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  Toxicology
   
Title:

CYTOGENETIC AFFECT OF ZEARALENON FUSARIUM TOXIN

   
Authors: 1Idiyatov I.I. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Valiullin L.R. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Birulya V.V. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Gallyamova S.R. master; 1Papunidi K.Kh. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Nikitin A.I. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Kazan Federal University, Kazan.

   
Abstract:
The article provides the results of the study of zearalenon cytotoxic effect on calf fetal lung epithelium cells at 24 hours in DMEM culture medium. The toxin was added to the cell culture medium at doses of 2000, 1000, 500, 100 and 50 ng/ml. Morphological and cultural parameters of cells after toxin exposure was assessed by their morphology (cell monolayer - by coating the surface of wells, cell shape, presence of dead cells and cell aggregates), proliferative (the ratio of the grown cells number per total number of cells) and mitotic activity (ratio of the number mitotically divided cells per total number of cells), survival rate of cells (ratio of the number of alive cells per total number of cells), the level of cytotoxicity (cytotoxicity was calculated according to the methods proposed by Dyakonov L.P. and Chervonskaya G.P.). The correlation of the concentration of zearalenon and its effect on cells was determined. High doses of the toxin led to the lack of cell monolayer, changing their shape, fragmentation, suppression of cellular division process and a higher death rate of cells. The toxin concentrations lower than 500 ng/ml did not affect the formation of a monolayer and did not change their morphology. The dosage of 2000 ng/ml culture medium resulted in a lower number of live cells in comparison with the controls for 26.39%, 1000 ng / ml - for 9.72%, and doses of 500 and 100 ng/ml for 5.56 and 4.17% accordingly. Cell viability was lower than that of the controls for 13.95; 9.54; 4.23 and 4.00% accordingly. Zearalenon affected the cell proliferation at doses higher than 1000 ng/ml and mitotic activity at dosages higher than 2.000 ng/ml. The calculated by the Chervonskaya G.P. method zearalenone cytotoxicity index at doses of 100; 500; 1000 and 2000 ng / ml reduced by 25; 27; 58 and 85% in comparison with the controls, according to the method Dyakonov L.P. cytotoxicity index exceeded the reference value for 2.38; 4.76; 9.52 and 35.71%, respectively. The cytotoxicity indexes of zearalenone at 50 ng/ml did not differ from the control. According to the studies the maximum tolerated dose for zearalenone in fetal calf lung epithelium cells was 50 ng/ml.

   
Keywords: zearalenone, fetal calf lung epithelium cells, morphology, cytometry, survival, proliferation, mitotic activity, cytotoxicity, maximum tolerated dose.
   
References:
1. Diagnostika, profilaktika i lechenie sochetannih otravleniy zhivotnih vtorichnimi metabolitami microscopicheskih gribov roda Fusarium: Metodicheskoe posobie [Detection, prevention, and treatment of associated poizonings with secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi: guideline] / A.V.Ivanov [et al.]. Kazan: FTSRB-VNIVI, 2012. 56 p.
2. Bennet, J.W. Mycotoxins / J.W. Bennet, M. Klich // Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2003; 16(3): 497516.
3. Shephard, G.S. Human health impacts and risk assessment of mycotoxins. / G.S.Shephard // Proceedings international workshop. Reduction of Mycotoxins in Production Chains of EU and Russia: Modern investigations and Practical Features. Moscow. 2011. P. 12-14.
4. GOST R 53093-2008 Zerno i produkty yego pererabotki, kombikorma. Opredelenie soderzhaniya zearalenona metodom vysokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii [Crops and the processed products from crops. Assessment of zearalenon level using highly efficient method of fluid chromatography]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2010. 11 p.
5. O nakoplenii zearalenona v travyanih kormah i toksinobrazyushei aktivnosti gribov roda Fusarium [On deposition of zearalenon in herbal fodders and toxin-formation activity of Fusarium fungi] / A.A.Byrkin, G.P.Kononenko, O.P.Gavrilova, T.U.Gagkaeva // Agrobiology. 2015. Vol. 50. P.255-262.
6. Bouaziz, C. The in vitro effects of zearalenone and T-2 toxins on Vero cells / C.Bouaziz, A.Bouslimi, R.Kadri, C.Zaied, H.Bacha, S.Abid-Essefi // Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2013. P. 497-501.
7. Mazat, J.P. Mitochondrial energetic metabolism-some general principles / J.P.Mazat, S.Ransac, M. Heiske et al. // IUBMB Life. 2013; 65: 171179.
8. Obremski, K. Zearalenone induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in porcine ilealPeyers patch lymphocytes / K.Obremski, G.Poniatowska-Broniek // MC Genomics. 2016 Aug 17;17: 646. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-2984-8.
9. Behm, C. Cytotoxic potency of mycotoxins in cultures of V79 lung fibroblast cells / C.Behm, W.Follmann, G.H.Degen // J.Toxicol. Environ. Health. 2012; 75(19-20): 1226-31.
10. Bouaziz, C. The in vitro effects of zearalenone and T-2 toxins on Vero cells / C.Bouaziz, A.Bouslimi, R.Kadri et al. // Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2013 Jul.; 65(5): 497-501.
11. Combes, R.D. Ethical investment--what is it, and what are the implications for industry funding of research into alternatives / R.D. Combes, M. Balls // Altern. Lab. Anim. 2001 Jan-Feb; 29(1): 55-62.
12. Eskov, A.P. Mehanizm povregdauhego deistviya bacterialnogo endotoksina [Destroying mechanism of bacterial endotoxin] / A.P.Eskov, R.I.Kaumov, A.E.Sokolov // Efferentnaya terapiya. - 2003. Vol.1 2. P. 71-74.
13. Dyakonov, L.P. Zhivotnaya kletka v kulture (Metody i primememie v biotehnologii) [Using an animal cell for cultivation (Methods and implementation in Biotechnology) / L.P.Dyakonov. Moscow: Sputnik+, 2009. 656 p.
14. Tsititoksicheskoe deistvie himicheskih vechestv, sodergachihsya v vide primesei v nekotoryh meditsinskih immunobiologicheskih preparatah [Cytotoxic effect of chemical substances present as in some medical immunobiological drugs] / G.P.Chervonskaya [et al.] // Microbiol., epidemiol. i immynobiol., 1988. Vol.12. P. 85-90.

   
   
Title:

MYCOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FODDERS FROM KUZHENERSKY REWGION, THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL

   
Authors: 1Smolentsev S.Yu. Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 2Papunidi E.K. Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 1Polikarpov I.N. student.
   
Address:
1Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola (tel. +7(8362) 68-79-32, -mail: rector@marsu.ru).
2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17).

