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  Toxicology
   
Title:

USING "FITOSORB" SORBENT AND "SPAS" AND "ENTEROSPORIN" PROBIOTICS TO PREVENT ANIMAL MYCOTOXICOSIS

   
Authors: Korostleva V.P. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Tremasov M.Ya. Doctor of Biology, professor, Semenov E.I. Candidate of Biological Sciences, Tremasova A.M. Doctor of Biology, Sagdeeva Z.Kh. applicant.
   
Address:

Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:

The aim of the research was to study preventive and medical efficiency of "Enterosporin" and "Spas" probiotics and "Fitosorb" feed additive at intoxication with T-2 and aflatoxin. Experiments were carried out using weaned pigs of White Russian breed and Holstein fattening calves. Pigs and calves were divided into experimental and control groups. The first group of pigs and calves was the biological control, and received a basic ration. The second group (the 1st experiment group of pigs and calves) received T-2 toxin in concentration of 200 ppb during 10 days, the 2nd experiment group pigs and calves received T-2 toxin and aflatoxin B1each in concentration of 200 ppb during 10 days, probiotics "Spas", "Enterosporin" in dosage of 10 ml per animal, the third group of calves was biological control, received "Spas", "Enterosporin" drugs in dosage of 10 ml and "Fitosorb" 1% of ration dry matter. Using "Spas" and "Enterosporin"probiotics reduced the negative effect of T-2 toxin and aflatoxin on pigs and calves, in both groups of pigs and calves body weight gain increased (for pigs weight gain was 475 g/animal and for calves weight gain was 580 g/animal). The experimental animals in the both groups had considerably better parameters at introduction of probiotics ("Spas", "Enterosporin") and "Fitosorb" sorbent. Body weight gain for pigs was 610 g/animal and 886g/animal was for calves. Treatment and preventive measures using "Fitosorb" feed additive and "Spas" and "Enterosporin" probiotics had favorable influence on content of erythrocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin of blood and were higher than in the control animals for 9.0%; 12.3% and 9.5% respectively. "Spas" and "Enterosporin" probiotics have a positive effect on calve intestinal microflora, content of bifidobacterium increased for 57%, lactobacillus increased for 40% (p<0.01) than animals in the control group. Level of Staphilococcus aureus, Salmonella, mold and yeast at 40 days of research was much lower, than in the experimental (prevention) group for 44.0%; 40.0% and 21.1%. Recovery in the experimental groups of calves and pigs was much earlier, than in control groups. Experimental animals had milder course of toxicosis

   
Keywords: T-2 toxin, T-2 toxicosis, aflatoxin, probiotic, calves, pigs, mycotoxins, "Fitosorb", "Spas", "Enterosporin", prevention, treatment, efficiency
   
References:

1. Mikotoksikozy (biologicheskiye i veterinarniye aspekty) [Mycotoxicoses (biological and veterinary aspects)] / A.V.Ivanov, V.I.Fisinin, M.Ya. Tremasov, K.Kh. Papunidi Moscow. KolosS, 2010. 392 p.

2. Monastyrsky, O.A. Mikotoksiny globalnaya problema bezopasnosti produktov pitaniya i kormov [Mycotoxins are a global problem of food and fodder safety] / O.A.Monastyrsky // Agrohimiya. 2016. Vol.6 P. 67-71.

3. Tremasov, M.Ya. Problema mikotoksikozov zhivotnykh [The problem of animal mycotoxicosis] / M.Ya.Tremasov, A.V.Ivanov, K.Kh.Papunidi, E.I.Semenov //Veterinarny vrach. 2010. Vol.5 P. 16-19.

4. Gagkaeva, T.Yu. Mikromitsety i mikotoksiny v kormovykh seyannykh travakh [Micromytcetes and mycotoxins in feed seeded grasses] / T.Yu.Gagkaeva, O.P.Gavrilova, G.P.Kononenko, A.A.Burkin / Sovremennaya mikologiya v Rossii - Modern Mycology in Russia: Materialy III Mezhdunarodnogo mikologicheskogo foruma, Moscow, 2015. P. 230-232.

5. Drobin, Yu.D. Itogi monitoringa kontaminatsii furazhnogo zerna pshenitsy, yachmenya i kukuruzy na yuge Rossii [The monitoring results of feed wheat, barley and corn contamination in south of Russia] / Yu.D.Drobin, N.A.Soldatenko, E.A.Suchich, A.V.Kovalenko // Rossiyskiy zhurnal Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny i ekologii. 2015. Vol.4 (16). P. 27-30.

6. Ivanov, A.V. Sochetannoye vozdeystviye fizicheskih i chimicheskih faktorov na klinicheskiye i biochimicheskiye pokazateli zhivotnyh [An associated effect of physical and chemical factors on animal clinical and biochemical parameters] / A.V.Ivanov, M.Ya.Tremasov, F.G.Akhmetov, E.K.Papunidi, E.I.Semenov // Veterinarny vrach. 2007. Vol.4 P. 4-5.

7. Semenov, E.I. Joint effect of mycotoxins, -2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on weaned pigs background of infection load / Semenov E.I., [et al.] // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2016. Vol. 7. 1. P. 1860-1868.

8. Smirnov, A.M. Veterinarnyye meropriyatiya na territoriyakh, zagryazneyonnykh ekotoksikantami [Veterinary activities in areas contaminated with iecotoxicants] / A.M.Smirnov, V.I.Dorozhkin, G.A.Talanov // Pervyy syezd veterinarnyh farmakologov Rossii 1st meeting of Russian veterinarypharmecologists: on proceedings from the meeting. Voronezh, 2007. P. 229233.

9. Tremasov, M.Ya. Aktualnye problemy veterinarnoy toksikologii [Current problems of veterinary toxicology] / M.Ya.Tremasov, K.Kh.Papunidi, E.I.Semenov, E.Yu.Tarasova // Vestnik veterinarii. 2012. Vol.4(63). P. 16-18.

10. Tremasov, M.Ya. Problema mikotoksikozov zhivotnykh [The problem of animal mycotoxicosis] / M.Ya.Tremasov, A.V.Ivanov, K.Kh.Papunidi, E.I.Semenov // Veterinarny vrach. - 2010. Vol.5. P. 16-19.

11. Antipov, V.A. Profilakticheskaya effektivnost kormovogo preparata karvit pri khronicheskikh mikotoksikozakh sviney [Prophylactic efficacy of Carvit feed drug at swine chronic mycotoxicosis]/ Antipov V.A., [et al.] // Rossiyskiy zhurnal "Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny i ekologii. 2012. Vol.2(8). - P. 109-110.

12. Semenov, E..I. Izucheniye techeniya T-2 toksikoza na fone primeneniya sorbentov i immunostimulyatorov [Studying the development of T-2 toxicity during treatment with immunomodulators and sorbents] // Semenov E.I. // Veterinarnaya meditsina. 2013. Vol.97. P. 468-470.

13. Tremasov, M.Ya. Agromineralnoye syryo effektivnoye sredstvo profilaktiki smeshannykh mikotoksikozov [Minerals are an effective means to prevent mixed mycotoxicoses] / M.Ya.Tremasov, E.I. Semenov // Vestnik veterinarii. 2009. Vol.4(51). - P. 36-40.

14. Cherednichenko, Yu.V. Effektivnost sorbenta Fitosorb pri khronicheskom otravlenii zhivotnyh tetrametiltiuramdisulfidom [Efficiency of Fitosorb sorbent in chronic poisoning of animals with tetramethylthiuram] / Yu.V.Cherednichenko, E.I.Semenov, L.E.Matrosova, M.Ya.Tremasov, N.N.Zhestkov // Veterinariya [Veterinary science]. 2016. Vol.3. P. 47-49.

15. Semenov, E.I. Efficiency of Application of a Polysaccharide Enterosorbent "Fitosorb" For Prevention of the Combined Mycotoxicoses / Semenov E.I., [et al.] // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2016. Vol. 7. 4. P. 2229-2237.

16. Gulyushin, S.Yu. Ispolzovaniye mikroorganizmov Bacillus subtilis dlya profilaktiki mikotoksikozov [Using Bacillus subtilis microorganisms to prevent mycotoxicoses] / S.Yu.Gulyushin, I.V.Elizarov // Ptitsevodstvo. 2012. Vol.12. P. 41-43.

17. Panin, A.N. Probiotiki nyeotyemlemy component ratsionalnogo kormleniya zhivotnyh [Probiotics are an integral component of a rational animal feed] / A.N.Panin, N.I.Malik // Veterinariya s.-h. zhivotnyh. 2010. Vol. 10. P. 510.

18. Shamilova, T.A., Probiotik v kachestve profilaktichyeskogo sryedstva pri aflatoksikoze porosyat [Using probiotic as a prophylactic agent in piglets aflatoxicosis] / T.A.Shamilova, L.E.Matrosova, E.I.Semenov, A.V.Ivanov // Dostizhyeniya nauki i tekhniki APK. 2012. Vol. 3. P. 6769.

19. Kondrakhin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics] / I.P.Kondrakhin Moscow.,Kolos, 2004. 520 p.

20. Kost, S.A. Opredeleniye fagotsitarnoy aktivnosti leykotsitov [Determination of phagocytic activity of leukocytes] / S.A.Kost, M.I.Stenko // Klinicheskaya gematologiya zhivotnykh [Clinical hematology of animals]. Moscow.,1974. P.99-100.

