Our address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety - All Russian Research Veterinary Institute, 2-Nauchny gorodok, Kazan, 420075, Russia

Tel. / Fax:(843) 239-53-20 (editorial)

E-mail: vetvrach@vnivi.ru

The journal is registered

The journal is registered in Federal Service for Oversight of Mass Media, Telecommunications, and Protection of Cultural Heritage.

The Registration Certificate number is ÏÈ ¹ÔÑ77-29757 

Decision of the Presidium

of the Russian Higher Attestation Committee

The Veterinarny Vrach journal is one of the Russian peer-viewed research journals eligible to publish main research findings and results of theses pending a scientific degree of Doctor or Cadidate of Sciences.

















¹ 6, 2016



Authors: Levchenko M.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Science; Silivanova E.A. – Candidate of Biological Science; Balabanova G.F. – Candidate of Veterinary Science.
Research Institute for Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology, Tyumen (e-mail: vniivea@mail.ru).

At the present, in Russia pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control the number of insects in the livestock. The aimof this work was to evaluate the efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides containing deltamethrin and cypermethrin against mature houseflies. We tested cypermethrin as a part of the product "Samarovka-insecticide" and deltamethrin as a part of the product "FAS". Laboratory-based assessment of insecticides efficacy was carried out using the method named "dosed contacting" using mature Musca domestica and 3-5days old laboratory and field species. Flies of wild population were obtained from livestock farm facilities in Tyumen region. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of insecticides against flies in a livestock farm by comparing the number of insects in facilities before and after disinsection, which was carried out by treating the facilities with the aqueous solution or aqueous emulsion of preparations. As results of laboratory experiments we received the following half-lethal doses (LD50) of cypermethrin ("Samarovka-insecticide") – 0.057 (0.036 ÷ 0.092) and 0,091 (0.048 ÷ 0.171) μg of active agent per insect for flies of the laboratory strain and the wild population, respectively. LD50 of deltamethrin ("FAS") was significantly less – 0.0045 (0.0025 ÷ 0.0079) and 0.0130 (0.0082 ÷ 0.0207) μg of active agent per insect for flies of the laboratory strain and the wild population, respectively. In livestock facilities, the insecticidal effectiveness of "Samarovka-insecticide" and "FAS" products was 78% and 70%, respectively, and the duration of the residual effect was 15 and 10 days respectively. Deltamethrin as a part of "FAS"product was more active than cypermethrin in "Samarovka-insecticide" product against mature M.domestica of the laboratory strain and the wild population. Based on the results of field trials we proposed modes of use of these products that provide insecticidal effect at least 70%.

Keywords: Keywords: pyrethroids, deltamethrin, cipermethrin, housefly, Musca domestica L.
1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po dezinsektsii i dezakarizatsii zhivotnovodcheskikh obyektov veterinarno-sanitarnogo nadzora [Guidelines for the pest managementonlivestock facilities of the veterinary andsanitary control]. Sivkov G.S. [et al.].- Tyumen: Dels Publ., 2010. - 45 p.
2. Dremova, V.P. Meditsinskaya dezinsektsiya. Osnovnye printsipy, sredstva i metody. [Medical disinfestation. Basic principles, means and methods] / V.P.Dremova, L.S.Putintseva, P.E.Khodakov. – Ekaterinburg: Vitar-Putived Publ. – 1999. – 320 p.
3. Bakanova, E.I. Sovremennye preparativnye formy insektoakaritsidov i nekotorye aspekty ikh ispol'zovaniya [Contemporary combined preparation forms of insecticedes and acaricides and some aspects of their application] / E.I.Bakanova // Dezinfektsionnoe delo. – 2004. – ¹ 4. – Vol. 50. – P.57-63.
4. Instruktsiya ¹ 05/15 po primeneniyu sredstva insektoakaritsidnogo "Samarovka-insekticid" (Ltd "Samarovo", Rossia) dlya borby s sinantropnymi nasekomymi [Guidelines ¹ 05/15 on the using insecticidal and acaricidal solution "Samarovka-insecticide" (Ltd "Samarovo", Russia) to control of synanthropic insects]: approved by general director of Ltd "Samarovo" I.P.Chuev on 29.05.2015. – Moscow, 2015. – 5 p.
5. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu insektitsidnogo sredstva "FAS" (proizvoditel Ltd "Agrovit" po NTD ZAO NPO "Gigiena-Bio", Rossiya, Balashiha[Instructions on using insecticides "FAS" (the manufacturer Ltd "Agrovit" on scientific and technological orders of company "Gigiena-Bio", Russia, Balashiha)]: approved by general director of company "Gigiena-Bio" I.A.Fedotov 25.11.2005]. – Balashiha, 2005. – 6 p.
6. Pavlov, S.D. Izuchenie effektivnosti insektitsidov i rezistentnosti populyatsiy nasekomykh k ikh deystviyu metodom dozirovannogo kontaktirovaniya (metodicheskie rekomendatsii) [Study of the effectiveness of insecticides and insect populations resistant to their action by dose contacting (guidelines).] / S.D.Pavlov, R.P.Pavlova. – Tyumen: Tyumen State Agricultural Academy Publ., 2005. – 38 p.
7. Pavlov, S.D. Himicheskie sredstva dlja zashhity zhivotnyh ot gnusa [Chemical agents to protect animals from midges] / S.D.Pavlov // Problemy entomologii i arahnologii-Problems of Entomology and arachnology: Proceedings VNIIVEA]. – Tyumen, 1989. – Issue 34. – P.57–67.
8. Chuvstvitelnost laboratornyh kultur komnatnyh muh Musca domestica L. k insektitsidam [Baseline susceptibility of Musca domestica L. houseflies laboratory strains to insecticides] / S.A.Roslavtseva [et al.] // Dezinfektsionnoe delo.– 2007. - ¹ 2. – Vol. 60. – P.42 – 47.
9. Sivkov, G.S. Dezinfektsiya zhivotnovodcheskih pomeshheniy [Disinfection of cattle- breeding facilities] / G.S.Sivkov, M.A.Levchenko // Veterinariya – 2010.–¹ 4. – P.40-42.



Authors: Galautdinova G.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Shangaraev N.G. – head. lab. chem. analysis; Egorov V.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

The quality of honey is strictly regulated by the standards. However, these rules are based on outdated methods of analysis and are often not able to give reliable results. Given the current situation in the field of methods of determining quality of honey, it is important to develop efficient methods of sample preparation and analysis. The most promising methods are the ones based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aim of the research was to develop a HPLC-based method determining the residues of tetracycline antibiotics in honey. The method is based on the extraction of antibiotics from tetracycline samples of honey extraction using Mcllvaine, buffer solution, purification and concentration of the obtained extract using Oasis HLB cartridges for solid phase extraction and subsequent identification and quantification of the contents of these antibiotics by the method of reversed phase HPLC using a liquid chromatograph with spectrophotometric detector. For periactine and preparation for chromatography HPLC analysis was performed with a membrane filter of 0.45 micron ACRODISC ÐVDF LG. Experimental contamination of honey with a standard solution of tetracycline hydrochloride was carried out at the level of the MRL at 0.01 µ/kg concentration. For standard mixtures of tetracycline hydrochloride the conditions for their separation were optimized. For chromatographic column (250 4 mm, 5 µm ODS Repprosil-AS 18) flow rate 0.5 ml/min is the optimal at 30°C. As mobile phase acetonitrile: methanol: water solution of oxalic acid 0.01 M was used. Analytical signal was recorded at a wavelength of 270 nm. For solid-phase extraction the preparation for Oasis HLB cartridge (3 SS 60 mg) was carried out by subsequent washing in methanol and water solution. After, the extract dissolved in Mcllvaine buffer (pH 4.0) was added. The collected eluate was dried out at nitrogen flow at 40°C. The dry residue was dissolved in 5 ml of 0.1% aqueous formic acid, filtered and exposed to chromatographic separation. As a result a modified method of determining the presence of tetracycline hydrochloride antibiotic in honey using HPLC was developed.

