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¹ 2, 2016

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Authors: 1Kadikov I.R. - Candidate of Biological Science; 1Papunidi K.Kh. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Professor; 1Vafin I.F. - Candidate of Biological Science; 2Matveeva E.L. - Doctor of Biology, Professor.
1Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2V.G.Timiryasov Kazan Innovation University (IEML) (tel.:+7 (843) 231-92-96).

The study of effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds on human and animal health is a pressing problem of ecology and toxicology. These substances can be stored for a long time in the environment; they can migrate and accumulate in living organisms, causing changes and dysfunctions of organs and tissues. Beside the dioxins there are many other toxicants getting into the environment such as mycotoxins and heavy metals. The aim of the search is to study the combined effects of dioxin, heavy metals and mycotoxins on a body and the development of therapies and prevention measures against animal poisonings. Materials and methods: to design intoxication on a daily basis rabbits were orally administered cadmium chloride and dioxin, and sheep were administered dioxin and T-2 mycotoxin. ASD-2 tissue stimulator drug and bentonite, the enterosorbent, deposited in place of Biklyan, the Republic of Tatarstan, were used as test drugs. During the poisoning, clinical, hematological, biochemical and immunobiological studies were carried out. Results: the investigated drugs were found to have a positive effect on body at combined animal poisonings with dioxin, heavy metals and mycotoxins. Administration of ASD-2 and bentonite prevents animal death, reduces toxic load on body, rendering a favorable effect on hematological, biochemical, and immunobiological parameters. Conclusion: As prevention and treatment means at poisonings caused by dioxins, heavy metals and mycotoxins, both separately and associated, we recommend using bentonite with ASD-2 in combination. 
Keywords: Keywords: dioxin, T-2 toxin, cadmium, bentonite, ALT, AST, natural resistance.
1. Barashkin, M.I. Osobennosti immunobiokhimicheskogo statusa krupnogo rogatogo skota v zonakh tekhnogennogo zagryazneniya [Peculiarities of immune and biochemical status of cattle herds from man-induced contaminated areas] / M.I.Barashkin // Herald of E.N.Bauman Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine. - Kazan, 2006. - Vol. 183. - P. 22-28.
2. Ivanov, A.V. Dioksiny (biologicheskiye i veterinarniye aspekty) [Dioxins (biological and veterinary aspects)] / A.V. Ivanov, A.M. Smirnov, K.H. Papunidi et al. - Kazan, 2014. - 224 p.
3. Kryatov, I.A. Polihlorirovanniye bifenily i dioksiny-opasniye i persistentniye zagryazniteli okruzhayuschey sredy (obzor) [Polychlorinated biphenls and dioxins are dangerous and persistent contaminants in the environment (a review)] / I.A.Kryatov, M.M.Avtimenko, N.N.Tsapkova. // Gigienaisanitariya. - 1991. –Vol. 12. - P. 68-72.
4. Krol, M.Yu. Intoksikatsiya kur kadmiem i primenenie antidotov [Chiken intoxication with cadmium and using antidotes] / M.Yu. Krol, I.S. Sakharov // Veterinariya. - 2006. –Vol. 2. - P. 48-49.
5. Novikov, V.A. Monitoring tyazhelykh metallov v pochve i travyanistoy rastitelnosti prigorodnykh raiyonov goroda Kazani [Monitoring of heavy metals in soil and grass in in Kazan suburbs]/ V.A.Novikov, V.A.Konyukhov, A.V.Ivanov, M.Ya.Tremasov // Vestnik tatarstanskogo otdeleniya  Ros.ekologich.akademii – the herald of Tatarstan affiliate of the Russian ecological academy- 2005. –Vol. 3. - P. 75.
6. Papunidi, K.H. Problema mikotoksikozov v svinovodstve [The problem of mycotoxicoses in swine breeding] // Voprosyuluchsheniyaveterinarnogoblagopoluchiyasvinovodcheskikhpredpriyatiy: sbornik dokladov – The issues of improving animal health in swine-breeding farms: a collection of reports, December 2007- Kirov, 2007. - P. 29-36.
7. Tremasov, M.Ya. Mikotoksikozy–problema rasprostraneniya i profilaktika v zhivotnovodstve [Mycotoxicoses. The problem of its spread and prevention in livestock farming] / M.Ya.Tremasov // proceedings from All-Russian scientific and practical conference dedicated to 45th anniversary of ARRVI. - Kazan, 2005. - P. 41-51.
8. Avram, N. Studies on the industrial pollution implications on animal health and production in a massively heavy metals polluted area / N.Avram, N.Medrea // Stud. and Res. Vet. Med. - 1995. - ¹3.- P. 137 -146.
  Infectious pathology