   
Abstract:
The references show that spread of microscopic fungi that produce mycotoxins in various regions of Russia is poorly understood; therefore it is difficult to predict the emergence of mycotoxicoses. The aim of this research was to study the level of fodder contamination with fungi in Kuzhenersky region, the republic of Mari El. Sanitation and mycological assessment of fodders from Kuzhenersky region was carried out in chemical and toxicological laboratory of the Republican veterinary laboratory. The general toxicity of the samples was determined according to the State Standard No.R52337-2005. The mycotoxic content was calculated using bioautographic method and chromatography was carried out using Candida pseudotropicalis strain 44 strain culture. The mycological studies showed that the contaminated fodders were simultaneously contaminated with several species of the pathogenic fungi. The following species were identified in descending order: Aspergillus flavus and Asptrgillus niger gerera species were isolated in 27.3% of fodder samples, Mucor - 27%, Penicillium - in 11.9%, Risopus - in 11.9% Althernarium - to 6.1%, Cladosporium - to 2.9%, Trichoderma viride in 0.4% accordingly. The most toxigenic Fusarium species were not isolated in the study. The general toxicity studies showed that 17.5% of fodders were found as toxic, 24.9% - slightly toxic, and 57.6% - non-toxic.

   
Keywords: monitoring, feed, mycological evaluation, prevalence, pathogenic fungi, Mari El, quality
   
References:
1. Sanitarno-mikologicheskaya otsenka kormov i uluchsheniye ih kachestv [Sanitation and mycological evaluation and quality improvement of fodders] / .V.Ivanov [te al.]. oscow: Rosinformagrotekh, 2006. 32 p.
2. Mikotoksikozy (biologicheskiye i veterinarniye aspekty) [Mycotoxicoses (the biological and veterinary aspects)] / .V.Ivanov, V.I.Fisinin, M.Ya.Tremasov, K.H.Papunidi. Moscow: Kolos, 2010. 392 p.
3. Mikotoksikozy zhivotnyh (etiologiya, diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika) [Animal mycotoxicoses (etiology, detection, treatment, prevention) / .V.Ivanov, M.Ya.Tremasov, K.H.Papunidi, ..Chulkov. oscow: Kolos, 2008. 140 p.
4. Buryak, V.N. Mikotoksikozy sviney i ih profilaktika [Swine mycotoxicoses and their prevention] / V.N. Buryak // Zootehniya. 2007. Vol. 9. P. 1416.
5. Gogin, .. Mikotoksiny: znacheniye i kontrol [Mycotoxicoses: effect and control] / ..Gogin // Veterinariya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh. 2007. Vol. 10. P. 810.
6. Gurkina, L.V. Zagryazneniye okruzhayuschey sredy kak factor oslableniya immunnoy zaschity krupnogo rogatogo skota [Environment pollution as a factor of weakening of cattle immunity defense] / L.V.Gurkina, N.I.Zhuravleva // Toksikozy zhivotnyh i aktualniye problemy bolezney molodnyaka Animal toxicoses and current health problems of young animals: proceedings from the Int. sci. conf., kazan, 26-27 Oct., 2006. Kazan, 2006. P. 7680.
7. Daminov, R.R. Hronicheskiye mikotoksikozy v ptitsevodstve [Chronic mycotoxicoses in poultry breeding] / R.R. Daminov // Kombikorma. 2007. Vol. 1. P. 8586.
8. Donnik, I.. Metodologicheskiye podhody otsenki vliyaniya okruzhayuschey sredy na sostoyaniye zdorovya zhivotnyh [Methodical approaches on evaluation of environment effect on animal health] / I.. Donnik, I.. Shkuratova, N..Vereschak // Agrarnaya nauka Evro-Severo-vostoka. 2006. Vol. 8. P. 169173.
9. Kuznetsov, A.F. Veterinarnaya mikologiya [Veterinary mycology] / A.F.Kuznetsov. Saint Petersburg: Lan, 2001. 416 p.
10. Kovalenko, A.V. Mikotoksiny v kormah: rastet ih pagubnoye vliyaniye na svinomatok [Presence of mycotoxins in fodders: their bad influence on sows increases] / .V.Kovalenko // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii 2008. Vol. 5. P. 2730.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

THE APPLICATION OF GIPROLAM PROBIOTIC DRUG FOR PROPHYLAXIS OF LATENT ENDOMETRITIS IN SOWS

   
Authors: 1Brigadirov Y.N. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 1Kotsarev V.N. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 1Shaposhnikov I.T. Doctor of Biological Sciences; 1Lobanov A.E. Junior Scientific Associate; 2Likhacheva I.L. Veterinarian of Specialized Farm.
   
Address:
1All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (e-mail: ldmvdc@mail.ru).
2Closed Joint-Stock CompanyYudanovskie prostory of Bobrovskiy district, Voronezh oblast.
   
Abstract:
The study were performed on 44 crossbreed sows (large white breed crossed with landrace). 23 intact animals served as control, while 21 sows were in the experimental group. The experimental animals were intravaginally administered the probiotic preparation "Giprolam in a dose of 50 ml per animal at 8-10 day of lactation for three days in a row with interval of 24 hours. Before drug administration and after weaning the samples of vaginal swabs from 5 sows per group were received to determine quantitative and qualitative parameters of microbiota. Smear-imprints of vaginal mucosa were obtained from sows during estrus, fixed in methanol, stained by Romanovsky-Gimza and subsequently examined by cytological methods to detect latent endometritis. The parameters of piglet performance, timeframe of reproductive cyclicity onset and fertility of sows were determined. "Giprolam" was determined to promote the optimization of indigenous microflora content in sow genital tract by reducing the concentration of opportunistic pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms, which favorably affected piglet performance, clinical state of sows, and timeframe of reproductive cyclicity onset and fertility of sows. In sows treated with "Giprolam" the microbial flora of genital tract contained lactobacteria for more than 3.6 times, bifidobacteria lg=0.35 while the content of E. coli was lower for 2.46 times, bacilli 4.0 times, Ent. faecalis 1.9 times, Ent. faecium 1.6 times, Staph. Aureus - 9.8%, Staph. epidermidis 1.4 times compared to the control group. Piglet production rate was higher for 7.4%, the body weight was higher for 3.4%, and survivability was higher for 4.3% than that of the control group. In sows receiving Giprolam the period of reproductive cyclicity onset was shorter by 0.9 day, the number of registered cases of hidden endometritis were lower by 1.8 times, and fertility was higher for 6% than that of the control group.

   
Keywords: Keywords: sows, latent endometritis, giprolam, prophylaxis.
   
