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¹ 1, 2016

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  Toxicology
   
Title:

DETECTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA CAPABLE TO DEGRADE MYCOTOXINS IN AVIAN ASSOCIATED MICROFLORA

   
Authors: 1Gorelnikova E.A. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Larionova O.S. - Doctor of Biology; 1Vasiliev A.A. – Doctor of Agricultural Science, professor; 1Faust E.A. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Semionov S.V. - Head of research laboratory; 1Kuznetsov M.U. - Candidate of Agriculture Sciences; 1Anikeev E.V. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
1N.I.Vavilov Saratov State Agrarian University, Saratov (e-mail: larionova1@mail.ru).

2LLC «VIC- Animal health», Saratov (e-mail: svs.alvis@gmail.com).
   
Abstract:
Introduction: according to Food and Agriculture Organization United Nations an annual economic harm in crop losses because of microscopic fungi and their mycotoxins is as high as 16 billion dollars. Currently, mycotoxins deactivation by microorganisms is one of the most effective methods of mycotoxicosis control. Of various microorganisms capable to degrade mycotoxins the lactic acid bacteria are the most promising. The aim of the research was to isolate lactic acid bacteria able to degrade mycotoxins from associated bird microflora. Methods and materials: lactic acid bacteria were isolated from blind end and ileum intestine contents of 3-, 5-, 7- and 14-days old chickens. 42 strains of Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp.  were selected basing on their cultural and morphological properties and then incubated with B1 aflatoxin and T-2 mycotoxin during 7 days. Mycotoxins residual content was studies by ELISA using RIDASCREEN @ FAST Aflotoxin and RIDASCREENFAST T2-Toxin test systems (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). Results: 2 Enterococcus spp. strains reducing the level of B1 aflatoxin (by 76.9% and 82.2% correspondingly) in media, and one Enterococcus spp. strain reducing the level of T-2 toxin by 43.7% in media were isolated. Microorganisms with genetically fixed ability to degrade mycotoxins promote the most intense degradation of toxic elements that allows less negative effects from birds’ forced feeding with substandard rations. Conclusion: therefore, development of probiotic drugs based on Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. strains has undoubted relevance and practical value to prevent animal toxicities. 

   
Keywords: Keywords: mycotoxicosis, mycotoxin, aflotoxin, trichothecene, lactic-acid-producing bacterium.
   
References:
1. Control of mould growth and mycotoxin production by lactic acid bacteria metabolites / N.Blagojev [et al.] // Romanian Biotechnological Letters. – 2012. – V. 17, ¹ 3. – P. 7363–7373.
2. Dalie, D.K.D. Lactic acid bacteria – potential for control of mould growth and mycotoxins / D.K.D.Dalie, A.M.Deshamps, F.Richard-Forget // Food Control. – 2010. – V. 21, ¹ 3. – P. 370–380.
3. Antifungal attributes of lactic acid bacteria / V.K.Batish [et al.] // Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. – 1997. – V. 17, ¹ 2. – P. 2009–2225.
4. Purification and characterization of novel antifungal compounds from sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum strain 21 B / P.Lavermicocca [et al.] // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. – 2000. – V. 66, ¹ 5. – P. 4084–4090.
5. In vitro studies on reuterin synthesis by Lactobacillus reuteri / T.C.Chung [et al.] // Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease. – 1989. – V. 2, ¹ 3. – P. 137–144.
6. Lindgren, S.E. Antagonistic activities of lactic acid bacteria in food and feed fermentations / S.E.Lindgren, W.J.Dobrogosz // FEMS Microbiology Reviews. – 1990. – V. 87, ¹ 2. – P. 149–163.
7. Bata, A. Detoxification of mycotoxin contaminated food and feed by microorganisms / A.Bata, R.Lasztity // Trends in Food Science & Technology. – 1999. – V. 10, ¹ 2. – P. 223–228.
8. Styriak, I. Microbial binding and biodegradation of mycotoxins / I.Styriak, E.Concova // Veterinary & Human Toxicology. – 2002. – V. 44, ¹ 1. – P. 358–361.
9. Gourama, H. Growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus in the presence Lactobacillus species: dissertation / H.Gourama. – Ph.D.:University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1991. – 54 ð.
10. Binding rather tan metabolism may explain the interaction of two food-grade Lactobacillus strains with zearalenone and its derivative alpha zearalenol / H.S.El-Nezami [et al.] // Food Protection. – 1998. – V. 61, ¹ 1. – P. 446–448.
11. Ability of diary strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind aflatoxin M1 in a food model / M.Pierides [et al.] // Food Protection. – 2000. – V. 63, ¹ 5. – P. 645–650.
12. Piotrowska, M. The limitation of ochratoxin A by lactic acid bacteria strains / M.Piotrowska, Z.Zakowska // Microbiology. – 2005. – V. 54, ¹ 3. – P. 279–286.
13. Detoxification of patulin and ochratoxin A, two abundant mycotoxins, by lactic acid bacteria / S.Fuchs [et al.] // Food and Chemical Toxicology. – 2008. – V. 46, ¹ 5. – P. 1398–1407.
14. Goncharenko, A.A. Transformatsiya T-2 toxina mikroorganizmami kishechnika in vitro [Transformation of T-2 toxin intestinal microorganisms in vitro] // Uspehi meditsinskoy mikologii – Medical mycology success. – 2003. – Vol. 1. – P. 132–133.
15. Sheveleva, S.A. Probiotiki, prebiotiki i probioticheskie produkti. Sovremennoe sostoyanie voprosa [Probiotics, prebiotics and probiotic products. The current state of matter] // Voprosi pitaniya - Questions of nutrition. – 1999. – Vol. 2. – P.32–39.
16. Microbial dynamics of the broiler intestinal tract / M.D.Lee [et al.] // The Elanco Global Enteritis Symposium, Greenfield, Indiana, July 9-11, 2002. – Greenfield, Indiana, 2002. – Ð. 54–62.

