Our address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety - All Russian Research Veterinary Institute, 2-Nauchny gorodok, Kazan, 420075, Russia

Tel. / Fax:(843) 239-53-26 (editorial)

E-mail: vetvrach-vnivi@mail.ru

The journal is registered

The journal is registered in Federal Service for Oversight of Mass Media, Telecommunications, and Protection of Cultural Heritage.

The Registration Certificate number is 77-29757 

Decision of the Presidium

of the Russian Higher Attestation Committee

The Veterinarny Vrach journal is one of the Russian peer-viewed research journals eligible to publish main research findings and results of theses pending a scientific degree of Doctor or Cadidate of Sciences.

Archive

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

3, 2016

.pdf (5,54 )
  Toxicology
   
Title:

CADMIUM-INTOXICATION IMPACT ON ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF EXPERIMENTALLY MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTED RABBITS

   
Authors: Valeeva A.R. research assistant
   
Address: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)
   
Abstract:
It is known that cadmium has the ability to supersede biometals from the protein structures, inhibits the catalytic properties of the enzymes, depresses innate immunity factors, exacerbates the infectious process. The aim of this work was to explore the dynamics of the specific antibodies synthesis in M.bovis infected rabbits and the impact of intoxication with low doses of cadmium chloride on it. Materials and methods. The animals were divided into 4 groups, three rabbits each. The chronic intoxication was caused by using cadmium chloride the aqueous solution of which was administered orally to rabbits of groups 1 and 3 daily for 60 days in a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. The animals of groups 2 and 4 received placebo. After 14 days from the beginning of the experiment rabbits of groups 2 and 3 were infected with M.bovis Bovinus-8. The antibody genesis dynamics was determined using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on home-made antigens and multiplex immunoassay. The diagnostic significance of the antigens was confirmed by analytical electrophoresis and immunoblot. Results. The antibody response of infected animals (group 2) was detected since the 14th day after inoculation.Thus level of serum antibodies was stable until the end of the observation period (42 days), and the optical density reached 1.177 OD with M.bovis Bovinus-8 cell extract and 0.238 OD with their secondary metabolites. There was a specific antibody synthesis delay of up to 28-42 days in rabbits infected after preliminary intoxication (group 3). ELISA results of uninfected animals (groups 1 and 4) did not exceed 0.179 OD and 0.078 OD for those antigens, respectively. Using multiplex immunoassay it was established that the production of specific antibodies in M.bovis infected rabbits (group 2) was started on the 7th day, reaching the maximum values (greater than 50.000 RLU) on days 21-42.The evident suppression of antibody genesis observed in the group 3, when the maximum values did not exceed 9.000 RLU. The signals did not exceed the average background level (500 RLU) in rabbits of groups 1 and 4. Conclusion. It was found that cadmium chloride intoxication leads to inhibition of specific antibody production in M.bovis infected rabbits what was demonstrated by multiplex immunoassay and ELISA.