Authors: Samerkhanov I.I. – research assistant.
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

Among the animal and human diseases, rabies has a special place because of the common susceptibility to the disease of warm-blooded animals and the absolute mortality in human. At planning the prevention measures and developing anti-rabies drugs the biological properties of rabies strains circulating in the area should be taken into consideration. In this regard, the aim of the research was to study biological properties of rabies virus isolated in human in comparison with the virus genotypes 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6. Materials and methods: the rabies virus antigen was detected and identified by ELISA, immunofluorescence test, neutralization test using diagnostic drugs developed in ARRVI, Kazan. Rabies virus was isolated and its infection rate was determined on white mice. G gene fragment of rabies virus was sequenced using RT-PCR. The investigation results: in patient G. bitten by a stray dog on Goa island hydrophobia was registered in-vivo by detection of specific antigen to rabies virus in smears of eye cornea using fluorescent antibody test, as well as rabies virus genome in saliva and lacrimal fluid using RT-PCR and later was confirmed in postmortem studies – in various parts of the brain by immunofluorescence test, ELISA, and isolation of the agent at biotest using white mice. As a result of comparative sequencing of rabies virus G gene fragment 238 n.b. long showed a slight difference between the studied isolate and RABVAY956319 for 1.68%. Conclusion: the results of in-vivo detection of hydrophobia were confirmed at postmortem studies of various parts of the brain by IFA, ELISA and biotest. Sequencing of rabies virus G gene fragment showed that the isolated virus belongs to the first serotype.

Keywords: Keywords: hydrophobia; fluorescent antibody method; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; neutralization reaction; polymerase chain reaction.
1. Kovalev, N.A. Immunofluorestsentnoye issledovaniye otpechatkov rogovitsy pri beshenstve [Immunofluorescent studies of eye cornea smears at rabies] / N.A.Kovalev, A.S.Sashenko // Veterinariya. -1970.- Vol.9.-P. 44-46
2. Prizhiznennaya kliniko-laboratornaya diagnostika gidrofobii [The in-vivo clinical and laboratory detection of hydrophobia]/D.K. Bashirova [et al.] // Kazansky meditsinsky jurnal. - 2007. - Vol. 88. - No.5. - P. 449-492.
3. Prizhiznennaya diagnostika gidrofobii [The in-vivo detection of hydrophobia] /N.A.Khismatullina [et al.] // Veterinarniye i metsinskiye aspekty zooantroponozov – Veterinary and medical aspects of animal and human diseases: proceedings from the Int. scientific. -practical. Conf. dedicated to the 45th anniversary of VNIIVViM. – Pokrov, 2003. – P. 157-161.
4. Analitichesky obzor meropriyatiy po profilaktike i borbe s beshenstvom zhivotnyh v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Analytical review of measures on rabies prevention and control in animal in the Russian Federation] / developed by V.A.Vedernikov, A.A.Sobakin, A.M.Gulyukin, A.V.Parshikov (Ya.R. Kovalenko Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary); S.G.Dresvyannikova, N.A.Yaremenko, A.S.Kolomytsev (Animal Health department). – Moscow, 2014. – 178p.
5. Gosudarstvenny standart Soyuza SSR. Zhivotniye selskohozyaystvenniye. Metody laboratornoy diagnostiki beshenstva [State standard of the USSR. Agricultural animals. Methods of rabies laboratory diagnostics]. State standard 26075-84 (ST SEV 3452-81). –Moscow,1984.-9p.
6. Epizootologo-epidemiologichesky nadzor za beshenstvom. Metodicheskoye rukovodstvo [Epizootical and epidemiological survey of rabies. A methodological guideline]. / A.V.Ivanov [et al.]. – Kazan: FCTRBS-ARRVI, 2007. – 95p.
7. Shabeykin, A.A. Analiz zakonomernostey epizooticheskogo protsessa beshenstva na territorii Yevropeyskoy chaste Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The analysis of laws in rabies epizooty in the European part of the Russian Federation] / A.A. Shabeykin, A.M. Gulyukin, A.V. Parshikova // Veterinariya i kormleniye. - 2015. -¹1. – P. 29-34
8. Khismatullina, N.A. Dva sluchaya gidrofobii v Respublike Tatarstan: prizhiznennaya i postmortalnaya laboratornaya diagnostika [Two cases of hydrophobia in the Republic of Tatarstan: in-vivo and postmortem laboratory diagnosis] / N.A.Khismatullina A.M.Gulyukin, M.I.Gulyukin// Voprosy virusologii. – 2015. – Vol.60, No. 2. - P. 18-24.