Keywords: KEYWORDS: tetracycline hydrochloride, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), honey.
1. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po opredeleniyu ostatochnih kolichestv antibiotikov v produktah zhivotnovodstva. [Methodical instructions to determine antibiotic residual quantity in animal products]. – Moscow: Standartinfotm, 1984. – 24p.
2. The State standard requirement Ð 53601-2009. Produkti pischevie, prodovolstvennoe sirie. Metod opredeleniya ostatochnogo soderzhaniya antibiotikov tetrasiklinovoy gruppi s pomochu visokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy chromatografii s mass-spektrometricheskim detektorom. [Food products, food raw materials. Method of determining residual content of antibiotics tetracycline group by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector]. – Moscow: Standartinfotm, 2009. – 23 p.
3. The State standard requirement 51600-2010. Moloko i molochnie produkti. Mikrobiologicheskie metodi opredeleniya nalichiya antibiotikov. [Milk and dairy products. Microbiological methods for the determination of the presence of antibiotics]. – Moscow: Standartinfotm, 2010. – 19 p.
4. The State standard requirement 31694-2012. Produkti pichevie, prodovolstvennoe sirie. Metod ostatochnogo soderzhaniya antibiotikov tetrasiklinovoy gruppi s pomoschyu visokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy chromatografii s mass-spektrometricheskim detektorom. [Food products, food raw materials. Methoda determining the content of tetracycline group antibiotic residuals by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector]. – Moscow: Standartinfotm, 2012. – 20 p.
5. Lugovskoy, A.A. Razrabotka i validatsiya opredeleniya antibioticov ftorkhinolovogo ryada v kurinih yaytsah metodom visokoeffektivnoy zhiidcostnoy chromatografii [Development and validation of methods determining fluoruquinolones in chicken eggs using high performance liquid chromatography] / A.A.Lugovskoy // - 2016. - V.1. - P. 30-36.
6. Potekhin, V.A. Monitoring antibiotikoresistentnih izolyatov actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, videlennych v Russiyskoy Federatsii v 2012-2014 g.g. [Monitoring of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antibiotic-resistant isolates isolated in Russian Federation in 2012-2014] / Potekhin, A.V. // Veterinariya segodnya. – 2016. - V. 1. – P. 24-26.
7. Romanov, A.V. Opredeleniye sostava i kachestva myoda metodom VEGH [Determination of the composition and quality of honey using HPLC]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of Chemical Sciences / A.V.Romanov. – Moscow, 2009. – 25p.
8. Validation of an analytical methodology for determination of tetracyclines residues in honey by UPLC – MS/MS detection Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. / S.P.Singh, A.Pundhir // Natural Products and Resources. 2015. – Vol.6(4). – C. 293-298.



Authors: 1Pavlova S.A. – Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Pavlov I.E. – the adviser of the device of the Federation Meeting.
1Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service at the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow (e-mail: s_pavlova@mail.ru).

2Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. Moscow.

Article focuses on study on methods of treating sewage waters from agricultural areas. Currently a much attention is paid to quality of water resources. The developed agricultural areas are marked with a considerable quantity of biogenic substances and as a result with considerable pollution of water sources. Water bodies are intensively polluted with organic substances which are discharged from developed cattle-breeding complexes, pasture areas. Sewage waters cause eutrophic processes in water bodies aggravating ecological conditions. The accumulated knowledge allows not only to estimate a potential damage to water sources, but also to use metabolic processes of water vegetation to purify water bodies from a large concentration of organic substances and accompanying highly toxic substances, radionuclides. In this regard technologies of biological purification are of special importance. It is useful to identify the peculiarities of biological transformation of polluting substances for each agricultural region. This will enable not only to stabilize an ecological situation, but also to control it.

Keywords: Keywords: the polluted waters, eutrophic; bacteria, radionuclide, biological purificaion.
1. Velichkin, V.I. Geologicheskiye, geohimicheskiye i gidrogeohimicheskiye factory, opredelyayushiye migratsiyu radioaktivnyh pozdemnyh vod v rayone ozera Karachay [Geological, geochemical and hydrogeochemical factors defining migration of radioactive underground waters around lake Karachaj] // V.I.Velichkin // Geoekologiya. Inzhenernaya geologiya. Geokriologiya. - 2008. – Vol.5. p. 389-400.
2. Radiatsionnaya obstanovka v sanitarno-zacshitnoy zone i zone nablyudeniya “Mayak” v 2005g. Otchet [Radiation in sanitation and defense area and area under survey of “Mayak” in 2005. The report] / Yu.V.Glagolenko [et al.]. - Ozersk: "Mayak", 2006. – 280p.
3. Raschet soderzhaniya nukleotidov v vode i donnyh otlozheniyah rek [estimation of radionuclide content in river water and ground adjournment] / A.L.Krylov [et al.] // Meteorologiya i gidrologiya. – 2007. – Vol.7. - P. 81-92.
4. Radioekologicheskiy monitoring rechnoy sistemy Techa-ob. Doklad na zasedanii Rossiyskoy nauchnoy komissii po radiatsionnoy zaschite. [Radioecological monitoring of Techa-Ob river system. The report at session of the Russian scientific commission on radiation safety]. – Moscow: RNKRZ, 31st March, 2008 // radiatsiya i risk(Bulleten natsionalnogo radiatsionno-epidemiologicheskogo registra). – 2008. – Vol.17, ¹3.-P.5-6.
5. Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya k ohrane poverhnostnyh vod. Sanitarniye pravila i normy. [Hygienic requirements for protection of surface water bodies. Sanitation rules and norms.]: approved by the chief sanitation doctor of the Russian Federation Onischenko G.G. 22.06.2000. - Moscow: Federal center of state epidemiological survey, the Russian Federation Ministry of Health, 2000. – 18p.
6. Kutlahmedov, Yu.A. Doroga k teoreticheskoy radiobiologii [A pathroad to Radiobiology] / Yu.A. Kuahmedov. - Kiyev: "Phytosociocenter", 2015. – 360 p.
7. Kuznetsov, V.Ê Metodologicheskiye osnovy organizatsii zaschitnyh meropriyatiy landshaftno-ekologicheskoy napravlennosti na zagryaznyennyh territoriyah [Methodological basics of arranging defending measures of landscape and ecological purpose in areas polluted with radioactive sustances] / V.K. Kuznetsov, N.I. Sanjarova// Radioekologiya. – 2016. – Vol. 56, ¹ 1. – P. 90–101.
8. Chebotina, M.Ya. Tritiy v vodnoy sisteme reki Techa [detecting tritium in equatic system of the techa river] / M.Ya.Chebotina, Î.À.Nokolin // Radioekologiya. – 2016. – Vol. 56, ¹ 1. – P. 102–106.

  Infectious pathology


Authors: Yavkin S.G.
Izhevsk Municipal Veterinary Station for Animal diseases control, Izhevsk (e-mail: izhsbbzh@yandex.ru).

Rabies infection of combined type has been registered in Izhevsk for 10 recent years. Active measures taken by state veterinary services both in the city and the republic helped to prevent the tragedy. The veterinary service takes all the possible measures and actions including the work with local and municipal authorities. Republican veterinary services along with experts from Udmurt Republic Ministry of Natural Resources provided an effective work control of wild carnivore population and performing oral immunization with further evaluation of its efficacy while making local municipal authorities understand the problem of rabies was complicated. A long-term work on oral immunization of wild carnivore was launched across the republic owing to separate works on interaction among veterinary services, monitoring the fulfillment of measures, implementation of standard document forms for epidemiologists and etc. A month-long campaign on rabies prevention and elimination followed by analyses of all the measures and works taken by veterinary services enabled to carry out a full-scale measures to control rabies infection and to have the very first results on stabilization of rabies epidemics in the republic. For the industrial city like Izhevsk more radical measures are required (assuming a specific regulation act «Regulation for keeping dogs and cats in the city of Izhevsk»), which suggests a higher culture for people, responsibility for keeping the pets, sanitation literacy. The document was developed by the State Veterinary Service of the Udmurt Republic but became an untimely delay for Izhvesk.