   
Keywords: tuberculosis, antigens, heavy metals, ELISA, Western Blot
   
References:
1. Analiz zabolevaemosti naseleniya i opredeleniye yeye vzaimosvyazi s faktorami okruzhayuschey sredi [Problems of revealing the interrelation between of environmental factors and diseases of population living in urban areas] / N.K.Dyusembaeva, A.E.Shpakov, B.M.Salimbaeva, E.A.Drobchenko // NauchniyAlmanakh.2015.Vol.3, 5.P.132138.
2. Kryazhev, D.A. Kompleksnaya otsenka nekantserogennogo riska na zdorovye naseleniya monogorodov i selskikh poseleniy ot vozdeystviya zagrayznyayuschikh khimicheskikh veschestv [Comprehensive assessment ofanon-cancer risk on the population health of mono-towns and rural settlements from a chemical pollutant exposure] / D.A.Kryazhev, M.V.Boev, L.M.Tulin // Almanakh molodoy nauki.2015.Vol. 3.P.38.
3. Akhmetzyanova, F.K. Soderzhaniye tyazhyolikh metallov v kormakh i molokye korov v regionye neftedobichi [Heavy metals content in forages and cow milk at the oil production areas] / F.K.Akhmetzyanova, G.G.Ilyazov, L.P.Zaripov, R.R.Zaysanov // Uchyoniye zapiski KGAVM.2005. Vol.180.P.916.
4. Donnik, I.M. Okruzhayuschaya sreda i zdorovye zhivotnikh [Environment and health of animals] / I.M.Donnik, I.A.Shkuratova // Veterinarya Kubani.2011. Vol. 2.P. 1213.
5. Izucheniye vliyaniya polikhlorirovannikh bifenilov i tyazhyolikh metallov na pokazateli immunnoy sistemi v eksperimentye [Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals on immune system indexes in experimental study] / I.A.Zastenskaya, N.P.Piven, V.V.Kochubinsky, V.V.Kochubinski // Toksikologicheskiy vestnik.2014.Vol. 2.P. 2831. 
6. Ekologo-biologicheskiye osobennosti krupnogo rogatogo skota v usloviyakh tekhnogeneza [Ecological, biological characteristics of cattle in technogenesis] / I.A.Shkuratova, I.M.Donnik, A.G.Isayeva, A.S.Krivonogova // Voprosi normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii. 2015.Vol. 2.P. 366369.
7. Loretz, O.G. Sostoyaniye zdorovya i molochnaya produktivnost korov v promishlennikh regionakh [Heals status and dairy productivity of cows in industrial areas] / O.G.Loretz, M.I.Barashkin // Veterinarnaya patologiya.2012.V.40, 2.P. 113115.
8. Yeskov,Ye.K.Atomno-adsorbtsionnoye i gistohimicheskoye izucheniye akkumulyatsii svintsa i kadmiya rasteniyami, proizrastayuschimi v blizi avtomagistrali [Atomic adsorptive and gystochemical study of lead and cadmium accumulation by plants, which grow hear] / Ye.K.Yeskov,M.D.Yeskova, L.V.Seraya // VestnikRossiyskoyakademiiselskokhozyaystvennikhnauk.2012.Vol. 2.P. 6263.
9. Razvitiye adaptatsionnikh mekhanizmov u samok belikh kris v otvet na vozdeystviye ionov kadmiya [Development of adaptation mechanisms in white female rats in response to exposure to cadmium ions] / Ye.V.Stepanova [idr.] // Toksikologicheskiyvestnik.2008.Vol. 3.P. 2327.
10. Dinamika nakopleniya ekotoksikantov v biologicheskikh resursakh regionov s intensivnoy antropogennoy nagruzkoy [Accumulation dynamics of ecotoxicants in biological resources in the region of intense anthropogenic] / I.M.Donnik, I.A.Shkuratova, E.I.Khasina, E.V.Yakubenko // Veterinariya Kubani.2012.Vol. 6.P. 2124.
11. Dmytrukha, N.N. Izmeneniya v immunnikh organakh kris pri subkhronicheskoy intoksikatsii svintsom i kadmiem [Immune organs changes in rats during subchronic lead and cadmium intoxication] / N.N.Dmitrukha // Biologiyatvarin.2010.Vol.12, 2.P. 403408.
12. Mehra, R. Hair as an indicator for assessing adverse effect of cadmium on human health / R.Mehra, M.Juneja // J Environ Sci Eng.2005.Vol.47, 1.P. 5964.
13. Evaluation of arsenic, cadmium, lead, nickel, and zinc in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of tuberculosis and diarrhea male human immunodeficiency virus patients / H.I.Afridi [et al.]// Clin Lab.2011.Vol.57, 11-12.P. 867878.
14. Bozelka, B.E.Increased mortality of cadmium-intoxicated mice infected with the BCG strain of Mycobacterium bovis / B.E.Bozelka, P.M.Burkholder //J Reticuloendothel Soc.1979.V.26, 3.P. 229237. 
15. Vliyaniye intoksikatsii stoykimi organicheskimi zagryaznitelyami i tyazhyolimi metallami na techeniye tuberkulyoznoy infektsii [Influence of exposure to persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on the development of tuberculosis infection] / I.A.Zastenskaya, A.P.Lysenko, V.V.Kochubinsky, A.V.Kochubinsky // Toksikologicheskiyvestnik.2014.Vol. 3.P. 1821.
16. Valeeva, A.R. Nekotoriye fiziologicheskiye i biokhimicheskiye pokazateli krolikov pri patogenezye tuberkulyoza na fonye intoksikatsii tayzhyolimi metalami [Some physiological and biochemical indices of rabbits in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis on a background of heavy metal intoxication]/ A.R.Valeeva, R.M.Akhmadeev, Z.Z.Aleeva// Aktualniye napravleniya innovatsionnogo razvitiya zhivotnovodstva i veterinarnoy meditsini: mat.Vseross.naych.-prakt. konf. S mezhdunar. uchastiem. Ufa:Bashkirskiy GAU, 2014.P. 1618.
17. Pathomorfologicheskiye izmeneniya u krolikov pri zarazhenii Micobacterium bovis na fonye khronichyeskoy intoksikatsii tayzhyolimi metalami [Pathomorphological lesions in M.bovis infected rabbits underheavy metal chronic intoxication] / A.R.Valeeva, V.A.Konyukhova, N.A.Khismatullina, R.M.Akhmadeev, E.A.Shuralev, M.N.Mukminov // Voprosi normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii. 2015.2.P. 2830. 
18. Khismatullina, N.A. Sravnitelnaya otsenka effektivnosti skhem immunizatsii krolikov dlya polucheniya diagnosticheskikh sivorotok pri tuberkulyoze [Comparative estimation of the effectiveness of rabbit immunization schemes for the production of tuberculosis diagnostic sera] / N.A.Khismatullina, A.M.Gulyukin, E.A.Shuralev, K.S.Khaertynov, R.M.Akhmadeev // Biotekhnologiya: realnost i perspektivi: materiali Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. Saratov,2014. P.218219.
19. Patent 2390559 Rus. Federation, IPC 12N7/00 Sposob polucheniya antigena iz Micobacterium tuberculosis [A method for producing Micobacterium tuberculosis antigen] / I.M.Khaertynova, A.P.Tsibulkin, R.Sh.Valiev, O.M.Romanenko, K.S.Khaertynov, N.G.Urazov; patent applicant and owner: GOU VPO Kazan State medical university. 2008141939/13;applied on 22.10.2008; published on 27.05.2010.
21. Sposob polucheniya antigena s molekulyarnoy massoy 45 kDa iz Mycobacterium tuberculosis [A method for obtaining an antigen with a molecular weight of 45kDa from Mycobacterium tuberculosis] / E.Alfredo [i dr.] // Fundamentalnie issledovaniya.2013.Vol. 1-1.P. 1822.
22. Multipleksniy IFA skhem ilyuminestsentnoy metkoy dlya diagnostiki tuberkulyoza u kabanov [Assessment of antigen specificity for diagnostics of tuberculosis in wild boars] / E.A.Shuralev [i dr.] // Veterinariya.2013.Vol. 2.P. 2528. 
23. Shuralev, E.A. Sravnitelniy analiz test-sistem dlya diagnostiki tuberkulyoza u alpak [Comparison of test-systems for detection of tuberculosis in alpacas] / E.A.Shuralev // Veterinarniyvrach.2012.Vol. 5.P. 3033.

   
   
Title:

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TOXIC PROPERTIES OF OZONATED EMULSION BASED ON FISH OIL AND GINODIXIN

   
Authors: Blednikh L.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Nikolaev S.V. - postgraduate fellow; Konopeltsev I.G. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov (tel.: +7(332) 57-43-04, e-mail info@vgsha.info).

   
Abstract:
Providing the population with dairy products depends on the development of agricultural enterprises with high profitability of milk production and increase of livestock herds and their and productivity. However, one of the main problems is low reproductive ability of cows because of high sickness rate of endometritis caused by different microorganisms in the uterus and their resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop an ozonized emulsion based on Ginodixin and fish oil and to study its acute and chronic toxicity. Materials and methods: the development of novel emulsion included the selection of the optimum ratio of fish oil and Ginodixin, saturation of ozone-oxygen mixture, evaluation of antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli (ATCC No. 25922 (F-52)) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC No. 25923 (F-49))in a concentration of from 1×102 to 1×109 microbial cells per ml. Ozonized emulsion was evaluated by dividing the counts into acute and chronic toxicity. To evaluate acute toxicity of 0.5 ml of dilution with ozonized emulsion (1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8) was injected intraperitoneally into mature laboratory mice. The maximum dose of the emulsion was 8000 /kg and the minimum was 2000 /kg. Acute toxic action of ozonized emulsion was evaluated using experimental animals according to clinical sign of intoxication and survival rate of animals which depended on dosage rate of the injected emulsion. Chronic toxicity of ozonized emulsion evaluated using three groups of mice. Results of investigation: ozonized emulsion showed its maximum antimicrobial activity at content of one part of fish oil with 3 - 4 parts of Ginodixin. A single intraperitoneally introduction of ozonized emulsion at maximal dosage of 8000 /kg caused intoxication and death in 20% of animals. Dosage of 6000 /kg induced unformed fecal masses in laboratory animals and dosages of 4000 and 2000 /kg did not reflected in clinical state of the laboratory mice. Conclusion: At intraparenteral introduction of ozonized emulsion maximal tolerated dose for mice was 4000 /kg, toxic dose - 6000 /kg, and LD20 - 8000 /kg, LD50 more than 1000 /kg accordingly. Ozonized emulsion consisted from fish oil and ginodixin causes destruction of microorganisms present in uterus at inflammation. According to the State standard 12.1.007-76 the ozonized emulsion belongs to the 4th class of toxicity and is characterized as low-toxic. A single introduction of ozonized emulsion to into uterus of cow endometritis weighing 600 kg at acute endometritis the dosage should not be higher than 187.2 ml.