   
   
Title:

ASSOCIATED MYCOTOXICOSES AND ITS SAFE LEVELS IN FODDERS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

   
Authors: Korosteleva V.P. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Kazan Cooperative Institute (branch) of Russian University of Cooperation. Russia. Kazan (tel. +7 (843) 210-30-25; e-mail: vkorosteleva@rucoop.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the studies was to research the animal rations containing numerous ingredients which can contain one or several mycotoxins. The toxins have synergetic effect even at low concentration in ration and associate their effect with other ecotoxins (heavy metals, pesticides, antibiotics, etc.) at heavy technological load. As a rule, associated mycotoxins have larger negative effect on animal welfare that separately. Once associated, mycotoxins can significantly increase their negative effect on animal welfare, animal and plant products. For example, it is well known that fusaric acid is practically nontoxic for animals even at high dosage rate, while associated with for example deoxynivalenol significantly increases toxicity of the both mycotoxins, complicates mycotoxicosis detection, treatment, and prevention. Also mycotoxic effect can be strengthened by presence of toxic elements, pesticides, dioxin, nitrogen-containing compounds regularly introduced into body. Insignificant dosage of mycotoxins increases animal susceptibility to infection diseases because of imbalance of humoral and cellular immune responses and natural elements of immunological defense. Even at minimal concentration lower than maximum allowable threshold can affect body immune response promoting development of infection. Human food chain remains defenseless against mycotoxins. In Russia mycotoxins control system is not perfect: lack of precisions centers, highly sensitive equipment, mycotoxin reference samples of high purity, solvents, and mainly – analytical chemists. Lack of modern equipment and devices makes detection of animal toxication with mycotoxins difficult.

   
Keywords: Keywords: MAC, mycotoxines, intoxication, microscopic fungi, Ò-2 toxin, aflatoxin, penicillium, fusarium, interaction of mycotoxines.
   