Keywords: Keywords: epizootic situation, mixed type of rabies, rabies preventive measures, immunization of dogs, cats, wild carnivores in city, interaction of government services, regulation for keeping dogs and cats.
1. Kompleksniy podkhod k obespecheniyu epizooticheskogo blagopoluchiya v Udmurtskoy Respublike [An integrated approach to the provision of the epizootic welfare in the Udmurt Republic.] / G.N.Burdov, N.A.Khismatullina, S.G.Yavkin, E.I.Marasinskaya // Aktualniye voprosi kontrolya infektsionnikh bolezney zhivotnikh – Current issues of animal infection diseases control: proceedings from the Int. sci. and prac. Conf. dedicated to the 55th anniversary of VNIIVViM RASKhN, Pokrov, 11-12 Dec. 2014. Pokrov, 2014. P. 322–331.
2. Gulyukin, À.Ì. Izuchenie svyazi zabolevaemosti beshenstvom zhivotnikh s plotnostyu populyatsii dikikh zhivotnikh [Exploring the association between incidence of animal rabies and density of wildlife population.] / À.Ì.Gulyukin, N.A.Khismatullina // Aktualniye problemi bolezney, obschikh dlya cheloveka i zhivotnikh: proceedings from the all-Russian sci. and prac. Conf. dedicated to the 60-anniversary of Stavropol plague research institute, Stavropol, 23-24 May, 2012. Stavropol, 2012. P. 90–91.
3. Makarov, V.Ì. Beshenstvo: estestvennaya istoriya na rubezhe stoletiy [Rabies: natural history at the turn of the centuries.] / V.Ì.Makarov, À.Ì.Gulyukin, Ì.I.Gulyukin. Moscow: Zoovetkniga, -2015. - 121 p.
4. Manush, P.S. K ekologii lisitsi (Vulpes vulpes L) v natsionalnom parke «Zavidovo» / P.S.Manush [To the ecology of fox (Vulpes vulpes L) in "Zavidovo" national park.] // Natsionalniy park «Zavidovo». 75-let. Moscow, 2004. - Iss. VI. - P. 184–195.
5. Nafeev, À.À. Beshenstvo: prirodno-ochagoviy zoonoz. Sovremennaya kharakteristika epizooticheskogo protsessa [Rabies: vector-born zoonosis. Current characteristic of the epizootic process.] / À.À.Nafeev, D.À.Vasilev, N.I.Pelevina // Dalnevostochniy zhurnal infektsionnoy patologii. - 2015. - ¹ 27 (27). - P. 49–48.
6. Profilaktika borbi s zaraznimi boleznyami, obschimi dlya cheloveka i zhivotnikh. [Prevention and control measures against contagious diseases that are common to humans and animals.] Rabies. Sanitation regulations SP 3.1.096-96. Veterinary regulations VP 13.3.1103-96: approved by Goskomsanepidnadzorom RF 18.06.1996. ¹ 23. (amended on 22.07.2010). Moscow, 1996. - 7 p.
7. Beshenstvo: etiologiya, epizootologiya, diagnostika. [Rabies: etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis.] Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie v illyustratsiyakh / A.V.Ivanov, N.A.Khismatullina, A.N.Chernov, À.Ì.Gulyukin. - Ìoscow: Kolos, 2010. - 54 p.
8. Mezhdunarodnaya programma po likvidatsii beshenstva na territorii Kaliningradskoy oblasti Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The International Programme on the elimination of rabies in the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation] // Sluzhba veterinarii gosudarstvennoy veterinarnoy inspektsii Kaliningradskoy oblasti. Kaliningrad, 2014. - P. 15.
9. Epizooticheskiy nadzor pri zaraznoy patologii domashnikh plotoyadnikh v usloviyakh goroda [Epizootic surveillance of domestic carnivores contagious pathology in an urban environment.] / Yu.V.Pashkina, V.V.Sochnev, Å.À.Pivovarenko, Å.À.Skosireva // Veterinarnaya patologiya. - 2005. - ¹ 4. - P. 37–40.



Authors: 1Krasochko P.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Doctor of Biology, professor, Academician of the Academy of Natural Sciences; 2Kashko L.S. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 3Krasochko P.P. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Reventsova N.I. – Master of Veterinary Science.
1S.N.Vishelessky Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, Minsk, Republic of Belarus (e-mail: krasochko@mail.ru).
2Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Smolensk, Russian Federation (e-mail: l.kashko@yandex.ru).
3Vitebsk "Badge of Honor State Academy of Veterinary Medicine", Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus (e-mail: 7696695@gmail.com).

The aim of this study was to investigate the spread kerato-conjunctivitis, determine etiological structure of causative agents of viral and bacterial diseases, develop optimal methods to prevent and treat this pathology. Blood serum (167) and pathological material (68) from clinically healthy calves and calves with kerato-conjunctivitis from livestock farms of Belarus and the Smolensk region were used in this investigation. In blood serum the titer of antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3, chlamydia cattle was determined. In the pathological material the presence of streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli, Proteuswas detected. The etiological structure kerato-conjunctivitis in calves - the role of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3, chlamydia, bacteria - Staphylococcus, Escherichia and Proteuswas determined. The prevalence of kerato-conjunctivitis in cattle was determined to be at average of 12 to 22%, but in certain farms ia was as high as 45-55%. In calves which had recovered from kerato-conjunctivitis the level of antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, and chlamydia viruses was higher for more than 2 times than in the clinically healthy animals and mean titer of antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was for 2.86- 2.57 times higher, for parainfluenza virus-3 titers were for 2.34-2.43 times higher, for chlamydia titers were for 3.54-3.59 times higher than in healthy calves. At bacteriological examination of emanations taken from the eyes of calves with eye disease, the frequency of isolation of staphylococci species was 35.3%, E. coli species - 23.5%, and Proteus species - 11.8%. Treatment of calves with kerato-conjunctivitis was complex and based on the etiological structure of causative agents and their sensitivity to antibiotics and use of painkillers. The etiological detection of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in calves should be comprehensive and include general clinical, ophthalmologic examination, as well as laboratory studies of biological material taken from the infected and recovered calves for the most spread infectious diseases. Identification of the etiological structure of infectious conjunctivitis in calves is the basis for the further development of the complex of therapeutic and preventive measures.

