. Rukovodstvo po ehksperimental'nomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veshchestv [A guideline on experimental (preclinical) trial of new pharmacological substances] / R.U.Khabriev. – Moscow: JSC "Publishing house "Medicine", 2005. – 832 p.


Authors: 1Zakirova G.Sh. – Ñandidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Papunidi K.Ñh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 1Valeev A.R. - Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; 1Jamalova A.R. – postgraduate; 2Grishin N.S. – Doctor Engineering Sciences, professor.
1Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

2Kazan National Research Technological University (e-mail: mahp_kstu@mail.ru).

The primary method used for extraction of target compounds from samples is liquid-extraction method. The major disadvantage of this method is low output, no more than 40%. The basic requirements for extractor equipment design are high performance, minimal time consumption, the minimum ratio of  of solvent and material volume, simplicity of design, maintainability and reliability, as well as reasonable automation of performance which reduces search  alternative choice for the proper type of extractor equipment. To trial new equipment for rapid analysis for mycotoxins and pyrethroids each step of sample preparation (shaking, filtering, evaporation) should be replaced with machine (extractor, centrifuge, concentrator). For this purpose set-ups of centrifugal type were developed: centrifuge, extractor, concentrator-evaporator. The experiments showed that using the extractor, centrifuges and concentrator-evaporator for identification of pyrethroids resulted in reduction of extraction time (2 min), whereas in manual mode (conventional) 60-64 minutes, stabilization of parameters of extraction output; higher volume of toxic element, usability. Sample preparation for mycotoxin extraction took 5.8h at manual preparation while the automated process took 3.2 h, i.e. twice the time. T-2 toxin and deltametrin automated quantification in grain was developed and tested. The application of machine-based extraction resulted in lower time-consumption and cost; more accurate results, exception of routine manual work; higher reliability of sample preparation; stabilization of parameters; usability; higher volume of extracts; simplicity of sample standardization.

Keywords: pyrethroids, deltamethrin, mycotoxins, t-2 toxin, sample preparation, rapidity, centrifuge extractor, hub.
1. Metody opredeleniya mikrokolichestv pesticidov v produktah pitaniya, kormah i vneshnej srede: spravochnik [Methods for determination of microquantity of pesticides in foods, animal feed and external Wednesday: a handbook: in 2 parts. P.I] / Compiled by M.Ya.Klisenko [et al.]. – Moscow: Kolos, 1992. – P. 296-307.
2. ZHulenko, V.N. Veterinarnaya toksikologiya [Veterinary toxicology] / V.N.Zhulenko, M.I.Rabinovich, G.A.Talanov // Moscow: KolosS, 2002. – 384 p.
3. Ekstrakciya v pole peremennyh sil. Gidrodinamika, massoperedacha, apparaty: v 2-h kn. Kn. 1 [Extraction in variable field. Hydrodynamics, mass transmission, set-ups] / N.S.Grishin [et al]. – Kazan': KNITU, 2011. – 364 p.
4. Gajnanova, A.A. Apparaturnoe oformlenie podgotovki prob k analizu mikroprimesej [Equipment modeling for sampling of micromixtures for analyses] / A.A.Gajnanova, A.N.Gorshunova, N.S.Grishin // Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. – 2013. – Vol. 16. ¹. 19. – P. 262-265.
5. Salin, A.A. Ispol'zovanie massoobmennoj apparatury dlya avtomaticheskoj probopodgotovki [Using mass-exchange equipment for automatic sampling] / A.A.Salin, A.N.Gorshunova, N.S.Grishin // Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. – 2015. – Vol. 18. – ¹ 4. – P. 144-147.
6. Grishin, N.S. Ispol'zovanie mekhanizirovannyh ustrojstv pri koncentrirovanii organicheskih soedinenij [Using mechanized devices during accumulation of organic compounds ] / N.S.Grishin // koncentrirovanie sledov organicheskih soedinenij - concentration of organic compounds traces: collection of articles of the USSR Academy of sciences. – Moscow: Science, 1990. – 280 p.
7. Beloglazov, I.I. Tverdofaznye ehkstraktory [Solid-phase extractors] / Beloglazov I.I. // Himiya. – Leningrad, 1985. – 240 p.



Authors: Egorov V.I. – Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; Khalikova K.F. – Ñandidate of Veterinary Sciences; Aleev D.V. – Ñandidate of Biological Sciences; Yamalova G.R.; Gubeeva E.G. – Ñandidate of Medicinå Sciences.
Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru.).

The experiments on studying the influence of therapeutic agents consisting of magnesium sulfate, novocaine, and diperoxime on pathomorphological changes in organs and tissues of the animals by poisoning them with neonicotinoid pesticide Calypso (active ingredient, thiacloprid) in absolutely lethal dose. Histological examination of the organs of white rats poisoned thiacloprid revealed that the most pronounced effect of this pesticide has on the liver, brain and kidneys, as manifested hemorheological, hydropic, necrobiotic narodovolcheskomu changes. The use of therapeutic agents, in case of poisoning thiacloprid in dose LD100, leads to a decrease in toxic effect on the liver, kidneys and blood vessels of the brain. As a result of experiments it was determined that this remedy consisting of magnesium sulfate, novocaine, and diperoxime positive impact on the condition of the organs of animals. 

Keywords: pesticides, neonicotinoid, thiacloprid, holistic remedies, pathomorphological studies, rats
1. Bojko, T.V. Toksikologicheskaya harakteristika neonikotinoidov, razrabotka diagnosticheskih i lechebnyh meropriyatij pri otravlenii zhivotnyh [Toxicological characteristics of neonicotinoids, the development of diagnostic and therapeutic measures for poisoning animals]: dissertation thesis for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine / T.V.Bojko. – Omsk, 2014. – 152 p.
2. Govorov, D.N. Primenenie pesticidov [The use of pesticides] / D.N.Govorov, A.V.ZHivyh, S.N.CHetvertin // Zashchita i karantin rastenij. – 2013. – ¹. 4. – P. 6-8. 
3. Dolzhenko, V.I. Sovershenstvovanie assortimenta insekticidov i tekhnologij ih primeneniya dlya zashchity kartofelya ot vreditelej [improvement of the range of insecticides and technologies for their application to protect potatoes from pests ] / V.I.Dolzhenko // Agrohimiya. – 2009. – ¹. 4. – P. 43-54. 
4. Patomorfologicheskie issledovaniya pri otravlenii ovec pesticidom iz gruppy neonikotinoidov na fone primeneniya lechebnyh sredstv [Pathomorphological studies at sheep poissong with pesticide from the group of neonicotinoids and using therapeutic drugs] / V.I.Egorov [et al.] // Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoj veterinarnoj nauki i praktiki – Current problems of modern veterinary science and practice: proceedings from the Int. sci.and pract,conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Krasnodarveterinary research institute. – Krasnodar: 2016. – P. 30-33.
5. Eremina, O.YU. Perspektivy primeneniya neonikotinoidov v sel'skom hozyajstve Rossii i sopredel'nyh stran [Prospects for the use of neonicotinoids in agriculture of Russia and adjacent countries] / O.YU.Eremina, YU.V.Lopatina // Agrohimiya. – 2005. – ¹ 6. – P. 87-93.
6. Zhemchuzhin, S.G. Razrabotka i primenenie sovremennyh insekticidov [Development and application of modern insecticides] / S.G.ZHemchuzhin, I.N.YAkovleva, M.A.Kupriyanov // Agrohimiya. – 2008. – ¹. 11. – P. 20-28
7. Zakharenko, V.A. Zainteresovanno o pestitsidah [Concerned about pesticides] V.A.Zakharenko // Zashchita i karantin rastenij. – 2012. – ¹. 2. – P. 11-12.
8. Suhoruchenko, G.I. Prioritety ehkologotoksikologicheskih issledovanij na sovremennom ehtape razvitiya himicheskogo metoda zashchity rastenij [Priorities for environmental and toxicological studies at the present stage of development chemical methods of plant protection]/ G.I.Suhoruchenko, K.V.Novozhilov // Himicheskij metod zashchity rastenij: sostoyanie i perspektivy povysheniya ehkologicheskoj bezopasnosti -"Chemical method of plant protection: state and prospects of increase of ecological safety" : proceedings from  Intern. scientific.-pract. conf. . – Saint Petersburg, 2004. – P. 308-312.
9. Kagabu Sh. Imidacloprid: discovery and development / Sh.Kagabu // Proc. XX Intern. Congr. of Entomology. – Firenze, Italy, 1996. – P. 19.