References:
1. Monitoring mikotoksinov v pishevoy tsepi [Monitoring of mycotoxicoses in food chain] / Ì.Ya.Tremasov [et al.] // Sovremennaya mikologiya v Rossii. – 2015. – Vol. 5. – P. 256–257.
2. Papunidi, E.Ê. Î problem mikotoksinov [On the problem of mycotoxins] / E.K.Papunidi, V.P.Korosteleva, Ye.Yu.Tarasovà // Integratsiya nauki, praktiki i obrazovaniya–Integration of science, practice, and education: proceedings from jubilee collection of scientific articles of postgraduate fellows, teachers, and practitioners. – Kazan: Redaktsionno-izdatelsky tsentr, 2012. – P. 175–181.
3. Korosteleva, V.P. Mikotoksiny – realnaya ugroza kachestvu i bezopasnosti prodovolstvennogo syrya [Mycotoxins are a real threat for foodstuff quality and safety] / V.P.Korosteleva, Ye.Yu.Tarasovà// Proceedings from the Int. Sci. pract. Conf. of teachers, professors, and postgraduate fellows Russian cooperation university. – Yaroslavl-Moscow: izdatelstvo Kantsler, 2012. – P. 570–572.
4. Yegorov, V.I. Veterinarno-sanitarnaya ekspertiza myasa telyat pri sochetannom otravlenii piretroidom, mikotoksinom i tyazhelym metallom [Veterinary and sanitation expertise of beef meat at associated toxication with pyretroids, mycotoxins, and heavy metals]/V.I.Yegorov, V.P.Korosteleva// veterinarny vrach. – 2012. – Vol. 6. – P. 32–34.
5. Korosteleva, V.P. Opyt primeneniya gepatoprotektora, enterosorbenta i antioksidanta pri T-2 mikotoksikoze [An experiment using liver-protecting drugs, enterosorbents, and antioxidants at T-2 mycotoxicosis] / V.P.Korosteleva, Ye.Yu.Tarasovà, V.Ya.Ponomorev // Vestnik KNITU. – 2013. – Vol. 6. – P. 206–208.
6. Îtsenka kachestva myasa ovets pri Ò-2 mikotoksikoze na fone primeneniya antioksidantov [Evaluation of mutton quality at sheep T-2 mycotoxicosis treated with antioxidants] / E.K.Papunidi, V.P.Korosteleva, Ye.Yu.Tarasovà, S.Yu.Smolentsev // Myasnaya industriya. – 2014. – Vol. 5. – P. 48–50.
7. Prospects for the use of therapeutic and preventive immunoglobulin in veterinary / E.K.Papunidi [et al.] // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (RJPBCS). – 2014. – November – December. – ¹ 5(6). – P. 1448–1450.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

DEVELOPMENT, TESTING AND EFFICTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT MEANS AND METHODS OF PREVENTION AND ELIMINATION OF BRUCELLOSIS IN CATTLE

   
Authors: Safina G.M. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Fomin A.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor
   
Address:
Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The accumulated experience of anti-epizootic measures when brucellosis cattle indicates the crucial role of specific prevention in the fight against this disease. The aim of our research was the development, testing and evaluation of special veterinary measures for the prevention and elimination of brucellosis in cattle in the final stage of the struggle with the infection that maintain permanent immunity in animals for brucellosis without postvaccinal seropositive cows. Materials and methods. In order to determine the complex health and preventive activities conducted epizootologicheskij analysis and divided the area into 3 zones. Each area developed antibrucellar relevant special events. The results of research. Analysis of the epidemic situation of brucellosis in cattle farms showed that heifers were immunized in the region and boosted with the vaccine strain from the 82 cows also boosted with the vaccine every two years. Among re-vaccinated animals are constantly stood out positively respond to the RA and RAC animals for brucellosis. Differential-diagnostic studies of livestock with positive reaction shows that the bulk of the animals had the character of post-vaccination reactions, but there are individuals with post-infectious nature of the reaction, from 3 to 25-year goals. In this regard at the next re-vaccination of cows instead of the vaccine strain from 82 introduced native of live vaccine strain R-1096 is manufactured in VNIVI. Conclusion. Production testing of the system of special antibrucellar activities for the final stage of the fight against the infection, showed positive results. Annual revaccination of cattle vaccine inagglyutinogennogo strain B. abortus R-1096 on the background of the vaccine strain allows you to save 82 Epizootic welfare of experimental farms for brucellosis.

   
Keywords: Keywords: brucellosis of cattle, specific prevention, system antibrucellar special events, post-vaccination seropositivity, recovery.
   