Keywords: Keywords: kerato-conjunctivitis, cattle, infectious rhinotracheitis, virus, parainfluenza-3, Chlamydia, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, therapy, prevention.
1. Aurorov, V.N. Veterinarnaja oftalmologia [Veterinary ophthalmology] / V.N.Aurorov, A.V.Lebedev. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1985.- 271 p.
2. Bolesni selskohosjaistvennih zhivotnyh [Diseases of Farm Animals] / P.A.Krasochko [et al]; scien. ed. P.A.Krasochko. -Minsk.: Biznesovset. 2005. - 800 p.
3. Vasilenko, E.G. Profilaktika bolesnei glaz u zhivotnyh [Prevention of eye diseases in animals]. Vasilenko E.G., Chervanev V.A., P.A.Tarasenko, V.V.Chernenok, Bryansk.: Publishing Bryansk State Agricultural Academy, 2010. - 48 p.
4. Immunoterapia v klincheskoi veterinarnoi medicine [Immunotherapy in clinical veterinary medicine ] / P.A.Krasochko [et al]; scien.ed. P.A.Krasochko - Minsk Tekhnoperspektiva, 2008. -520 p.
5. Karaychentsev, V.N. Infektiontionnyi keratokonjunktivit krupnogo rogatogo skota, visivaemoso Ìoraxella bovis (laboratornaia diagnostika, specificheskaja profilaktika) [Infectious keratoconjunctivitis of cattle caused by Moraxella bovis (laboratory diagnostics, specific preventive maintenance)] abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Veterinary Medecine: 16.00.03. - Veterinary microbiology, virology, epizootiology, mycology and immunology with mikotoksikologie. – Moscow, 2005. - 58 p.
6. Karaychentsev, V.N. Laboratornaya diagnostika infektiontionnogo keratokonjunktivita krupnogo rogatogo skota [Laboratory diagnosis of cattle infectious keratoconjunctivitis] / V.N.Karaychentsev // New pharmacological agents for veterinary: proceedings from the 14th Int. sci. and pract. Conf. - Saint-Petersburg, 2002. – P. 26–28.
7. Karaychentsev, V.N. Borba s infektiontionnym keratokonyunktivitom krupnogo rogatogo skota – rezerv uvelicheniya proizvodstva produktov zhivotnovodstva [Cattle infectious keratoconjunctivitis control – a reserve to increase the output of animal products] / Karaychentsev V.N. // Agricultural production problems at the present stage and their solutions: proceedings from the 7th Int. sci. and production conf – Belgorod, 2003, Ch.1. – P. 162-163.
8. Klinicheskaia diagnostika vnutrennih bolesnei zhivotnyh [The clinical diagnosis of internal diseases of animals] V.I.Levchenko [et al.]; edited by V.I.Levchenko. - Belaya Tserkov, 2004. - 608 p.
9. Kolychev, N.M. Veterinarnaya mikrobiologiya i immunologiya: uchebnik dlya studentov VUZov [Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology: a hadbook for university students] / N.M.Kolychev, R.G.Gosmanov. – 3rd edition revised and added. - Moscow: Kolos, 2006. - 432p.
10. Mikrobiologicheskiye i virusologicheskiye issledovania v veterinarnoy meditsine: spravochnoe posobie [Microbiological and virological studies in veterinary medicine: a handbook] / A.N.Golovko [et al.]; edited A.N. Golovko. – Kharkov: "NTMG", 2007 - 512 p.



Authors: Gorbunova M.E. - leading engineer.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

The aim of research was to conduct analysis of p24 gene to establish its uniqueness for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and to develop real-time PCR for detection of BLV. To create the test-system it was used more than 700 cow blood samples, identification was carried out on the site of a gene of p24 nucleocapsid protein. Oligonucleotides (primers and probe) were designed on the basis of information provided in the full genomic databases of nucleotide sequences (genome) NCBI (The National Center for Biotechnology Information) site http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/, using program Vector NTI 9.1, unique of p24 gene region set by BLAST. We investigated in silico the sequence of ð24 gene (KF154971.1) using the online utility site NCBI – BLAST. It has been found that the identity of p24 gene within BLV strains ranges from 97-100%. Next, we conducted a selection of oligonucleotide primers and probe complementary region of p24 gene of virus. As a result of this work a pair of primers and a probe was constructed. The developed oligonucleotide probe was at 5'-end labeled with the fluorescent dye ROX, and at 3'-end quencher RTQ2. The size of flanked section of p24 gene nucleocapsid protein was 140 base pairs. The specificity of the test system was determined empirically using heterogeneous DNA samples and was 100%. Also the sensitivity of the test-system was evaluated, and reached 1.2 x 10 cells/ml. The test system to indicate the proviral DNA of BLV by RT-PCR was developed. It was found that the developed test system meets the claimed characteristics and is suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of bovine leukemia.

Keywords: Keywords: bovine leukemia virus (BLV), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), primer, probe.
1. Avilov, V.M. Problemy ozdorovleniya krupnogo rogatogo skota ot leikoza [Problems of improvement of cattle from leukemia] / Avilov V.M., Nahmanson V.M. // Veterinariya. - 1995. - Vol.11. - P.3-6.
2. Kamalov, B.V. Leikoz krupnogo rogatogo skota / [Bovine leukemia] / B.V.Kamalov, F.F.Zinnatov, N.Z.Hazipov, A.H.Volkov // Metodicheskoye posobiye. - Kazan. - 2005. - P.37.
3. Faizov, T.K. Diagnostika leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota metodom PTsR [Diagnosis of cattle leukosis by PCR method] / T.K.Faizov, C.V.Usoltsev, A.V.Ivanov, R.K.Yusupov // Proceedings from the international scientific-practical conference. - Saratov – 2012. - P. 335-338.
4. Makarov, V.V. Epizooticheskie perspektivy leikoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Epizootic prospects bovine leukemia] / Makarov V.V., Grishinin D.P. // Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii selskohozyajstvennyh nauk - Herald of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences - 2005. - Vol.2. - P.70-72.
5. Krikun, V.A. Leikoz krupnogo rogatogo skota I immunologicheskaya tolerantnost [Leukemia cattle and immunological tolerance] // Veterinariya - Veterinary. -2003. - Vol. 6. - P. 7-9.
6. Application of non-radioactive method of DNA detection in the diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection / J.Kuzmak, A.Skorupska, A.Moussa, J.Grundboeck // Bull Vet InstPulawy. – 1993. – Vol. 37. – Ð. 3–8.
7. Murtaugh, M.P. Detection of bovine leukemia virus by the polymerase chain reaction / M.P.Murtaugh, G.F.Lin, D.L.Haggard // J Virol Methods. – 1991. – Vol. 33. – Ð.73–85.
8. Bovine leukaemia proviral DNA detection in cattle using the polymerase chain reaction / H.M.Naif , R.B.Brandon, R.C.Daniel, M.F.Lavin // Vet Microbiol. – 1990. – Vol. 25. – Ð. 117–129.
9. Early detection of bovine leukemia virus by using an enzyme-linked assay for polymerase chain reaction-amplified proviral DNA in experimentally infected cattle / H.M.Naif, R.C.Daniel, W.G.Cougle, M.F. Lavin // J Clin Microbiol. – 1992. – Vol. 30. – Ð. 675–679. 
10. Online utility BLAST to compare and align nucleic acid sequences. URL:https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi?PROGRAM=blastn&PAGE_TYPE=BlastSearch&LINK_LOC=blasthome (application date 10.09.2016).



Authors: Plotnikova E.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Nikitin A.I. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gur’yanov N.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Khaziev L.R. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Arkharova I.A.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

Cattle blood serum is a common material for cell cultures cultivation but its wide use is restricted due to its limited availability and high cost. The search for cheaper bioactive substances that are able to replace cattle blood serum is a promising filed in cell biotechnology. The aim of this work was to optimize nutrient media supplements used for cultivation of cell cultures and reproduction of viruses. In this context, the comparative studies of cattle blood serum and combined extract from zucchini and pike muscles for their growth-promoting activity was performed. The efficacy of the both additives was studied basing on evaluation of reovirus reproduction in Vero cell culture cultivated in nutrient medium with the above mentioned biological supplements. The proliferative activity of LEK, MDBK, PK-15 and Vero cells was evaluated at 72 hours after cultivation using plant and animal extracts. The studies showed that the additives are as effective as cattle blood serum; the reproduction of reovirus type i strain «Land» in Vero cell culture, cultivated on nutrient medium containing the extract from zucchini and pike muscles was higher for 2 times (titer 1:64 in haemagglutination assay (HA), 1/n) than using an adult cattle serum (titer 1 :32 in HA, 1/n) and has a comparable value when the cells are cultivated in a medium containing fetal bovine serum (titer 1 : 64 in HA, 1/n). Therefore, plant and animal extract can be used as a part of nutrient media to grow cell cultures.