Authors: 1Beletskiy S.O. – applicant; 1Karimullina I.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Avzalova A.F. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Efimova M.A. – Doctor of Biology; 1Chernov A.N. – Doctor of Biology; 2Saushkin N.Yu. – postgraduate; 2Samsonova J.V. – Candidate of Chemistry Sciences; 3OsipovA.P. – Candidate of Chemistry Sciences; 2Kondakov S.E. – Doctor of Pharmacological Sciences.

1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (e-mail: dekanat@chem.msu.ru).
3National University of Science and Technology "MISiS", Moscow (e-mail: chernikova@misis.ru).

According to the Russian references from 17% to 43% animals are infected with herpes virus in livestock farms of the Russian Federation. An important step in control and eradication of bovine rhinotracheitis is a laboratory diagnostics by detection of specific antibodies as well as the viral antigen in sera of vaccinated and infected animals. In the case of remote location of specialized laboratories the storage and delivery of a larger number of liquid samples collected for the analysis can be a problem. Sampling, transportation and analysis of liquid biological samples in the form of dry spots helps to solve these problems by minimal means. The aim of the work was to apply the technology dried biofluid spots using a new format of the porous membrane carrier for sample preparation and analysis of bovine blood serum for the antibodies against IBR virus. Materials and methods: native bovine serum samples and dried bovine serum spots applied onto prototype of a card with membrane carrier were used in the studies. Liquid sera and dried samples eluted from the membrane were analyzed using ELISA. Results: At titration of 32 serum samples eluted from membrane carriers, the calculated ratio of antigen binding, antibody titers and interpretation of results did not significantly differ from those of the native samples in the similar study. Conclusion: complete consistency of ELISA results in liquid and dried serum samples confirms that using dried spots technology enables the on-site biofluid sampling(livestock farms) and delivery of the samples for further investigation to detect antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in dried serum spots avoiding the cold chain and loss of laboratory diagnostic quality.

Keywords: KEYWORDS: herpes virus, ELISA, DBS, sample preparation, antigen binding coefficient.
1. Ivanov, A.V. Etiopatogenez respiratorno-genitalnyh infektsiy krupnogo rogatogo skota, problem i perspektivy ih diagnostiki, profilaktiki i borby s nimi [Ethiopathogenesis of respiratory genital infections in cattle, problems and prospects of their diagnosis, prevention and control] / A.V.Ivanov, H.Z.Gaffarov // Veterinyvrach. – 2008. – Vol.4. –P.2-7
2. Kuznetsov, D.P. Infektsionniy rinotraheit krupnogo rogatogo skota: diagnostika na osnove sovremennyh metodov biotehnologii [Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: diagnostics based on modern biotechnology methods] / Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlovich // Doctor .Biol .Sciences thesis abstract: 03.00.02 –Schyolkovo , 2002. – 49 p. 
3. Mischenko, V.A. Problema respiratornoy patologii novorozhdennyh telyat [The problem of respiratory disease of newborn calves] / V.A.Mishchenko [et al.] // Veterinariya Kubani. – 2013. – Vol.6. – P.19-20.
4. Rejepova, G.R. Immunodefitsity pri respiratornyh boleznyah telyat [Immunodeficiencies in calves at respiratory diseases] / G.R.Rejepova[et al.] // Veterinarnaya Patologiya. – 2005. –Vol. 4. – P.122-125.
5. Samsonova, J.V. Viyavleniye antitel k vozbuditelyam zabolevaniy virusnoy etiologii v suhih pyatnah syvorotki krovi ptitsy [Detection of antibodies against viral pathogens in dried avian serum spots] / J.V.Samsonova[et al.] // Ptitsevodstvo .– 2014. – Vol.9. – P.38-42.
6. State-of-the-art dried blood spot analysis: an overview of recent advances and future trends / R.J.W.Meesters, G.P.Hooff // Bioanalysis. - 2013. - 5(17).–P. 2187-2208.
7. Demirev,P.A. Dried blood spots: analysis and applications / P.A.Demirev // Anal. Chem., 2013. – 85. – P. 779-789.
8. Samsonova, J.V. Detection of bovine leukemia virus by the polymerase chain reaction in dried blood spots using a membrane system of a new format / J.V.Samsonova [et al.] // Moscow Univ. Chem. Bull., 2014. – 69. – P. 282-285.