References:
1. Pashkin, A.V. Brucelles krupnogo rogatogo skota v uslovijh Volgogradskoi i Astrachanscoi oblastei [Brucellosis of cattle in conditions of the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions] / A.V.Pashkin – Veterenariy selskohozjistvennich givotnich – Veterinary farm animals.-2007.-¹9.-P.24-26.
2. Semenov, A.U. Epizootologicheski monitoring brucelleza krupnogo rogatogo i melcogo rogatogo skota [Epizootologichesky monitoring brucellosis cattle and small ruminants] / A.U.Semenov, N.A.Rud – Veterinarij Kubani – Veterinary Kuban.-2010.-¹1.-P.13-16.
3. Skljrov, O.D. Puti resheniy problem, obuslavlivaushix activnost brucelleza v RF [Ways to solve the problems that lead to the relevance of  brucellosis in Russia] / O.D.Skljrov.-Veterinarij.-Veterinary science.-2011.-¹1.-P.34-39.
4. Arakeljn, P.K. Sovremennaj epizooticheskay situaciy v RF po brucellezu melcogo i crupnogo rogatogo skota i neotloznie meri po ee stabilizatii [Modern epizootic situation in Russia brucellosis sheep and cattle and urgent measures to stabilize]/ P.K.Arakeljn, S.K.Dimov – Obespechenie veterinarnogo blagopoluchiy v givotnavodstve i pticevodstve. Materiali megdunarodnoj nauchno-practicheskoj conferencii, posvisennoi veteranam veterinarnoi nauki.-Providing veterinary welfare in livestock and poulty. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference dedicated to the veterans of Veterinary science, 2-4 October 2013. Omsk.-2013.-P.15-21.
5. Dgupina, S.I. Epizootologizesci process brucelloza CRS i perspektivi devastacii ego vozbuditely [Epizootologichesky process of bovine brucellosis and the prospects for its devastation of pathogen] / S.I.Dgupina.-Veterinarnaj patalogia.-Veterinary pathology.-2013.-¹4.-P.97-104.
6. Dgupina, S.I. Epizooticheskyi process brucelloza crupnogo rogatogo skota [Epizootic process of brucellosis in cattle] / S.I.Dgupina. Materiali megdunarodnoj nauchno-practicheskoj conferencii.-Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference.-Omsk.-2010.-P.29-36.
7. Gordienko, L.N. Effectifnost protivobrucelleznih meropriytii v Rossiskoi Federacii [Efficiency antibrucellar activities in the Russian Federation] / L.N.Gordienko, V.I.Okolelov, P.K.Arakelyn. Infeccionnay parologiy givotnih. Materiali megdunarodnoj nauchno-practicheskoj conferencii, posvisennoi 90-letiu SibNIVI-VNIIBTG. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference on the 90th anniversary SibNIVI-VNIIBTZH. - Omsk.-2011.-P.31-35.
   
   
Title:

SHEEP AND GOAT POX AND PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS: EPIZOOTICAL ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING POTENTIAL NOSOAREAS UP TO 2020

   
Authors: 1Kneize A.V. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; 1Bolgova MV. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Parilov S.V. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; 3Turayev R.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Abdulloev A.O. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Balyshev V.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
1State Research Institution National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia (SRI NRIVVaMR) of Russian Academy of Agricultural Science (e-mail: www.vniivvim.ru).

2Research Innovation Centre for Microbiology and Biotechnology Ulyanovsk State Academy of Agriculture.

3Veterinary Institute of Tadjik Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

   
Abstract:
Abstract. The report presents the results of studying sheep and goat pox (SGP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR), its spatial and dynamic characteristics and identification of the infections global spread patterns. The aim of the work was carry out a systemic analysis on SGP and PPR spread on a worldwide scale and to provide a forecast of the epizootic situation on the both infections in the Russian Federation and the neighboring countries for the period up to 2020. Methods and materials: in this investigation, the statistical data of the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) on SGP and PPR worldwide epizootic situation on for the period from 1984 to 2014 and the global economy of sheep and goat production, and also the data of the Russian Federal Veterinary and Phytosanitation Service and the Federal Veterinary Department were used. For the infections monitoring an epizootological approach was used. For sampling the data on the infection cases and/or outbreaks registered in the infected countries the epizootic tension parameters including the index of stationary index (SI) and the incidence coefficient (IC) that indicate frequency rate of the infection registered in the infected countries and frequency rate for newly registered outbreaks in animal population within a year were calculated. The investigation results: basing on natural and/or socio-economic background factors the SGP and PPR potential nosoareas within the Russian Federation and in the neighboring countries can be classified into 4 zones of potential emergence. Conclusion: the performed studies showed the possibility of sheep and goat pox and/or peste des petits ruminants emergence and spread in the Russian Federation during 2016-2020. According to the forecast, North Caucasus, Southern and Crimean Federal Districts are the most susceptible for the infections emergence. Of the neighboring countries bordering with the Russian Federation and/or having close economic ties Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, as well as Mongolia and China are the most susceptible.
   