Keywords: Keywords: cell cultures, plant and animal extract, filter, supplement.
1. Metody primeneniya v biotehnologii [Methods applied in biotechnology]. – Moscow: “Sputnik+”, 2009. – 656 p.
2. Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu kletochnyih kultur v virusologii [Guidelines on application of cell cultures in Virology] // D.B.Golubev [et al.] // Meditsina. – 1976. - P.222.
3. Gizitdinov, N.N. Razrabotka patochnogo sposoba izgotovleniya suhih belkovyih gidrolizatov goroha i soi [Development of treacle-based method of manufacturing a dry protein hydrolysates from pea and soybean] / N.N.Gizitdinov, Yu.H.Bahtahunov, M.T.Velyamov // Vestnik s/h nauki Kazahstana. – 1984. – ¹1. – P.62-64.
4. Patent 2103360 Rus. Federation, IPC Ñ12 N5/00, À23J003/04, À23J003/30. / Pitatelnaya sreda dlya kultivirovaniya kletok eukariotov i sposob polucheniya osnovy pitatelnoy sredy – proteoliticheskogo gidrolizata [A nutrient medium for cultivation of eukaryotic cells and a method of producing proteolytic hydrolisate as a basis of nutrient medium] / I.G.Ermishina, À.G.Meinert, G.A.Ermolin, S.M.Dudkin; applied and owned by / I.G.Ermishina, À.G.Meinert, G.A.Ermolin, S.M.Dudkin. – ¹ 96115552; applied on 25.07.1996; published on 27.01.1998, Bulletin ¹ 3. – 3 p.
5. Patent 2455015 Rus. Federation, IPC À61Ê 35/16 Sposob polucheniya syivorotki krovi plodov korov dlya kultivirovaniya kletok zhivotnyih I cheloveka [A method of obtaining blood serum of cow fetuses for animal and human cell cultivation] / E.M.Plotnikova, N.I.Guryanov, A.V.Ivanov; patent applicant and owner: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety – ¹ 2011126222/15; applied on 24.06.2011; published on 10.07.2012, Bulletin ¹19.
6. Patent 2575797Rus. Federation, IPC C12N 5/07, C12N 7/00 Biodobavka v pitatelnuyu sredu dlya kultivirovaniya kletok zhivotnyih i reproduktsii na nih virusov / A.V.Ivanov, E.M.Plotnikova, N.I.Guryanov [et al.]; patent applicant and owner: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety – ¹ 2014100291/10; applied on 09.01.2014; published on 20.02.2016, Bulletin ¹5.
7. On-line resource http://www.biotechnolog.ru [application date on13.12.2014].
8. On-line resource http://www.mosbiotechworld.ru [application date 20.11.2015].
9. Adams, R. Metodyi kulturyi kletok dlya biohimikov: uchebnik [Methods cell culture for biochemists: handbook] / R.Adams; edited by V.Yu.Polyakova. – Moscow: Mir, 1983. – 264 p.

  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: Brigadirov Y.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Kotsarev V.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Shaposhnikov I.T. – Doctor of Biology; Papin N.E. – Doctor of Biology; Mikhaylov E.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Boldyrev I.A. – postgraduate student; Filippova M.S. – postgraduate student.
State Scientific Institution All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (e-mail: vnivipat@mail.ru).

The researchers were focused on development mechanisms of latent endometritis in sows. The experiments were carried out on 16 Large White sows from which blood samples were obtained 10 days before the supposed farrowing date and samples of utero cervical mucus were obtained during the stage of sex cycle arousal. For histological studies uterus samples were obtained from 4 euthanized sows with reproductive pathology. Immunological parameters, systems of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection (LPO-AOP), endogenous intoxication, nitric oxide, cytokines were determined in the blood samples. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiota and interleukins were determined in uterocervical mucus. In sows with latent endometritis changes in immune status during gestation and were expressed by lower activity of cellular and humoral link of immunological reactivity while at the stage of sex cycle arousal the changes were expressed by T-cell and humoral immunity activation, higher circulating immune complex and lower absorbing and phagocytic capacity of neutrophils. Concentration of malonic dialdehyde was higher for 28.3%, average mass molecules were higher for 10.3%, endogenous intoxication index was higher for 20.4% while activity of glutathione peroxidase was lower by 24.1%, content of vitamin A was lower by 25.0%, vitamin E - by 24.2% and higher (for 36.7%) concentration of nitric oxide during gestation. During estrus the difference in the above mentioned parameters remained the same in sows with latent endometritis and clinically healthy animals. In blood cytokine profile was characterized with higher level of interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 for 2.5 and 1.9 times respectively, while in mucus – with lower content for 1.5 and 3.5 times. In sows with latent endometritis, genital tracts were considerably contaminated with opportunistic pathogenic and pathogenic microflora while the level of indigenous microflora was lower. Morphological changes in endometrium were characterized with germinal epithelium desquamation, oedema of stroma, atrophy of uterine glands, infiltration of endometrium by neutrophils andlymphocytes. Therefore, changes in microbiocenosis of genital tract, disorders in the interaction of LPO-AOP system with the increase of endogenous intoxication under immune system destabilization, activation of synthesis of stable nitrogen metabolites belong to the main mechanisms of latent endometritis emergence and development in sows.

Keywords: Keywords: sows, latent endometritis, pathogenesis, immunobiochemical indices, endometrium structure.
1. Sidelnikova, V.M. Privychnaya poterya beremennosti [Recurrent pregnancy loss] / V.M.Sidelnikova // Moscow, 2002. – P. 156-166.
2. Serov, V.N. Sovremennye printsipy terapii vospalitelnykh zabolevaniy zhenskikh polovykh organov [Modern principles of therapy of inflammatory diseases of women’s genitals] / V.N.Serov, A.L.Tikhomirov, D.M.Lubnin // Metodicheskoe posobie. – Moscow, 2003. - 23 p.
3. Burlev, V.A. Tsiklicheskiy angiogenez eutopicheskogo endometriya [Cyclic angiogenesis ofeutopic endometrium] / V.A.Burlev, N.A.Ilyasova, O.L.Shishkanova // Problemy reproduktsii -Problems of reproduction. – 2006. – Vol. 66. – P. 22-30.
4. Zenkov, N.K. Okislitelnyy stress: Biokhimicheskiy i patofiziologicheskiy aspekty [Oxidative stress: biochemical and pathophysiological aspects] / N.K.Zenkov, V.Z.Lankin, E.B. Menshchikova – Moscow: MAIK «Nauka / Periodika», 2001. – 343 p.
5. Kuznetsova, V.L. Oksid azota: Svoystva, biologicheskaya rol, mekhanizmy deystviya [Nitric oxide: properties, biological role, mechanisms of action] / V.L.Kuznetsova, A.G.Solovyeva // Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya -Current problems of science and education. – 2015. – Vol. 4. - P. 462.
6. Hog, N. Nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation / N.Hog, B.Kalyanaraman // Biochim. Biophys. Acta. – 1999. – Vol. 1411(2–3). – P. 378–384.
7. Ketlinskiy, S.A. Tsitokiny [Cytokines] / S.A.Ketlinskiy, A.S.Simbirtsev – Saint Petersburg: OOO «Izdatelstvo Foliant», 2008.-552 p.
8. Ostrovskiy, M.V. Ronkoleykin. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii [Roncoleukinum. Guidelines] / M.V.Ostrovskiy, A.N.Moiseev, E.D.Sakharova - LTD «Biotekh», Saint Petersburg. - 2009. - 28p.
9. Kuznetsova A.V. Khronicheskiy endometrit [Chronic endometritis] / A.V.Kuznetsova // Arkhiv patologii. – 2000. – Vol. 62(3). – p. 48-52.
10. Lyzikova, Yu.A. Khronicheskiy endometrit kak prichina narusheniy reproduktivnoy funktsii u zhenshchin [Chronic endometritis as a cause for reproductive function disorders in women] / Yu.A.Lyzikova // Problemy zdorovya i ekologii -Problems of health and ecology. – 2015. - Vol. 3(45). – P. 9-16.
11. Retskiy, M.I. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po diagnostike, terapii i profilaktike narusheniy obmena veshchestv u produktivnykh zhivotnykh [Guidelines on diagnostics, therapy and prophylaxis of metabolic disorders in productive animals] / M.I.Retskiy, AG.Shakhov, V.I.Shushlebin et al. – Voronezh, 2005. ‒ 94 p.
12. Retskiy, M.I. Metodicheskie polozheniya po izucheniyu protsessov svobodnoradikalnogo okisleniya i sistemy antioksidantnoy zashchity organizma [Guidelines on the study of free radical oxidation processes and system of organism antioxidant protection] // M.I.Retskiy, S.V.Shabunin, G.N.Bliznetsova et al. - GNU VNIVIPFiT. – Voronezh, 2010. - 70 p.
13. Shakhov, A.G. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenke i korrektsii nespetsificheskoy rezistentnosti immunnogo statusa zhivotnykh [Guidelines on evaluation and correction of non-specific immune status resistance in animals] / A.G.Shakhov, Yu.N.Brigadirov, A.I.Anufriev et al. // Voronezh, 2005. - 62 p.