References:
1. Netecha, V.I. Sistema mer po borbe s besplodiem svinomatok na promyshlennykh fermakh [The system of measures to control sow infertility in industrial farms] / V.I. Netecha, L.A. Mityagina // Zdorovye, pitanie biologicheskie resursy - Health, nutrition, biological resources. 2002. Vol.2 P. 417-425.
2. Danilko, L.M. Ginekologicheskie zabolevaniya svinomatok i ikh vliyanie na vosproizvodstvo stada [Gynecological diseases in sows and their effect on herd reproduction]: abstract of the thesis for candidate of veterinary sciences / L.M. Danilko. Odessa, 1975 26p.
3. Mikrobiologiya vlagalishcha. Korrektsiya mikroflory pri vaginalnykh disbakteriozakh: Uchebnoe posobie [Microbiology of vagina. Correction of microflora at vaginal disbacteriosis: Tutorial] / V.M. Korshunov [et al.]. Moscow:VUNNMTs Minzdrava RF, 1999. 80 p.
4. Rol mikroflory tservikalnogo kanala rodilnits v rannem puerperii v razvitii poslerodovogo endometrita [The role of microflora of cervical canal at early pureperia in development of endometritis] / G.N. Karimova [et al.] //Akushestvo i ginekologiya - Obstetrics and gynaecology. 2016. Vol. 11. p. 7177.
5. Rol mikrobnogo faktora v vozniknovenii i razvitii skrytykh vospalitelnykh protsessov v polovykh organakh u svinomatok [The role of microbial factor in emergence and development of latent inflammatory processes in genital tract in sows] / Yu.N. Brigadirov [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormlenie [Veterinary medicine and nutrition]. 2015. Vol. 4. P. 1417.
6. Kotsarev, V.N. Terapiya i profilaktika poslerodovykh bolezney u svinomatok s ispolzovaniem antimikrobnogo preparata norodin [Therapy and prophylaxis of postpartum diseases in sows using Noradin antimicrobial drug] / V.N.Kotsarev, V.Yu.Boyev // Svinovodstvo Pig breeding. 2011. Vol. 4. P. 5759.
7. Khlopitskiy, V.P. Simptomaticheskoe besplodie matochnogo pogolovya sviney na predpriyatiyakh promyshlennogo tipa i farmakologicheskaya korrektsiya ikh reproduktivnoy funktsii [Symptomatic infertility of total number of sows in industrial farms and pharmacological correction of their reproductive function]: abstract of from the thesis for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine] / V.P.Khlopitskiy. Voronezh, 2014. 48p.
8. Biryukov, M.V. Etiologiya poslerodovykh bolezney u svinomatok i profilaktika probiotikami: [Etiology of postpartum diseases in sows and their prophylaxis using probiotics]: abstract of the thesis for candidate of veterinary sciences / V.P. Biryukov. Voronezh, 2004. 26p.
9. Kotsarev, V.N. Profilaktika subklinicheskogo mastita u svinomatok s ispolzovaniem intestevita [Prophylaxis of subclinical mastitis in sows using Intestivit drug] / V.N.Kotsarev, O.N.Skrylnikov // Veterinarnyy vrach. 2010. Vol.3. P. 46-48.
10. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu preparata Giprolam dlya profilaktiki poslerodovogo endometrita u korov [A guideline on application of Giprolam drug for the prophylaxis of postpartum endometritis in cows]: Number of registration certificate 02-1-35.13-1784 PVR-1-35.13/02987: approved by E.A.Nepoklonov, deputy chief of the Russian survey and control body for agricultural products 22.11.2014. Timashevsk: Biotechagro, 2014. 2p.
11. Fredricks, D.N. Molecular identification of bacterial vaginosis / D.N.Fredricks, T.L.Fiedler, J.M.Marrazzo // N. Engl. J. Med. 2005. V. 353. . 18991911.
12. Fredricks, D.N. Molecular methods to describe the spectrum and dynamics of the vaginal microbiota / D.N.Fredricks // Anaerobe. 2011. 17. . 191195.

   
   
Title:

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF AFRICAN SWINE FEVER PREVENTION IN RUSSIA

   
Authors: 1Chernov A.N. Doctor of Biological Sciences; 2Chernyh O.YU. Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;3Gruzdev K.N. Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru; e-mail: rt-kazan@mail.ru).
2Kropotkin Regional Veterinary laboratory, Kropotkin (e-mail: gukkvl50@kubanvet.ru).
3Federal Centre for Animal Health (FGIARRIAH), Vladimir (e-mail: gruzdev@arriah.ru).

   
Abstract:
African swine fever (ASF), a particularly dangerous contagious trans-boundary viral disease of pigs, is currently registered on the Russian Federation territory and brings social and economic harm for the national agricultural sector. The aim of this work was to analyze epidemiological situation on ASF spread in the Russian Federation, study current regulations and practical aspects of the infection prevention. The analysis of the epidemical situation in chronological aspect showed that the ASF infection has been annually registered in the Russian Federation since 2007. During the period from 2008 to 2016 in the Russian Federation as high as 607 infected farms (648 epidemic foci) and 108 infected areas were identified. During the mention period the infected farms housed 990,975 animals of which 20,081 animals died, 963,000 animals were slaughtered, and 972,121 animals were destroyed. The minimal number of the infected swine farms was registered in 2014, 33 farms, while the maximal number was registered in 2016, 215 farms. The minimal number of destroyed farm pigs because of ASF infection was registered in 2015 19,775 animals, while the maximal number of slaughtered animals having ASF infection was registered in 2016 233,380 animals. The referential data on infected wild boars show that the infection is circulating in wild fauna, which promotes formation of stationary natural foci of the infection and maintenance and further development of epidemic processes in the Russian Federation territory. The article provides the analysis of veterinary regulations and practical measures securing swine farms from ASF infection. Due to the lack of ASF specific prevention and treatment measures health status in swine farms largely depends on awareness of the infection specific features, potential threats, and daily preventive routines by the managing and technical staff.

   
Keywords: African swine virus, epizootological analysis, veterinary regulations, practical recommendations
   