Keywords: Keywords: sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants, epizootological monitoring, stationarity index, incidence coefficient, prognosis.
   
References:
1. Virusnye bolezni zhivotnyh [Animal viral diseases] / V.N.Syurin [et al]. – Moscow: VNITIBP, 1998. – 743 p. 
2. Rukovodstvo po obshhey epizootologii [A guideline on general epizootology] / edited by I.A.Bakulova and A.D.Tretyakova.– Moscow:Kolos,1979. – 429 p.
3. Infektsionnaya patologiya zhivotnyh T.1. [Infectious pathology of animals. Vol.1] / A.Ya.Samuylenko [et al]. - Moscow: Akademkniga, 2006. – 910 p.
4.Analiz mirovoy epizootichesko situatsii po chume melkih zhvachnyh zhivotnyh i otsenka riska yeyo vozniknoveniya i rasprostraneniya v stranah Zakavkazya, Sredney Tsentralnoy Azii v 2015-2018 gg. [Analysis of the global epizooty on peste des petits ruminants and risk assessment for its emergence and spread in the countries of Transcaucasus and Middle and Central Asia for the period from 2015 to 2018] / A.V.Knize [et al.] // Aktualniye voprosy kontrolya infektsionnyh bolezney zhivotnyh Ch.II – Current issues of animal contagious diseases control. Part II. / GNU VNIIVViM. - Pokrov, 2014. - P. 375-386.
5. Monitoring mirovoy epizooticheskoy situatsii po chume melkih zhvachnyh zhivotnyh i prognoz ee rasprostraneniya v 2015–2018 gg. [Monitoring of the global epizooty on peste des petits ruminants and its potential spread during 2015-2018.] / A.V.Knize // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarnoy biologii. - 2014. - Vol. 4. - P.15-20.
6. Parilov, S.V. Analiz i prognoz mirovoy epizooticheskoy situatsii po ospe ovets i koz i chume melkih zhvachnyh zhivotnyh v 2011 -2015 gg. [Analysis and forecast of the global epizooty on sheep and goat pox and peste des petits ruminants in 2011- 2015.]/ S.V.Parilov, A.V.Knize, V.M.Balyshev [electronic resource] // Nauchny zhurnal KubGAU. - 2011. - No 69(05). - URL: http://ej.kubagro.ru/2011/05/pdf/21.pdf.
7. Detailed country (ies) disease incidence Number of new outbreaks reported: [in electronic format]/ OIE.  URL: http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/statusdetail.
8. Disease timelines: [in electronic format]/ OIE. URL:http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/Diseasetimelines.
9. Info by Country/Territory. Animal population Sheep / goats: [in electronic format] / OIE. URL: http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Country information/Animalpopulation
10. Sheep pox and goat pox, Russia:[in electronic format]/ OIE. URL:http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=18931.
11. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya v RF [The epizootic situation in the Russian Federation] / Rosselhoznadzor: [in electronic format]. URL: http://www.fsvps.ru/f svps/iac/rf/.
12. Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii povedeniyu epizootologicheskogo monitoring ekzoticheskih osoboopasnyh i maloizvestnyh bolezney zhivotnyh [A guideline for epizootological monitoring of especially dangerous exotic animal diseases] / Bakulov I.A. [et al.]; GNU VNIIVViM. - Pokrov, 2007. – 79 p.
13. Epizootologicheskiy slovar-spravochnik [Epizootological comprehensive dictionary] / I.A.Bakulov [et al]. - Moscow: Rosselhozizdat, 1986. – 186 p.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

COMPARATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF REPARATIVE PROCESSES IN BONE AND PARAOSSEOUS TISSUES AT IMPLANTATION OF SPOKES COATED WITH TITANIUM NITRIDE AND HAFNIUM NITRIDE

   
Authors: Izosimova A.E. – postgraduate fellow
   
Address:
Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17, e-mail: izosimova86@inbox.ru).