Authors: 1Apostolidi Ê.Ju. – postgraduate student; 1Chekhodaridi F.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Papunidi K.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Egorov V.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Konjuchova V.A. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Semenov E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
1Highland State Agricultural University, Vladikavkaz (tel. +7 (8672) 53-23-04, e-mail: ggau@globalalania.ru).

2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru). 

Feed, agricultural products, soil and water in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania was studied and analysed. The studies were conducted to determine the level of mycotoxins, toxic elements, pesticides, nitrogen-containing compounds, general toxicity of feeds and contamination with microscopic fungi in the studied objects. In total, the samples were analyzed for the presence and content of 690 toxic elements, 154 mycotoxins, 126 nitrates and 120 nitrites. The analysis of heavy metals in feed and agricultural products of North Ossetia-Alania revealed lead content in the range of 0.16-1.94 mg/kg, cadmium 0.01-0.23, copper 2.49-11.30, zinc - 14, 34-84,42, mercury - 0,0005-0,002, arsenic - <0,02, which does not exceed the maximum permissible levels. Analysis of fodder and agricultural products, soil and water in the territory of North Ossetia-Alania for mycotoxin content, and contamination with mycotoxic fungi showed that in most samples the mycotoxin concentrations did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Thus, the content of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol ranged from 0.25 to 0.375 mg/kg, fumonisin B1 from 0.02 to 0.14 mg / kg of fodder, fusariotoxins T-2, zearalenone, diacetoxyscriphenol and aflatoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, Sterigmatocystin and ochratoxin A) were not detected. The total number of fungi in feed did not exceed the permissible standards. The content of nitrates and nitrites in feeds from oats, corn, a mixture of maize and barley, wheat, mixed fodders did not exceed the level of maximum allowable concentrations. Thus, the samples from RNO-Alania generally correspond to the veterinary-sanitary requirements for animal feeds and can be used for feeding without restriction.

Keywords: feed, sanitary assessment, heavy metal salts, mycotoxins, nitrites, nitrates, microscopic fungi
1. Danilkina, O.A. Vliyanie preparata «Aleksanat-Zoo» na mineral'nyj obmen bykov-proizvoditelej [The effect of «Aleksanat-Zoo» drug on mineral metabolism of sire bulls] / O.A.Danilkina // Ekologo-biologicheskie problemy ispol'zovaniya prirodnyh resursov v sel'skom hozyajstve – environmental and biological issues of using natural resources in agriculrure: proceedings from the Int.sci.conference of young scientists and experts. – Ekaterinburg: Ural'skoe izd-vo, 2014. –P. 55–57.
2. Shkuratova, I.A. Farmakokorekciya mineral'noj nedostatochnosti krupnogo rogatogo skota s primeneniem mikroehlementov v micelyarnoj forme [Pharmacological correction of mineral shortage in cattle herds using microelements in mycelar form] / I.A.SHkuratova, O.A.Busygina // Aktual'nye problemy i innovacii v sovremennoj veterinarnoj farmakologii i toksikologii – Current issues and inventions in modern veterinary pharmacology and toxicology: proceedings from V Int. meeting of veterinary pharmacologists and toxicologists. – Vitebsk: Vitebsk state academy of veterinary medicine, 2015. – P. 405–407.
3. Tremasov, M.YA. Ekologo-toksikologicheskaya ocenka zagryaznennosti pochv i sel'skohozyajstvennoj produkcii ostatochnym kolichestvom pesticidov [Ecological and toxicological evaluation of soil and animal products contamination with pesticide residuals] / M.YA.Tremasov, N.N.ZHestkov, YU.V.Serova // Agrarnaya nauka: sovremennye problemy i perspektivy razvitiya – Agrarian science: current problems and prospects of development: proceedings from the Int.sci.conference. – Mahachkala, 2012. – P. 1287–1290.
4. Monitoring pochvy i kormov na soderzhanie nekotoryh toksikantov v Respublike Marij El [Soil and fodder monitoring for presence of some toxicants in the Republic of Mary El] / K.H.Papunidi, M.YA.Tremasov, A.M.Tremasova, S.YU.Smolencev // Veterinarny vrach. – 2011. – ¹ 3. – P. 26–29.
5. Serova, YU.V. Gistologicheskie issledovaniya pri ostroj intoksikacii TMTB [Histological studies at acute intoxication with TMTB] / YU.V.Serova, E.G.Gubeev, E.N.Ivanov // Biotekhnologiya v reshenii ehkologicheskih problem prirody, obshchestva i cheloveka v Evrazii: vzglyad molodyh uchenyh i specialistov – Biotechnology in solving ecological problems of nature, human, and society in Eurasia: views of young scientists and experts: proceedings from the Int.sci.conference of young scientists and experts. – Kazan. 2013. – P. 147–149.
6. Korotkov, A.V. Ocenka razdrazhayushchih i allergiriruyushchih svojstv spirtovogo rastvora hlorofilipta invivo i invitro na krolikah. Ego antimikrobnaya aktivnost' na nekotoruyu patogennuyu mikrofloru [The in vivo and in vitro assessment of irritating and allergy-inducing properties of spirit solution of chloride in rabbits. Its antimicrobial activity on some pathogenic microflora] / A.V.Korotkov, EH.K.Papunidi // Izvestiya Gorskogo GAU. – 2013. – Vol.. 50, Part. 2. – P. 165–169.
7. Aktual'nye problemy veterinarnoj toksikologii [The current problems of veterinary toxicology] / M.YA.Tremasov, K.H.Papunidi, EH.I.Semenov, E.YU.Tarasova // Vestnik veterinarii. – 2012. – ¹ 4 (63). – P. 16–18.

  Infectious pathology


Authors: Osadchaya A.I. – assistant.
Skryabin K.I. Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow (e-mail: small.orange.fox@gmail.com).