References:
1. Chernov, .N. Sovremenniye trebovaniya pri rabote s patogennymi biologicheskimi agentami v veterinarnyh laboratoriyah Rossiyskoy Federatsii [modern requirements at handling biological agents in veterinary laboratories in the Russian Federation] / A.N.Chernov // Veterinarny vrach. 2016. Vol.2. P.37.
2. Doktrina prodovolstvennoy bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The Russian Federation Doctrine of Food Safety]: approved by order of the president of the Russian Federation of 30.01.2010. 120 // Consultant.ru: webpage. P. 19.
3. Ivanov, A.V. Infektsionniye bolezni sviney (etiologiya, epizootologiya, diagnostika, profilaktika) [Swine contagious diseases (etiology, epizootology, detection, prevention) / .V.Ivanov, R.Kh.Yusupov. Kazan: FGU FTSTRB-ARRVI, 2005. 80 p.
4. Gosudarstvennaya programma razvtiya selskogo hozyaystva i regulirovaniya rynkov selskohozyaystvennoy produktsii, syrya i prodovolstviya na 2013-2020 gody [The state program of agriculture development and regulation of markets of agricultural products, materials, and food for the period of 2013 2020]: approved by the Decree of the Russian Federation Government of 14.07.2012. 717 / the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture. oscow, 2014. 204 p.
5. Infektsionniye bolezni sviney: uchebnoye posobiye [Swine contagious diseases: a handbook] / ..Shevchenko[et al.]. Krasnodar: Kuban State agrarian university, 2015. 332 p.
6. Ob utverzhdenii pravil opredeleniya zoosanitarnogo statusa svonovodcheskih hozyaystv, a takzhe organizatsiy, osuschestvlyayuschih uboy sviney, pererabotku i hraneniye produktsii svinovodstva [On establishment of regulations on determining the sanitation status of swine-breeding farms and facilities carrying out swine slaughter and storage of pork products]: the order of the Russian federation Ministry of Agriculture of 23.07.2010. 258 // Zakony, kodeksy, i normativno-pravoviye akty RF. P. 114.
7. Ob utverzhdenii veterinanyh pravil osuschestvleniya profilakticheskih, diagnosticheskih, ogranichitelnyh i inyh meropriyatiy, ustanovleniya i otmeny karantina i inyh ogranicheniy, napravlennyh na predovrascheniye rasprostraneniya i likvidatsii ochagov afrikanskoy chumy sviney [On approving the regulations for preventive, detection, constriction, and other measures, imposing and cancelling of quarantine and other constriction measures aiming on ASF spread control and elimination of foci]: the Decree of the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture of 31.05.2016. 213 // Rossiyskaya gazeta. 2016. Sept.8th. P. 116.
8. Ob utverzhdenii veterinarnyh pravil soderzhaniya sviney v tselyah ih vosproizvedeniya, vyrashivaniya i realizatsii [On approvement of veterinary regulations of swine housing for production, breeding, and selling]: the Decree of the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture of 29.03.2016. 114 // Elektronny fond pravovoy i normativno-tehnicheskoy dokumentasii. P. 112.

   
   
Title:

IMMUNOMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LYMPH NODES AFTER VACCINATION THE BULLS AGAINST NEKROBAKTERIOZIS

   
Authors: 1Babintseva T.V. postgraduate student; 1Mikheeva EA Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Makaev H.N. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 3Zalyalov I.N. Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
1Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk (e-mail: tanyavet86@hotmail.com).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
3Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the studies was to investigate immunomorphological changes in the lymph nodes of 14-15-months old bulls after vaccination with formol-emulsion vaccine against necrobacteriosis. For histological and morphological studies lymph nodes were sampled before vaccination and at 7, 14, 21 days and 6 months after vaccination. Sections 5-7 microns thick were taken from prescapular mediastenal and portal lymph nodes using SM-2 sliding microtome and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The studies of morphological parameters of the lymph nodes showed a considerable increase in superficial lymph node size. In visceral lymph nodes no significant changes were registered. In the prescapular lymph nodes, the number of secondary lymphoid nodules increased at 14 days of studies and was 15.67 1.41. The diameter of the lymphoid nodules had the highest size at 7 days after immunization and was 309.21 25.23 m. The mitotic activity in the germinal centers reached its peak at 21 days after vaccination and constituted 12.5 1.85m. In the mediastinal lymph nodes the number of secondary nodules was higher than that of the controls at 14 days after immunization and was 9.67 0.82 while the controls had 7.63 0.78. In the portal lymph nodes, the number of secondary lymphoid nodules the number of secondary nodules was for 1.5 times higher than that of the controls at 14 days and their diameter increased for 1.8 times. The vaccine antigens was determined to have a favorable long-term effect on the peripheral lymph nodes, induces a considerable increases of proliferative activity of lymphatic tissue cells in T-dependent areas at 7 days of the study while and B-dependent areas were activated from 14 to 21 days of observation. The postvaccination sings of activation in proliferative activity of lymphatic cells in internal organs was less pronounced, which can be explained by immunizing subinfection, continuous antigenic stimulation including introduction of fusobacteria through respiratory and digestion tracts.

   
Keywords: Keywords: necrobacteriosis, vaccination, immunity, pathological, histomorphology of lymph nodes.
   
References:
1. Dzhupina, S.I. Osobennosti profilaktiki nekrobakterioza krupnogo rogatogo skota / S.I.Dzhupina // Veterinariya segodnya. 2015. 2 (13). S. 2127.
2. Ivanov, A.V. Diagnostika, lechenie i profilaktika bolezney paltsev i nekrobaketrioza vyisokoproduktivnyih korov: uchebnoe posobie [Detection, treatment, and prevention of hooves diseases and necrobacteriosis in productive cows: a handbook] / A.V. Ivanov, Kh.N. Makaev, D.A. Khuzin. Voronezh: Istoki, 2013. 135p.
3. Melnikova, K.V. Printsipy obschey profilaktiki nekrobakterioza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Principles of general prevention of cattle necrobacteriosis] / K.V.Melnikova // Uchenyie zapiski KGAVM. - 2013. Vol. 214. P. 271276.
4. Miheeva, E.A. Osobennosti uhoda za kopyittsami krupnogo rogatogo skota: prakticheskoe posobie [Peculiarities of cattle hooves care: practical handbook] / E.A. Miheeva, L.A. Perevozchikov // Izhevsk: FGBOU VPO Izhevska GSHA. 2013. P. 51.
5. Assotsiirovannyie vaktsinyi "Nekovak" i "Ovikon" v sisteme meropriyatiy po profilaktike i borbe s infektsionnyimi boleznyami konechnostey krupnogo i melkogo rogatogo skota [Using Neovac and Ovikon associated vaccines as a part of measures to control and prevent cattle and sheep limbs diseases] / S.D.Panasyuk [et al.] // Veterinariya. 2010. Vol. 8. P. 710.
6. Bolezni paltsev i kopyitets u korov, ih profilaktika i lechenie [Cattle hooves diseases: their prevention and treatment] / D.A.Huzin [et al.] // Veterinarnyiy vrach. 2014. 5. P. 2429.
7. Puti ozdorovleniya hozyaystv ot bolezney paltsev, kopyitets i nekrobakterioza [The ways to cure cattle hooves diseases and necrobacteriosis] / D.A.Huzin [et al.] // Veterinariya segodnya Vol. 4(7). 2013. P. 2224.


   
   
Title:

APPLICATION OF AZOKSIVET DRUG FOR THERAPY OF MILD FORMS INTERSTINAL PARVOVIRAL ENTERITIS IN DOGS

   
Authors: Elizarova E.A. Candidate of Veterinary Science; Velikanov V.I. Doctor of Biological Sciences; Terentev S.S. postgraduate student; Klyapnev A.V. postgraduate student.
   