   
Abstract:
Introduction: in modern trauma surgery uses implants to fix bone fragments at fractures. However, implants metal ions can cause various adverse reactions in surrounding tissue affecting the process of bone reparative regeneration and prolonging the healing. Currently to reduce the toxic effects to body caused by implants various coatings are used. The aim of the research was a comparative evaluation of the course of reparative processes in animal bone and surrounding tissues at intramedullary osteosynthesis with implants coated with titanium nitride and hafnium nitride. Materials and method: the experiment involved 40 rabbits divided into two groups: the test group (n=20) and the comparison group (n=20). All the animals were exposed to tibia open osteoclasis followed by retrograde introduction of uncoated steel spokes into the medullary canal of animals from experimental group and the spokes coated with titanium nitride and hafnium nitride to the test animals. The studies lasted for 180 days. Investigation results: at 10, 30, 60 and 180 days after surgery the morphological studies were conducted to compare the percentage of different areas of tissue structures in histological preparations from bone and paraosseous tissue. During the experiment a direct correlation between reparative regeneration process in both bone and soft tissues in wounded area was found. The percentage ratio of leukocyte and necrotic masses characterizing an inflammatory process was found in both groups. However at 10 days leukocyte and necrotic masses ratio was significantly different: it was 3.5±0.2% (p=0,001) in the experimental group and 6.0±0.4% in the comparison group. The level of epithelilization of the wound surface and the healing rate in the surrounding tissues differed between the groups. At 10 days the experimental group had a significantly larger volume of the epithelium covering the scar than the control group (9.3±0.5% versus 5.0±0.3%, (p<0.001). This tendency remained up to the end of the experiment. The main difference between groups was in a larger period of scar tissue preservation with no signs of restructuring in the comparison group. So, at 30 days the scar tissue area was 29.2±0.8% in the control group and 20.6±0.4% in the experimental group (p<0.001); at 60 days – 20.4±0.1% and 10.8±0.6%, (p<0.001)), accordingly. As for bone tissue, in most cases fractures healed with the beginning of the formation of lamellar bone structures at 30 days of the experiment, the area was 2.4±0.2% in the comparison group which is significantly less than in the control group, 5.2±0.3% and 2.4±0.2 (p<0.001) accordingly. In the control group had an uneven closure of bone defect with of a larger volume of cartilage than in the test group: at 10 days it was 12.4±1.9% and 5.0±0.3%; at 30 days – 10.7±0.8% and 4.0±0.4% (p<0.001) accordingly. A larger volume of cartilage tissue was preserved in the comparison group at 60 days (2.4±0.3%). Discussion: the experiment showed a direct correlation between the bone and soft tissues in the process of reparative regeneration within the wounded area. The implants coated with titanium nitride and hafnium nitride were found to reduce inflammation, accelerate osteoregeneration with the beginning of the formation of lamellar bone at 30 days after surgery, promote earlier epithelialization in the wounded area. Also, using the implants coated with titanium nitride and hafnium nitride decreases the number of cases of forming a mature bone through a cartilage tissue, which reduces the possibility of complications like incomplete closure of a bone defect.
   
Keywords: Keywords: morphology, bone, implants, coatings, titanium nitride and hafnium, rabbits.
   
References:
1. Avtandilov, G.G. Meditsinskaya morfometriya. [Medical morphometry ] / Avtandilov G.G. – Moscow: Medicine, 1990. – 384 p.
2. Korzhevskiy, D.E. Kratkoe izlozhenie osnov gistologicheskoy tehniki dlya vrachey i laborantov-gistologov [A brief summary of the basic histological techniques for physicians and histology assistants] / Korzhevsky D.E. - St. Petersburg: Krof, 2005. – 48 p.
3. Muller ME, Allhover M, Schneider R, Willinegger H. The manual for internal osteosynthesis: the technique recommended by AO group (Switzerland): translated into Russian by Korolev A.V.. 3d edition, added and revised. - Moscow: - 1996. - 750 p.
4. Paht, A.V. Osobennosti obrabotki kostnoy tkani [Peculiarities of processing bone tissue]. –Biblioteka patologoanatoma. (Scientific and practical journal)] / Paht A.V., Manizer G.M. - St. Petersburg, 2008. – P. 6-11.
5. Stefanov, S.B. Morfometricheskaya setka sluchaynogo shaga kak sredstvo uskorennogo izmereniya elementov morfogeneza [The morphometric mesh of random step as a way of measuring elements of accelerated morphogenesis] / Stefanov S.B. - Tsitologiya. – 1974.-Vol. 6. – P. 785-787.
6. Sarkisov, D.S. Mikroskopicheskaya tehnika. [The microscopic technique] / Sarkisov D.S., Perov Y.L. – Moscow: Medicine, 1996. – 544 p.
7. Romies, B. Mikroskopishe technik. Translated into Russian by Alexandrov V.Ya, Krukova Z.I. - Moscow: Inostrannaya literatura, 1954.- 718 p.
8. Yao Chen, Tapas Laha, Kantesh Balani and Arvind Agarwal Nanomechanical properties of hafnium nitride coating // Scripta Materialia/ Yao Chen, Tapas Laha, Kantesh Balani and Arvind Agarwal. – 2008. - Vol. 58. - P. 1121-1124.
  Parasitology
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF MEAT QUALITY, BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FISH IN NIZHNY NOVGOROD