In the conditions of market economy in veterinary care as a kind of activity brimming with economic characteristics. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of market segmentation of veterinary service in private veterinary practice. Comprehensive studies of the activities of private veterinary clinics, Closed joint-stock company "Svoy Doctor" (Svoy Doctor, JRS) (Moscow) during 2014 – 2016 was carried out. The main factors contributing to the increased uptake of consumers of veterinary services in non-governmental institutions were a high quality of service, efficiency of provision and effectiveness of veterinary care, convenient location veterinary establishment. The clinic customers were primarily people of working age, 71% of pet owners have a higher education. Of patients cats and dogs prevailed, small share was taken by rodents, birds and other animals. Among cats and dogs 40% are animals up to the age of two years, 30% of patients are animals older than 5 years. Of the diseases that of the digestive system, breathing, eyes, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems prevailed most of all. The growth in primary sickness rate was largely conditioned by injuries and poisonings, diseases of the digestive system. The average annual number of visits to a network of veterinary clinics has increased, the highest number of visits were made to the physician profile, which amounted for half of all the visits, the second half was equally distributed among the following departments: surgery, orthopedics and traumatology, gastroenterology, dermatology, dentistry, ophthalmology, oncology. It is established that with the growth of services the number of diagnostic tests has increased and growth has occurred largely at the expense of functional studies. Thus, the analysis of market segmentation of veterinary service in private veterinary practice has allowed to identify the factors contributing to the increased uptake of consumers of veterinary services in non-governmental institutions, as well as its specific structural features.

Keywords: veterinary clinic, pets, morbidity, market for veterinary services
1. Bayazitov, G.S. Ob"em i struktura rynka veterinarnyh uslug v sel'skih rajonah [Size and market structure of veterinary services in rural areas] / G.S.Bayazitov // Tezisy dokladov Vserossijskoj konferencii molodyh uchenyh - proc.: All-Russian conference of young scientists. – Kazan. – 2000. – p. 82-84.
2. Organizaciya raboty seti kommercheskih veterinarnyh klinik v usloviyah megapolisa [Organization of of the commercial network of veterinary clinics in cities] / N.M.Vasilevskij, P.P.Ershov, R.A.Semchenko, A.I.Osadchaya // Veterinariya, zootekhniya i biotekhnologiya. – 2014. – ¹ 7. –P. 6–11.
3. Il'inyh, P.A. Menedzhment i marketing, organizaciya veterinarnogo dela v rynochnyh usloviyah / P.A.Il'inyh [Management and marketing, organization of veterinary business in market conditions]// Agrarnyj vestnik Urala. – 2013. – ¹ 10 (116). – P. 75-78. 
4. Minnebaev, D.F. Marketingovye issledovaniya rynka veterinarnyh tovarov [Marketing research: veterinary products] / D.F.Minnebaev // Proceedings from the International scientific-practical conference on current problems of agribusiness. Part 1. – Kazan, 2003. – P. 216-217.
5. Nekhajchuk, E.V. Otechestvennyj rynok veterinarnyh tovarov i uslug: sovremennye tendencii i perspektivy razvitiya [Domestic market of veterinary products and services: current trends and prospects]/ E.V.Nekhajchuk // Novaya nauka: ot idei k rezul'tatu. – 2017. – Vol. 2. – ¹ 2. – P. 9–12. 
6. Nikitin, I.N. Veterinarnoe predprinimatel'stvo [Veterinary entrepreneurship] / I.N. Nikitin - Moscow: Koloss, 2009. – 336 p.
7. Nikitin, I.N. Rynok veterinarnyh uslug v gorode [The market of veterinary services in cities] / I.N. Nikitin, E.N. Trofimova. – Veterinariya. – 2005. - ¹ 7. – P. 12-13. 
8. Pleshakova, E.V. Rynok veterinarnyh uslug v regional'noj infrastrukture agropromyshlennogo kompleksa Omskoj oblasti [The market of veterinary services in regional infrastructure of agroindustrialcomplex of the Omsk region] / E.V.Pleshakova. – Bulletin of Altai state agrarian University. – 2012. – ¹ 6 (92). – P. 116-120.
9. Trofimova, E.N. Rynok veterinarnyh uslug v gorode i rascenki v chastnyh veterinarnyh klinikah [Veterinary service market in the city and private veterinary clinics prices] / E.N.Trofimova. – Veterinariya. – 2010. – ¹. 6. – P.6-8.



Authors: 1Melnikova L.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Ivanova S.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Makaev Kh.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Bukova N.K. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

2All-Russia state Centre for Standartization and Quality Control for Animal Medical and Forages (e-mail: bukova@vgnki.ru).

Proper long-term storage of microorganisms species reference and field strains with preservation of their biological properties is the major aim of collecting the living cultures. There are several major ways of microbial cultures long-term storage: lyophilization, cryopreservation and periodic re-seeding in nutrient media. The possibility of long-term storage of glanders causative agent strains in lyophilized state using protective environments (stabilizers) – skim milk, saccharose-gelatin- was experimentally confirmed. A procedure for strain preparing was developed, lyophilization mode was designed and predefined, a time range of lyophilization and the final relative humidity in the range of 2-2.5% was set. To determine the percentage of viable cells the lyophilized culture was suspended and cultivated in MPGA. The survival rate of viable cells was 60-74%. Further, annually during 5 years (time of observation) the percentage of survival rate in viable cells in a freeze-dried mass was monitored. The studies showed that freeze-drying resulted in reduction of number of recovered cells from 0.0001 to 9% depending on storage period. Research confirmed that the remaining number of viable bacteria is sufficient to restore the culture using MPGA medium. Lyophilized the strains retained their original morphological, cultural, biochemical properties. Lyophilization did not affect the serological activity and virulence. Therefore, that lyophilization was established to be the best way for long-term storage of glanders strains. Skimmed milk as a stabilizer is the most appropriate stabilizer and is simple to prepare and use.

Keywords: glanders, cryoprotectors, liophilization
1. Sanitarno-ehpidemiologicheskie pravila «Bezopasnost' raboty s mikroorganizmami I-II grupp patogennosti». Prilozhenie SP.1.3.3118-13 [Sanitation and epidemiological regulations “Safe handling of microorganisms of I-II group of pathogenisity”. Appendix Sanitation Regulations: 1.3.3118-13]: approved on 28.11.2013 by acting the russian Federation chief sanitary doctor A.YU.Popova, ¹ 64 // website «Sudebnye i normativnye akty RF». – 182 p.
2. Belyakov, V.D. Psevdomonady i psevdomonozy [Pseaudomonades and pseaudomonoses] / V.D.Belyakov, L.A.Ryapis, V.I.Ilyuhin. – M.: Medicina, 1990. – 224 p.
3. Gerna, R. Hranenie mikroorganizmov [Microorganism storage] / R.Gerna // Metody obshchej bakteriologii. -Methods of basic bacteriology. P.1. – Moscow: Mir, 1983. – P. 512–534. 
4. Malik, K.A. Liquid-dryng of microorganisms using a simple apparatus / K.A.Malik // World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. – 1992. – Vol.8. – P. 80–82.
5. Pohilenko, V.D. Metody dlitel'nogo hraneniya kollekcionnyh kul'tur mikroorganizmov i tendencii razvitiya Methods of long-term storage of microorganism cultures collection and developemnt tendencies] / V.D.Pohilenko, A.M.Baranov, K.V.Detushev // Izvestiya vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Povolzhskij region. Medicinskie nauki. – 2009. – ¹ 4 (12). – P. 99–121.
6. Sanitarnye pravila «Poryadok ucheta, hraneniya, peredachi i transportirovaniya mikroorganizmov I-IV grupp patogennosti» [Sanitation regulations “The order of account, storage, transmission, and transportation of microorganisms of I-IV group of pathogenisity] SP 1.2.036-95: approved and put into effect by the Decree of Russian Federation State Committee of Epidemiological Control of 28.08.1995, ¹ 14 // Electronic database of legal and regulation technical documents. – 52 p.
7. Fortney, K.F. Stabilization of culture productivity / K.F.Fortney // Dev. Industr. Microbiol. – 1977. – Vol. 18. – P. 319–325.
8. Smith, D. The preservation and maintenance of living fungi / D.Smith, A.H.S.Onions. – Surrey (England): Commonwealth Mycol.Inst.Publ, 1983. – 51 p.