Address:
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (e-mail: anatomifarmitox@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: The aim of the work was to study the effect of "Azoksivet" drug in treatment of parvoviral enteritis of dogs. The studies were carried out using the control and experimental groups of dogs with similar symptoms of intestinal parvoviral enteritis. The general health was evaluated and blood was sampled for biochemical and hematological studies. The experimental animals were intravenously injected with "Azoksivet" drug in dosage of 3g / 10kg. At 5 days of therapy a significant difference in general health of animals from the control and experimental groups was registered. In the blood of the experimental animals a higher number of leukocytes than that of the control animals was registered (for 18%). Blood biochemical tests showed a higher level content of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glutamine transferase, in the controls these values reached the lower threshold of norm values at 10 days of the therapy. In the experimental animals the disease lasted for 81 days, it was shorter for 28.5% than in the controls (11 days). Death rate was 20 % in the control group while in the experimental group no lethal cases were registered. The investigation results showed that using "Azoksivet" drug in initial stages of intestinal forms of parvoviral enteritis with mild course significantly promotes the recovery of the disease.
   
Keywords: "Azoksivet" parvovirus enteritis of dogs, blood biochemistry, hematological blood parameters.
   
References:
1. Infektsionniye bolezni zhivotnyh [Animal infection diseases] / B.F.Bessarabov [et al]; edited by A. A.Sidorchuk. Moscow: KolosS, 2007. 520p.
2. Kondrahin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory detection] / I.P.Kondrahin. - Moscow: KolosS, 2004. 520p.
3. Haitov, R.M. Osnovnye printsipy immunomoduliruyushhey terapii [Basic principles of immunity inducing therapy] / R.M.Haitov, B.V.Pinegin // Allergia, astma klin. immunol. 2000. Vol. 1. P. 916.
4. Veterinary Disaster Medicine: Working Animals // Wayne E. Wingfield, Sherrie L. Nash, Sally B. Palmer, Jerry J. Upp. Willey-Blackwell, 2009.
5. Green R.M., Flamm S., 2002; AGA technical review on the evaluation of liver chemistry tests. Gastroenterologia p.1367
6. Joyce LeFever Kee, Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests with Nursing Implications// Prentice Hall, 2013.
7. Drs. Foster & Smith URL: http://www.drsfostersmith.com.
8. Zoomedvet URL: http://www.zoomedvet.ru/articles/lechenie/azoksivet-kompleksnyy-vysokotekhnologichnyy-immunomodulyator.

   
   
Title:

RABIES IN THE BELGOROD REGION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

   
Authors: Skvortsov V.N. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Nevzorova V.V. junior researcher; Skvortsova T.A. junior researcher; Prisnyi A.A. Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:
Belgorod Department of Ya.R. Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV), Belgorod, Russian Federation (e-mail: andreyprisny@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
A lot of people and farm animals used to die of rabies in the Russian Empire. The bite of rabid dogs was the main cause of the spread of rabies in humans and farm animals. At the beginning of the XX century, many counties began to pay more attention to anti-rabies measures, concentrating its efforts on the main source of the infection spread - stray dogs. The official veterinary reporting registered more and more dog rabies cases. It became necessary to develop common principles for rabies control shared by the all parts of the Russian Empire. In certain years rabies threatened to become epidemic in some parts of the country. Isolation of the infected animals, removal of corpuses, and disinfection of infected facilities were used to prevent and stop the disease spread. Statistical data on rabies were far from real state and did not reflect the actual spread of rabies among animals. The preventive measures on rabies control in cities included the publication of mandatory regulations on establishing a special tax for keeping dogs, putting muzzles on dogs and slaughter of stray dogs. For rural people there was one obligatory rule: all the dogs had to be on a leash in the case at least one dog developed clinical signs of rabies in nearby. The period for keeping dogs on a leash was set a local veterinarian. At the V Congress of veterinarians and representatives of Kursk province the "Project of mandatory regulations on veterinary and sanitary measures for prevention and termination of infectious diseases among domestic animals in Kursk Province", which regulated activities regarding rabies was adopted.

   
Keywords: rabies, epizootology, stray dogs, unfavorable settlement, control measures
   
References:
1. Skvortsov, V.N. Epizooticheskaya obstanovka v Novooskolskom uezde v kontse 19 nachale 20 vekov [Epizootic situation in Novooskolsky Uyezd in the late 19th early 20th centuries] / V.N.Skvortsov, E.N.Zaikina, V.V.Nevzorova, T.V.Stepanova // Veterinariya i kormlenie. 2014. Vol. 2. P. 39-41.
2. Skvortsov, V.N. Zemskaya veterinariya Oboyanskogo uezda Kurskoy gubernii [Local veterinary of Oboyan County Kursk province] / V.N.Skvortsov, E.N.Zaikina. Belgorod: Politerra, 2014. 192 p.
3. Skvortsov, V.N. Meropriyatiya po borbe s beshenstvom v Belgorodskom uezde v kontse 19 veka [Measures to control rabies in Belgorod district in the late 19th century] / V.N.Skvortsov [et al.] // Veterinariya i kormlenie. 2015. 5. P. 41-43.
4. Skvortsov, V.N. Epizooticheskaya obstanovka v Novooskolskom uezde v kontse 19 nachale 20 vekov [Epizootic situation in Novooskolsky County in the late 19th early 20th centuries] / V.N.Skvortsov, E.N.Zaikina, V.V.Nevzorova, T.V.Stepanova // Veterinariya i kormlenie. 2014. 2. P. 39-41.
5. Romanovich, M. Beshenstvo i borba s nim [The rabies and its control] / M. Romanovich // Trudy pervogo Vserossiyskogo ve-terinarnogo s'ezda v S.Peterburge 3-12 yanvarya 1903 g. 1903. Vol. 1. P. 193-194.
6. Otchyot veterinarnogo otdeleniya ministerstva vnutrennih del za 1903 god [The report of the veterinary department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1903]. S.-Peterburg: Tipografiya MVD, 1906. P. 39-40.
7. Skvortsov, V.N. Epizootologiya i borba s beshenstvom v Grayvoronskom uezde v kontse 19 nachale 20 vekov [Epizootology and rabies control in Grayvoronsky County in the late 19th early 20th centuries] / V.N.Skvortsov, V.V.Nevzorova // Byulleten nauchnyih rabot BelGSHA. 2012. Vol. 32. P. 55-59.
8. Skvortsov, V.N. Epizootologiya i mery borby s beshenstvom v Korochanskom uezde v kontse 19 nachale 20 vekov [Epizootology and rabies control measures in Korochansky County in the late 19th early 20th centuries] / V.N.Skvortsov, V.V.Nevzorova // Veterinarnaya patologiya. 2013. Vol. 2. P. 108-112.
9. Borisov, M.P. O merah borbyi s beshenstvom zhivotnyh [On animal rabies control measures] / M.P.Borisov // Trudy pyatogo soveschaniya veterinarnyh vrachey i predstaviteley zemstv Kurskoy gubernii. Kursk, 1911. P. 147-154.
10. Belitser, A.V. K voprosu o borbe s beshenstvom [On the issue of rabies control] / A.V.Belitser // Vestnik sovremennoy veterinarii. 1926. Vol. 5. P. 1-5.
11. Leclainche, E. Beshenstvo v Anglii [Rabies control in England] / E.Leclainche // Veterinarnoe obozrenie. 1899. Vol. 4. P. 495-499.
12. Dokladyi komissii po rassmotreniyu voprosov o primenenii vaktsin i lechebnyih syvorotok pri borbe s infektsionnymi boleznyami zhivotnyh [Reports of the Commission on the review of the application of vaccines and therapeutic sera in the control of infectious animal diseases] // Trudy chetvyortogo soveschaniya veterinarnyh vrachey i predstaviteley zemstv Kurskoy gubernii. Kursk Tipografiya Kurskogo gubernskogo zemstva. 1908. P. 41-49.
13. Zhurnaly komissii po rassmotreniyu pravil borby s zaraznymi boleznyami [The Journals of Commission review of rules to combat infectious diseases] //Trudy pyatogo soveschaniya veterinarnyh vrachey i predstaviteley zemstv Kurskoy gubernii. Kursk: Tipografiya Kurskogo gubernskogo zemstva, 1911. P. 23-50.