Authors: ZakutskyN.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Balyshev V.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Lunitsin A.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Science; Guzalova A.G. - Candidate of Biological Science; Jurkov S.G. - Doctor of Biology.
Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia, SSI NRIVVaMR of RRAC (tel. +7(4922)379251, e-mail: vniivvim@niiv.petush.elcom.ru).

The work was aimed at analysis of potency of an inactivated vaccine prepared from a strain “TK-A/K” against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Materials and methods: in this work, we used a freeze-dried culture IBR virus vaccine strain “TK-A/K” with an infectious activity level of 6.5 to 7.0 lg TCID50/cm3; a monolayer continuous bovine kidney cell culture (MDBK) grown in 3-liter glass bottles using a roller method, in flasks of 250 cm3, and/or tubes in Dulbecco MEM supplemented with 10% bovine blood serum. The infectious activity level of the virus-containing material was determined by titration in cell culture MDVK using standard methods. The completeness of teotropin inactivation of the virus-containing material was examined through a triple passage in MDBK cells. The IBR “TK-A/K” strain inactivated vaccine was tested for innocuity in adult white mice. The antigenic and immunogenic features of the strain were determined by reference to virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Results: the freeze-dried strain “TK-A/K” infectious, antigenic and immunogenic activity levels were examined every 3 years of storage at -40 oC, and the storability of the concentrated virus-containing material was examined every 6 months within 3 years. Using some cloning and selection techniques, from an attenuated strain “TK-A/K” we obtained the IBR virus vaccine strain “TK-A/K” that differed from the original strain in its higher immunobiological activity. The derived strain was shown to be sustainable at passages 6 to 20 for it showed high infectious, antigenic and immunogenic activity levels. The strain was freeze-dried at passage 6 and exhibited biological activity levels of 6.5 to 7.0 lg TCD50/ml, successfully passed the commissioning tests, is characterized in compliance with OIE requirements for vaccine strains, certified, and deposited in the collection of microorganisms of the All-Russian State Research Institute of Control, Standardization, and Certification of Veterinary Preparations (VGNKI) with its authorial denomination of “TK-A/K”. The above strain is used for production of a commercial inactivated vaccine against IBR. The preparation induced virus-neutralizing antibody formation at high titers of 1:16 to 1:64 in calves after a double immunization at a doze of 2.0 ml with a 14-day interval. The commercial series of the inactivated vaccine prepared from this strain were used for prophylaxis purposes in a number of regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. For strain “TK-A/K”, an invention patent No 2279474 was issued. This strain remains sustainable during prolonged storage periods; thus, when stored in its high-concentrated form (the antigen concentrate) for 3 years at -60 oC, or in a freeze-dried form for 9 years at -40 oC, the virus kept its original infectious and antigenic (i.e., immunogenic) properties. Conclusions: thus, through cloning and selection approaches, we obtained the vaccine strain “TC-A/K” that was used to develop an effective inactivated anti-IBR vaccine that provided animal protection from virulent viruses. Commercial series of the inactivated anti-IBR vaccine prepared from strain “TC-A/K” were used in various regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, and gave positive results.
Keywords: Keywords: IBR virus, strain “TC-A/K”, infectious antigenic and immunogenic activity, sustainability, inactivated vaccine.
1. Yurov, K.P. Gerpesvirusy vozbuditeley massovykh zabolevaniy krupnogo rogatogo skota [Herpesviruses causing mass diseases in cattle herds] / K.P.Yurov and A.F.Shulyak // Veterinariya. – 1998. – Vol.11. – P. 10-12.
2. Zakutskiy, N.I. Razrabotka i sovershenstvovanie inaktivirovannoy vaktsiny protiv infektsionnogo rinotrakheita  krupnogo rogatogo skota [Development and improvement of inactivated vaccine against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis]: Doctoral Dissertation in Veterinary/ N.I.Zakutsky. – Pokrov, 1998. – 311p.
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Authors: Chernov A.N - Doctor of Biology.
Address: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Veterinary laboratories play an important role in ensuring the epizootic and epidemiological welfare, and their executives often refer to the current requirements at handling pathogenic biological agents. The aim of this work was to analyze the main regulatory framework for the efficient functioning of veterinary laboratories. Materials and methods: the current regulatory documentation on sanitation and epidemiological rules was reviewed. Results: the key requirements for handling pathogenic biological agents that can cause hazardous and socially relevant infectious diseases of human and animals were summarized. Depending on the group and hazard level biopathogens the appropriate actions are applied in laboratories. Conclusion: for handling biological pathogens the organizational, technical, medical and social events should be considered, improving the reliability of the technical defense systems, processes and high professional qualification and professional competence of the staff should be taken into account. Compliance with corresponding sanitary and epidemiological rules for handling pathogens of any hazard degree will allow the laboratories to provide more efficient service, better human health and environment.