Authors: 1Smolentsev S.Yu. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Papunidi E.K. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
1Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola (tel. +7(8362) 68-79-32, å-mail: rector@marsu.ru).

2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17).

This article presents the results of the effect of «Miksoferon», «Immunoferon» and «Gamavit» immune inducers on parameters of specific and non-specific resistance performance in calves. The experiment was carried out in «Iskra» farm, Kuzhenersky district, the Mari El Republic. For the experiment four groups of newborn calves with 5 animals per each group were formed according to the the principle of analogues. The calves of the first group were injected intramuscularly with «Miksoferon» drug at dose of 5 ml per animal twice with an interval of 24 hours. In the second group «Immunoferon» drug was intramuscularly administered  at a dose of 5 ml per animal twice with 24 hours intervals. In the third group «Gamavit» drug was twice administered in dose of 10 ml per animal with an interval of 48 hours. The calves fourth group were used as the control animals. The level of A, M, G immunoglobulins was determined in calves blood using «Uniplan» analyzer. The number of T-lymphocytes in the blood was determined using the method of spontaneous rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes; the number of B lymphocytes was determined by the method of complementary rosette formation using a standard rabbit haemolysin and fresh cow serum as a complement. Serum bactericidal activity was determined according to the method developed by O.V.Smirnova and T.A.Kuzmina, lysozyme activity was determined according to the method developed by K.A.Kagramanova and Z.V.Ermoleva, phagocytic index and number was determined according to the method developed by V.S.Gostev. The experimental animals were registered to have a higher level of A, M and G immunoglobulins, as well as bactericidal and lysozyme efficiency, and phagocytic index number. The relative and absolute levels of B-lymphocytes and T lymphocytes were also significantly higher in the experimental groups of calves than in the control group. And the most significant changes have been observed in the group where «Immunoferon» drug was used.

Keywords: calves, immunity stimulator, resistance, miksoferon, immunoferon, gamavit
1. Gurkina, L.V. Zagryaznenie okruzhayushchej sredy – kak faktor oslableniya immunnoj zashchity krupnogo rogatogo skota [Environment contamination as a factor of lower immune response in cattle herds]/ L.V.Gurkina, N.I.ZHuravleva // Toksikozy zhivotnyh i aktual'nye problemy boleznej molodnyaka – Animal toxicoses and current problems of young livestock animals: proceedings from the Int.sci.conference. – Kazan, 2006. – P. 76–80.
2. Donnik, I.M. Metodologicheskie podhody ocenki vliyaniya okruzhayushchej sredy na sostoyanie zdorov'ya zhivotnyh [Methodological approaches of assessing the effect ofenvironment on animal health] / I.M.Donnik, I.A.SHkuratova, N.A.Vereshchak // Agrarnaya nauka Evro-Severo-vostoka. – 2006. – ¹ 8. – P. 169–173.
3. Moryakina, S.V. Patologiya reproduktivnoj funkcii u molochnyh korov [Pathology of reproductive functions in dairy cows] / S.V.Moryakina // Zootekhniya. – 2008. – ¹ 2. – P. 16–18.
4. Ostrovskij, M.G. Immunitet telyat [Calves immunity] / M.G.Ostrovskij // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. – 2007. – ¹ 2. – P. 49–50.
5. Pogodaev, V.A. Ispol'zovanie kompleksnogo immunomodulyatora v skotovodstve [Application of associated immune modulating drugs in livestock farming] / V.A.Pogodaev, B.A.Ajsanova // Zootekhniya. – 2008. – ¹ 7. – P. 6-7.
6. Papunidi, K.H. Primenenie lechebno-profilakticheskogo immunoglobulina v sochetanii s mineral'nymi ehlementami dlya povysheniya sohrannosti molodnyaka sel'skohozyajstvennyh zhivotnyh[Appplication of therapeutic ans preventive immunoglobulin in combination with mineral elements to encrease animal survival rate]] / K.H.Papunidi, G.V.Konyuhov, S.YU.Smolencev // Veterinarny vrach. – 2011. – ¹ 1. – P. 34–36.
7. Smolencev, S.YU. Vliyanie preparatov «Ribotan», «Prestimol» i «Lechebno-profilakticheskij immunoglobulin» na formirovanie immuniteta u svinomatok i porosyat [The effect of «Ribotan», «Prestimol» drugs and «therapeutic and preventive immunoglobulin» on immunity formation in sows and piglets] / S.YU.Smolencev, A.L.Rozhencov, YU.A.Aleksandrov // Zootekhniya. – 2012. – ¹ 3. – P. 22–24.
8. Yaranceva, S.B. Obshchee sostoyanie i pokazateli estestvennoj rezistentnosti [General state and parameters of natural resistance] / S.B.YAranceva // Sel'skohozyajstvennaya biologiya. – 2008. – ¹ 6. – P. 91–95.



Authors: 1Krivonos R.A. – director; 2Chernykh O.Yu. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 3Mischenko A.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 4Shevkoplyas V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 5Lysenko A.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
1 Krasnodarsky Krai State Veterinary Administration, Krasnodar (å-mail: uv@krasnodar.ru).
2Krapotkin regional veterinary laboratory, Krapotkin (å-mail: gukkvl50@kubanvet.ru).
3Federal Center of Animal Health, Vladimir (å-mail: mischenko@arriah.ru).
4Department of Veterinary, the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture, Moscow (å-mail: pr.depvet@mcx.ru).
5I.T.Trubilin Kuban State Agricultural University, Krasnodar (å-mail: lysenco727@mail.ru).

The article provides a retrospective analysis of the epizootic situation of foot and mouth disease in 2013 in Krasnodar Territory. There is a virus of foot and mouth disease type A, Asia topotype, genetic line Iran 05, subline SIS-10. The vaccine used before the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease did not allow to protect the livestock from the disease. In the modernized vaccine, full compliance of the production strain with epizootic isolates was achieved, which made it possible to create population immunity. Laboratory tests showed that in blood collected after 60-80 days after vaccination, more than 75% of the animals were immune. Mass vaccination, if the production strain matches epizootic isolates, creates a high level of immune protection and prevents an outbreak of the disease. To protect against the introduction of a virus into the territory of the Krasnodar Territory, systematic vaccination of ruminant animals and control of the level of post-vaccination antibodies are necessary.