  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

OUR EXPERIENCE OF PERFORMING PARTIAL LATERAL CORPECTOMY IN THE THORACOLUMBAR REGION OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN IN DOGS

   
Authors: Kozlov N.A. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Bishal Bhattarai postgraduate student
   
Address:
Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology MVA named after Skryabin K.I. (e-mail: rector@mgavm.ru).

   
Abstract:
Studies related to treatment of spinal cord injuries, remains actual. Disc desease are the most common pathology, causing paresis and paralysis in dogs. Currently, the majority of surgical interventions used for management of spinal cord compression in thoracic-lumbar region of the vertebral column are carried using dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy. In this study, we have used new technique for the management of this pathology. The objective of this study is to determine the neurological outcome and factors affecting the result after the partial lateral corpoectomy (PLC), in dogs with of the intervertebral disc resulting in ventral compression of the spinal cord.In this study, 17 dogs of different breeds and age groups with intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I and II) between (Th9 to L4), and managed by partial lateral corpoectomy (PLC) were included. Dogs were excluded from the surveillance if they had already carried out any operations on the spine, or if the PLC has been combined with any other surgical procedures. In order to achieve effective decompression of the spinal cord, exact localization of chronic extruded / protruded intervertebral disc is very important. MRI, CT, combined with a simple radiography and neurological examination, minimizes the risk of error during surgical approaches and localization of intervertebral disk herniation in the spinal canal, followed by its removal. The disadvantage of this method is longer surgical procedure and time consumed compared with hemilaminectomy.
   
Keywords: intervertebral disc disease, partial lateral corpoectomy, thoracic-lumbar region.
   
References:
1. , .. : .. . / ... ., 2008. 30 .
2. , .. .: ... - . : 06.02.04 / ... ., 2013. 351 ., .
3. / .. [ .] // . 2005. 4. . 711.
4. Akhtar, A.Z. Animal studies in spinal cord injury: a systematic review of methylprednisolone / A.Z.Akhtar, J.J.Pippin,J.J Sandusky // Altern Lab Anim. 2009, Feb. 37 (1). . 4362.
5. Bracken, M.B. Neurological and functional status 1 year after acute spinal cord injury: estimates of functional recovery in National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II from results modeled in National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study III / M.B.Bracken, T.R.Holford // Journal of neurosurgery. 2002, Apr. 96 (3 Suppl). . 25966.
6. Bracken, M.B. Administration of methylprednisolone for 24 or 48 hours or tirilazadmesylate for 48 hours in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury / M.B.Bracken, M.J.Shepard, T.R.Holford // Journal of the American Medical Association. 1997. V. 277. . 15971604 .
7. Brisson, B.A. Intervertebral disc disease in dogs / B.A.Brisson // The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice. 2010. V. 40 (5). . 82958.
8. Basso, D.M. A sensitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats / D.M.Basso, M.S.Beattie, J.C.Bresnahan // J of neurotrauma. 1995. Vol. 12, 1. . 12.
9. Incidence of spinal compressive lesions in chondrodystrophic dogs with abnormal recovery after hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar disc disease: a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study / F.Forterre [et al.] // Vet Surg. 2010, Feb. 39 (2). . 16572.
10. Partial lateral corpectomy of the thoracolumbar spine in 51 dogs: assessment of slot morphometry and spinal cord decompression / T.Flegel [et al.] // Vet Surg. 2011. 40. . 1421.
11. Canine thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment / J.F.Griffin [et all.] // Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian. 2009. 17. . E1E14.
12. Jeffery, N.D. Spinal cord injury in small animals. Mechanisms of spontaneous recovery / N.D.Jeffery, W.F.Blakemore // Vet Rec. 1999, Apr 10. 144 (15). . 407413.
13. Jeffery, N.D. Designing clinical trials in canine spinal cord injury as a model to translate successful laboratory interventions into clinical practice / N.D.Jeffery, L.Hamilton, N.Granger // Vet Rec. 2011, Jan 29. 168 (4). . 1027.
14. Loughin, C.A. Effect of durotomy on functional outcome of dogs w ith type I thoracolumbar disc extrusion and absent deep pain perception / C.A.Loughin, C.W.Dewey, P.B.Ringwood // Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology. 2005. 18 (3). . 141146.
15. Moissonnier, P. Thoracolumbar lateral corpectomy for treatment of chronic disk herniation: technique description and use in 15 dogs / P.Moissonnier, P.Meheust, C.Carozzo // VetSurg. 2004. 33. . 620628. 
16. Neas, A. Clinical Aspects of Surgical Treatment of Thoracolumbar Disc Disease in Dogs. A RetrospectiveStudyof 300 Cases / A.Neas // ActaVet. 1999. 68. . 121130.
17. Olby, N.J. Long-term functional outcome of dogs with severe injuries of the thoracolumbar spinal cord: 87 cases (19962001) / N.J.Olby // JAVMA. 2003, March 15. V. 222, 6. . 113.
18. Salger, F. Neurologic Outcome After Thoracolumbar Partial Lateral Corpectomy for Intervertebral Disc Disease in 72 Dogs / F.Salger, L.Ziegler, Ch.Bottcher // Vet Surg. 2014. 43. . 581588.
19. Loss of deep pain sensation following thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs / M.Pierre [et all.] // Treatment and Prognosis. Compendium. 2003. 5. . 558.
21. Platt, S.R. BSAVA. Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology / S.R.Platt, N.J.Olby. 3-rd edition. London: Wiley, 2004. 442 .
22. Platt, S. Small Animal Neurological Emergencies / S.Platt, L.Garosi. 1-st edition. London: Manson Publishing, 2012. 672 .
   