21. Dorofeychuk V.G. Opryedeleniye aktivnosti lizotsima nefelometricheskim metodom [Determination of lysozyme nephelometric method] / V.GDorofeychuk // Lab.delo [laboratory work]. 1968. Vol. 1. P.28-30.

   
   
Title:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF MEAT PRODUCTIONS OLD IN TRADING NETWORKS IN CITIES

   
Authors: 1Baranovich E.S. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Gusarova M.L. Doctor of Biology, Professor; 1Zhavoronkova .S. graduate student; 2Polozkova A.V. toxicologist.
   
Address:

1Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (-mail: baranovich-evgeniya@mail.ru; kafedra_bgd_52@ mail.ru).

2Nizhny Novgorod Reference Center, Russian Agricultural Products Survey Body.

 

 


 

   
Abstract:

Meeting human needs for food from a narrow set of agricultural plants and animals increases the vulnerability of food production systems from casual natural phenomena, animal epizootic diseases, environmental contamination with radioactive substances, toxins, heavy metals. Currently, the problems concerning contamination of meat products with natural toxicants have not been sufficiently investigated in the studied region. The aim of our research was to study ecological and toxicological factors affecting the quality and safety of meat products. Beef, pork, chicken necks and other kinds of meat was used as the study material in this work. The concentration of artificial radionuclides and toxic metals was estimated using spectrophotometric method. To solve the safety problem of meat products it is necessary to know the degree of their radioactive contamination and maximum allowed levels for long-lived radionuclides in products introduced to the trade networks in Nizhny Novgorod region. During the period of December, 2014 to February, 2015, spectrometric analysis of meat production registered no environmental hazards. The highest level of Cesium-137specific activity was registered in beef (6.480.002 Bq/kg in December, 2014), in the1st grade halal chicken (5.960.001 Bq/kgin January, 2015), in chicken necks (5.910.001 Bq/kg in January, 2015,) in chicken breast (5.330.001 Bq/kg in February, 2015).Although radioactivity parameters varied from 2.84 to 6.48 Bq/kg, they are safe for human and meet the requirements provided in regulations NRB-99/2009, TR CU 021/2011 and Sanitation Regulations and Norms-01.

 

   
Keywords: ecotoxicants, radionuclides, food, meat products, environmental safety
   
References:

1. Obespecheniye bezopasnosti produktsii zhivotnovodstva glavnaya zadacha gosudarstvennoy veterinarnoy sluzhby v sovremennyh usloviyah [Ensuring the safety of animal products is currently the main task of the state veterinary service] / Gusarova M.L. [etc.] // Voprosy normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii. - 2014. Vol. 2. - P. 16 - 18.

2. Padiobiologiya: uchebnik [Radiobiology: a handbook] / N.P.Lysenko, V.V.Pak, L.V.Rogozhina, Z.G.Kusurova SaintPetersburg: "Lan", 2012. 576 p.

3. Roeva, N.N. Bezopasnost prodovolstvennogo syrya i pischevyh produktov: uchebno-prakticheskoye posobiye [Safety of foodstuff and food products: learn and practical book]. - Moscow: MGUTU, 2009. - 108 p.

4. Bezopasnost prodovolstvennogo syrya i pishevyh produktov [Safety of foodstuff and food products] / I.A.Rogov [et al.] // Sovremeniiye problem nauki I obrazovaniya. - 2009. Vol. 1 P.33.

5. Preduprezhdeniye epidemicheskoy proektsii zoonozov v usloviyah regionalnogo prodovolstvennogo rynka [Preventing epidemic projection of zoonoses in regional food markets] / A.V.Pashkin [et al.] // Glavniye epizootologicheskiye parametry populyatsiy zhivotnyh major epidemic parameters of animal populations: a collection of scientific articles submitted to 2nd session of Int. scientific and practical conference, Nizhny Novgorod Agricultural Academy, Book 1. N. Novgorod, 2015146-155 p.

6. Ekspertnaya otsenka formirovaniya zaraznoy patalogii v populyatsii domashnih plotoyadnyh I drugih vidov zhivotnyh [The expert estimation of infectious pathology formation in the population of domestic carnivores and other animal species] / A.V.Pashkin [et al.] // Mezhdunarodnyy vestnik veterinarii - The International Bulletin of veterinary medicine, 2014. - Vol. 3. - P.7-11.

7. San Pin 2.3.2.1078-01 Gigienicheskiye trebovaniya bezopasnosti i pischevoy tsennosti pischevyh produktov [Sanitation Code and Standards 2.3.2.1078-01 Hygienic requirements for safety and nutrition value of foodstuff]: approved by G.G.Onischenko, Chief state sanitation doctor, first vice-minister of Healthcare ministry. Moscow, 2002. 164 p.

8. Radiatsionny control. Strontsiy-90 i tseziy-137. Pischeviye produkty. Otbor prob, analizi gigiyenicheskaya otsenka: metodicheskiye ukazaniya po metodam kontrolya. MUK 2.6.1.717-98 [Radiation monitoring. Strontium-90 and cesium - 137. Food. Sampling, analysis and sanitary approach. Guidelines on control methods 2.6.1.717-98]. - Moscow: Federal Centre for Sanitary Inspection Ministry of Health of Russia, 1998. - 60 p.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF EXTREMELY WEAK SOLUTIONS OF POLYOXIDONIUM AND THEIR IMPACT ON IMMUNOGENESIS PARAMETERS

   
Authors: 1Usenko V.I. Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Ryzhkina I.S. Doctor of Chemical Sciences; 2Sergeeva S.Yu. Research Assistant; 1Dordzhieva D.E. applicant; 1Bektemirova M.R. postgraduate fellow
   
Address:

1N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17); e-mail: usenko.victor@yandex.ru).

2A.E.Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Centre Russian Academy of Sciences (e-mail: ryzhkina@iopc.ru).

   
Abstract:

The article provides the results of the study of correlation in self-arrangement, physical and chemical properties and biological activity of Polyoxidonium (PO) solutions. We used physicochemical, biochemical, hematological, immunological and statistical research methods. The activity of PO solutions in concentrations of 1×10-18 - 3 /ml, was determined using 5 groups of rats (the control group and experimental groups exposed to PO solutions in dosages ranging from 0.1 /kg of body weight to 1×10-14/ml) were tested for total protein, total blood test, indices of the red blood cells ratio and phagocytic activity of neutrophils. The studies showed that the application of therapeutic dose (0.1 /kg of body weight) and PO active solutions in low and ultralow concentrations (1×10-6; 1×10-9 and 1×10-14) resulted in positive changes in the studied parameters comparing to the control group. So, the introduction of therapeutic doses the level of total protein increased for in 7.8%serum, a significant increase was observed in the number of leukocytes in blood (for more than 1.5 times) and phagocytic activity of neutrophils. With the introduction of PO extremely weak concentration the total protein level in the blood increased from 8.9% to 15.6%, and the number of leukocytes increased from 87.8% to 99.1%, the number of neutrophils increased from 73.2% to 104.7%, the number of lymphocytes increased from 86.6% to 100.7%. The number of active neutrophils in the body increased in all the experimental groups from 84.4% to 115.5%, but this increase remained within normative values for these species. Analysis of the results shows that positive comparable changes in a body occur at using PO at both therapeutic and weak and extremely weak concentrations which gives grounds to recommend the use of extremely weak concentration solutions of the drug as a preventive measure to improve immune status.

 

   
Keywords: polyoxidonium, nano-scaled associates, physical and chemical properties, hematological parameters, immunogenesis
   
References:

1.Konovalov, A.I., Obrazovanie nanoassotsiatov klyuch k ponimaniyu fiziko-himicheskih I biologicheskih svoystv vysokorazbavlennyh vodnyh rastvorov [Formation of nano-scaled associates is a key to comprehend physical and chemical and biological properties of extremely weak aqueous solutions] / A.I.Konovalov, I.S. Ryizhkina // Izvestiya Ros. Akademii nauk. Seriya himicheskaya Herald of the Russian Federation Academy of Sciences. Chemistry series. 2014. Vol.1. .114.

2. Ryzhkina, I.S. Sposob prognozirovaniya bioeffekta v rastvorah nizkih I sverhnizkih kontsentratsiy biologicheski aktivnyih veschestv [A method to forecast biological effects of weak and extremely weak solutions of biologically active substances] / I.S.Ryzhkina, A.I.Konovalov, L.I.Murtazina // Application for patent RF 2009106496, prioritized of 24.02.09 - The patent application RF number 2009106496, priority of 24.02.09// BI. 2010. Vol.24. P.20.

3. Registr lekarstvennyh sredstv Rossii RLS. Entsiklopediya lekarstv [Russian Medicines Register RLS. Encyclopedia of medical means. Vol.14]/ Edited by G.L.Vyishkovsky Moscow: RLS, 2006. 1392 .

4. Shimanovskiy, N.L. Molekulyarnaya I nanofarmakologiya [Molecular and nano-scaled pharmacology] / N.L.Shimanovskiy, M.A.Epinetov, M.Ya.Melnikov. Moscow: FIZMATLIT, 2010. 624 .

5. Burlakova, E.B. Effekt sverhmalyh doz [The effect of extremely low doses] / E.B.Burlakova, A.A.Konradov, E.L. Maltsev // Vesti RAN News of RAS.-1994. Vol.64, 5. .425-431.