Keywords: foot and mouth disease, FMD vaccine, buffer zone, Krasnodar region, antibodies, epizootic isolate, prevention.
1. Atlas vspyshek yashchura na territorii Rossii [Mapping of FMD outbreaks on the Russian Federation territory] / V.M.Gulenkin [et al.]. – Vladimir: FGU «VNIIZZH», 2008. – 84 p.
2. Dzhailidi, G.A. EHpizooticheskie osobennosti yashchura krupnogo rogatogo skota [Epidemic peculiarities of cattle foot and mouth disease] / G.A.Dzhailidi, R.A.Krivonos, A.A.Lysenko // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2013. – ¹ 5. – P. 15–17.
3. Kremenchugskaya, S.R. Ocenka ehffektivnosti protivoyashchurnoj vakcinacii zhivotnyh v bufernoj zone Rossijskoj Federacii v 2014 godu [Efficiency of animal vaccination against foot and mouth disease in buffer area in the Russian Federation] / S.R.Kremenchugskaya, N.N.Lugovskaya, S.N.Fomina // ARRIAH article. Vol. 13 – Vladimir, 2015. – P.20–28.
4. Lozovoj, D.A. EHpizooticheskaya situaciya po yashchuru v mire v 2013–2015 gg. i mery bor'by s nim [FMD Epizootological situation and control measures across the world in 2013-2015] / D.A.Lozovoj, A.M.Rahmanov // Veterinariya segodnya. – 2016. – ¹ 1 (16). – P. 38–43.
5. Mishchenko, A.V. Obostrenie ehpizooticheskoj situacii po yashchuru zhivotnyh v Azii i Rossii [Tensing of FMD epizootological situation in animal populations in Russia and Asia] / A.V.Mishchenko, S.R.Kremenchugskaya, A.M.Rahmanov // Innovacionnye processy v APK- Innovative processes in agriculture: proceedings from VI Int.sci.pract. conference of lecturers, young scientists, postgraduates and students. – Moscow: RUDN, 2014. –P. 168–171.
6. Rahmanov, A.M. Epizooticheskaya situaciya po yashchuru zhivotnyh na Severnom Kavkaze [FMD epizootological situation in the Northern Caucasus] / A.M.Rahmanov, A.V.Mishchenko, S.N.Fomina // Vestnik veterinarii. – 2014. – Vol. 69, ¹ 2. – P. 11–14.
7. Virusnye bolezni zhivotnyh [Animal viral disease] / V.N.Syurin, A.YA.Samujlenko, B.V.Solov'yov, N.V.Fomina. – Moscow: VNITIBP, 2001. – 928 p.
8. Sherbakov, A.V. Filogeneticheskij analiz izolyatov virusa yashchura, vyzvavshih vspyshki bolezni v Rossii v 2013 g. [Filogenetic analysis of FMD virus isolates caused FMD outbreaks in Russia in 2013] / A.V.Sherbakov, A.M.Timina, N.G.Zinyakov // Veterinariya. – 2014. – ¹ 7. – P 22–25.
9. Epizootologicheskie osobennosti yashchura tipa A, vyzvannye geterologichnymi shtammami virusa [Epezootological peculiarities of FMD type A caused by virus heterological strains] / A.V.Mishchenko [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2014. – ¹ 11. – P. 20–24.
10. Yashchur [The foot and mouth disease] / A.N.Burdov [et al.]; edited by A.N.Burdov. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1990. – 320 p.
11. Yashchur. Kodeks zdorov'ya nazemnyh zhivotnyh MEHB [The foot and mouth disease. Code of terrestrial animal health] // Vsemirnaya organizaciya zdravoohraneniya zhivotnyh. Glava 8.5. – World organisation for animal health, 2013. – P. 517–546.
12. High potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus / K.E.Brehm, N.Kumar, N.N.Thulke, V.Haas // Vaccine. – 2008. – ¹ 26 (13). – P. 1681–1687.
13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus // Preventive Veterinary Medicine. – 2014. – ¹ 113. – P. 23–33.



Authors: Spiridonov G.N. – Doctor of Biological Sciences; Valebnaya L.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, Dupleva L.Sh. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, Spiridonov A.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, Ysupova Y.V. – researcher.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

During the recent years the etiological role of Moraxella bovoculi bacteria in cattle infectious keratoconjunctivitis has been established. The aim of the research was to study the biological properties of Moraxella bovoculi bacteria isolated from calves infected with infectious keratoconjunctivitis. For Moraxella bovoculi bacteria isolation washings from the eyes of infected calves was cultivated in blood meat - peptone agar (MPA). The microorganisms were identified by studying their biochemical, morphological, tinctorial, antigenic and virulent properties. Hemolytic isolates of Moraxella bovoculi bacteria were isolated from calves having infectious keratoconjunctivitis. Their biological properties were studied. The bacteria were established to represent gram-negative diplococci with a diameter of 0.7-1.3 ?m, they do not form a spore. On the blood MPA, white colonies of ?1 mm in diameter are formed, round, convex, with flat edges, a zone of ?-hemolysis. Moraxella bovoculi is an optional aerobic microorganism, it does not ferment sugars, does not form indole, does not dilute gelatin, it positively responses to oxidase and negatively - for a sample with litmus milk. The strain «SKH-CH6 ¹-DEP» Moraxella bovoculi, isolated from calves infected with infectious keratoconjunctivitis, is deposited in the All-Russian state collection of microorganism strains for veterinary and animal health needs. The strain is characterized by a complete set of antigens, typical for bacteria Moraxella bovoculi. The strain actively forms endotoxin, which transforms into an anatoxin under the influence of heat and formalin. The toxin produced has hemolytic and necrotic effects. Pathogen for white mice, LD50 is 5.0 x 108 microbial cells. Formalin-inactivated bacterial culture with subcutaneous administration induces the formation of specific antibodies to Moraxella bovoculi bacteria in the calves of 2-4 months of age and the formation of specific immunity. 