Authors: Zhernosenko A.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Epanchintseva O.S. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Petrov K.I. – postgraduate fellow.
P.A.Stolipin Omsk State Agrarian University, Omsk (e-mail: omgaus@mail.ru).

The aim of this work was to study comparative efficacy of the two treatment regimens of imported cows from acute postpartum purulent-catarrhal endometritis using the developed emulsion and endometramag. Studies have been performed during the period 2013- 2015. The object of the study were imported newly-calved cows of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian breed at the age of 3-6 years old, weighing 500 - 650 kg and with an average annual milk production of 7500 - 8200 kg. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a new drug there have been selected 24 cows with clinical signs of acute postpartum purulent-catarrhal endometritis which were divided into two groups (control and experiment) per 12 heads in each. For treating from endometritis, the first group (control n=12) were administrated with endometramag medicine that was injected intrauterinely in a dose of 100-150 ml every 48 h and frequency of administration 7 times. The second group of cows (experiment, n=12) were injected intrauterinely antiseptic emulsion composed of sterile sunflower oil - 890 ml, ASD-3F - 50 ml, tea tree essential oil - 25 ml, and hellebore tincture - 35 ml. The emulsion was introduced in a volume of 100 - 150 ml every 48 h., and frequency of administration up to 5 times. In the treatment of cows with acute postnatal purulent-catarrhal endometritis using advanced antiseptic emulsion and endometramag, clinical recovery occurred in 100% of animals in both groups. Administration of emulsion composed of ASD-3F, Tea Tree oil and hellebore tincture showed a higher therapeutic effect comparing with the control: frequency of intrauterine administration as well as treatment duration reduced at 28.6% and 6 days respectively. In the animals of the second group (experiment) there were found the reduction in the period from calving to productive fertilization as compared to control, on average, by 12.7%, insemination rate by 46.4% and duration of infertility by 18.3%. At using the antiseptic emulsion scheme veterinary costs were 4.95 times lower and the economic benefits increased to 6.9 times compared to the control where endometramagom scheme has been used.

Keywords: Keywords: endometritis, cows, treatment, endometramag, treatment efficacy, emulsion, ASD-3F, Tea Tree, hellebore tincture.
1. Nikitin, V.Y. K voprosu o profilaktike i lecheniyu akushersko-ginekologicheskih zabolevaniy korov [On the question of the prevention and treatment of obstetric and gynecological diseases cows] / V.Y.Nikitin, N.V.Belugin, N.A.Pisarenko, V.S.Skripkin, N.V.Fedota // APC Stavropol Bulletin - 2015. - P. 19-22.
2. Trukhachev V.I. Besplodiye impotnyh korov (diagnostika, lecheniye i profilaktika) [Infertility imported cows (diagnosis, treatment and prevention)] / V.I.Trukhachev, V.Y.Nikitin, V.M.Mikhailyuk, N.V.Belugin, Pisarenko N.A., V.S.Skripkin // Veterinary Medicine. - 2011 – Vol. 7. - P.40 - 42.
3. Belugin, N.V. Vosproizvoditelnaya funktsiya importnyh korov (diagnostika, lecheniye i profilaktika) [Reproductive function of imported cows (diagnosis, treatment and prevention)] / V.I.Trukhachev, V.Y.Nikitin, V.M.Mikhailyuk, N.V.Belugin, N.A.Pisarenko, V.S.Skripkin // Diagnostika, lecheniye i profilaktika zabolevaniy selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh - Detection, treatment and prevention of livestock diseases: proceedings from the 74-th scientific and practical Conference dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Stavropol state agrarian university. – Stavropol: “Saratovsky GAO”, 2010. - P. 66 - 72.
4. Sistema otsenki i reabilitatsii rannih narusheniy fiziologicheskih funktsiy reproduktsii zhivotnyh [Evaluation and rehabilitation of early disorders in reproductive physiological functions in animals]. / A.G. Nezhdanov [et al.] / International Veterinary herald. - 2008. – Vol. 3. – P. 13 - 15.
5. Etiologiya, dinamika rasprostraneniya, ekonomicheskiy uscherb i harakteriatika patologii organov reproduktsii u korov [Etiology, distribution dynamics, economic damage and characteristics of pathology in reproductive organs in cows] / M.A.Beloborodenko [et al.] // Veterinary Medicine. Modern problems and prospects: materials of the International scientific-practical conference / Ed. A.A.Volkova. - FSEIHPE "Saratov SAU" - 2010. - P. 46-48.
6. Guleva, A.Y. Prodolzhitelnost ispolzovaniya korov v SPK “Pushkinsky” i osnovniye prichiny ih vybytiya [Duration of using the cows in the SEC "Pushkin" and the main reason for their retirement] / A.J.Guleva, R.S.Korbutova // Problemy veterinarnogo obrazovaniya i nauchnyh issledovaniy v agropromyshlennom komplekse - Problems of veterinary education and research in the agricultural sector: collection of scientific articles. - 2004. - P. 299 - 302.
7. Effektivnost primeneniya kompleksana v kompleksnoy terapii korov s ostrym poslerodovym endometritom [Efficiency of using Kompleksan drug in treatment of cows with acute postpartum endometritis] / M.V.Nazarov [et al.] // Articles of Kuban State agrarian. Univ. - 2012, - Vol. 3. - P. 200-202.
8. Popov, Yu.G. Poslerodovoy endometrit u korov i otsenka skhem lecheniya [Postpartum endometritis in cows and evaluation of treatment regimens] / Y.G.Popov, N.Gorb // Herald of Nizhny Novgorod Agrarian University. - 2011, - Vol.1. - P. 116-121.
9. Tras Bunyamin The effect of N-acetylcysteine on the treatment of clinical endometritis and pregnancy rate in dairy cows. / Bunyamin Tras, Dursun A. Dinc, Kamil Uney // Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences. - 2014. - P.133-137.
10. Polyantsev, N.I. Detoksikatsionnye sredstva pri poslerodovom endometrite u korov [Using detoxifying drugs to treat postpartum endometritis in cows] / N.I.Polyantsev, A.G.Magomedov // Veterinary Medicine. - 2006, - Vol. 11. - P.30-33.
11. Cox, S. D. The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifonia (tea tree oil) / S.D.Cos, C.M.Mann, J.L.Markham, H.C.Bell, J.E.Gustafson, J.R.Warmington, S.G.Wyllie // Journal of Applied Microbiology. - 2000, Vol. 88. - P.170 - 175.
12. Epanchintseva, O.S. Profilaktika i terapiya poslerodovogo endometrita u korov [Prevention and treatment of postpartum endometritis in cows] / O.S. Epanchintseva E.I. Gribkova // Bulletin of the Buryat State Agricultural Academy. - 2013. – Vol. 1 (30). - P. 11-15.
13. Patent # 2564948 Russian Federation, IPC A 61 K 36/61, A 61 K 35/12, 15/00 P 61 Sposob lecheniya endometritov u korov [A method for the treatment of endometritis in cows] / A.A.Zhernosenko, S.A.Orzhekhovskiy, S.A.Babushkin, and K.Petrov, applicant and the patentee: VPO "OmGAU named after P.A.Stolypin". - ¹2564948; applied on 22/04/2014; published on: 10.10.2015, Bull. Vol. 28.