   
Keywords: Keywords: fish oil, Ginodixin, ozonized emulsion, antimicrobial activity, acute and chronic toxicity, mouse acute endometritis, cows
   
References:
1. Gnyotov, A.N. Farmakotoksicheskiye svoystva i effektivnost noradina pri profilaktike i lechenii poslerodovogo endometrita korov [Noradine pharmacological and toxicological properties and its efficiency to prevent and treat postpartum endometritisin cows]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of vet. Sciences / A.N.Gnyotov. - Voronezh, 2008. - 22 p.
2. Koba, I.S. Etiologiya i patogenez poslerodovogo endometrita u korov [Etiology and pathogenesis of postpartum endometritis in cows] / I.S.Koba, M.B.Reshetka, M.S.Dubovikova // Vestnik APK Stavropolya. - 2015. - 4(20). -P. 95-98.
3. Konopeltsev, I.G. Ozonoterapiya i ozonoprofilaktika vospalitelnyh zabolevaniy i funktsionalnyh rasstroystv matki u korov [Ozone-based therapy and prevention of uterus inflammatory diseases and functional disorders in cows]: abstract from posdoc. dissertation thesis for Doctor vet. medicine / I.G.Konopeltsev.- Voronezh, 2004.-40 p.
4. Muravina, E. S. Razrabotka i effektivnost sposoba terapii bolnyh poslerodovym endometritom korov s primeneniyem ozonirovannoy emulsii [Development and therapeutic efficiency of ozonized emulsion-based method to treat cows with postpartum endometritis]: dissertation thesis for Candidate of vet. Sciences / E.S.Muravina. - Voronezh, 2013. 149 p.
5. Skomorova, M.N. Terapevticheskaya effektivnost ginodiksina pri endometritah i mastitah korov, vyzvannyh uslovno-patogennoy mikrofloroy [Therapeutic efficacy ginodixineto treatcow endometritis and mastitiscaused by opportunistic pathogenic microflora]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of vet. Sciences / M.N.Skomarova. - Novosibirsk, 2013. - 20 p.
6. Khabriev, R.U. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veschestv [Guideline on experimental (preclinical) studies of novel pharmacological substances] / R.U.Khabriev. Moscow: "Meditsina", 2005. - 832 p.
7. Chernov, V.V. Farmako-toksikologicheskaya harakteristika tetragolda [Tetragold drug. Pharmacological and toxicological characterization]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of vet. Sciences / V.V.Chernov. - Voronezh, 2008. 22 p.
8. Chuchalin, S. F.Primeneniye ozonirovannogo olivkovogo masla pri poslerodovom endometrite u korov-pervotelok [Application of ozonized olive oil in treatment of heifer postpartum endometritis]: abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of vet. Sciences / S.F.Chuchalin. - Voronezh, 2004.- 20 p.
8. David, E. Noakes Veterinary reproduction and obstetrics. Ninth edition / edited by. David E. Noakes, Timothy J. Parkinson, Gary C.W. England // W.B.Saunders Elsevier. LTD., 2009. P. 407-425, 198-201.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

VERSATILE MEDIUM FOR MYCOBACTERIA-LIKE MICROORGANISMS

   
Authors: 1Baratov M.O. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences;2Naimanov A.H. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor;1Nazhalov M.I.- scientific staff;1Verdieva E.A. - scientific staff.
   
Address:
1Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: alama500@rambler.ru).
2All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine J.R.Kovalenko, Moscow (tel. +7(495) 995-88-67).

   
Abstract:
For bacteriological identification of cultures isolated from tuberculin-positive animals various nutrient media are used; it complicates the detection. The aim of the work was to design a whole nutrient medium for cultivation of carbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Methods and materials: medium for isolation of Corinebacterium (Vinogradsky nitrate agar, Sautons medium, blood and telluric agar, Claubergs medium II, serum agar, Buchins agar), Nocardia and Rhodococci (Muntzs medium, UM agar, nutrient broth, medium from oatmeal flour, dextrose agar) failed laboratory trials because of various reasons. The proposed versatile medium (M-10) meets the requirements put forward for nutrient media, first of all for plastic materials and energy resources. Distilled water as a basic element for microorganism life was replaced by the geothermal water which differs by qualitative and quantitative content of micro- and macroelements and the content of carbons. The investigation results: Corinebacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococci test-strains (Corynebacterium xerosis N1911, N.asteroides VKM 1077 and R. Bronchialis I 737) were used for cultivation and epizootic cultures from environmental objects (soil, fodder, cattle manure and blood) were used as native materials. Cultivation rate, growth rate, inhibition of secondary microflora, availability in common laboratories, simplicity and complexity of production were subjected to comparative studies. Conclusion: the studies showed the advantages of the proposed medium on the studied features enabling to ensure a high level of diagnostic trials.

   
Keywords: corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, nutrient medium, mycobacterium-like, hydrocarbon- versatile, geothermal water
   
References:
1. Baratov, M.O. Sravnitelnoe izuchenie naibolee chaste ispolzuemyh sred dlya vydeleniya korinebakteriy[A comparative study of the most often used media for corynebacteria isolation] / M.O.Baratov, M.M.Ahmedov, O.P.Sakidibirov // Povyshenie produktivnosti s/h. zhivotnyh i ptitsy na osnove innovatsionnyh dostizheniy - Improving livestock and poultry production rate basing on innovative achievements: proceedings from All-Russian scientific and practical conference. Novocherkassk, 2009. P. 64 - 67.
2. Birger, M.O. Spravochnik po mikrobiologicheskim i virusologicheskim metodam issledovaniya [A reference of microbiological and virological research methods] / M.O.Birger, E.A.Vedmina, V.V.Vlodavets. Moscow: Meditsina, 1985. 261 p.
3. Vysotsky, V.V. Sravnitelnoe elektronno mikroskopicheskoe izuchenie 8 predstaviteley roda Corynebacterium, vyrashhennyh na tverdoy pitatelnoy srede v statsionarnoy faze razvitiya [Comparative electronic microscope-based study of 8 species of Corynebacteriumgenus, grown on solid medium in the stationary phase of development ] / V.V.Vysotsky, I.K.Mazurova, E.A.Shmeleva // Mikrobiologiya. - 1976. - Vol.7. - P. 121-125.
4. Suhie mikrobiologicheskie pitatelnye sredy: Katalog [Dry microbiological nutrient media: Catalogue] / M.M.Medzhidov [et al.] Mahachkala, 1998. 78 p.
5. Kislotoustoychivye mikroorganizmy mikobakterii, nokardii, rodokokki: himicheskiy sostav, biologicheskie svoystva, antigennaya struktura [Acid bacteria - Mycobacterium pectoris, Nocardia, Rhodococcus: chemical composition, biological properties, antigenic structure] / R.A.Nuratinov[et al.] // Problemy tuberkuleza. -2001. Vol.5. - P.54-58.
6. Nesterenko, O.A. Nokardiopodobnye i korinepodobnye bakterii [Nokardia-like and Corynebacterium-like bacteria ] / O.A.Nesterenko. - Kiev Naukova Dumka - 1985. P. 320-333.
7. Shapeleva, R.G. Sravnitelnoye izuchenie pitatelnyh sred dlya vydeleniya korinebakteriy [A comparative study of nutrient media for corynebacteria isolation] / R.G.Shapeleva, Z.G.Andreeva, G.P.Sokolnikova // Mikrobiologiya. - 1989. Vol. 5. P. 62-64.