Keywords: cattle, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pathogen, Moraxella bovoculi, biological properties.
1. Kliniko-epizootologicheskiye osobennosti infektsionnykh diarey novorozhdennykh telyat i osnovnyye printsipy ikh profilaktiki i lecheniya [Clinical and epizootological features of infectious diarrhea in newborn calves and the main principles of their prevention and treatment] / KH.Z. Gaffarov, G.N.Spiridonov, F.V.Yeliseyeva, M.A. Yefimova [et al.] // Trudy pervogo syezda vet. vrachey RT. – Kazan. – 1995. – P. 163-167.
2. Gaffarov, KH.Z. Infektsionnyy keratokonyunktivit krupnogo rogatogo skota [Cattle Infectious keratoconjunctivitis] / KH.Z.Gaffarov, A.V.Ivanov, L.V.Valebnaya, G.N.Spiridonov, L.SH.Dupleva, M.A.Yefimova // Veterinariya. – 2007. – ¹12. – P.21-24. 
3. Karaychentsev, D.V. Sovershenstvovaniye laboratornoy diagnostiki infektsionnogo keratokonyunktivita krupnogo rogatogo skota [Improving laboratory diagnostics of cattle infectious keratoconjunctivitis]: abstract from dissertation thesis for candidate of veterinary sciences. / D.V.Karaychentsev. – Moskva. – 2016. – 23 p.
4. Patent 2521651 Rossiyskoy Federatsii., MPK Ñ12N1/20, À61Ê39/00. Shtamm bakteriy Moraxella bovoculi «SKH-CH6 ¹-DEP», ispolzuyemyy dlya izgotovleniya diagnostikumov i vaktsin protiv infektsionnogo keratokonyunktivita krupnogo rogatogo skota [Patent 2521651 the Russian federation, IPC Ñ12N1/20, À61Ê39/00.  The bacterial strain Moraxella bovoculi «SKH-CH6 ¹-DEP» used for the manufacture of diagnosticums and vaccines against infectious keratoconjunctivitis of cattle] / A.V.Ivanov, G.N.Spiridonov, A.A.Ivanov, L.V.Valebnaya, YU.V.Yusupova, A.G.Spiridonov, A.R.Nurgaliyeva, KH.N.Makayev; applied by «Federal Center of toxicological, radiation, and toxicological safety». – ¹ 2521651; published on 10.07.2014, Bulletin ¹ 19. – 6 p.
5. Patent. 2589819 Rossiyskoy Federatsii, MPK À61Ê35/74, À61Ê33/06, À61Ê31/115, À61Ð31/04. Vaktsina protiv infektsionnogo keratokonyunktivita krupnogo rogatogo skota na osnove antigenov bakteriy Moraxella bovis i Moraxella bovoculi [Patent# 2589819 the Russian federation, IPC À61Ê35/74, À61Ê33/06, À61Ê31/115, À61Ð31/04. Cattle infectious keratoconjunctivitis vaccine based on Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi bacterial antigens ] / G.N.Spiridonov, A.V.Ivanov, A.N.Chernov, A.G.Spiridonov, A.A.Ivanov, L.V.Valebnaya, KH.N.Makayev, R.KH.Yusupov, L.SH.Dupleva; applied by and patent owner: FGBU «Federal Center of toxicological, radiation, and toxicological safety».  – ¹2589819; published on 10.07.2016, Bulletin ¹ 19. – 10 p.
6. Sidorov, M.A. Opredelitel zoopatogennykh mikroorganizmov: Spravochnik [The determinant of zoopathogenic microorganisms: Handbook] / M.A.Sidorov, D.I.Skorodumov, V.B.Fedotov. – Moscow: Kolos. – 1995. – P. 169-176.
7. Spiridonov, G.N. Infektsionnyy keratokonyunktivit krupnogo rogatogo skota [Cattle Infectious keratoconjunctivitis] / G.N.Spiridonov // Problemy profilaktiki i borby s osobo opasnymi, ekzoticheskimi i maloizuchennymi infektsionnymi boleznyami zhivotnykh - Problems of prevention and control of animal particularly dangerous, exotic, and under-investigated infectious diseases: proceedings from the Int.Sci.conference dedicated to 50th anniversary of All-Russian Research Veterinary Virology and Microbiology. – P 2. – Pokrov. – 2008. – P. 195-197.
8. Spiridonov, G.N. Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii po diagnostike, lecheniyu i spetsificheskoy profilaktike infektsionnogo keratokonyunktivita krupnogo rogatogo skota, vyzvannogo bakteriyami Moraxella bovis i Moraxella bovoculi [Methodical recommendations for detection, treatment and specific prevention of cattle infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by bacteria Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi] / G.N.Spiridonov, KH.Z.Gaffarov, A.I.Nikitin, K.KH.Papunidi, L.V.Valebnaya, A.N.Chernov, L.SH.Dupleva, A.G.Spiridonov, KH.N.Makayev // Moscow. – 2016. – 27 p.
9. Angelos, J.A. Moraxella bovoculi sp. nov., isolated from calves with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis / J.A.Angelos, P.Q.Spinks, L.M.Ball, L.W.George // Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. - 2007. – V.57. – P. 789-795.
10. Angelos, J.A. Differentiation of Moraxella bovoculi sp. nov. from other coccoid moraxellae by the use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis of amplified DNA / J.A.Angelos, L.M.Ball // J.Vet. Diagn. Invest. – 2007. V. 19 – P. 532-534.
11. Angelos, J.A. Recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin-ISCOM matrix adjuvanted vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis / J.A.Angelos, L.M.Ball // Vet Res Commun. – 2010. – Mar. – ¹ 34 (3). – Ð. 535–537.
12. Galvao, K.N. Ulcerative blepharitis and conjunctivitis in adult dairy cows and association with Moraxella bovoculi / N.K.Galvao, J.A.Angelos // Can Vet J. – 2010. – V.51(4). – P. 400–402.

  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: Shamsutdinova N.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Rodionov A.P. – student.
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17; e-mail:nadja1212@mail.ru).

The article provides the hematological studies of pyroplasmosis-infected dogs. 15 dogs aged from 1 year up to 3 years old and different breeds were the object of the experiment. Animals were divided into three groups with five dogs per group. In the experimental animal pyroplasmosis was registered basing on clinical symptoms and a microscopy of peripheral blood smears. The results of microscopy studies of a smear - a print of peripheral blood showed that the presence of inclusions – pyroplasmas in erythrocytes. After the infection was registered the infected animals were exposed to treatment. The animals from group I were treated during two days, animals from group II were treated during 5 days, animals from group III were treated during 10 days in average. During treatment the general blood test was taken to evaluate the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, a hemoglobin and an ESR, and also biochemical parameters of blood serum: activity of aminotransferases – ALT, nuclear heating plant; alkaline phosphatase; general bilirubin, creatinine and urea. Blood sampling was carried out on the day an animal was accepted, a week after the treatment started and in 1 month. The blood test results confirmed that the early treatment of pyroplasmosis-infected dogs (since the first day of clinical signs manifestation) allows dog full recovery. Late addressing of dogs with long implication of the infection clinical symptoms (3-5 days) results in destructive changes that is confirmed by data of morphological and biochemical blood tests and can develop into chronic forms of kidney inflammation and liver parenchyma.