6. Polyakov, N.E. Nekotoryie aspektyi reaktsionnoy sposobnosti karatinoidov. Okislitelno-vosstanovitelnyie protsessy i kompleksoobrazovanie [Some aspects of reactivity of carotenoids. Reduction-oxidation processes and formation of complexes] / N.E.Polyakov, T.V.Lyoshina // Uspehi himii 2006. Vol.75, 12. .1175-1192.

7. Stovbun, S.V. Struny, anizometricheskie geli I rastvoryi v himicheskih I biologicheskih sistemah. Obzor [Strings, anisometric gels, and solutions in chemical and biological systems. Overview] / S.V.Stovbun, A.A. Skoblin // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 3 Fizika I astronomiya Bulletin of Moscow University. 3rd Series: Physics and Astronomy. 2012. Vol.4. .3-15.

8. Nanostrukturyi v biomeditsine [Nanostructures in Biomedicine] / translated from English; editied by K. Gonsalves [et al.] Russian edition. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya znaniy, 2015. 519 p.

9. Sedlak, M. Large-Scale Supramolecular Structure in Solutions of Low Molar Mass Compounds and Mixtures of Liquids: I. Light Scattering Characterization // J. Phys. Chem. B. 2006. Vol. 110. . 4329-4338.

   
   
Title:

RAPID METHOD OF DETECTING ANTIBRUCCELLAR ANTIBODIES IN COW SERUM AND MILK

   
Authors: Yanikova E.A. Research Officer; Yusupov O.Yu. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Kabahova P.M. Research Officer; Shehilalieva G.M. Research Assistant; Mikailov M.M. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gulieva A.T. Research Assistant
   
Address: Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: pznivi@bk.ru)
   
Abstract:

The article describes the efficacy of detecting Brucella species in animal blood and milk using indirect hemagglutination test based on the Set for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants in the indirect hemagglutination test (IHT) developed by Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, The All-Russian State Center for Quality and Standardization of Veterinary Drugs and Feed (VGNKI) and All-Russian Institute for Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Research. To identify the brucellosis specific hemagglutinin serum and milk from farm cows with various brucellosis statuses was tested using IHT. At the same time cow milk was examined using ring test while serum was tested using agglutination test and compliment fixation test. Milk and blood serum from1280cows including 400 samples from infection-free farms and 880 samples from brucellosis-infected farms were studied. The studies showed that milk IHTis as sensitive as blood serum IHT and more sensitive than milk ring test and serum complement fixation test. Particularly, of samples from brucellosis-positive herds milk IHT detected 247 samples (28.0%) cows that also responded to serum IHA whereas milk ring test revealed brucellosis in 122 samples (13.8%), and associated use of agglutination test and compliment fixation test registered 154 (17.5%) samples. The high sensitivity of milk IHA and its reliability for identifying infected animals in the early stages after infection was also proved with cows that had abortions caused by brucellosis. The studies proved specificity, high sensitivity and suitability of IHT with erythrocyte antigen developed byCaspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, The All-Russian State Center for Quality and Standardization of Veterinary Drugs and Feed (VGNKI) and All-Russian Institute for Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Research to detect brucellosis hemagglutinin in cow milk and blood serum. The use of this reaction allows early diagnosis in brucellosis-infected animals.

   
Keywords: cattle, brucellosis, diagnostics, milk, indirect hemagglutination test
   
References:

1. Degtyarenko, L.V. Effektivnost ekspress-metoda vyyavleniya brutselleznykh antitel [Efficiency of rapid method detecting brucellosis antibodies] / L.V.Degtyarenko, O.D.Sklyarov // Vestnik veterinarii. 2014. - Vol. 3. - P. 20-22.

2. Zhovanik, P.N. Brutsellez: monografya [Brucellosis: manuscript] / P.N.Zhovanik. Kiev: Urozhay, 1975. 221p.

3. Lazarev, N.P. Koltsevaya reaktsiya s molokom i s syvorotkoy krovi dlya diagnostiki brutselleza [Using ring tests with milk and blood serum to detect brucellosis] / N.P.Lazarev // Veterinariya. - 1968. - Vol. 4.-P. 98-99.

4. Moryakova, O.I. Koltsevaya reaktsiya s molokom dlya diagnostiki brutselleza u korov [Using ring test with milk to detect brucellosis in cows]/O.I. Moryakova// Scientific works. VIEV. - 1961. Issue 24. - P. 124-129.

5. Trilenko, P.A. Ispytaniye koltsevoy reaktsii dlya diagnostiki brutselleza [Using ring test to detect brucellosis] // P.A.Trilenko // Veterinariya. - 1951. - Vol.8. - P. 59-61.

6. Tikhomirova, E.A. Ekspress-metod obnaruzheniya protivobrutselleznykh antitel v syvorotke krovi I moloke [Using rapid methodsto detect brucellosis antibodies in blood serum and milk] / E.A.Tikhomirova, V.P.Urban, V.V.Sochnev // Aktualniye voprosy profilaktiki brutselleza urgent issues of brucellosis prevention: abstracts from the USSR scientific conference. Novosibirsk, 1989. - P. 127-128.

   
   
Title:

FORMATION OF COLOSTRAL IMMUNITY AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN NEWBORN CALVES TREATED WITH RONCOLEUKIN

   
Authors: Klyapnev A.V. postgraduate fellow
   
Address:

Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, N.Novgorod (e-mail: anatomifarmitox@mail.ru).

 

   
Abstract:

The aim of the present studies was to determine a possible effect of Roncoleukin on accumulation of immunoglobulins and other immunogenic factors in the mammary gland of cows before calving, theirdischarge as a part of colostrum, as well as the influence of these factors on the formation of colostrums-driven immunity and nonspecific resistance in newborn calves. 20 down-calving cows of black-motley breed selected for its analogues were the objects of the experimental studies. The cows from the experimental group were subcutaneously injected once with Roncoleukin at dosage of 0.5 36 days before calving. The control animals were injected subcutaneously with a physiological sodium chloride solution using the same scheme. Blood was taken for research in newborn calves at 6 hours and 10th day after birth. At six hours after birth the calves born to cows from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the number of red blood cells +14.37% (P<0.05), white blood cells +22.37% (P<0.05) on account of lymphocytes, the level of total protein was up to 12.74%, especially albumin fractions + 13.12% (P<0.05) and γ-globulins + 16.1% (P<0.05); hemoglobin level was higher for 20.68% (P<0.05) comparing to the control animals. Another blood test performed at 10 days after birth showed that the difference in the studied blood parameters remained the same. The experimental calves had higher weight gain for 19.8% compared with the control group at suckling growth period for 2 months of observation. The obtained data enable to clarify some aspects of regulation in immunological status and metabolism of newborn calves. This should be taken into account in development of physiologically justified practical methods of immunomodulation and increase of metabolic processes in calves during this period of growth that is often accompanied by animal immune deficiencies and gastrointestinal diseases.

 

   
Keywords: colostral immunity, newborn calves, nonspecific resistance, Roncoleukin, down-calving cows.
   
References:

1. Asatiani, V.S. Novyie metody biohimicheskoy fotometrii [New methods of biochemical photometry]. Moscow: Nauka, 1965. 543 p.

2. Belokrylov, G.A. Aminokisloty kak stimulyatoryi leykopoeza [Amino acids as inducers of immunogenesis] / G.A.Belokrylov, I.M.Molchanova, E.I.Sorochinskaya // Doklady AN SSSR Reports of USSR Sciences Academy, 1986, Vol. 2. P. 289293.

3. Belokrylov G.A., DetoksikatsiyaaminokislotamiipeptidnymipreparatamibenzolaiaflatoksinaB 1 u tsyplyat. [Intoxication with amino acids and peptide drugs from benzol and aflatoxin B1 in chickens] / G.A.Belokrylov [et al.] // Doklady RASHN Reports of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2000, Vol. 2.P. 5152.

4. Velikanov, V.I Sostoyanie nespetsificheskoy rezistentnosti novorozhdennyih telyat pod vozdeystviem preparatov aminokislot [Status of non-specific resistance in newborn calves under the influence of amino acid products] / V.I.Velikanov [et al.] // Novyie farmakologicheskie sredstva v veterinarii New pharmacological means in Veterinary Medicine: proceedings from 18th International Conference-Saint Petersburg, 2006. P. 4950.

5. Vorobyov, A.A., Immunobiologicheskie preparatyi: nastoyaschee I buduschee [Immunobiological drugs: the present and the future] // A.A.Vorobyov, V.A.Lyashenko. Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Immunology. 1995. Vol. 6. P.105111.

6. Kovalenko, Y.R. Formirovanie immunobiologicheskogo statusa u molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Formation of immunobiological status in young farm animals] / Y.R.Kovalenko // Vestnik s.-h. nauki. 1979. Vol 2. P. 5058.

7. Kondrahin, I.P. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika v veterinarii. Spravochnoe izdanie [Clinical laboratory diagnostics in Veterinary Medicine. A reference book] / I.P.Kondrahin. Moscow: Kolos, 2004. 520 p.

8. Metody biohimicheskogo analiza. Spravochnoe posobie [Methods of biochemical analysis. A reference book] /edited by Kalnitskiy B.D. Borovsk: 1997. 356 p.

9. Plyashhenko, S.I. Estestvennaya rezistentnost organizma zhivotnyh [The natural resistance in animals] / S.I.Plyashhenko, V.T.Sidorov. Leningrad: Kolos, 1979. 184 p.

10. Rukovodstvo po immunofarmakologii [A guidelines on immune pharmacology] / edited by M.M.Daily and J.K.Forman. Moscow: Medicine, 1998. 332 p.