   
   
Title:

ARRANGING THE WORK OF LOCAL VETERINARY FACILITIES CONSTRUCTED USING NEW MODULAR-BLOCK CONSTRUCTION TYPE

   
Authors: Zelikow I.A. -postgraduate fellow
   
Address: Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17, e-mail:iluha_07.92@mail.ru)
   
Abstract:
The aim of the research was to study local veterinary facilities new modular constructed facilities built in administrative regions of the Republic of Tatarstan to ensure veterinary services to farms and private husbandries. Materials and methods: organizational work of local veterinary facilities was thoroughly analyzed, including construction of buildings and facilities; technical equipment; supply of veterinary tools, medications, biopharmaceuticals, disinfectants and other means of veterinary use; arrangement of means and measures for animal epidemic control, therapeutic, prevention, veterinary and sanitation measures. The data was collected using questionnaires of veterinarians working in the facilities, analysis of veterinary reports and observing local veterinary specialists work. The work of 20 local veterinary centers from 10 rural municipal districts of the Republic of Tatarstan was statistically analyzed. Research results: during 2014-2015, 86 standardized buildings for new local veterinary centers were constructed. They were accepted for operation and started their veterinary services. Local veterinary facilities serve from 300 to 10860 cattle herds in the public sector and from 30 to 2460 animals in the individual husbandries, from 2 to 340 horses in the public sector and from 2 to 70 animals in the individual husbandries, from 280 till 3000 pigs in the public sector and from 13 till 630 in the individual husbandries, from 46 to 1645 sheep and goat herds in the public sector and from 60 to 2100 animals in the individual husbandries. Conclusion: opening the local state veterinary centers had a positive influence on the quality of veterinary services to farms and individual subsidiary husbandries in rural municipal districts of the Republic of Tatarstan.

   
Keywords: local veterinary facilities, an annual volume of veterinary work, diagnostic testing, preventive vaccination, treatment of parasites, state veterinary service, livestock herds.
   
References:
1. Shakirov, F.K. Organizatsiya selskohozyaystvennogo proizvodstva [Organization of agricultural production] / F.K.Shakirov.- Moscow: Koloss, 2002. 607 p.
2. Avilov, V.M. Rol gosudarstva v organizatsii mer po profilaktike i likvidatsii massovyh bolezney zhivotnyh[the role of the government in arrangement of the measures to prevent and eradicate animal mass diseases] / V.M.Avilov // Herald of KGAVM/ Kazan 2013. Vol. 214. P. 24-28.
3. Nikitin, I.N. Veterinarnoe obsluzhivanie krestyanskih hozyaystv[Veterinary service in husbandries] / I.N.Nikitin, A.I.Klyuchnikova. Kazan: pechatnydvor, 2015. 138 p.
4. Klyuchnikova, A.I. Organizatsiya protivoepizooticheskih meropriyatiy v krestyanskih (fermerskih) i lichnyh podsobnyh hozyaystvah grazhdan[Arranging anti-epizootic measures in farms and personal husbandries]/A.I.Klyuchnikova // Herald of KGAVM. -2015. Vol. 221. 113 p.
5. Konopatkin, A.A. Epizootologiya i infektsionnye bolezni selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh: uchebnik[Epizootology and infectious diseases of agricultural animals: a handbook] / A.A.Konopatkin; edited byA.A.Konopatkin. Moscow: Kolos, -1984. 544 p.
6. Brooks-Pollocka, E. Eight challenges in modeling infectious livestock diseases / E.Brooks-Pollocka, M.C.de Jongb // Epidemics. 2014. 5. . 15.
7. Kostin, V.N. Statisticheskiemetodyimodeli: uchebnoyeposobiye [Statistical methods and models: a handbook] / V.N.Kostin, N.A.Tishina. Orenburg. - 2004. 138 p.
8. Misuryaev, V.Yu. Meropriyatiya, provodimye v fermerskih hozyaystvah APK po umensheniyu infektsionnyh zabolevaniy v zhivotnovodstve [Measures taken in agribusiness farms for to reduce infectious diseases in livestock breeding] / V.Yu.Misuryaev, E.Yu.Guzenko, V.I.Novchenko // Izvestiya nizhnevolzhskogo agrounivesitetskogo kompleksa: nauka i vysshee professionalnoye obrazovaniya News of Lower Volga agrarian University complex: science and higher professional education. -2014. Vol. 4. P. 1-4.
9. Profilaktika i borba s zaraznymi boleznyami, obshhimi dlya cheloveka i zhivotnyh, obshhie polozheniya, sanitarnye pravila, veterinarnye pravila. [Prevention and control of infectious diseases common to human and animals.General regulations, sanitary regulations, veterinary regulations] Sanitation regulations 3.1.084-96, veterinary regulations 13.3.4.1100-96: approved by Veterinary Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture and State Commission of epidemiological and sanitation control on May 31st, June 18th, 1996. Moscow: Information and publishing center of Goskomepidnadsor Russia. -1996. 22 p.
10. Programma stroitelstva i kapitalnogo remonta veterinarnyh punktov: razrabotana ministerstvom selskogo hozyaystva i prodovolstviya Respubliki Tatarstan[The programm for construction and renovation of veterinary service facilities: developed by the Ministry of agriculture and food of the Republic of Tatarstan]. # 2526-R of 09.12.2013\\GKU Glavnoye investitsionno-stroitelnoye upravleniye (GISU RT): official portal. Kazan, 2013.
11. Nikitin, I.N. Organizatsiya i ekonomika veterinarnogo dela[Organization and economics of veterinary business] / I.N.Nikitin. Saint Petersburg: Lan, 2014. 360 p.
12. Baycherova, A.R. Osobennosti funktsionirovaniya veterinarnoy sluzhby Stavropolskogo kraya kak elementa proizvodstvennoy infrastruktury APK regiona[Functioning features of veterinary service in Stavropolskykrayas an element of the industrial infrastructure of the regional agro industrial complex] / A.R.Baycherova // KANT. -2013. - Vol. 3. 9 p.