Keywords: treatment of dogs, diagnostics, piroplasmosis, blood test
1. Hristianovskiy, P.I. Babezioz sobak v usloviyah sovremennogo goroda [Babezioz of dogs in the conditions of the modern city] / P.I.Hristianovskiy, V.V.Belimenko // Izvestiya Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. – Orenburg. – 2008. – P. 2. – P. 105-106.
2. Zahler, M. Rinder: Babesia gibsoni of dogs from North America and Asia belong to different species / M.Zahler, H.Rinder, E.Zweygarth // Vet. Parasitology. Munich. Germany. – 2001. – B. 69, ¹5. – P. 365–369.
3. Samoylova, A.S. Algoritm biohimicheskoy otsenki funktciy pecheni pri babezioze sobak [Algorithm of biochemical assessment of functions of a liver at a babezioza of dogs] / A.S.Samoylova, M.A.Derho // Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. – Novosibirsk. – 2012. – P.4. – Vol.25. – P.73-77. 
4. Zahler, M. Detection of a new pathogenic Babesia microti-like species in dogs / M.Zahler, H.Rinder, E.Schein, R.Gothe // Vet. Parasitology. - Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc. – Munich. Germany. – 2000. – B. 89. - ¹3. – P. 241-248.
5. Engashev, S.V. Babezan. Primenenie preperata pri piroplazmoze sobak [Use of medicine at a piroplasmosis of dogs] / Engashev, S.V. [et al.] // Veterinarniy Piterburg. – 2012. Vol.2. – P. 24-27.
6. Petrov, V.V. Izuchenie deystviya prepereta «Helavit» dlya inektsiy v kompleksnoy terapii pri piroplasmoze sobak [Studying of effect of the medicine "Helavit" for injections in complex therapy at a piroplasmosis of dogs] / V.V.Petrov, N.V.Barkalova, N.V.Moskalyova // Uchyoniye Zapiski UO VGAVM. – Vitebsk. – 2014. – P. 50. – Part. 1. – P. 56-59.
7. Solovyova, L.N. Lechenie sobak pri babezioze [Therapy of a babezioz of dogs] / L.N.Solovyova // Mater. Dokl. Nauch. Konf. «Teoriya i praktika borbi s parazitarnimi boleznjami». – Ìoscow – 2010. – Vol. 11. – P. 453-457.
8. Gorshenina, D.F. Diagnostika babezioza sobak [Diagnostics of a babezioz of dogs] / D.F.Gorshenina // Veterinarniy Piterburg. – 2013. Vol.3. – P. 34-38.
9. Piroplazmoz sobak: podhodi k diagnostike [Piroplasmosis of dogs: approaches to diagnostics] / R.F. Tuhfatova // Agrarnaiya nauka – innovatsionnomu razvitiyu APK v sovremennih usloviyah: mater. mezhd. nauchno-pract. konf. – Igevsk: FGBOU VPO Igevskaya, 2013. – P. 3. – 254p.
10 .Sidorkin, V.A. Terapia babezioza sobak [Therapy of a babezioz of dogs] / V.A.Sidorkin, V.N.Zubarev // Moscow – Veterinarniy doctor. – 2010.
11. Shevelyova, I.A. Babezioz sobak: aktualnost, diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika [Babezioz of dogs: relevance, diagnostics, treatment, prevention] / I.A.Shevelyova // Molodyjzh i nauka. Uralskiy GAU. – Ekaterinburg. – 2012. – Vol.1. – P.120-122. 



Authors: Samsonova T.S. – Candidate of Biological Sciences
The South-Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk (e-mail: tkirsanova1@rambler.ru).

On the territory of Chelyabinsk region intense ecological situation develops. The reasons are as follows: a number of developing and functioning metallurgical and mining processing plants, power stations. It also should be reminded that the South Urals province have formed an areas with unique composition of soil, water and plant feed. Taken together, these factors lead to the formation of natural and man-induced provinces where priority pollutants are nickel, lead, cadmium and others. The carried out investigations showed that according to the degree of pollution the territories in the area can be classified into three groups: those with high level of pollution, regions of moderate pollution and relatively clean regions. In the farms, located in the areas with moderate level of contamination the animals tended to have clinical signs of bone diseases, in the farms with a high level of environmental contamination the farm animals tended to have hepatoses, and in relatively clean areas animals usually had rumen acidosis. The conventional treatment methods did not have therapeutic effect. The aim of the work was to identify the extent and nature of the symptoms of cattle non-contagious diseases cattle in environmentally polluted areas and the development of effective methods of treatment. All cows in the experimental groups had diet enriched with vermiculite. For treatment of cows with rumen acidosis I-sak yeast culture was used; for cows with osteodistrophia calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate was used, for animals with hepatoses Depolen, a selenium containing drug was applied. All the animals were exposed to symptom-based treatment according to the registered diseases. At the end of the experimental period the experimental group of cows had normalized metabolic rate, antioxidant protection, rumen contents, as well as increased productivity in comparison with the control group. Thus, the proposed treatment methods economically justified and have a high therapeutic effect.

Keywords: environmental toxicants (Nickel, lead, cadmium), cows, osteodistrophia, hepatoses, rumen acidosis, technogenic provinces, comprehensive treatment plan, yeast culture, selenium-containing drug.
1. Pogolov'e skota, proizvodstvo produkcii zhivotnovodstva v CHelyabinskoj oblasti za yanvar' – sentyabr' 2015 goda [Livestock production livestock production in the Chelyabinsk region in January] – September 2015: Statistical Bulletin. – Chelyabinsk, 2015: Federal state statistics service. Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Chelyabinsk region (Chelyabinskstat). ¹ 06/36. – 2015. – 63 p. 
2. Gertman, A.M. Itogi dispanserizacii sredi molochnyh korov v zone ehkologicheskogo neblagopoluchiya [Results of medical examination among dairy cows in the area of ecological accident] / A.M.Gertman, T.S.Samsonova // Kadrovoe i nauchnoe obespechenie innovacionnogo razvitiya otrasli zhivotnovodstva – Recruitment and scientific support of innovative development of livestock farming: proceedings from Int.sci.conferecne. – Kazan, 2010. – P. 524–526. 
3. Gertman, A.M. Farmakokorrekciya obmennyh processov v organizme vysokoproduktivnyh korov v usloviyah CHelyabinskoj oblasti [Pharmacocorrection metabolic processes in the organism of highly productive cows in the conditions of the Chelyabinsk region] / A.M.Gertman, T.S.Samsonova // Agrarny vestnik Urala. – 2012. – ¹ (97). – P. 29-31.
4. Gertman, A.M. Lechenie korov pri osteodistrofii v usloviyah YUzhnogo Urala [Treatment of cows with osteodistrophia in the Southern Urals] / A.M.Gertman, T.S.Samsonova, V.I.Ishmenev // Veterinariya. – 2012. – ¹. 1. – P. 43-46.
5. Acidoz rubca – kak faktor, sderzhivayushchij molochnuyu produktivnost [The rumen acidosis as a deterrent for milk production] / A.M.Gertman [et al] / Recruitment and scientific support of innovative development of livestock farming: proceedings from Int.sci.conference. – Vol. 203. – P. 83-88.
6. Effektivnost' vermikulita v sochetanii s himioterapevticheskimi preparatami pri nezaraznoj patologii i ego vliyanie na produktivnost' zhivotnyh [The efficiency of vermiculite in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs for non-communicable disease and its effect on animal performance] / A.M.Gertman [et al.] // Agrarnyj vestnik Urala. – 2011. – ¹ 11 (90). – P 13–14.
7. Kabysh, A.A. Narushenie fosforno-kal'cievogo obmena u zhivotnyh na pochve nedostatka i izbytka mikroehlementov v zone YUzhnogo Urala [The Violation of phosphoric-calcium metabolism in animals on the basis of deficiency and excess of trace elements in the zone of the Southern Urals] / A.A.Kabysh. – CHelyabinsk: CHelyabinskij dom pechati, 2006. – 408 p.
8. Gertman, A.M. Sposoby korrekcii obmennyh processov pri nezaraznoj patologii produktivnyh korov v usloviyah tekhnogennyh provincij YUzhnogo Urala [Methods of correction of metabolic processes in non-infectious pathology productive cows in the conditions of technogenic provinces of the Southern Urals] / A.M.Gertman, T.S.Samsonova // Proceedings of the Orenburg state agrarian University. – 2014. – ¹ 1 (45) P. 65–68.
9. Innovacionnye podhody k kompleksnomu lecheniyu nezaraznoj patologii v usloviyah tekhnogennyh provincij YUzhnogo Urala [Innovative approaches to integrated management of non-communicable diseases in the conditions of technogenic provinces of the Southern Urals] / A.M.Gertman [et al.] // Veterinarnyj vestnik. – 2012. – ¹ 3 (138). – P. 5–7.
10. Korrekciya pokazatelej obmena mineral'nyh soedinenij pri osteodistrofii molochnyh korov v usloviyah prirodno-tekhnogennoj provincii YUzhnogo Urala [Correction of indicators of exchange of mineral compounds in osteodistrophia dairy cows in the conditions of natural-technogenic province of the Southern Urals ] / A.M.Gertman [et al.] // Nauchnoe obespechenie ustojchivogo funkcionirovaniya i razvitiya APK – Scientific support of sustainable functioning and development of agrarian sector: proceedings from all-Russian scientific-practical conference.– Ufa. – 2009. –Part III. – P. 206-209.
11. Samsonova, T.S. Sposoby lecheniya nezaraznoj patologii laktiruyushchih korov v usloviyah prirodno-tekhnogennyh provincij [Methods for the treatment of non-infectious pathology of the dairy cows in the conditions of natural-technogenic provinces] / T.S.Samsonova // APK Rossii. – 2015. – ¹ 72/1. – P.147–152.
12. Sharabrin, I.G. Profilaktika narushenij obmena veshchestv u molochnyh korov [Prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows] // I. G. Sharabrin. – Moscow: Kolos, 1975. – 304 p.
13. Metody veterinarnoj klinicheskoj laboratornoj diagnostiki: spravochnik [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics: Reference book] / Edited by Professor I. P.Kondrahin. – Moscow : KolosS, 2004. – 520 p.
14. Ahtyamov, R.YA. EHkologicheskie aspekty primeneniya vermikulita v sel'skom hozyajstve [Environmental aspects of the use of vermiculite in agriculture] / R.Y.Akhtyamov. – Chelyabinsk: VNIIVSGE, 1999. – P. 16-18.