Keywords: Keywords: sanitation and epidemiological rules, regulations, microorganisms of I-IV categories of risk.
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8. Federal Service for Supervision of Consumers Protection and Welfare, Order N 775 of July 18th, 2012 “Ob utverzhdenii Administrativnogo reglamenta Federalnoy sluzhbe po nadzoru v sfere zaschity prav potrebiteley i blagopoluchiya cheloveka po predostavleniyu gosudarstvennoy uslugi po vydachi na osnovanii rezultatov sanitarno-epidemiologicheskih ekspertiz, rassledovaniy, obsledovaniy, issledovaniy, ispytaniy i inyh vidov otsenok, oformlennyh v ustanovlennom poryadke, sanitarno-epidemiologicheskih zaklucheniy” [On establishing an Administrative regulations for  Federal Service for Supervision of Consumers Protection and Welfare on providing public services in issuance of sanitation and epidemiological resolution for duly performed and submitted sanitation and epidemiological expertise, investigations, research, examinations, experiments and other kinds of evaluations” // Rossiyskaya gazeta. – 2012. – October, 3rd . – 65 p.
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11. «Postroyeniye sistemy fizicheskoy zaschity gosudarstvennyh i issledovatelskih kollektsiy mikroorganizmov I-II grupp patogennosti» [developing the system of physical defense of state and investigation collection of microorganisms of I-II groups of pathogenicity]: methodical guideline ÌÓÊ 3.1.2964-11 // Kodeks tehekspert: a group of companies “Informatsiya buduschego”. – 13 p.
  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: 1Ravilov R.Kh. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Ivanov V.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Science; 1Trofimova E.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
1Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17; e-mail: rustam.ravilov@mail.ru).
2Veterinary Center “Solnyshko”, Kazan (tel.+7 (843)290-22-90, e-mail: 902290@mail.ru).

Introduction. The article present results of the economic efficiency at implementing new disposable laparoscopic instruments. Materials and methods: the economic efficiency was assessed using the official method for veterinary measures approved by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, as well as scientific references on assessing the efficiency of scientific researches and surgeries. The investigation results: numerous surgeries enabled to justify the usefulness and effectiveness of using the new disposable laparoscopic access ports. Developing the innovative access ports enabled using laparoscopic surgeries with disposable instruments in clinical veterinary practice. Novel equipment and techniques in surgery allow minimizing the invasiveness at laparoscopic surgeries in pets and provide sterility. Cats and bitches ovariohysterectomy using disposable laparolift was cheaper for 8.9 times, single-port access– 6.3 and single port of laparoscopic access – 1.4 times with cost of tools from 450 to 2500 rubles. Conclusion. The laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy with disposable instruments has been introduced into pet veterinary surgery for the first time. The reduced cost for surgical procedures using a disposable laparoscopic surgical access port kit shows a sufficiently high economic efficiency of their use in comparison with imported instruments.