   
   
Title:

VETERINARY AND SANITATION EXPERTISE OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS IN BIG CITIES

   
Authors: Nigmatzanov R.R. postgraduate fellow; Trofimova E.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
   
Address: Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (e-mail: rais0818@mail.ru)
   
Abstract:
Dairy products are a valuable part of human diet. In food markets they are sold in big volumes. The quality of dairy products is evaluated by veterinarians from State veterinary services agency according to the current requirements of the International regulations and Russian Federation legislation. The aim of this work was to study the expertise of dairy products in Kazan, Izhevsk and Cheboksary. Materials and methods: the arrangement of expertise procedure of dairy products evaluation in the mentioned cities was studied during 5 years using theoretical (reference literature), statistic, microbiological, epizootological methods. The research results allowed determining the system and order of veterinary and sanitation expertise of milk and dairy products in big cities, the capitals of administrative areas of the Russian Federation. The scale of sanitation and veterinary expertise of dairy products is not directly related to the volume of in-coming dairy products. During the analyzed period from 2010 to 2014, in Kazan 2,438.6 thousand tons of milk and dairy products were accepted to food markets and stores, while the number of expertise on quality evaluation was 20,993; in Cheboksary 2,789.96 thousand tons of production was accepted, and 102,790 expert evaluations were carried out. In Izhevsk in the Chief Laboratory of Veterinary and Sanitation Expertise 44,243 samples were evaluated, but far less dairy products were submitted to trading venues there(250.66 thousand tons). Discussion: according to the results of veterinary and sanitation expertise the dairy products were allowed for sale or for further processing in case the products met technical requirements. Products of low quality were rejected for further utilization in animal feeding or complete disposal. During the period of 2010-2014, 5.47 tons of dairy products were rejected in Kazan, 1.95 and 0.3 tons were rejected in Cheboksary and Izhevsk accordingly.

   
Keywords: milk and dairy products, veterinary and sanitation expertise, quality, safety, organization of state veterinary supervision.
   
References:
1. O veterinarii Zakon RF ot 14.05.1993 N 4979-1 (red. ot 13.07.2015) (s izm. idop.,vstup. ot 24.07.2015) [Russian Federation veterinary Regulation of 14.05.1993 N 4979-1(edited on 13.07.2015) (adjusted and added, effective since 24.07.2015)], - [An on-line resource]. available on: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_4438.
2. FZ Tehnicheskiy reglament na moloko i molochnuyu produktsiyu Federalny zakon 88-ot 12 iyunya 2008 g. (red. ot 22.07.2010) [Federal Law No 88-FZ Technical regulations on milk and dairy products of 12 June, 2008 (revised 22.07.2010)], - [An on-line resource]. available on: http:// base.consultant.ru.
3. Tehnicheskiy reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza O bezopasnosti pishchevoy produktsii (TRTS 021/2011 g.) utverzhdenny resheniem Komissii Tamozhennogo soyuza ot 09.12.2011 N 880 (red. ot 10.06.2014 g.) [Technical regulations of the Customs Union On Food Safety (R CU 021/2011) confirmed by the decision of Custom Union Committee of 09.12.2011 N 880(revised10.06.2014)], - [An on-line resource]. available on:http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_124768/
4. Tehnicheskiy reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza O bezopasnosti moloka i molochnoy produktsii (TR TS 033/2013), utverzhdenny Resheniem Soveta Evraziyskoy ekonomicheskoy komissiey ot 9 oktyabra 2013 g. 67. [Technical regulations of the Customs Union On Safety of Milk and Dairy Products(TR CU033/2013) confirmed by the decision of The Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission dated 9 October 2013 No67], - [An on-line resource]. available on: http://base.consultant.ru.
5. Trofimova, E.N. Organizatsiya veterinarno-sanitarnoy ekspertizy produktov na rynkah v g. Kazani [Arangement of veterinary and sanitation expertise of food quality evaluation in Kazan markets]. / E.N. Trofimova, R.R. Nigmatzanov // Uchenyezapiski KGAVM. 2014. Vol..219. P. 281-285.
6. Balyberdin, B.N. Sovershenstvovaniye gosvetnadzora za kachestvom zhivotnovodcheskoy produktsii v sovremennyh usloviyah [Improving the State veterinary expertise in quality control of animal products in modern conditions]: abstract from the thesis for the degree of Candidate of Veterinary Science] / B.N.Balyberdin.-Novosibirsk, 2006.-24 p.
7. Kolobova, A.I. Rynok moloka i molochnyh produktov v regione [Milk and dairy market in the region] / A.I.Kolobova, O.A.Kosintsova // Vestnik Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2005. - 1 (17). P. 142-146.
8. Ochirova, L.A. Mikrobiologicheskiy control moloka i molochnyh produktov realizuyemyh v torgovoyseti [Microbiological control of milk and dairy products sold in retail chain] / L.A.Ochirova, A.B. Budaeva, E.I. Tokmakov // Agrarnyvestnik Urala. 2011. - 9 (88). P. 42-43. 
9. Chubenko, N.V. Obespechenie kachestva i bezopasnosti moloka i molochnoy produktsii- [Providing quality and safety of milk and dairy products] / N.V.Chubenko, L.A.Malysheva // Veterinarnaya patologiya. 2012. - 1. P. 135-139.
10. Abdulkhaliq, . Levels of metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe) in cows milk, dairy products and hens eggs from the West Bank, Palestine / A.Abdulkhaliq, K.M. Swaileh, R.M. Hussein and M. Matani // International Food Research Journal. 2012. V.19, 3. P. 1089-1094.
11. Vošta, . The food market in the CR and its regulation within the framework of the EU agricultural policy / M. Vošta // Agric. Econ. Czech. - 2014. V.60, 6. P. 279-286.
12. Zamberlin, Š. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products / Š.Zamberlin, N.Antunac, J.Havranek, D. Samaržija // Mljekarstvo. 2012. V.62, 2. P. 111-125.
13. Birhanu, . Review on Roles of Veterinary Services in Food Safety of Animal Origin in Ethiopia / T. Birhanu, M. Tesfaye, E. Ejeta // Nature and Science. -2015. V.13, 6. P. 93-99. 
14. Park YW, Haenlein GFW Milk and dairy products in human nutrition: Production, Composition and Health. - London: Wiley-Blackwell & Sons, 2013. - P.742.

   
   
Title:

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND THERAPEUTIC EFFICIENCY OF DRUGS FROM SULFONIC ACID DERIVATIVES USED AT INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

   
Authors: 1Murtazina G.H. - Candidate of Medical Sciences; 2Papunidi K.Kh. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Makaev Kh.N. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Potehina R.M. Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Vasilevsky N.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
1Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (e-mail: yalto60@mail.ru).

2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Basing on the studies of biological properties a compound from the group of sulfur organic compounds diethylammonic salt N-methilamino-1-phenylmetan sulfonic acid synthesized by staff of A.E.Arbuzov Research Institute of organic and physical chemistry (selimaccid) was selected for trial studies provided in this research work. The investigation results: experiments were carried out using gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, chlamydia, and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus TK-VIEV strain which showed that this compound has a stable bactericidal, chlamydia-static, and virus-static effect at 20-40 min of in vitro direct contact at concentration of selimaccid in solution no more than 6.5-15 mg\ml. Antimicrobial activity of selimaccid do not reduce at acid conditions close to gastric juice and bacteria can not develop resistance against the drug. Showed that selimaccid has higher antimicrobial activity than levomycetin, tetracycline and can be compared to that of hentamicin. In dosage of 15-20 mg\ml selimaccid do not express cytotoxic effect at its introduction into gastric sack and into suspension of cultivated cells. Oral introduction to 5-10-days old calves and 3-9-days old piglets do not induce signs of intoxication and do not render negative effect on water and milk consumption. Oral introduction of selimaccid in optimal therapeutic dosage showed 95-100% recovery in calves having acute and subacute forms of colibacteriosis and 96-100% recovery in piglets having an associated expression of colibacteriosis and diplococcic septicemia. Conclusion: animal blood tests confirmed that treatment with selimaccid do not have negative effect on major blood and biochemical parameters but promotes functional, metabolic, and phagocytic activity of blood neutrophilic cells and enhances bactericidal activity of blood serum that results in activation of body natural resistance.