Authors: Konyuhov G.V. – Doctor of Biology, professor; Tarasova N.B. – Doctor of Biology; Vasilevski N.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Aslanov R.M. – Doctor of Biology, professor.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (tel. +7 (843) 239-53-20, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

Large-scale environmental pollution by the products of radioactive decay and the increase in natural background radiation in the biosphere currently is recognized as one of the most important negative changes. In this regard, the issue of assessing the radiation situation in the regions of the Russian Federation, and obtaining livestock products and food products that meet the safety requirements remain relevant. The paper presents the results of radiation monitoring in the Lipetsk and Leningrad regions and the Republic of Mari El. The radiation situation in the regions was found as stable, corresponding to a long-term average values. Gamma background is 0.05 and 0.26 µsv/h; volumetric beta activity - 0,9-2,2 E-4 Bq/m3; the specific activity of air cesium-137 - 0,6-4,6 E-6; strontium-90 - 0,7-4,8 E-7. The content of cesium-137 in meat is equal to 0,04-0,67; in milk – 0,03-0,21; potato – 0,04-0,20;  bread – 0,04-0,07; strontium-90 in meat - 0,04-0,06; milk – 0,03-0,06; potato – 0,01-0,08; the bread – 0,04-0,07 Bq/kg. Density of soil contamination with cesium-137 ranges from 0.37 63,76 kBq/m2. 2056 samples of crop, livestock products and foodstuffs (grain, fodder, meat, milk, dairy, meat, confectionery and other goods) received in the testing Center of FSBI "FCTRB-arrvi" were studied. The test results showed that the content of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic origin in the samples meets the requirements of the Sanitation Regulations and Norms, VP 13.5.13/06-01, NRB-99/2009 and TR/TC 2011 therefore they can be used. The conducted studies showed no exceed of intervention on all factors of radiation safety of the population, as in the radiation situation and environmental safety of products produced in the regions.

Keywords: regions, monitoring, pollution, radionuclides
1. Srednie individual'nye godovye ehffektivnye dozy oblucheniya naseleniya za schet prirodnyh istochnikov ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya 2016 g. (po dannym izmerenij za period s 2001 po 2010 gg.) [The average individual annual effective doses of irradiation for human on the account of natural resources of ionizing irradiation in 2016] // Dozy oblucheniya naseleniya Rossijskoj Federacii v 2010 godu – Irradiation doses in the Russian Federation in 2010. – SPb.: Sankt-Peterburgskij nauchno-issledovatel'skij institut radiacionnoj gigieny im. prof. P.V.Ramzaeva, 2011. – URL: http://dom.dacha-dom.ru/radon-rossiya – (visited on: 17.05.2017).
2. Mihajlov, V.N. Yadernye ispytaniya v SSSR [Nuclear trials in the USSR] / V.N.Mihajlov. – Sarov: Rossijskij Federal'nyj YAdernyj Centr (RFYAC-VNIIEHF), 1997. – 298 p. – http://elib.biblioatom.ru/text/yadernye-ispytaniyasssr_1997/go,6/ – (visited on: 17.05.2017).
3. Hronologiya yadernyh ispytanij v SSSR [The chronology of nuclear trials in the USSR]. – URL: http://smartnews.ru/articles/9231.html – (visited on: 17.05.2017).
4. Istochniki oblucheniya dlya naseleniya Rossii [Sources of irradiation for Russian popualtion]. – URL: http://www.ibrae.ac.ru/russian/chernobyl-3d/man/1.htm – (visited on: 17.05.2017). 
5. Rylov, M.I. Sistemnyj analiz i ocenka radiacionnoj obstanovki v Leningradskoj oblasti [Systemic analysis and assessment of radiation state]/ M.I.Rylov, M.N.Tihonov // Pro Atom. – URL: http://www.proatom.ru/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=6796 – (visited on: 17.05.2017).
6. Radiacionnaya obstanovka na territorii Rossii i sopredel'nyh gosudarstv [Radiation background in the Russian Federation territory and bordering states]/ Ministerstvo prirodnyh resursov i ehkologii RF, FS po gidrometeorologii i monitoringu okruzhayushchej sredy, FGBU NPO «Tajfun» - The Russian Federation Ministry of natural resources and ecology, Federal Service on hydrometeorology and monitoring of environment, FGBU NPO «Tajfun». – Obninsk, 2012. – 298 p. – URL: http://www.rpatyphoon.ru/upload/medialibrary/3b3/ezhegodnik_ro_2011.pdf – (visited on: 17.05.2017).
7. Dannye po radioaktivnomu zagryazneniyu territorii naselyonnyh punktov Rossijskoj Federacii ceziem - 137, stronciem – 90 i plutoniem - 239+240 [Data on radioactive contamination with Cesium-137, Strontium-90, and Plutonium-239+240  in the Russian federation] / edited by  S.M.Vakulovsky. – Obninsk: FGBU NPO «Tajfun», 2016. – 216 p. – URL: http://www.rpatyphoon.ru/upload/medialibrary/e38/sbornik_2016.pdf – (visited on: 17.05.2017).
8. Avariya na CHernobyl'skoj AES i ee posledstviya [The accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station and its consequences]. – URL: https://ria.ru/spravka/20130426/934551998.html – (visited on: 17.05.2017).