Keywords: Keywords: laparoscopy, endoscopy, single-port method, laparolifting, gas-free, ovariohysterectomy, cats, economic.
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Authors: Belov A.G. – postgraduate fellow; Stafford V.V. – Senior staff scientist; Zimina E.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Simbirtsev N.P. - Candidate of Biology Sciences.

1K.I.Skryabin Moscow Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow (e-mail: a_belov@mail.ru).
2Y.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV), Moscow (e-mail: stafford.v.v@gmail.com).

Introduction: pathological anatomy changes caused by peritonitis and pathological morphology of hypovolemic shock during non-exudative peritonitis for the case of fur-bearing animals were considered. Methods and materials: The investigations were conducted on corpses of cell-living foxes, sables, minks and arctic foxes. The investigation results: the autopsy was conducted by Shor method. Corpses demonstrating signs of peritonitis could be precisely divided into three groups. In order to analyze pathological changes and to reveal the interconnection between pathological processes we implied peritonitis classification scheme by Simonyan. Such phase classification turned out to be applicable in our case. Though for fur-bearing animals the peritonitis process had specific features. Animals of the first group represented signs of the first phase only. For the second group peritonitis appeared as a complication of acute enteritis and developed along with hypovolemia. This fact limited the inflammatory process spreading and peritonitis proceeded subacutevly. Animals in the third group represented classical peritonitis scheme including all three phases. In reactive phase of peritonitis vascular complications realise, the toxic phase inflammatory and complications dystrophic realise. With the super acutely a course of peritonitis the most severe complication is hypovolemic shock. But with acute and subacute course the most severe complication is that of precipitation respiratory function of diaphragm with the development of a stagnant hyperemia and pulmonary oedema. If peritonitis designed as a second trial and complicates the acute enteritis exudative, pathological picture determines hypovolemia of first point with enteritis type. The vascular reaction with peritonitis of the family Mustalidae was very acute. A case of animals during the superacute peritonitis can because the development of hypovolemic shock. Conclusion: The most likely cause of death is acute ischemia of the vital organs: brain, heart, lungs. The course of disease and pathological anatomy of exudative peritonitis and hypovolemic shock of fur-bearing animals like the pathological anatomy of purulent peritonitis and hypovolemic shock, described in human.

Keywords: Keywords: peritonitis, hypovolemic shock.
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Authors: Zhitlova E.A. – postgraduate fellow.
Address: N.E. Bauman Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine
A crucial opportunity in further development of traumatology is an investigation of novel efficient medical drugs promoting bone recovery process. The aim of the research was to study the effect of the drug based on lanthanide etidronates and calcium on bone recovery process. Materials and Methods: the experimental studies were carried out using outbred rabbits. The animals were divided into two groups: control and experimental. The bone injury was experimentally made by perforating a hole (bone defect) in one of the two cortical plates in the proximal section and medial plan of the tibia. At 3 and 5 days after trauma and surgery the drug "Inrok" in a dose of 0.2 ml was injected twice into the bone defect of the experimental animals. The investigation results: at 7 days of the experiment the bone recovery process was more expressed in the experimental animals than in the control animals and was characterized by a smaller area of the perforated hole and a smaller amount of leukocyte-necrotic mass. At 14 days of the study the parameters of bone tissue in the test group significantly differed from those in the control group: the experimental animals had lower amount of granulation tissue and a higher volume of the connective tissue. At 28 days of the experiment, the replacement of the perforated hole by membrane reticulated bone in the test group was accompanied by the closure of the defect. By the 56th day of the experiment, the lamellar bone which occupied most of the surface of the perforated hole was visible in the animals of the both groups. Conclusion: during the research the drug "Inrok" was found to be effective at early stages of recovery of small bone defects. 