   
Keywords: drug from sulfur organic compounds, antibacterial activity, therapeutic properties
   
References:
1. Lekarstvo dlya zhivotnyh sovremenniye trebovaniya i problemy sozdaniya [A drug for animals current requirements and problems of its development] / V.S.Buzlama [et al.] // Voprosy veterinarnoy farmatsii i farmakoterapii Issues of veterinary pharmacy and pharmacotherapy: abstracts from scientific and practical conference. Sigulda, 1990. P. 2425.
2. Gaffarov, Kh.Z. Mono- i smeshanniye infektasionniye diarei novorozhdennyh telyat i porosyat [Mono- and associated  infectious infections in newborn calves and piglets] / Kh.Z. Gaffarov, A.V.Ivanov, E..Nepoklonov. Kazan: FEN, 2002. 592 p.
3. Ostriye rasstroystva pishevareniya u novorozhdennyh telyat [Acute disorders of indigestion at newborn calves] / .V.Ilyinsky [et al.] // Veterinariya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh. 2006. Vol. 1. P. 6769. 
4. Lecheniye i profilaktika zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases in young herds of livestock animals] / Kh.N. Makayev [et al.] // Proceedings of republican scientific and practical conference on current problems of veterinary and animal husbandry. Kazan, 1997. P.3235.
5. Mery borby s deareyami novorozhdennyh telyat [Measures to control diarrhea in newborn calves] / V.. Mischenko [et al.] // Veterinariya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh. 2006. Vol. 1. P. 6466. 
6. Metodicheskoye posobiye po profilaktike i lecheniyu zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney (dispepsiyey) novorozhdennyh telyat [Methodological manual on prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (dyspepsias) in newborn calves]. Kazan: FCTRBS-VNIVI, 1993. 45 p.
7. Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii po diagnostike, profilaktike i lecheniyu zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney novorozhdennyh telyat [Methodological recommendations on detection, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in newborn calves] / .Kh.Papunidi [et al.]. Kazan: FCTRBS-VNIVI, 2011. 39 p.
8. Pozdeev, .. Antivirusniye svoystva fosfor- i seroorganicheskih soyedineniy [Antiviral properties of phosphorous- and sulfur organic compounds]: abstract from postdoctoral dissertation of for Doctor of Medical sci. / ..Pozdeev. Kazan, 1993. 31 p.
9. Patent 2111962 Russian Federation, IPC 7309/24, 7303/32, 6131/255. Dietilammoniyevaya sol n-metilamino-1-fenilmetansulfonovoy kisloty, obladayushaya bakteritsidnoy aktivnostyu i hlamidiostaticheskim deystviyem, i sposob yeyo polucheniya [Dietilammonic salt n-methylamino-1-phenylmetan sulfonic acid having bactericidal activity and Chlamydia-static effect and a method of its production] / ..Kibardin, P.I.Gryaznov, S.G.Lebedev, .V.Skvordyakov, Kh.N.Makayev, .Z.Ravilov, V.S.Ugryumova, G.Kh.Murtazina, .N.Sadykov; applicant and patent owner: A.E.Arbuzov Institute of organic and physical chemistry, ARRVI, CJSC Forsat-F. applied on 22.07.1997; published on 27.05.1998, Bulletin 8. 7 p.
10. Spiridonov, G.N. Zheludochno-kishechniye zabolevaniya novorozhdennyh telyat v usloviyah promyshlennyh kompleksov i razrabotka lechebno-profiakticheskih meropriyatiy [Newborn calves gastrointestinal diseases in industrial farms and development of treatment and prevention measures] / G.N.Spiridonov // Veterinarny vrach. 2007. Vol. 3. P. 2629.
11. Shahov, A.G. Etiologicheskaya struktura massovyh zheludochno-kishechnyh i respiratornyh bolezney porosyat v krupnyh spetsializirovannyh hozyaystvah [Etiological structure of swine mass gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in large swine breeding farms] / .G.Shahov, Yu.N.Brigadirov, L.Yu.Sashnina // Praktik. 2010. Vol. 1. P. 4245.

  Radiobiology
   
Title:

MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPING DIAGNOSTIC, THERAPEUTIC AND PREVENTIVE MEANS AGAINST RADIATION SICKNESS

   
Authors: Konyuhov G.V. Doctor of Biology, professor; Tarasova N.B. - Doctor of Biology; Nizamov R.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Vasilevsky N.M. Doctor of Biology, professor; Aslanov R.M. Doctor of Biology, professor; Velikanov V.I. Doctor of Biology, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
An experience of using therapeutic drugs to eradicate the consequences of radiation and accidents and areas with higher radiation background, the necessity of using cheaper materials of herbal and biological origin, lower cost of drugs treating and preventing irradiation sickness were fundamental for clinical trials on laboratory and livestock animals. Materials and methods: quinoid radiotoxins were produced from irradiated potato crops, diagnostic serum - from hyperimmunized rabbits and sheep; erythrocyte diagnostic tools for indirect hemagglutination test and ELISA were produced basing on globulins from hyperimmune sera. Autohemotherapy was carried out using preliminary irradiated blood. The therapeutic efficiency of sera was evaluated according to 30-day survival rate of the irradiated animals. The investigation results showed that after exposure to radiation indirect hemagglutination test and ELISA detected radiotoxins in serum already at 1-3 days in titers of 1: 4-1: 16, the index fluorescence was more or less than 0.8depending on the severity of radiation sickness, class E immunoglobulins, IL-4 and IL-5cytokines accumulate, immunoregulatory index of T-helper and T-suppressor was misbalanced. The immunization optimal schedule for sheep, pigs, horses to obtain therapeutic and hyperimmune sera was developed. A single subcutaneous introduction of microbial polyantigen in ratio of 2.5x10 9/kg at 7-90 days before the lethal exposure to radiation formed radioresistance in body of laboratory and livestock animals and allowed 60-80% protection from radiation. 64 kinds of potential radioprotective agents of different origin and their therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy was verified. Conclusion: the designed radioprotective agents provide a highly accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and prevention of animal radiation injuries.

   
Keywords: radiation injury, homeostasis, diagnostics, treatment, prevention measures, efficiency.
   