11. Sereda, A.D. Immunostimulyatory. Klassifikatsiya, harakteristika, oblast primeneniya (obzor). [Immunostimulants. The classification, characteristic, the field of their application. A review] / A.D.Sereda, V.S.Kropotov, M.M.Zubairov // Agrobiology. 2001. Vol. 4. P. 8386.

12. Havinson, V.H., Mehanizm geroprotektivnogo deystviya peptidov [A mechanisms of geroprotective action of peptides] / V.H.Havinson, V.V.Malinin // Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2002. Vol. 1. P. 412.

13. Havinson, V.H. Peptidergicheskaya regulyatsiya gomeostaza [Peptidergic regulation of homeostasis] / V.H.Havinson, I.M.Kvetnoy, I.P.Ashmarin // Uspehi sovremennoy biologii.2002. Vol. 122, Issue 41. P. 8396.

14. Kharitonov, L.V., Vliyaniye timogena na stanovleniye nespetsificheskoy rezistentnosti u telyat-molochnikov [Effect of timogen on formation of nonspecific resistance in suckling calves] / L.V.Kharitonov, A.N.Morozov, O.V.Haritonova // Problemy biologii produktivnyh zhivotnyh. 2012. Vol. 2. P. 4248.

15. Kharitonov, L.V. Vliyanie preparatov aminokislot na funktsionalnoe sostoyanie i nespetsificheskuyu rezistentnost telyat [Effect of amino acid drugs on the functional state and the nonspecific resistance in calves] / L.V.Kharitonov, I.L.Kuznetsov, E.A.Pronkina, V.I.Velikanov // Trudy VNIIFBiP, 2002.Vol. 41. P. 8396.

16. Kharitonov, L.V. Uchastie aminokislot v regulyatsii protsessov pitaniya i rezistentnosti molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [An impact of amino acids into the regulation of digestion and resistance in young cattle herds] / L.V.Kharitonov, V.A.Matveev, V.I.Velikanov, D.E.Pronkin // Aktualnyie problemyi biologii v zhivotnovodstve Current biological problems in livestock breeding: proceedings from the 3rd International conference Borovsk. 2001.P. 177188.
   
   
Title:

PATHOLOGICAL MORPHOLOGY OF CHICKEN LIVER AT ASSOCIATED INFECTION WITH ESHERIKHIOSIS AND SALMONELLOSIS

   
Authors: Shestakov V.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: Siberian institute for poultry breeding research (-mail: vet@sibniip.ru)

 

   
Abstract:

The article provides the investigation results of liver pathological changes at associated infection with Escherichiosis and Salmonellosis. Carcasses of layer hen of different age from poultry farms in Omsk region were the investigation objects; using bacterial method intestinal bacillus and salmonellosis were isolatedfrom their internal organs. During autopsy pieces of liver were taken for histological studies. The samples were fixed in 5% formaldehyde solution. After the results of bacteriological study were obtained the fixed pieces were embedded in paraffin. The histological sections were stained with Hansens hematoxylin of and eosin. Histological liver preparations from 43 hens were studied. The studies showed that the associated disease withescherichiosis and salmonellosis in hens develops chronically because carrying bacteria doesnot have any specific clinical symptoms and pathological changes. During the autopsy pneumonia, catarrhal enteritis, anemia (sometimes with hyperplasia) of spleen, dystrophy of liver and kidney were registered. Presence of shapeless yellow-grey spots of different dimensions under liver capsule is more specific feature. Histological methods showed that these are sites of liver wet necrosis at intrahepatic cholestasis.Detected during autopsy single or plural interflowing shapeless sports under capsule of liver and in its parenchyma are the signs of necrosis. At associated escherichiosis and salmonellosis laying hens developed both dry and wet liver necrosis. At sites of dry necrosis no walls of capillaries, fibres or core of connecting tissue cells remained, also no proliferating tissue cells were detected in peripheral area.

 

   
Keywords: escherichiosis, salmonellosis, histological study, chicken, liver, necrosis
   
References:

1. Kozhemyaka, N.G. Esherihioz broylerov [Broiler chicken escherichiosis of broilers] / N.G. Kozhemyaka // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. - 2008. - Vol. 11. -P. 15-16.

2. Lenchenko, E.M. Gistohimicheskie issledovaniya pri zarazhenii ptits toksigennymi esherihiyami [Histochemical studies at avian infection with toxigenic escherichia] / E.M.Lenchenko, E.A.Mansurova // Agrarnaya nauka. - 2012. - Vol. 4. - P. 29-30.

3. Bakulin, V.A. Bolezni ptits [Avian diseases] / V.A.Bakulin. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg state academy of Veretinary Medicine, 2006. - 686 p.

4. Shestakov, V.A. Gistostruktura follikulov selezenki, bursy Fabritsiusa, slepyh kishok broylerov pri esherihioze [Histological structure of spleen follicles, Bursa Fabricius, blind guts in broilers having escherichiosis]/V. A.Shestakov, S. B. Lysko// The Bulletin of Omsk state agricultural university. - 2014. - Vol. 1. - P. 64-67.

5. Shestakov, V.A. Patologogistologicheskaya harakteristika pecheni i pochek indushat pri esherikhioze [Pathological histological characterization of liver and kidney in turkey chicken with escherichiosis] / V.A.Shestakov, S.B.Lysko, O.A.Suntsova // innovatsionnoye obespecheniye yaichnogo I myasnogo ptitsevodstva Rossii Innovation-based egg and meat poultry farming in Russia: proceedings from the scientific and practical conference. Sergiyev Posad, 2015. - P. 495-497.

6. Shestakov, V.A. Gistostruktura pecheni I pochek indushat pri esherikhioze [Pathological histological structure of liver and kidney in turkey chicken having escherichiosis] / V.A.Shestakov, S.B.Lysko // Vestnik veerinarii. - 2015. - Vol. 2 (73). - P. 19-22.

7. Shestakov, V.A. Gistostruktura ochagov nekroza v pecheni broylerov pri esherikhioze [histological structure of necrosis foci in liver of broilers having escherichiosis] / V.A.Shestakov // Innovatsionniye puti razvitiya zhivotnovodstva XXI veka - Innovative ways of animal husbandry development in the XXI century: proceedings from the scientific and practical conference with participation of the International scientists, Stavropol, May 27-29, 2009 Stavropol, 2009. - P. 137-142.

8. Shestakov, V. A. Gistostruktura slepyh kishok broylerov v norme I pri experimentalnom esherikhioze [histological structure of blind guts in healthy and challenged with escherichiosis broiler chicken] / V.A.Shestakov // Poultry farming. -2015. -Vol. 3. -P. 25-29.

9. Shestakov, V. A. Gistostrukturniye izmeneniya v pecheni I pochkah broylerov pri esherikhioze [histological changes in liver and kidneys of broilers having escherichiosis] / V.A.Shestakov // Veterinariyaikormleniye. - 2016. -Vol. 1. -P. 17-19.

10. Merkulov, G.A. Kurs patologogistologicheskoy tehniki [A course of pathohistological techniques] / G.A.Merkulov. Leningrad: Meditsina, 1969. - 432 p.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

SOME INDICES OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FAT METABOLISM IN COWS WITH KETOSIS AND IN CALVES BORN TO THEM

   
Authors: 1Trebukhov A.V. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Elenschleger A.A. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor
   
Address: Altai State Agricultural University, Barnaul (e-mail: ivmagau@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:

Ketosis in cows is a metabolic disease where the changes are observed both in the body of mother-cows and in calves born to them. The research goal was to study the indices of carbohydrate and fat metabolism in cows with ketosis and in calves born to them. The studies were conducted in autumn and winter on comparable (analogue) cows and calves born to them. Two groups of cows were formed: the trial group consisted of the cows with ketosis; the control group consisted of apparently healthy cows. Two groups of calves were also formed: the trial group of calves born to the cows with ketosis, and the control group born to apparently healthy cows. The biochemical studies of blood of the cows and calves determined the following: glucose, alkaline reserve, triglycerides, ketone bodies and their fractions. The biochemical studies in cows were conducted 1 month before calving, at 10 days after calving, and in calves at the 3d, 10 and 14 days after birth. The following was found in cows with ketosis during the last month of pregnancy: high levels of triglycerides (0.690.07 mmol/L) and ketone bodies (1.890.17 mmol/L) and low levels of glucose (1.14 0.09 mmol/L) and alkaline reserve. The following was found in cows with ketosis after calving: a significant decrease in triglycerides (0.26 0.13 mmol/L), glucose (2.090.17 mmol/L), the ratio of ketone body fractions (1.9 0.14) and increased ketone body content in blood (2.76 0.25 mmol/L). The following was revealed in the calves born to the cows with ketosis on at 3days after birth: higher levels of ketone bodies (2.2 times) and glucose (1.5 times), and lower levels of triglycerides (by 34%) and alkaline reserve (by 11%) than those in the calves born from apparently healthy cows. The following is concluded: 1) high levels of triglycerides, ketone bodies and their fractions and low levels of glucose and alkaline reserve are revealed in cows with ketosis one month before calving; 2) after calving the cows with ketosis reveal a significant decrease in triglycerides, glucose, the ratio of ketone body fractions and increased content of ketone bodies and their fractions in blood.

 

   
Keywords: veterinary medicine, metabolism, oxonemia, ketosis, cattle, calves, carbohydrate metabolism, fat metabolism
   
References:

1. Ivanov, A.V. Ketoz korov, ovets, svinei [Ketosis in cows, sheep, and pigs] / A.V.Ivanov, K.Kh.Papunidi, V.A.Ignatkina. Kazan: Lab. oper. pech. TGGI, 2000. 72 p.