Keywords: Keywords: rabbit, reparative recovery, bone defect, perforated hole.
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Authors: Smolentsev S.Yu. - Doctor of Biology, professor.
Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola (tel. +7(8362) 68-79-32, å-mail: rector@marsu.ru).

Introduction: Lipids are important in animal nutrition as they are a concentrated source of energy, are involved in regulation of cellular cycle, transmission of nervous impulses, they constitute a structure of cell membrane, and thereby provide interstitial metabolism, constitute the basis of many hormones, enzymes, vitamins, sources of essential fatty acids, nerve cells, fat, muscle and other tissues. The aim of the research was to study the effect of different levels of lipids in cow diet on number, species composition of infusoria, and number of cellulolytic bacteria. Materials and methods: the experiments were carried out in LLC «Sovetskoye moloko», Mari El, where according to the principle of analogues 3 groups of cows with 5 animals in eachwere formed. Cows in group 1 received a diet containing 3.5% fat stabilized with antioxidants, 2nd group - 4.5%, and 3rdgroup - 5.4%. Fat was administered intothe mixed fodder concentrate. At 30 days rumen content was sampled using G-tube. Microbiological studies of the rumen content were carried out using routine methods. The investigation results: the research showed that cows from the 2nd group had a higher level of infusoria of Entodiniumgenus for 4.2%, Epidinium– 2.1%, lower level of Diplodiniumfor 2.2% and Ophrioscolex9.7% compared with the first group. In the third group a significant decrease in the number of Ophrioscolexby 29.6%, Isotrichaby 12.1% and Diplodinium by 6.8%infusoriawere registered. The infusoria of other genera was not influenced by a higher level of fat.  The higher level of fat the cows diet the fewer gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion:an optimal level of fat in dry fodder of productive cows having most favorable effect on digestion and microflora in gastrointestinal tract contents is 4.5%.

Keywords: Keywords: fat content, diet, bacteria, infusoria, rumen, read stomach, grid, omasum.
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Authors: Burkov P.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
South Ural State Agrarian University, Russia, Troitsk (e-mail: burcovpavel@mail.ru).

Pig non-contagious diseases including liver diseases such as hepatoses can cause serious economic damage to swine breeding industry. We propose "Geprim for pigs" drug based on modified cytotoxic sera to promote liver regeneration at heptoses. The aim of research was to study liver cell structure in pigs with hepatoses and define its regeneration laws at using "Geprim for pigs". Methods and materials: the research was carried out in "Lugovskoy pig farm" using Large White pigs at the age of 2 months. The animals were divided into two groups (the experimental and control) with 25 animal in each group. As prevention means the experimental animals were once introduced "Geprim for pigs" subcutaneously in a dose of 0.2 ml per 1kg of live weight.  The piglets from the control group were injected with a similar amount of physiological saline solution. All of the animals were observed during 4 months. The animals which died from liver hepatoses were subjected to histological studies using different staining techniques. At control monthly slaughter of healthy animals both from the experimental and control groups the liver was sampled for histological studies counting binucleate hepatocytes and measuring the area of nucleus, cytoplasm and nucleus-plasma ratio. The results: the carried out studies showed that liver disease at heptoses is accompanied by degeneration, necrosis, chronic productive inflammation, and circulatory disorders. The mechanism of liver regeneration at using "Geprim for pigs" is the formation of binucleate hepatocytes - their number increased for 175%, 96.5%, 197% and 146% compared with the control during the first, second, third and fourth months of observation accordingly. During liver regeneration, cellular hypertrophy at the account of increased nuclear area for 31%, 2%, 59%, and 71% compared to that of the controls and cytoplasm area larger for 219%, 162%, 338% and 402% than in the controls was registered. The nuclear plasma ratio, in contrast, was lower in the experimental group than in the control by 59%, 61%, 64% and 66% accordingly. Conclusion: therefore, liver cellular pathology in swine affected with hepatoses is accompanied by degenerative and inflammatory processes with circulation disorders and subsequent tissue necrosis. "Geprim for pigs" regenerates liver cellular structure by promoting polyploidization of hepatocytes and cell hypertrophy.