References:
1. Vagin, K.N. Preparaty na osnove produktov metabolizma E.coli pri radiatsionnyh porazheniyah zhivotnyh [Using drugs from E.coli metabolic products at animal radiation injuries] / K.N.Vagin [et al.] // Aktualniye problemy veterinarnoy farmakologii, toksikologii, i farmatsii Current problems of veterinary pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy: proceedings from 3rd meeting of veterinary pharmacologists and toxicologists of Russia, St. Petersburg, June 8-10, 2011 - St. Petersburg, 2011. - P. 88-90.
2. Issledovaniye radiotoksinov v krovi zhivotnyh metodom EPR [Studying radiotoxins in animal blood using the method of electron spin resonance] / M.I.Ibragimova, V.Yu.Petuhov, G.V.Konyuhov, R.N.Nizamov // Proceedings from international workshop on current state of EPR]. - Kazan, 2001. - P. 79-83.
3. Kuzin, A.M. Obrazovaniye i rol hinonov v nachalnyh protsessah pri radiatsionnyh porazheniyah zhivotnyh [Formation and a role of quinines in initial processes at animal radiation injuries] /A.M.Kuzin // Radiobiologiya. - 1966. - Vol. 2 - . 5. - P. 681-684.
4. Kuzin, A.M. Radiotoksiny [Radiotoxins] / A.M.Kuzin, V.A.Kopylov Moscow: Nauka, 1983. - 174 p.
5. Radiatsiya i vaktsinatsiya [Radiation and vaccination] / V.N.Maltsev, .V.Smirnova, V..Strelnikov, L.I. Muravyova. Moscow: Meditsina, 1976. 192 p.
6. Melnikova, S.K. Kolichestvenniye zakonomernosti obrazovaniya hinonov v gamma-obluchennoyrastitelnoytkani [Quantitative laws of quinine formation in gamma-irradiated plant tissue] /S.K.Melnikova //DANN SSSR. - 1965. - Vol. 164. Issue 6. P. 1409-1412.
7. Boyden, S. The adsorption of proteins on erythrocytes treated with tannic acid and subsequent hemagglutination by antiprotein sera / St.Boyden // J. xp. Med. 1961. V. 93. . 107109.
8. Clark, R. Enzime-linked immunoagar absorbent assay (ELISA) / R.Clark, E.Eugwall // Enzyme Immunoassay / E.T.Maggio ed. Florida: Boca Raton, 1981. . 167179.
9. Coons, A.H. The diagnose application of fluorescent antibodies / A.H.Coons // Z.Pathel. Ract. 1959. 22. . 700723.

   
   
Title:

USING RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES TO PROLONG SHELF LIFE OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND FODDER

   
Authors: Kurbangaleev Ya.M. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Nizamov R.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Konyuhov G.V. Doctor of Biology, professor; Tarasova N.B.- Doctor of Biology; Gaizatullin R.R. - Doctor of Biology; Aslanov R.M. Doctor of Biology, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Radiation-based treatment of food products and fodder requires not only their optimal storage but safety of the irradiated products. Quantitative analysis of toxic compounds is impossible without using highly sensitive and specific methods enabling to detect smallest level of radiotoxins in food products and fodder. The aim of the work was to develop and trial a method of quality control of foodstuff exposed to gamma-ray radiation on content of toxic substances induced by radiation. Methods and materials: content of quinoid radiotoxins in animal and plant products exposed to radiation treatment at various dosages was evaluated by indirect hemaglutionation test using antibody erythrocyte diagnostic tool from immunoglobulin produced from sheep hyperimmunization with quinoid radiotoxin of plant origin. Quinoid radiotoxins were produced according to Melnikova&Kopylovs method (1966). Plant foodstuff was irradiated using Issledovatel gamma-ray installation in dosage of 400 Gr. The investigation results: at dosages used for prolongation of shelf life for potato crops (50-150 Gr) titers fluctuated from 1:8 to 1:74.7 and for onion (50-100 Gr) titers were within 1:10.7-1:85.3 at 3-30 days after irradiation. At increasing the dosage up to 800 Gr titers of quinoid radiotoxins in potato and onion crops were higher for 1-2 log2 during the 15 days after irradiation. In wheat and oatmeal crops irradiated at dosages of 300-700 Gr titers were 1:6.7-1:37.3 at 1:0.7-1:2 in the control product. Radiotoxic titers in meat (mutton and beef) irradiated in dosage of 1104 1.6104 Gr were 1:6.7-1:26.7 at 3-30 days after irradiation with maximum peak at 7-14 days. A higher quinoid radiotoxins could be registered in the mentioned products during the first 45 days after irradiation. At 60 days radiotoxic titers were within the control level and were not higher than 1:0.7-1:3.3. Conclusion: the developed method to detect quinoid radiotoxins using indirect hemaglutination test enables to evaluate the level of quinoid radiotoxins in products of plant and animal origin: radiotoxic titers equal to 1:8 (3 log2) or higher with negative controls evidence that samples were taken at 1-45 days after radiation-based treatment and if diagnostic radiotoxic titers are higher for 3-5 times (1:32-1:64 or 5-6 log2) it means that the products were sampled at 3-30 days after radiation-based treatment in dosages used for prolongation of shelf life period.