   
Title:

THE EFFICIENCY OF USING OZONE THERAPY AT ASSOCIATED CHRONIC CATARRHAL AND PURULENT ENDOMETRITIS IN COWS

   
Authors: Konopeltsev I.G. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov (e-mail info@vgsha.info).

   
Abstract:
The increase in the period of economic use of cows is one of the challenges of the modern dairy cattle breeding in Russia. However, the wide spread of the uterus inflammatory diseases significantly impales the cost of dairy products and results in culling of highly productive animals. A challenge for veterinary professionals is a chronic endometritis, which is difficult to treat and is the cause of the dysfunction of the uterine glands. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of complex therapy of cows with chronic catarrhal and purulent endometritis. The methods based on ozone therapy were developed using domestic medical ozone generator. The mechanism of antimicrobial action of ozonized cod liver oil on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied using electron microscopy. The experimental animals were introduced intrauterineously 15-20 ml of ozonized fish oil and intravenously 1000.0 ml of ozonized isotonic solution of sodium chloride. The treatment efficacy was evaluated according to the number of the recovered and fertilized animals, the index of insemination and the period from the end of treatment before fertilization. Ozonized fish oil induces the local damage of biopolymers of cellular wall and cytoplasmic membrane in St. ureus and E. Coli, which consist in loss of typical layered structures on some regions. The lysis of microorganisms is a consequence of activation of their own enzyme systems as a result of these structural changes. The combined use of the novocaine solution, suspension ASD-2 will tetrabyte, sinestrol, ozonized fish oil and ozonized saline solution leads to the disappearance of clinical signs of chronic catarrhal and purulent endometritis in 88.8% of cows. At 44.6 days after the recovery 87.5% of the animals are successfully inseminated with 1.8 index. The recovery of animals was accompanied by an increase in blood of total protein for 7.3%, albumin for 4.1% and ?- and ?-globulins, respectively, for 7.1% and 26.2%, immunoglobulins - for 22.4%, which intensified the process of formation of immune complexes by 1.7 times and led to the increase of their size by 6.7%. Also there was an increase in bactericidal activity for 1.6 times and lysozyme activity for 1.2 times in blood serum. The attenuation of inflammation in the mucous layer of the uterus, increase of protective functions of organism was promoted by 14.1% inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activation of 12% of the antioxidant defense system (AOD). The level of ?-globulin was reduced by 1.7 times. Using of ozonized cod liver oil and an isotonic solution of sodium chloride as a part of complex scheme of treatment of chronic catarrhal purulent endometritis in cows allows a shorter time of clinical recovery by 88.7% and recovery of reproductive function in 87.5% cows with index of fertilization equal to 1.8.

   
Keywords: cows, chronic endometritis, electron microscopy, ozone therapy.
   
References:
1. Baranovsky, V.P. Opredeleniye tsirkuliruyuschih immunnyh kompleksov [Determination of circulating immune complexes] / P.V.Baranovsky, V.S.Danilishin // Laboratornoye delo. 1983. Vol. 5. P. 62 - 63.
2. Dorofeychuk, V.G. Opredeleniye aktivnosti lizotsima nefelometricheskim metodom [Determination of lysozyme activity using nephelometric method] / V.G.Dorofeyuk // Laboratornoye delo. 1968. Vol. 1. P. 28-30.
3. Dubovikova, M.S. Lecheniye hronicheskogo endometrita novym preparatom floriozol [Treatment of chronic endometritis using a new drug Florenozol / M.S.Dubovikova, I.Koba, E.N.Novikova // Polythematic network electronic scientific journal of the Kuban state agrarian University. 2016. Vol. 123. P. 1011-1025.
4. Innovatsionniye razrabotki dlya optimizatsii reproduktivnoy funktsii u korov [Using the innovative developments to optimize the reproductive function of cows] / I.G.Konopeltsev, A.E.Skopin, S.Nikolaev, A.E.Chastikov // Development of agriculture based on innovation in terms of import: a collection of scientific articles and abstracts from the International scientific and pract. Conf.: Kirov: Vyatka state agricultural Academy FSBEI, 2015. P. 96-100.
5. Istoricheskiye i sovremenniye aspekty etiologii zabolevaniy reproduktivnyh organov [Historical and modern aspects of the etiology and pathology of reproductive organs diseases] / G.A.Khonin, M.I.Petrov, M.J.Domrocheva [et al.] // Veterinariya Kubani. 2010. Vol. 5. P. 11-14.
6. Karpyuk, S.A. Opredeleniye belkovyh fraktsiy ekspress metodom [Determination of the serum protein fractions using rapid tests] / S.A.Karpyuk // Laboratornoye delo. 1962. Vol. 7. P. 363 - 367.
7. Koba, I.S. Rasprostraneniye ostruh i hronicheskih endometritov u korov v selskohozyaystvennyh organizatsiyah Kasnodarskogo kraya [Spread of acute and chronic endometritis in cows in the agricultural farms of Krasnodar region] / I.S.Koba, M.B.Grill, M.S.Dubovikova // Herald of Altai agrarian University. 2016. Vol. 2 (136). P. 103-106.
8. Konopeltsev, I.G. Ozonoterapiya i ozonoprofilaktikaa vospalitelnyh zabolevaniy i funktsionalnyh rasstroysv matki u korov [Ozone therapy and ozone-based prevention of inflammatory diseases and uterus functional disorders in cows]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine / I.G.Konopeltsev. Voronezh, 2004. 40 p.
9. Konopeltsev, I.G. Ultrastrukturniye izmeneniya u mikroorganizmov pri obrabotke ozonirovannym rybim zhirom [Ultrastructural changes in microorganisms at processing with ozonized cod liver oil] / I.G.Konopeltsev, Vidyakina E.V., Kostyaev A.A. // Nizhegorodsky meditsinsky jurnal. - 2005. Appendix P. 236-237.
10. Mikhailov, N.N. Polucheniye prob tserkvialnoy slizi ot korov [Sampling cervical mucus from cows] / N.N.Mikhailov, M.A.Luchko, Z. S. Konnova // Veterinariya, 1967. Vol. 1. P. 80.
11. Ryaposova, M.V. Effektivnost primeneniya preparata Monosporin pri hronicheskih endometritah vysokoproduktivnyh korov [The efficacy of using "Monosporin" drug at chronic endometritis in highly productive cows] / Ryaposova M.V., Kadochnikov D.M. // Ratsionalnoye ispolzovaniye prirodnyh i biologicheskih resursov v selskom hozyaystve a rational using of natural and biological resources in agriculture: proceedings from the International scientific and pract. Conf. of Ural state agrarian University. 2014. P. 153-155.
12. Smirnova, O.V. Opredeleniye bakteritsidnoy aktivnosti syvorotki krovi metodom nefelometrii [Determination of bactericidal activity of blood serum using the method of nephelometry] / O.V.Smirnova, T.A.Kuzmina // Microbiology. 1966. Vol. 4. P. 8-11.
13. Azawi, O.I. Postpartum uterine infection in cattle / O.I.Azawi // Animal Reproduction Science. 2008. 105. . 187208.