Keywords: Keywords: liver, hepatosis, hepatoprotectors, liver regeneration, "Geprim for pigs".
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Authors: Tsygansky R.À. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Address: Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol (e-mail: fvm-fvm@yandex.ru).
This article provides the investigation results on possibility of using transcutaneous ultrasonography to detect bowel worms in cats and dogs. Materials and methods: 247cats and 136 dogs of different breeds and age with different diagnoses admitted to “Na Pirogova” veterinary center, Stavropol, during the period from August, 2014 to February, 2016 were examined during the investigation. Ultrasonography was performed on SIUI Apogee 1100 Omni (Shantou Institute of Ultrasonic Instruments Co., Ltd., Guangdong, China) using conventional linear multi-frequency transducer with 8-12 MHz frequency range. The examination was carried out in the two-dimensional grey scale visualization (B-mode). A helminthological investigation was carried out according to Fulleborn’s method with a helminthoovoscopy and postmortem studies. Helminthes species were identified using differential diagnostics according to morphological structure of eggs. Results: in jejunum cavity of 18.6% examined cats and 15.4% dogs ultrasonography detected linear incorporations further identified as Toxocara mystax and Toxocara canis nematodes at helminthoovoscopy. Toxocara found at jejunum scanning were characterized using ultrasonography. The peculiarities of toxocara visualization were described depending on direction of ultrasonographic flow and criteria of identification are provided. Discussion: transcutaneous ultrasound can be used to detect adult toxocara species in dogs and cats. The criteria confirming the diagnosis are visualization of helminthes in intestinal cavity at flow-oriented through the center of its longitudinal spine and the presence of independent movements. The ultrasonic ability of toxocara visualization in jejunum should not exclude helminthological studies.
Keywords: Keywords: Ultrasonography, diagnostics, gastrointestinal tract, helminths, nematodes, Toxocaramystax, Toxocaracanis, dogs, cats, pets.
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Authors: 1Boudarkov V.A. - Doctor of Biology, Professor; 2Konyukhov G.V. - Doctor of Biology, Professor.
1National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia, Russian Academy of Agricultural Science (e-mail: VNIIVViM@niiv.petush.elcom.ru).
2 Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
In animals which parents were previously exposed to irradiation, various pathologies are sometimes manifested only after additional functional loads. Experiments showed that the offspring of the rats irradiated with radioactive strontium are less adaptive to additional outer and inner irradiation and infections. The offspring of cows and ewes exposed to inner irradiation 131I had a higher sensitivity to air-borne infections. The aim of the work: to reveal potential latent changes in chicken born at 3 or 12 months after chronic exposure of parent-hens to 131I basing on their responses to inoculation with causative agents of tuberculosis and coccidiosis. Materials and methods: the experiments were carried out using white chicken daily exposed to 131I during 30 days at rate of 1.1 MBq/kg. To reveal potential latent changes in litter body due to parental exposure to radioiodine a method of functional load – challenging the chicken of different age with tuberculosis and coccidiosis infection – was used. The mature poultry was inoculated with tuberculosis one-fold by intramuscular injection of one-month old suspension of poultry-type tuberculosis agent culture in ratio of 1 billion of microbial cells per 1 kg of body weight. The flow of coccidiosis was studied using one-day old chicken set in experimentally bad conditions: overcrowding, irremovability of wet matting from a thick layer of filter paper. Resistance to the infection was evaluated using bacteriological, immunological, clinical, and pathomorphological methods. The results showed that in the first offspring generation born at 12 months and the second generation born at 3 months after parent-hens exposure to 131I the number of chicken died from tuberculosis was twice higher than in the controls, the number of cases of inner organs lesions from tuberculosis was also higher in the experimental animals. In the 3rd and 4th generation offspring born at 3 and twelve months accordingly after radiation exposure of parent-hens had started the resistance to coccidiosis was lower: a lifetime of sick chicken in the experimental group was lower for 1.4 times than that of the controls, and the death rate was higher for 1.2 times accordingly. Discussion: the obtained results evidence the resistance to tuberculosis and coccidiosis infections in chicken from parent-hens exposed to chronic irradiation with 131I in daily rate of 1.1. MBq/kg was lower than in the controls. 
Keywords: KEYWORDS: hens, offspring, 131I, tuberculosis, coccidiosis, immune response.
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