   
Keywords: radiotoxins, detection methods, safety control of irradiated products
   
References:
1. Belov, A.D. Veterinarnaya radiobiologiya: uchebnoye posobiye dlya studentov vuzov [Veterinary radiobiology: a manual for students of higher education institutions] / .D.Belov, V.A.Kirshin. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1987. 287 p.
2. Goncharenko, E.N. Metod otsenki perekisnogo okisleniya lipidov [A method to evaluate peroxide oxidation of lipids] / .N.Goncharenko, ..Latinova // Laboratornoye delo. 1985. Vol. 1. P. 60-61.
3. Gorizontov, P.D. Nekotoriye danniye o prirode toksicheskih faktorov pri luchevoy bolezni [Some data on nature of radiotoxic factors at irradiation sickness] / P.D.Gorizontov, G.M.Lvitsyna, Yu.D.Balika // Radiotoksiny. Moscow: Atomizdat, 1966. P. 218-230.
4. Kopylov, V.A. Mehanizm obrazovaniya i identifikatsiya toksicheskih veschestv hinoidnoy prirody, obrazuyuschihsya v obluchennom organizme [Formation mechanism and identification of toxic substances of quinoid nature forming in an irradiated body] / V..Kopylov // Radiotoksiny. Moscow: Atomizdat, 1966. P. 18-28.
5. Kuzin, .. Strukturno-metabolicheskaya gipoteza v radiobiologii [Structural and metabolic hypothesis in Radiobiology] / ..Kuzin. Moscow: Nauka, 1970. 250 p.
6. Kuzin, .. Problemaradiotoksinov [A radiotoxic problem] / ..Kuzin // Sovremenniye problem radiobiologii. Moscow: Atomizdat, 1975. P. 191-218.
7. Kuzin, .. Obrazovaniye veschestv, ugnetayuschih rost i razvitiye rasteniy v obluchennyh gamma-luchami klubnyah kartofelya [A study of formation of  substances suppressing growth and development of plants irradiated with gamma-rays in potato crops] / ..Kuzin, ..Kasymov // Radiobiologiya. 1963. Vol.3, 3. P. 472-473.
8. Kuzin, .. narushenii okislitelno-vosstanovitelnyh protsessov v tkanyah rasteniy pod vliyaniyem ioniziruyuschey radiatsii [On imbalance of oxidation-reduction processes in plant tissues under the influence of ionizing radiation] / ..Kuzin, V..Kopylov // Biofizika. 1960. Issue 5. P. 716-717.
9. Kuzin, ..Problemy radiotoksinov pri radiatsionnom metode sohraneniya pishevogo kartofelya [Radiotoxic problem at radiation-based method of preservation of potato crops as foodstuff]/ ..Kuzin, V..Kopylov, I.N. Osipova. Puschino, 1974. 35 p.
10. Kuzin, .. Kolichestvenniye zakonomernosti obrazovaniya hinonov v gamma-obluchennoy rastitelnoy tkani [Quantitative laws of quinonic formation in gamma-irradiated plant tissues] / ..Kuzin, N. Norbayev // Reports of the USSR Science Academy. 1965. Vol. 164, Issue. 6. P. 1409-1412.
11. Kuzin, .. novom vozmozhnom ispolzovanii i oniziruyuschey radiatsii v myasnoy promyshlennosti [On novel potential using of ionizing irradiation in meat production] / ..Kuzin, M.P.Silayev // Radiobiologiya. 1963. Vol. 3, 4. P. 545-548.
12. Melnikova, S.. Vliyaniye rastitelnyh radiotoksinov na zhivotniy organism [An effect of plant radiotoxins on animal body] / S..Melnikova, V..Kopylov // Radiotoksiny. Moscow: Atomizdat, 1966. P. 86-91.
13. Nizamov, R.N. K voprosu o himicheskom i antigennom sostave luchevyh antigenov [On an issue of chemical and antigen content of radiation antigens] / R.N.Nizamov, N.V.Akmullina, R.V.Nefedova // Proceedings from the Int. sci. and pract. Cof. dedicated to 125thanniversary of the N.E. Baumann Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. Part 1. Kazan: KGAVM, 1998. P. 60-61.

  Physiology
   
Title:

INFLUENCE OF GENTAMICIN ON THE HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SOME ORGANS IN RABBITS AFTER A SINGLE AEROSOL APPLICATION

   
Authors: Ter-Avetisyants I.A. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Semenenko M.P. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Kuzminova E.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Miroshnichenko P.V. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute, Krasnodar (e-mail: sever291@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The question of effective antimicrobial therapy is important and complex, and a choice of antibacterial medicine for the treatment of the infectious processes of humans and animals is often difficult due to insufficient knowledge of medical practitioners about the peculiarities of pharmacokinetics, antimicrobial activity and toxicity of antibiotics. This article shows the results of authors studies on the impact of gentamicin as an aerosol on the morphological structure of the lung tissue and kidneys. Materials and methods: an experiment was made on chinchilla rabbits, who were inhaled with gentamicin sulfate in a dose of 1000 mg/m3, which corresponds to 4 mg/kg body weight. An aerosol gentamicin was prepared by inhalation machine AI-1 with the 0.2 m3 volume of the used camera. An hour later the animals were sacrificed after inhalation. Results of the research: in a clinical examination of rabbits exposed to gentamicin sulfate inhalation, changes in the rhythm of breathing and heartbeat have not been established. There was some shortness of breath due to the anxiousness of animals associated with a stressful situation and was not a pathological case. Pathological examination of the kidneys and lungs of both experimental and control animals did not reveal any abnormalities in the structure and characteristics of organs. Their location was anatomically correct with a normal volume, serous membrane cavity had a bright pink color and smooth and shiny surface. The histological examination of the kidneys and lungs of the animals one hour after a single application of gentamicin by inhalation revealed a definite effect of the antibiotic on the lungs and kidneys, which manifests in activation of renal epithelial desquamation and hyperemia of blood capillaries of the lungs. The above changes do not cause a disease but can be a consequence of slight irritant of aerosol gentamicin. Conclusion: inhalation method of introduction to rabbits of the antibiotic gentamicin sulfate supported eliminating its nephrotoxicity. This is confirmed by the results of the carried out postmortem examination excluding the presence of the significant pathological processes in the cell structure of the lungs and kidneys tissue under the influence of the preparation.

   
Keywords: antimicrobial therapy, gentamicin, animals, aerosol, histology.
   
References:
1. Klinicheskaya farmakologiya po Gudmanu i Gilmanu. [Goodman and Gilman Clinical pharmacology] Vol.3. / edited by prof. A.G. Gilman.- Moscow: Praktika, 2006. 176p.
2. Navashin, S.M. Ratsionalnaya antibiotikoterapiya [Rational antibiotics-based therapy] /S.M. Navashin, I.P. Fomina. - Moscow: Medicina, 1982. 496 p.
3. Pozdnyakova, V.P. Aminoglikozidy v monoterapii i v kombinatsiyah s penitsillinami pri gnoynoy infektsii [Using aminoglycosides in monotherapy and in combination with penicillin at purulent infection]: abstract from Candidate of Biology dissertation /V.P. Pozdnyakova. Moscow, 1984. p.176.
4. Tatochenko, V.K. Antibiotiki v lekarstvennoy forme Solyutab [Solutab. Antibiotics in drug form] /V.K. Tatotchenko //Farmateka. 2010. Vol. 14.  p.46-50.
5. Ter-Avetisyants, I.A. Vliyanie aerozolnoy ingalyatsii gentamitsina na immunoreaktivnost organizma krolika [An influence of inhalation of gentamicin in aerosol drug form on rabbit immune response]: abstract from thesis for degree of candidate of Biological Sciences/ I.A. Ter-Avetisyants, Erevan. 1987. 187p.
6. Troshin, A.N. Ratsionalnoe primenenie veterinarnyh preparatov na Kubani v 2014 godu [A rational use of veterinary drugs in Kuban in 2014]/A.N. Troshin // Veterinarniye preparaty Kubani.- Krasnodar, 2014. Series 10. P. 28-29.
7. Tyapkina, E.V. Ratsionalnoe ispolzovanie lekarstvennyh preparatov v veterinarii [A rational use of therapeutical drugs in Animal Health] /E.V. Tyapkina, L.A.Xahov, M.P. Semenenko, E.V. Kuzminova // Veterinarniye preparaty Kubani.- Krasnodar, 2014. Series 10. P.30-31.
8. Xabriev, R.U. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veschestv [A guideline on experimental (preclinic) studies of novel pharmaceutical drugs] /edited by Xabriev R.U., corresponding member of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. 2nd edition edited and revised. - Moscow: Meditsina, 2005. - 832 p.
9. Yarnyh, V.S. Aerozoli v veterinarii [Using drugs in aerosol form in Animal Health]  /V.S.Yarnyx. - Moscow: Selxozizdat, 1972. 352 p.
10. On-line resource: available on  http://www.medafarm.ru [used on 18.12.2015].