2. Smirnov, S.I. Lechenie korov so skrytoi formoi ketoza [Treating cows from latent froms of ketosis] / S.I.Smirnov // Veterinariya. 1984. 4. P. 55-57.

3. Andrews, T. Ketosis and liver in cattle / T.Andrews // In Practice. 1998. Vol. 20, 9. . 509513.

4. Gravert, H.O. Acetongehalt der Milch kennzeichnet Energielucke nach dem Kalben / H.O.Gravert, L.Diekmann // Landwirtsch.-Bl.-Weser-Ems. 1986. Vol. 133, 38. . 1416.

5. Vik-Mo, L. Fatty acids in milk fat as related to feed energy supply and ketonemia in dairy cows during early lactation / L.Vik-Mo, P.Lindstad, H.N.Astrup // Meld. Norges Landbrukshogskole. 1984. T. 63, 14 . 114.

6. Elenshleger, A.A. Nekotorye biokhimicheskie pokazateli krovi u korov pri subklinicheskom ketoze [Some blood biochemical parameters in cows having ketosis] / A.A.Elenshleger, A.V.Trebukhov, O.G.Kazakova // Vestnik Altaiskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2014. 10 (120). P. 96-99.

7. Dronov, V.V. Sostoyanie zdorovya korov ig ipotrofiya telyat [Cow health and calves hypotrophy] / V.V.Dronov, G.V.Snoz, G.I. Gorshkov // RVZh. Selskokhozyaistvennye zhivotnye. 2013. 1. P. 6-8.

8. Elenshleger, A.A. Pokazateli belkovogo obmena u telyat, rozhdennykh ot bol'nykh ketozom korov [ ] / A.A.Elenshleger, A.V.Trebukhov, N.A.Pashchenko // Vestnik Altaiskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2015. 12 (134). P. 112-114.
   
   
Title:

TREATMENT OF FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES USING THE METHOD OF INTRAMEDULLARY LOCKED OSTEOSYNTHESIS (AN EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL STUDY)

   
Authors: Emanov A.A. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gorbach E.N. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Antonov N.I. Candidate of Biological Sciences
   
Address:

Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics (e-mail: office@rncvto.ru).

   
Abstract: The work deals with the results of treating femoral shaft fractures by the technique of intramedullary locked osteosynthesis. Experiments performed in six adult mongrel dogs at the age from 12 to 18 month with 163-kg body weight under standard vivarium conditions. All the animals underwent modeling a transverse femoral shaft fracture and intramedullary locked osteosynthesis. In addition, the clinical material included four dogs with femoral fractures treated by the technique of intramedullary locked osteosynthesis. The performed x-ray studies of the experimental material demonstrated the first signs of regeneration in the process of femoral fracture treatment under intramedullary locked osteosynthesis to appear at 14 days after surgery. The unified medullary cavity formed at 70 days, cortical plates approached to the maternal bone. Histologically, the compactizing bone tissue of lamellar type was determined microscopically in the zone of fragment union. Dense capillary network and hemopoietic bone marrow with colonies of fat cells observed above and below the fracture zone in the medullary cavity. The clinical introduction of the technique of intramedullary locked osteosynthesis for femoral fractures allowed to consolidate the fracture within 2-3 months and to recover the limb function in all the cases. The early functional recovery of the injured pelvic limb revealed under using intramedullary locked osteosynthesis. The data evidenced of the fact that during femoral shaft fracture treatment sufficiently long formation of bone structures occurred in the zone of injury to the level of the bone weight-bearing part which was capable to withstand loads. In this connection the use of intramedullary locked osteosynthesis justified. The clinical use of the intramedullary locked osteosynthesis technique in all the cases allowed to provide stability throughout the period of treatment, as well as to consolidate the fracture and to recover limb function early without forming adjacent joint contractures and soft tissue atrophies
   
Keywords: dog, intramedullary locked osteosynthesis, femur, fracture, regenerated bone, histostructure.
   
References:

1. Denny H.R. Orthopedics dogs and cats / H.R. Denny, S.D.Battervof; translated into Russian by M. Dorosh, L. Eveleva. - Moscow: "Akvarium BUK" Ltd., 2004. - 696 p.

2. Osobennosti osteosinteza pri lechenii diafizarnyh perelomov bedrennoy kosti v zavisimost ot tyazasti travmy (eksperimentalnoye issledovaniye) [Osteosynthesis peculiarities at treating femur shaft fractures depending on injury severity (an experimental study)] / ..manov [et al.] // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarnoy biologii. 2013. 3 (19). P. 7277.

3. Poslov, G.A. Oslozhneniya posle intramedullyarnogo osteosinteza [Complications at Intramedullary osteosynthesis] / G.A.Poslov // Veterinariya. 2001. 11. P. 5859.

4.Emanov, .. Strukturnaya reorganizatsiya sustavnogo hryascha i sinovialnoy obolochki kolennogo sustava pri lechenii diafizarnyh perelomov bedrennoy kosti metodom blokiruyuschego intramedullyarnogo osteosinteza (eksperimentalno-morfologicheskoye issledovaniye) [Structural rearrangement of knee join articular cartilage and synovial membrane at treatment of femur shaft fracture using intramedullary locked osteosynthesis] / ..manov, T..Stupina, N.I.Antonov // TravmatologiyaiortopediyaRossii. 2015. 1. P. 6673.

5.Zholnerovich, M.L. Intramedullyarny osteosintez u sobak [Intramedullary osteosynthesis in dogs] / M.L.Zholnerovich, M.A.Galagutskaya // Issledovaniya molodyh uchenyh v reshenii problem zhivotnovodstva investigations of young scientists in solving livestock problems: proceedings from the3rd scientific and practical conference Vitebsk: UO VGAVM, 2003 - P.44-45.

6. Ob optimalnyh usloviyah reparativnoy regeneratsii opornyh organov [on optimal conditions of bone reparative regeneration] / G.I.Lavrischeva, L.N.Mihaylova, D.I.Chekes-Zade, G.A.Onopriyenko // Geniy ortopedii. 2002. 1. P. 120125.

7. Samoshkin, I.B. Rekonstruktivno-vosstanovitelnaya hirurgiya oporno-dvigatelnogo apparata u sobak (kliniko-morfologicheskiye paralleli): rukovodstvo dlya veterinarnyh vrachey [Using reconstructive-recovery surgery of the musculoskeletal system in dogs (clinical and morphological parallels): a guideline for veterinary doctors] / I.B.Samoshkin, N.A.Slesarenko: A Guide for Veterinarians. - Moscow: Sovietsky Sport, 2008. - 200 p.

8. Silantyeva, .. Gistologicheskaya harakteristika proksimalnogo epifiza bedrennoy kosti pri lechenii diafizarnogo pereloma v usloviyah chreskostnogo I intramedullyarnogo blokiruyemogo osteosinteza [Histological characterization of femur proximal epiphyseat at treating shaft fracture using trans osseous and intramedullary locked osteosynthesis] / ..Silantyeva, ..manov // mezhdunarodny zhurnal prikladnyh I fundamentalnyh issledovaniy] 2014. 11. P. 675679.

9. Stogov, .V. Otsenka reparativnogo osteosinteza pri zazhivlenii perelomov bedra u sobak [Evaluation of reparative osteosynthesis at femur fracture recovery in dogs] / .V.Stogov, .V.Duryagin, N.V.Tushina // Veterinariya. 2007. 2. P.6061.

10. Schudlo, N.. Spetse-sterzhnevoy apparat dlya kompressionno-distraktsionnogo osteosinteza bedrennoy kosti sobak [Spoke-and-nail-based apparatus for compression and distraction osteosynthesis of canine femur] / N..Schudlo // Geniy ortopedii. 2000. 3. P. 106109.

11. Schreiner, .. Osteosintez spetse-sterzhnevymi konstruktsiyami bedra I plecha u domashnih zhivotnyh [Spoke-and-nail-based osteosynthesis at pet femur and shoulder fractures] / ..Schreiner, N.V.Petrovskaya, S..Erofeev // Geniy ortopedii. 1996. 23. P. 122.

12. Ekperimentalnoye obosnovaniye primeneniya sterzhnevogo chreskostnogo osteosinteza trubchatyh kostey [Experimental justification of using rod-based transosseousosteosynthesisat long bone fractures] / .V.Beydik [et al.] // Morfofunktsionalniye aspekty regeneratsii I adaptatsionnoy differenstirovki strukturnyh komponentov oporno-dvigatelnogo apparata v usloviyah mehanicheskogo vozdeystviya Morphological and functional aspects of regenerative and adaptation differentiation structural components in muscle-skeletal system at mechanical exposure: proceedings from the scientific and practical conference. Kurgan, 2004. P. 4042.

13. Ekperimentalnoye obosnovaniye vneshney sterzhnevoy fiksatsii trubchatyh kostey [Experimental justification of using external rod-based fixation at long bone fractures] / .V.Beydik [et al.] // Sovrermenniye metody lecheniya bolnyh s travmami i oslozhneniyami current treatment methods at trauma and post trauma complications: proceedings from the scientific and practical conference. Kurgan, 2006. P. 5758.

14. Proposal of Report on a New Type of Osteosynthesis in Femur: Multiple Intramedullary Pinning Blocked / D.F.Caquías [et al.] // Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 2011. 39 (3). P. 978.