   
   
Title:

THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL METABOLIC DISORDER DEGREE IN COWS ON DAIRY EFFICIENCY AND TITRATABLE ACIDITY OF MILK

   
Authors: Elenschleger A.A. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Afanasyev K.A. postgraduate student.
   
Address:
Altai State Agricultural University, Barnaul (e-mail: ivmagau@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Obtaining maximum amount of high-quality and environmentally clean products of animal origin including dairy products is only possible from apparently healthy animals which is not always the case. The diseases associated with metabolic disorders in high-production dairy cows are of particular concern. Osteodystrophy is one of such diseases. The research goal was to study mineral metabolic status in cows and the influence of mineral metabolic disorder degree on milk production and titratable acidity of milk. The studies were conducted on the training farm Prigorodnoye, the City of Barnaul, in autumn and winter; Black Pied cows were examined. Depending on the degree of mineral metabolic disorder manifestation, the whole herd was divided into three groups as following: conditionally apparently healthy cows with slight signs of osteodystrophy; cows with medium degree of demineralization; and cows with heavy degree of demineralization. Fifteen comparable cows were selected from these groups; their milk was tested. It was found that the average titratable acidity of cow milk in the group with medium degree of demineralization was above normal (21.6+0.76 0), and in the group with heavy degree of demineralizationon the contrary it was lower (16.7+1.190) than that of apparently healthy cows. The annual average dairy efficiency in the group of conditionally apparently healthy cows with slight signs of osteodystrophy was greater than that in the groups with medium and heavy degree of demineralization by 1107 and 1654 kg of milk, respectively, and by 1023 kg more than the annual average dairy efficiency of the herd. Consequently, the variations of titratable acidity of milk and the levels of cow dairy efficiency depended on the degree of mineral metabolic disorder.

   
Keywords: cow, milk, titratable acidity, dairy efficiency, interrelation, mineral metabolism, osteodystrophy, sign, demineralization, bone
   
References:
1. Shmakov, P.F. Normirovannoe kormlenie korov v Zapadnoy Sibiri: ucheb. posobie [Rationed feeding of cows in Western Siberia: a handbook] / P.F.Shmakov, V.V.Baranov. Omsk: Filial izd-va IVM OmGAU, 2003. 260 p.
2. Aliyev, A.A. Obmen veshchestv u zhvachnykh zhivotnykh [Metabolism in ruminants] / A.AAliyev. - Moscow: NITs Inzhener, 1997. 419 p.
3. Kondrakhin, I.P. K etiologii i patogenezu alimentarnoy i vtorichnoy osteodistrofii u korov [On etiology and pathogenesis of alimentary and secondary osteodystrophy in cows] / I.P.Kondrakhin // Veterinariya 1979. Vol. 3. P. 61-64.
4. Seredin, V.A. Sistema regulirovaniya i znachenie kaltsiya i fosfora v narusheniyakh obmena veshchestv u zhivotnykh [The system of regulation and importance of calcium and phosphorus at metabolic disorders in animals] / V.A.Seredin, Ts.B.Kagermazov, R.T.Kadykoyev // Agrarnaya Rossiya 2006. Vol. 4. P. 25-28.
5. Kovalev, S.P. Klinicheskaya otsenka gematologicheskikh issledovaniy u selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh: metod. ukaz. [Clinical evaluation of hematological tests in farm animals: methodological guideline] / S.P.Kovalev. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg state academy of veterinary medicine, 2005. 40 p.
6. Elenshleger, A.A. Mikroelementy v BGTs i kraevaya patologiya endemicheskoy osteodistrofii u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Trace elements in biogeocenosis and regional pathology of endemic osteodystrophy in cattle herds]: doctoral thesis in veterinary sciences / A.A.Elenshleger. Barnaul, 1998. - 368 p.
7. Kabysh, A.A. Endemicheskaya osteodistrofiya krupnogo rogatogo skota na pochve nedostatka mikroelementov [Endemic osteodystrophy in calves caused by trace element deficiency] / A.A.Kabysh. - Chelyabinsk: Uralskoe knizhnoye izdatelstvo, 1976. 372p.
8. Vnutrenniye nezaraznye bolezni selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Internal noncontagious diseases of farm animals] / V.M.Danilevsky [et al.]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1991. 417 p.
9. Sharabrin I.G. Profilaktika narusheniy obmena veshchestv u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Prevention of metabolic disorders in calves] / I.G.Sharabrin. Moscow: Kolos, 1975. 304 p.
  Parasitology
   
Title:

AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR DETECTION OF SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH PARASITIC EGGS

   
Authors: 1Dolbin D.A. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Lutfullin M.Kh. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
1Kazan Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Kazan (e-mail: dda_sns@mail.ru).
2Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17; e-mail: parasitology-kazan@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Epidemic data on toxocariasis infection rate are quite controversial, although for obvious reasons, all the authors agree that the contamination of the rural population is significantly higher than the urban one as well as soil contamination with toxocara. The aim of the work was to improve the detection of helminthic eggs in soil samples, quantitative assessment of the level of soil contamination with eggs of parasitic worms. To study the soil the method proposed by Romanenko N.A. and the method developed by the authors of this article were used. The use of multi-component flotation mixtures in our method allowed identifying a larger number of Ascarida eggs than the Romanenko method. The results of the eggs detection in soil using the proposed method were significantly different from the Students method (significance level 0.95). This method was used to survey the sandbox in kindergartens and playgrounds of various areas of Kazan, in order to identify the epidemic and epidemiological picture of pollution with geohelminthes eggs. In Kazan the children sandboxes are a potential source of infection of toxocariasis, trihotsefaleze and ascariasis. Moreover, in Kazan the soil samples from official beaches were investigated. The city beaches cannot be considered safe from the point of view of the possibility of toxocara infection. Thus, the proposed method can significantly improve the efficiency of parasitic eggs detection in soil samples in comparison with the Romanenko method and can be used in practice and for research.
 
   
Keywords: geohelminthiasis, methods of soil survey, toxocariasis, roundworm, Romanenko method.
   
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