Authors: Kalinnikova T.B. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Gainutdinov M.Kh. – Doctor of Biology, professor; Shagidullin R.R. – Doctor of Chemistry.
Research Institute for Environmental Problems and Mineral Use, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Kazan (e-mail: tbkalinnikova@gmail.com).

Over the last three decades Caenorhabditis elegans soil nematode is used to develop nematocides applied in veterinary and medicine. This article describes the advantages of C.elegans as a model organism to study the mechanisms of nematocides action and trial their efficacy. These advantages include simple and cheap cultivation of worms in laboratory, safe handling, short lifespan, an opportunity of using a large number of worms of the same age in experiment and selection of mutants resistant to nematocides. The authors provide a referential review of available reports on studies of nematocides using C.elegans. C.elegans overall body plan, comparative physiology common to all the Nematoda species allows using them to study nematocides. The effect of nematocides belonging to different chemical classes (benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, imidazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines, spiroindoles, aminophenylamidines and amino-acetonitrile derivatives) onto C.elegans and parasitic nematodes are discussed in the article. In most cases the effective toxic concentrations are similar for C. elegans and parasites. Electrophysiological, biochemical and genetic studies revealed common targets for nematocides action in C.elegans and parasites body: benzimidazoles disrupt β-tubulin synthesis; macrocyclic lactones activate glutamate-depending chloride channels; imidazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines, spiroindoles, aminophenylamidines and amino-acetonitrile derivatives alter the efficacy of cholinergic synaptic transmission. The study of C.elegans strain lines resistant to nematocides allowed identification of genes responsible for this resistance. Orthologs of many of these genes also were found in genomes of parasitic nematodes.
Keywords: KEYWORDS: caenorhabditiselegans, parasitic nematodes, nematocides.
1. Sleigh, J.N. Functional analysis of nematode nicotinic receptors / J.N.Sleigh // Biosci. Horizons. – 2010. – V. 3. – P. 29–39.
2. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novykh farmakologicheskikh veschestv [The handbook on experimental (pre-clinical) study of new pharmacological substances] / edited by R.U.Khabriev. Moscow: OAO "Izdatelstvo Meditsina", 2005. – 832 p. 
3. Brenner, S. The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans / S.Brenner // Genetics. – 1974. – V. 77. – P. 71–94.
4. Dent, J.A. What can Caenorhabditis elegans tell us about nematocides and parasites? / J.A.Dent // Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. – 2001. – V. 6. – P. 252–263.
5. Holden-Dye, L. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans / L. Holden-Dye, R. J. Walker // Wormbook, ed. The C.elegans Research Community. – 2014. – Ðåæèì äîñòóïà: http: // www.wormbook.org, ñâîáîäíûé.
6. Sidorkin, V.A. Izuchenie effektivnostipreparata "Alvet" pri gelmintozakh selskokhozyastvennykh zhyvotnykh [The efficacy studies of "Alvet" medicine against livestock helminthosis] / V.A.Sidorkin, S.V.Semyonov, I.A.Arkhipov // Sbornik trudov VIGIS – Collected papers of VNIIP. – 2001. – P. 73–76.
7. Campbell, W.C. Ivermectin: a potent new antiparasitic agent / W.C.Campbell, M.H.Fisher, E.O.Stapley, G.Albers-Schonberg, T.A.Jacob // Science. – 1983. – V. 221. – P. 823–828.
8. Sidorkin, V.A. Farmakologicheskie svoistva I opyt primeneniya preparata "Ivermek" [Pharmacological properties and experience of using "Ivermek" drug] // Zooindustriya – Zooindustry. – 2000. – Vol. 6. – P. 29–31.
9. Orobets, V.A. Lechenie gepatopinozov selskokhozyastvennykh zhyvotnykh [The treatment of livestock hepathopinosis] // Vetrinariya – Veterinary. – 2002. – Vol. 7. – P. 14–18.
10. Sidorkin, V.A. Opyt borby s estrosom ovets [The experience of combating sheep estrosis] / V.A.Sidorkin, V.N.Sinyov // Vetrinariya – Veterinary. – 2001. – Vol. 7. – P. 22–24.
11. Sidorkin, V.A. Primenenie "Ivermeka" pri gipodermatoze krupnogo rogatogo skota [Using "Ivermek" against livestock hypodermatosis] // Vetrinariya – Veterinary. – 2001. – Vol. 6. – P. 29–32.
12. Sidorkin, V.A. Perspektivy ispolzovaniya preparata "Ivermek" dlya borby s helmintozami loshadey [The perspectives of using "Ivermek" against equine helmintosis] // Vetrinariya – Veterinary. – 2002. - No 6. – P. 17–20.
13. Sidorkin, V.A. Antigelmintnaya aktivnost "Ivermeka" pri nematodozakh verblyudov ["Ivermek" anthelmintic activity against camels nematodosis] / V.A.Sidorkin [et al.] // Veterinary. – 2003. Vol. 4. – P. 22–25.
14. Sidorkin, V.A. Antigelmintnaya aktivnost "Ivermeka" pri nematodozakh ovets ["Ivermek" anthelmintic activity against heep nematodosis] // Veterinary. – 2001. - Vol.10. – P. 31–34.
15. Lewis, J.A. The genetics of levamisole resistance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans / J.A. Lewis, C.H. Wu, H.Berg, J.H.Levine // Genetics. – 1980. – V. 95. – P. 905–928.
16. Lewis, J.A. The levamisole receptor, a cholinergic receptor of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans / J.A.Lewis, J.T.Fleming, S. McLafferty, H. Murphy, C. Wu // Mol. Pharmacol. – 1987 – V. 31. – P. 185–193.
17. Kaminsky, R. Identification of the amino-acetonitrile derivative monepantel (AAD 1566) as a new anthelmintic drug development candidate / R. Kaminsky, N. Gauvry, S.S. Weber, T. Skripsky, J. Bouvier, A. Wenger, F. Schroeder, Y. Desaules, R. Hotz, T. Goebel, B.C. Hosking, F. Pautrat, S. Wieland-Berghausen, P. Ducray // Parasitol. Res. – 2008. – V. 103. – P. 931–939. 
18.Kaminsky, R. A new class of anthelmintics effective against drug-resistant nematodes / R. Kaminsky, P.Ducray, M. Jung, R. Clover, L.Rufener, J. Bouvier, S.S. Weber, A. Wenger, S. Wieland-Berghausen, T.Goebel, N. Gauvry, F. Pautrat, T. Skripsky, O.Froelich, C.Komoin-Oka, B. Westlund, ASluder, P.Mäser // Nature. – 2008. – V. 452. – P. 176–180. 


Authors: 2Rachkova E.N. – postgraduate fellow; 1Zinnatova F.F. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Ahmetov T.M. – Doctor of Biology; 1Yulmeteva Y.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Shakirov Sh.K. – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor.
1Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture, Kazan (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).
2N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan, (e-mail: katrinrach1992@yandex.ru).