15. Rod-through-plate fixation of canine diaphyseal fractures / V.Andrianov [et al.] // Vet Comp. Orthop. Traumatol. 2007. 20 (4). P. 308311.

16. Effect of bending direction on the mechanical behavior of interlocking nail systems / L.M.Déjardin [et al.] // Vet Comp OrthopTraumatol. 2009. 4. . 264269.

17. In Vitro Mechanical Comparison of Screwed, Bolted, and Novel Locking Nail Systems to Buttress Plate Fixation in Torsion and Mediolateral Bending / J.L.Lansdowne [et al.] // Vet Surg. 2007. 36. . 368377.

18. Perren, S.M. Review article. Evolution of the internal fixation of long bone fractures the scientific basis of biological internal fixation: choosing a new balance between stability and biology / S.M.Perren // J. Bone Joint Surg. [Br]. 2002. 84 (8). P. 10931110.

19. Bellon, J. Use of a novel intramedullary nail for femoral fracture repair in calves: 25 cases (2008-2009) / J.Bellon, P.Mulon // Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2011. 238 (11). . 14906.

20. Kurum, B. Interlocking nail stabilization of canine femoral fractures; clinical experience and results of the nineteen cases / B.Kurum // KafkasUniversitesiVeterinerFakultesiDergisi. 2012. Vol. 18, issue 6. . 1027.

21. Çaptug, Ö Treatment of long bone fractures by interlocking nailing fixation technique in 5 cats / Ö.Çaptug.,H.Bilgili // VeterinerCerrahiDergisi. 2006. 12 (1-2-3-4). . 3644.

   
   
Title:

INCIDENCE OF THE CAUDA EQUINA SYNDROME IN THE DOGS. THE CAUSES OF THE OCCURRENCE

   
Authors: Kozlov N.A. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Vetryuk .L. postgraduate fellow; Sklyarova .B. postgraduate fellow
   
Address:

Skryabin K.I. Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow (tel. +7(8352) 39-74-93; e-mail: nikvet@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: The article provides an analysis of the occurrence of various diseases in the lumbosacral spine dogs with a certain frequency of manifestation of other pathologies. The authors were set occurrence of cauda equina "syndrome in large and giant breeds of dogs. They determine the frequency of the incidence of various pathologies cause "cauda equina" syndrome. The study is based on the observation of 500 dogs with paresis and paralysis of pelvic limbs of different etiologies in the period from 2011 to 2014. 45 (9%) dogs from them were large and giant breeds (Labradors, Retrievers, Mastiffs, Cane-Corso, German Shepherds, Alabai) which had syndrome "cauda equina." Animals before the MRI examination was conducted medical examination and X-rays to rule out bilateral rupture of ACL and other orthopedic diseases. Static or dynamic disk - associative compression of " cauda equina " - 23 animals (58%); compression syndrome (impingement syndrome) / intervertebral foramen stenosis - 8 animals (17.8%); diskospondilitis - 5 animals (11.1%); dorsal compression of the " cauda equina "- 5 dogs (11.1%); The rate for MRI study - 4 dogs (8.9%). The authors founded that the most frequent pathology manifested by the type of cauda equina syndrome is disc-associated protrusion between L7 and S1. Less frequently encountered isolated compression roots, dorsal compression
   
Keywords: disc herniation, L7-S1 disc protrusion, cauda equina syndrome, MRI of the spine, lumbosacral stenosis
   
References:

1. Amort, KH. MR-imaging of lumbosacral inter vertebral disc degeneration in clinically sound German shepherd dogs compared to other breeds / KH.Amort [et al.] // Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2012. 53 (3). . 28995.

2. De Risio, L. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis / L.De.Risio, W.B.Thomas, N.J.H.Sharp // Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000. 30. . 111132.

3. Hylands, R. Veterinary diagnostic imaging / R.Hylands // Can Vet J. 2007. 48 (4). . 42932.

4. Mayhew, PD. Association of cauda equina compression on magnetic resonance images and clinical signs in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis / PD.Mayhew // Am AnimHospAssoc. 2002. 38. . 555562.

5. Meij, BP. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs / BP.Meij, N.Bergknut // Vet Clin North Am Small AnimPract. 2010. 40 (5). . 9831009.

6. Obata, K. BDNF in sensory neurons and chronic pain / K.Obata, K.Noguchi // Neurosci Res. 2006. 55 (1). . 110.

7. Raj, P.P. Intervertebral disc: anatomy-physiology pathophysiology-treatment / PP.Raj // Pain Pract. 2008. 8. .1844.

8. Rossi, F. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular process joint geometry and inter vertebral disk degeneration in the caudal lumbar spine (L5-S1) of dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression / F.Rossi // Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2004. 45 (5). . 3817.

9. Vacca, V.M. Jr. Cauda equina syndrome / V.M.Vacca // Nursing. 2012. 42 (5). . 7273
   
   
Title:

GENETICALLY DETERMINED RESISTANCE TO MASTITIS IN COWS

   
Authors: 1Zinnatova F.F. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Shamsieva L.V. postgraduate; 2Yusupova G.R. Doctor of Biological Sciences;1Yulmeteva Y.R. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Shakirov Sh.K. Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
   
Address:

1Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture, Kazan (e-mail: faridafffz@mail.ru).

2N.E.Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: leisanvarisovna@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:

Today inflammation of mammary gland is the most serious and widespread disease in cattle breeding. This disease is dangerous as it can affect the animal in any state, in any period of season and lactation. The research was conducted in cattle breeding farm named after Lenin, Atninsky district, the Republic of Tatarstan, using 399 mature cows of Holstein breed. The number of somatic cells in 1 ml3of each milk sample from cows of the Tatar type was determined using "Somatos-In" viscometric device. The bacteriological tests of milk samples showed that the number of somatic cellsexceeded the sanitation and hygienic norms. The results of bacteriological analysis showed that in 70 % of milk samples mastitis is caused by E.Coli microorganisms, in 21% of samples mastitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus and in 11% of the samples both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus were registered. Sequencing of lactoferrin gene (Ltf) using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction length polymorphism of restriction fragments) showed that no animals with resistant genotype Ltf were registered, while the number of animals with unstable Ltf genotype was as high as 76%. The comparative analysis enabled to determine that the number of somatic cells in 1 ml3milk from animals with Ltf heterozygous genotype was lower for 42 thousand cells than their counterparts with Ltf genotype. Thus, our researches showed that only some microorganism strains have significant effect on inflammation of mammary gland in cows. However, this is not the only factor. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin gene enabled to determine that the increase of animals with the heterozygous genotype in a herd results in a lower level of somatic cells in milk, and consequently to a higher resistance to mastitis.

   
Keywords: somatic cells, lactoferrin gene, genotype, milk production, bacterial contamination
   
References:

1. Abdessemed, D. Subklinicheskiy mastit u korov v poslerodovoy period (verifikatsiya diagnoza i terapiya) [Subclinical mastitis in cows in the postpartum period (verification of diagnosis and therapy)]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Veterinary Sciences / Abdessemed Dahlia Saratov. 2014. 19 p.

2. Gotovskiy, D.I.Mastity: delaem upor na profilaktiku [Mastitis: focus is on prevention] / D.I.Gotovsky, I.S.Fomchenko // Belarusskoye selskoye hozyaystvo. 2014. Vol. 6. P. 46-49.

3. Rubtsov, V.I. Predraspologayuschiye I neposredstvenniye prichiniy, vyzyvayuchie zabolevanie molochnoiy zhelezy u korov [Predisposing and immediate causes of udder diseases in cows] / V.I.Rubtsov // Reports of K.A.Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy 2001. Vol. 273. Part 2. P. 26-29.

4. Levay, P.F. Lactoferrin: a general review / P.F.Levay, M.Viljoen // Haematologica. 1995. Vol. 80. . 252-267.

5. Reiter, B. The bacteriostatic effect of lactoferrin on a serum susceptible and serum resistant strain of E. coli / J.H.Brock, E.D.Steel // Immunology. 1975. Vol. 28. P. 83-95.

6. Concentration of lactoferrin and transferrin throughout lactation in cow's colostrum and milk / L.Sanchez [et al.] // Biol. Chem. Hoppe Seyler. 1997. Vol. 369. . 1005-1008.

7. Teng, C.T. Factors regulating lactoferrin gene expression / C.T.Teng // Biochem Cell Biol. 2006. Vol. 84. P. 263-267.

8. Consistent downregulation of human lactoferrin gene, in the common eliminated region 1 on 3p21.3, following tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice / Y.Yang [et. al.] // Cancer Lett. 2003. Vol. 191. .155-164.

9. Zheng, J. Characterization of the infection responsive bovine lactoferrin promoter / J.Zheng T.S. Sonstegard, D.E. Kerr // Gene. 2005. Vol 353. P. 107-117.

10. Lactotransferrin: a candidate tumor suppressor Deficient expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and inhibition of NPC cell proliferation by modulating the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway / Y.Zhou [et. al.] // Int J Cancer. 2008. Vol. 123. . 2065-2072.

   
   
Title:

EFFECT OF EXTRUDED ENERGY-PROTEIN FORAGE ON DAIRY COWS PRODUCTIVITY

   
Authors: 1Sabirov S. R. postgraduate fellow; 1Sofronov V.G. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 1Danilova N.I. Doctor of Biological Sciences; 2Shakirov Sh.K. Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor.
   
Address:

1Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17).

2Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture, Kazan (e-mail: tatniva@mail.ru).


 

   
Abstract: Extrusion is the most widespread ecological process in production of extruded plant proteins with the received products free from strict fibrous structure. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the chemical content of the fodder as a mixture of pea, rape, corn, and rye grain in equal ratios before and after extrusion as well as to study the effect of the extruded fodder on dairy cows production rate. Changes in the chemical content were evaluated according to the following parameters: dry mater, crude protein, crude cellulose, crude fat, protein fraction content, and energetic value. 80 Holstein cows at the 3rd and 4th lactation stage were divided into four groups according to the principles of analogues with 20 animals in each group. The control group animals received common ration while the experimental animals were additionally introduced the extruded fodder at the amount of 1-2 kg. Cow dairy production rate was evaluated according to the control milking rate and the milk was tested for fat and protein content. The evaluation of the fodder chemical content and nutrient value showed that at barometric processing the fodder lost water content for 4%, cellulose for 0.7%, fat for 0.2% while the content of crude protein increased for 1.3%, sugar 1.45 times, insoluble remnants increased for 2.3.times and energetic value 0ncreased for 6.5% comparing to the initial form. The experiment with dairy cows showed that feeding animals with the extruded fodders in various amount during 56 days resulted in higher milk yield for 25.3% and fat content in the milk was higher for 8% than that of the controls. Moreover, the values of these parameters depended on the ratio of the added extruded fodder. The most optimal amount as a part of the main ratio is 1.0-1.5 kg per animal. Therefore, the extrusion grain fodder consisting from equal parts of rye, pea, corn, rape grains promotes the increase of content of dry mater, crude protein, sugar, insoluble remnants, and energy with simultaneous reduction of crude cellulose and fat content. Enriching dairy cows ration with extruded fodder in ratio of 1.0-1.5 kg per animal increases milk yield and fat content in milk. The economic efficacy was 6.84 rubles per 1 ruble cost. 

 

   
Keywords: extruded, milk cows, dairy productivity, chemical analysis
   
References:

1. Djavadov, . Askorbinovaya kislota v ratsionah svinomatok [Using ascorbic acid in saw ration] / .Djavadov, V.Mescheryakova // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. 2007. Vol.6. P. 33-34.

2. Yermakov, A.I. Metody biohimicheskogo issledovaniya rasteniy [Using biochemical methods to study plants] / Edited by .I.Yermakov. Leningrad: Kolos, 1972. 354 p.

3. Lenkova, .N. Obrushennoye proso v kombikormah dlya tsyplyat-broylerov [Using hulled grain in mixed fodders for broiler chickens] / .N.Lenkova, .V.lizarova // Ptitsevodstvo mirovoy i otechestvenny opyt-2004 Poultry-breeding: world and domestic expertise-2004: proceedings from 3rdInt. conference, 9-11 February, 2004. oscow: Pischepromizdat, 2004. P. 110.

4. Luht, H-V. Goroh v kormlenii zhivotnyh [Using pea crops in animal feeding] / H-V.Luht // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. 2004. 9. P. 33.

5. Mishanin, .L. Povysheniye effektivnosti prigotovleniya ekstrudirovannogo korma s obosnovaniyem parametrov matritsy press-ekstrudera [Enhancing the efficacy of extruded fodder with justification of parameters for extruder matrix / .L.Mishanin [on-line resource] / Available on: http://www.dissercat.com/content/povyshenie-effektivnosti-prigotovleniya-ekstrudirovannogo-korma-s-obosnovaniem-parametrov-ma#ixzz3yTJdpuHO.

6. Normy i ratsion kormleniya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh: spravochnoye posobiye 3-e izdaniye pererabotannoye i dopolnennoye [Norms and ration of livestock animal feeding: a reference book 3rd edition added and revised] / Edited by A.P.Kalashnikov, V.I.Fisinin, V.V.Scheglov, N.I.Kleymenov. Moscow, 2003. 453 456 p.

7. Salamahin, S.P. Molochnaya produktivnost korov pri skarmlivanii kombikormov-kontsentratov s ekstrudirovannym zernom pshenitsy i yachmenya [Diary productivity in cows fed with mixed fodder concentrates with wheat and barley extruded grains / S.P.Salamahin [on-line resource] / Available on: http: //www.dissercat.com/content/molochnaya-produktivnost-korov-pri-skarmlivanii-kombikormov-kontsentratov-s-ekstrudirovannym#ixzz3yTpL9tJt.

8. Fitsev, . Zaschita proteina v smesi goroha i yachmenya [Securing protein in pea and barley mixture] / .Fitsev, V.Kosolapov, H.Ishmuratov // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii. 2004. 8. P. 33.

9. Chaikin, I.B. Razraborka i nauchnoye obosnovaniye sposoba proizvodstva ekstrudirovannyh kombikormov s nachinkoy [Developing and providing scientific justification of producing stuffed extruded fodders] / I.B.Chaikin [on-line resource] / Available on: http://www.dissercat.com/content/razrabotka-i-nauchnoe-obosnovanie-sposoba-proizvodstva-ekstrudirovannykh-kombikormov-s-nach-0#ixzz3yTlgnBHW.

10. Shatskih, . Organicheskaya forma yoda v ratsionah dlya broilerov [using iodine organic form in broiler rations] / .Shatskih // Ptitsevodstvo 2007. 8. P. 22-23.

  Parasitology
   
Title:

DYNAMICS OF PARASITEMIA IN THE TREATMENT OF DOGPIROPLASMOSIS WITH ANTIPROTOZOAL CHEMICAL AGENTS

   
Authors: Akimov D.Yu. postgraduate fellow; Romanova E.M. Doctor of Biology, professor; Shadiev L.A. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Shlenkina T.M. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Ignatkin D.S. Candidate of Biological Sciences
   
Address:

P.A.Stolypin Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy, Ulyanovsk (e-mail: akimov.dmitri2014@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: Transmitted or vector-borne diseases have an important place in nosological profile of dog sickness rate. In Ulyanovsk region babesiosis has dramatically become significant because of a wide spread of ticks of Dermacentorgenus. The aim of this work was the search for a chemotherapeutic agent which is the least toxic and most effective in reducing the level of parasitemia for babesiosis treatment. Babesiosis-infected domestic and stray dogs (from Ulyanovsk and Ulyanovsk region) were the object of the study. Babesiosis was diagnosed basing on the clinical signs and detection of Babesia canis protozoa in blood smears. In spontaneously infected dogs the infection was confirmed using laboratory analysis (n=100). The stage of the disease development (critical condition) was the selection criterion. Two experimental groups were formed. In the first group Neozidin M drug was used in the background of complex symptomatic treatment for the treatment of babesiosis. In the second experimental group (n=50) Piro-Stop was used for babesiosis treatment. The drugs were applied duly to their instructions. The studies showed that at using Neozidin M-based chemotherapy the level of parasitemia reduced more efficiently and in shorter time than at using Piro-Stop drug. The timing of hematological parameters recovery did not significantly vary in the both drugs. At 36 hours after Neozidin M was introduced no babesia were detected in animal blood, whereas in the group where Piro-Stop was applied the level of parasitemia fell to zero only at 60 hours. The comparative studies of the both antiprotozoal drugs Neozidin M and Piro-Stop" showed high efficiency of the both drugs in babesiosis treatment. However, in the course of treatment each drug was characterized by its own dynamics and level of the toxic influence on dogs infected with babesia. At using Neozidin M drug a rapid loss of Babesia was accompanied by more expressed toxic effect on sick animal body than using Piro-Stop. The studies showed that the choice of the proper drug should be based on a differentiated approach accounting the severity of the pathological process, the level of parasitemia and animal age.

 

   
Keywords: transmissible diseases, ixodic tick, babesiosis, dog
   
References:

1. Akimov, D.Yu. Struktura vidovogo sostava iksodovyh kleschey pltoyadnyh v raznyh agroklimaticheskih zonah Ulyanovskoy oblasti [The structure of the species composition of the ixodid ticks in carnivores in various agricultural and climatic areas of Ulyanovsk region] / D.Yu.Akimov, E.M.Romanova, L.A.Shadieva, T.M.Shlenkina // Veterinarny vrach. 2015. Vol. 5 P. 41-45.

2. Akimov, D.Yu. Indikatorniye pokazateli v laboratornoy diagnostike babezioza [Indicating parameters in laboratory-based detection of babesiosis] / D.Yu.Akimov, L.A.Shadieva, T.M.Shlenkina // The Herald of Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy 4(32) 2015. - P.106-112.

3. Akimov, D.Yu. Formy proyavleniya piroplazmoza u domashnih sobak na raznyh etapah ontogeneza [Forms of piroplasmosis expression in dogs at different stages of ontogenesis] / D.Yu.Akimov, L.A.Shadieva, A.E.Schegolenkova, T.A.Indiryakova // International research journal. - 2014. 2-3 (21). P. 101102.

4. Bespalova, N.S. Gomeostaz krovi sobak, povtorno perebolevshih babeziozom [Blood homeostasis in dogs re-infected with babesiosis] / N.S.Bespalov, D.G.Mezdrikov // Veterinariya. - 2012. Vol. 2. P. 38-40.

5. Mastrikov, D.G. Rezultaty biohimicheskih issledovaniy krovi sobak, bolnyh babeziozom [The Results of biochemical blood studies of dogs having from babesiosis] / Mezdrikov D.G. // Bulletin of Voronezh state agrarian University. 2013. Vol. 4. P. 172-175.