In this article the effect of genetic factors on cow milk production was proved. The advantage of DNA technology is that it enables to determine animal genotype regardless animal sex, age and physiological state, which is an important factor in breeding. The study was conducted on 184 cows - Holstein heifers owned by àgricultural ñooperative farm “Cattle breeding plant named after Lenin” in Atninsky district, the Republic of Tatarstan, in 2014-2016. The aim of the work was to study the association of leptin and thyroglobulin polymorphism genes in heifers and their milk production. DNAs were isolated from blood and subsequently used for the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme for thyroglobulin gene. To identify leptin genotype tetra-primer polymerase chain reaction was used. The studies revealed the following distribution of genotypes for thyroglobulin gene: CC - 96 animals (52%), TC - 68 animals (37%), CT - 20 animals (11%). Leptin polymorphism was distributed as follows: SS - 42 animals (23%), CT - 100 animals (54%), CT - 42 animals (23%). Dairy production and quality parameters was significantly higher in dairy heifers with CC genotype of thyroglobulin gene than in cows with other genotype. Cows with CC genotype of leptin gene had the highest milk yield (up to 261 kg, or 4.17%). The animals with CT leptin genotype had highest fat content in milk. The coefficient of constancy for TC and TT thyroglobulin gene was 92% while for genotype CC it was 89%. The highest coefficient of constancy for genotype CC of gene leptin was 93%. The coefficient of heritability for all the genotypes of the both genes had high values (h2 ≤ 0.40).It was found that the highest efficiency was obtained from animals with genotype ÑÑ for thyroglobulin gene, ÑT genotype for leptin gene.
Keywords: Keywords: gene, genotype, leptin, thyroglobulin, polymorphism, heifers, the coefficient of heritability, milk yield, lactation curve.
1. Berry, P. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle / D.P.Berry, M.L.Bermingham, M.Good et al. // Irish Veterinary Journal. – 2011. – Vol. 64. - P. 1-10.
2. Yulmeteva, Y.R. Genotipirovaniye remontnogo molodnyaka krupnogo ragatogo skota dlya opredeleniya plemennoy tsennosti [Genotyping of repair young growth of cattle to determine the breeding value] / Y.R.Yulmeteva, F.F.Zinnatova, Sh.K.Shakirov, et al. // Scientific heralds of the Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. - 2015. - ¹ 223(3). - .P. 243-248.
3. Anton, I. Effect of DGAT1, leptin and TG gene polymorphisms on some milk production traits in different dairy cattle breeds in Hungary / I.Anton, K.Kovács, G.Holló // Archiv Tierzucht 55. – 2012. - Vol. 4. - P. 307-314.
4. Carvalho, T.D. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle / T.D.Carvalho, F.Siqueira, R.A.Torres Júnior // Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. – 2012. - Vol. 10. - P.2162-2168.
5. Tracovicka, À. SNPs analyses of the bovine LEP and PIT-1 genes by multiplex PCR-RFLP method and their effect on milk performance traits in Slovak Simmental cattle / A.Tracovicka, N.Moravcikova, T.Minarovic, A.Navratilova // Journal of Central European Agriculture. – 2015. - Vol. 16(1). - P.65-75.
6. Yardibi, Í. BTN1A1, FABP3 and TG genes polymorphism in East Anatolian red cattle breed and South Anatolian red cattle breed / H.Yardibi, A.Ates, I.Akıs // African Journal of Biotechnology. – 2013. - Vol. 12(20). - P. 2802-2807.
7. Merkuryeva, E.K.Genetika s osnovami biometrii [Genetics with the basics of biometrics] / E.K.Merkuryeva, G.N.Shangin-Berezovskij – Moscow: Kolos, 1983. – 400p.
8. Plohinskij, N.A. Biometriya [Biometry] / N.A.Plohinskij – Novosibirsk, 1961. – 364p.
9. Solomenko, L.K. Biometriya: posobiye k praktikumu [Biometry: guide to the workshop] / L.K.Solomenko – Moscow: VSHIZO, 1971. – 64p.


Authors: Konyukhov G.V. – Doctor of Biology, professor; Nizamov R.N. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Sharifullina D.T. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; T.R.Gaynutdinov T.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Vagin K.N. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Titov A.S. – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

Having a high radioprotective activity the radioprotectors of microbial origin are characterized with high response-inducing properties because introduction of a number of microbial cells into an irradiated body creates an additional antigenic and bacterial load for immune system. Among the substances of microbial origin with higher biological activity the metabolites (enzymes, cytokines, amino acids, exo- and endotoxins) are regarded as the most promising group. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective activity of composites based on from E.coli and B.bifidum metabolites and immunomodulators of new generation. The products of microbial metabolism were produced by cultivation of E.coli and B.bifidum on liquid nutrient media (beef-extract agar, Blaurock medium), content of biological active substances was determined and conjugated with immunemodulators: highly disperse fractions of montmorillonite – alluminium hydrocilicate, aluminium hydroxide, and apisan, a natural polymer. The drug safety was evaluated on 100 weaned rat pups with live weight 42.0+2.0g. The test showed that the drugs are safe and low toxic. Radioprotective properties were evaluated both for prevention and therapeutic purpose on LD100 white mice using “Puma” gamma-ray setup in dosage of 8.0 Gr. The investigation results showed that of the 9 tested composition 2 compositions had preventive and 3 compositions had therapeutic properties at irradiation sickness providing 70-75% protection for preventive use and 65-70% protection for therapeutic use. The carried out studies resulted in design of radioprotective drugs from E.coli and B.bifidum metabolites and apisan, which have polyfunctional, therapeutic, and preventive properties at body exposure to ionizing irradiation, providing 75% protection in experimental animals at acute irradiation sickness.

Keywords: Keywords: metabolites, supernatant, centrifugate, immunomodulators, alluminium hydrocilicate, aluminium hydroxide, apisan, acute irradiation sickness.
1. Gaynullin, R.R. Razrabotka bentonitvogo diagnostikuma dlya indikatsii radioindutsirovannyh toksicheskih soyedineniy [Development of betonite-based diagnostic kit to detect radio-induced toxic compounds]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate in Biol. Sci. / R.R.Gaynullin. – Êàçàíü, 2009. – 23 p.
2. Duplischeva, À.P. Vliyaniye anigenov produktov ih degradatsii na radiorezistentnost obluchennyh zhivotnyh [The influence of antigens and products of their degradation on radioresistance in irradiated animals] / À.P.Duplischeva, N.G.Sinilova, Ê.Ê.Ivanov // Radiobiologiya. – 1965. – Vol. 5, Issue.2. – P. 243–252.
3. Vliyaniye postradiatsionnogo primeneniya prodigiozana na vyzhyvayemost i sistemu krovi obluchennyh zhivotnyh [the effect of postradiation use of Prodigiosan on survival rate and blood parameters in irradiated animals] / Z.V.Ermolaev [et al.] // Antibiotiki. – 1972. – Vol. 17, ¹ 6. – P. 517–522.
4. Zaroza, V.G. Esherihioz telyat [Calves escherichiosis] / V.G.Zaroza. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1991. – 239 p.
5. Konoplyanikov, À.G. Stvoloviye kletki samovozobnovlyayushihsya system kak determinanty vyzhyvayemosti zhivotnyh v ostriy period porazheniya [Stem cells of self-recovery systems as determinants of animal survival rate at acute period of irradiation] / À.G.Konoplyanikov // Itogi nauki i tehniki. VINITI. Radiatsionnaya biologiya. – 1980. – Vol. 3. – P. 5–38.
6. Maltsev, V.N. Vliyaniye bacterialnyh preparatov i syvorotochnyh globulinov na disbacterioz kishechnika pri ostroy luchevoy bolezni [the effect of antibacterial drugs and serum globulins on intestinal disbacteriosis at acute irradiation sickness] / V.N.Maltsev, B.V.Pinegin, V.M.Korshunov // Immunoterapiya eksperimentalnoy ostroy luchevoy bolezni – Immunotherapy at challenged acute irradiation sickness. – Moscow: Energoizdat, 1994. – P. 61–73.
7. Nemtsev, S.V. Polucheniye apizana iz podmora pchel [Producing apisan from dead bees] / S.V.Nemtsev, O.Yu.Zuyeva, R.G.Khismatullina // Pchelovodstvo. – 2001. – Vol. 5. – P. 50–51.
8. Habriev, R.V. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veshestv [A guideline on experimental (pre-clinical) study of novel pharmaceuteical substances] / R.V.Habriev, E.V.Arzamastev, E.A.Babayan. – Moscow: Nauchny Tsentr expertizy, sredstv meditsinskogo primeneniya – Scientific center of expertise of medical substances, 2005. – 829 p.
9. Pert, S.J. Basics of microorganism and cell cultivation / S.J. Pert. – Moscow: Mir, 1978. – 331 p.
10. Petrov, R.V. O toksikologicheskom deystvii bakerialnyh endotoksinov na organism [On toxic Peffect of bacterial endotoxins on organism] / R.V.Petrov // Laboratornoye delo. – 1987. – Vol. 6. – Ñ. 14–16.