6. Smirnov, A.A. Preparat Piro-stop: sovremennoye i effektivnoye resheniye v borbe s kroveparazitarnymi boleznyami zhivotnyh [Piro-Stop drug: a modern and effective solution to control blood parasites-borne animal diseases] / A.A.Smirnov, A.A.Fedosov, P.V.Klimov // Questions of normative and legal regulation in veterinary medicine. - 2011. Vol. 1. - P. 45-47.

7. Samoilov, A.S. Algoritm biohimicheskoy otsenki funktsiy pecheni pri babezioze sobak [Algorithm of biochemical evaluation of liver functions at canine babesiosis] / A.S.Samoilova, M.A.Derkho // Herald of Novosibirsk state agrarian University. 2012. Vol. 4, Issue 25. P. 73-77.

8. Shevelev, I.A. Babezioz sobak: aktualnost, diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika [Babesiosis of dogs: relevance, diagnosis, treatment, prevention] / I. A. Shevelev // Youth and science. - 2012. Vol. 1. P. 120-122.

9. Belonenko, V.V. Babezioz sobak v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Babesiosis of dogs in the Russian Federation] / V.V.Belonenko, V.T.Zablotsky, P.I.Hristiastianovsky // JSAP Russian edition. 2013. Vol. 4, Issue 6. P. 43-46

10. Lutsuk, S.N. Techeniye babezzioza sobak v mono- I mikstinvazii s leptospirizom [Development of babesios isin dogs at single invasion and associated invasion with leptospirosis] / S.N.Lutsuk, K.V.Temichev, M.E.Ponomareva // Agricultural Bulletin of Stavropol. 2015. Vol. 4 (20). - P. 99-105.

11. Romanova, E.M. Rol edaficheskih faktorov v tsirkulyatsii endokrinnyh dizadaptorov v okruzhayuschey srede [The Role of edaphic factors in the circulation of endocrine disrupters in the environment] / E.M.Romanova, V.N.Lyubomirova, V.V.Romanov // Herald of Ulyanovsk state agricultural Academy - Vol. 4(32) 2015. P. 94-


 

  Radiobiology
   
Title:

IMMUNE RESPONSES TO ASSOCIATED EXPOSURE OF ROENTGEN IRRADIATION AND HERBICIDES IN OFFSPRING OF CHICKEN INJURED WITH 131I

   
Authors: 1Budarkov B.. Doctor of Biologigy, professor; 2Konyukhov G.V. Doctor of Biology, professor.
   
Address:

1All-Russian Research Institute of Animal Virology and Microbiology, Vladimir (e-mail: VNIIVViM@niiv.petush.elcom.ru).

2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

:italic'>e-mail: VNIIVViM@niiv.petush.elcom.ru).

 

2 , , . (420075, ., -2, .+7(843)239-53-12, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

 

   
Abstract:

The experiments on laboratory animals showed that distant genetic response of parental irradiation is expressed by lower resistance to harmful effects on offspring body. The problem became even more relevant after the accident on Chernobyl nuclear power station when data showing worsen health of children born to the irradiated parents were registered. However, reports on health status in human whose parents were irradiated with incorporated iodine radionuclides still remains limited. The aim of this work was to study the response rate to associated effect of ionizing irradiation and herbicide in offspring from hens irradiated with 131I at the dosage of 1.1MBq/kg. The experiments were performed on 211 offspring from Russian White layers exposed to daily irradiation with 131I during 30 days at rate of 1.1 MBq/kg and 213 chickens as the control analogues. To reveal latent changes in offspring body induced by exposure to radioactive iodine on parents 10-days old chicken were objected to an external roentgen irradiation and introduction of herbicide, 2.4-D ammonic salt, to 10-days and 6-months old chicken. Resistance to the effect of these factors was evaluated using common clinical, hematological, pathological, and morphological methods. The values for LD 50/30 were calculated according to Litchfield and Wilcoxsons methods. Under the effect of external roentgen irradiation the experimental 10-days old offspring from five generation were characterized with more expressed changes in health status, slower growing rate, and development than that of the controls. As the values for LD50/30 were defined the 2nd generation of experimental offspring born in 12 months after parental hens were exposed to 131I-irradiation had higher sensitivity to roentgen irradiation. At the age of 10 days and 6 months the 3rd, 4th, and 5th generations of these irradiated hens occurred to be less adaptive to herbicide introduction, 2.4-D ammonic salt. At LD50/30 the 4th generation of the experimental offspring born at 12 month after radiation exposure were more sensitive to the herbicide for 1.5 times than the controls. Under the effect of external roentgen irradiation the experimental 10-days old offspring from five generation were characterized with more expressed changes in health status, slower growing rate, and development than that of the controls and according to the values of LD50/30 were characterized with higher sensitivity to ionizing irradiation.

   
Keywords: chicken, offspring, Iodine-131(131I), roentgen irradiation, herbicide, immune responses.
   
References:

1. Vorobyova, .V. Issledovaniye radiochuvstvitelnosti hromosom detey obluchennyh roditeley [Investigation of chromosomes for radiosensitivity in children born to irradiated parents]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Biol.Sci. / .V. Vorobyova. St. Petersburg, 1995. 16 p.

2. Vorobtsova, I.. Vliyaniye oblucheniya roditeley na fiziologicheskuyu polnotsennost i risk kantserogoneza u potomstva pervogo pokoleniya organizmov raznyh vidov [The influence of parental irradiation on physiological health and risk of cancer in first generation offspring in various species]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Biology / I.. Vorobtsova. Leningrad, 1988. 43 p.

3. Nefedov, I.Yu. Nasledstvanniye posledstviya oblucheniya oboih roditeley (eksperimentalnoye issledovaniye na krysah linii Vistar) [Irradiation consequences inherited from both parents (experimental  studies with Wistar rats]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Biology / I.Yu. Nefedov. Obninsk, 1998. 52 p.

4. Izuchit transgeneratsionniye effekty i reaktivnost u potomkov zhivotnyh, roditeli kotoryh nahodilis v uloviyah tehnogenno- i prorodno-povyshennogo radiatsionnogo fona [To study transgenerative effects and response rate in offspring from animals living in areas with a higher level of man-induced or naturally occurred radiation] head: Ermakova .V. Grant # 11-04-90354 http: // www.rfbr.ru/rffi/ru/project_search/o _46326.

5. Sostoyaniye zdorovya pervogo pokoleniya detey, rodivshihsya ot rodotelley, podvergshisya vozdeystviyu ioniziruyushego izlucheniya v podrostkovom vozraste i prodolzhayuschih przhivat na territoriyah, zagryaznennyh radionuklidami [Health status in first generation from parents exposed to ionzing irradiation during teenage period and continuing living on radionuclide-polluted area]/ N..Korenev [et al.] // Ekologicheskaya antropologiya. Annual issue; edited by T.V.Belookaya. Minsk: Belorus committee Dzetsi Charnobylya, 2002. P.90-93.

6. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident. The results of AIFECA project and related national programs. Geneva: WHO, 1996. 153 p.

7. Korenev, N.. Sostoyaniye zdorovya detey, rozhdennyh v semyah roditeley, obluchennyh vsledstviye avarii na Chernobylskoy AES [Health status in children born in the families with parents irradiated during Chernobyl nuclear power station accident / N..Korenev, G.. Borisko, V.L. Kashina-YarmakZdorovye rebenka. 2012. 6 (41). P. 4143. http://www.mif-ua.com/archive/article/34736.

8. Lyaginskaya, A.M. Funktsiya vosproizvodstva u uchastnikov likvidatsiy posledstviy avariy na Chernobylskoy AES i zdorovye ih detey [Reproduction function in the participants of emergency services at Chernobyl accident and health of their children]/ A.M.Lyaginskaya, V..Osipov,.V.Smirnova // Meditsinskaya radiologiya i radiatsionnaya bezopasnost 2002. Vol. 47, 1. P. 510.

9. Guskova, .. Populyatsionno-geneticheskiye posledstviya ekologicheskih katastrof na primere avarii na Chernobylskoy AES [Population and genetic consequences of ecological accidents like Chernobyl nuclear power station] / ..Guskova, N.P.Arhipov, V.I. Glazko. Moscow: .. Timiryazev Russian State Agrarian University, 2008. 556 p.

10. Bairacova, A. Postnatal development and genetic damage in mice receiving iodine-131 treatment in foetal / A.Bairacova// Rentgenologiya i radiologiya. 1969. Vol..8,  1.  P. 3641.

11. Guskova, .. radiatsionnaya patologiya cheloveka [Human radiation pathology] / ..Guskova // Radiatsionnaya meditsina: rukovodstvo dlya vrachey, issledovateley, organizatorov zdravoohraneniya i spetsialistov po radiatsionnoy bezopasnosti Radiation Medicine: a guideline for doctors, researchers, healthcare officials and experts in radiation safety. Vol.1. Teoreticheskiyeosnovyradiatsionnoymeditsiny. Moscow: IzdAT, 2004. P. 90121.

12. Selyansky, V.M. Anatomiya i fiziollogiya selskohozyaystvennoy ptitsy [Poultry anatomy and physiology] / V.. Selyansky. Moscow: Kolos, 1986. 109 p.

12. Belenky, .L. Elementy kolichestvennoy otsenki farmakologicheskogo effekta [The elements of quantitative evaluation of pharmacological effect]/ .L. Belenky. 2nd edition added and revised. Leningrad: Medgiz,1963.  146 p.