   
Authors: Gorbunov P.A. – postgraduate fellow
   
Address:
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (e-mail: kafedra30@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
Introduction: fish are known to be intermediate and additional hosts of many kinds of parasites, so, they are carriers and the main source of causative agents for human. The aim of the research was to study epizooty of fish diseases in Nizhny Novgorod region and determine the background of their emergence. Materials and methods: fish from natural waters of the region, fishery farms, imported fish products and materials of expert studies of diseases epizooty in regional fishery farms were used as the objects of the research. During the studies complex epizootological approach including modern methods of epizootological diagnostics, evaluation of results of laboratory tests (including parasitological screening) were used. Investigation results: the research showed within the studied region optimal natural, geographical, ecological, economic, industrial, aggregative conditions were formed for further development of fishery farms and fishing. As for such factors as a rugged ground, a number of watersheds, open and close waters, hydro-technical constructions create favorable conditions for improving the fishery branch. Meanwhile, the region still has a potential risk of epizootic manifestation of the functioning parasitic systems involving both terrestrial and water fauna, for example, opistorchosis, difilobotriosis, etc. Peculiarities of nosological profile of contagious pathology in water fauna are the shortening in range of nosoforms, the expressed tendency to expansion of territorial and population frontiers of epizootic manifestation, ability to host more than one parasitic species. Of fish contagious diseases aeromonosis, philometroidosis, bothriocephalosis, and postodiplostomosis were prevailing in Nizhny Novgorod fishery farms. The diseases affects the branch economy putting boundaries to the economic activity of fish farming. For example, in 2012 three fish farms (LLC «Fish farm Veletma», Kulebaksky region; LLC «Borok», Kstovsky region; and LLC «Fish farm Polderevky», Vyksa) were infected with fish diseases. Restrictive measures including the measures of complex control on the all elements of epizootic chain were timely introduced. One of the main measures for preservation infection-free status in fish farms is epizootological monitoring and screening of aquatic environment and fauna. It was also identified as an important measure for quality control of fishery products and protection of public health because on the regional food market the imported sea fish (from 18 to 89 percent) were infected by anisakidae (haddock, codfish and smelt, atlantic herring, alaska pollok, poutassou, capelin, mackerel and other). Conclusion: basing on the analysis of objective data of epizooty, implementation of parasitological monitoring, sanitation and microbiological control the carried out studies proved the efficacy and necessity of expert complex evaluation of biological safety and veterinary and sanitary health of fish and fishery products. 
   
Keywords: Keywords: fish and fishery products, epizootological monitoring, biological safety, ecological safety, fish parasitic diseases.
   
References:
1. Gorchakova, N.G. Funktsionirovaniye otkrytykh parazitarnykh system na primere opistorkhoza [Functioning of open parasitic systems on the example of opisthorchiasis]/ N.G.Gorchakova, V.P.Bykov, V.V.Sochnev. – N. Novgorod, 2003. – 174 p. 
2. Metody sanitarno-parazitologicheckoy ekspertizy ryby, mollyuskov, rakoobraznykh, zemnovodnykh, presmykayuschikhsya i produktov ikh pererabotki: Metodicheskiye ukazaniya (MUK 3.2.988-00) [Methods of sanitation and parasitological examination of fish, mollusks, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles and products of their processing: methodical recommendations]. - Moscow: Minzdrav Rossii – the Russian Federation Ministry of Health, 2001. - 69 p. 
3. Nozologicheskiy profil zaraznoy patologii obitateley vodnoy sredy basseynov Sredney, Nizney Volgi i Dona [Nosological profile of infectious pathology of aquatic fauna in basins of Middle and Lower Volga and Don] / S.A.Smolkina, A.V.Dybinin, G.A.Alikova // Voprosy normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii - The issues of regulation in veterinary medicine. – 2014. – Vol.2. - P. 30-32.
4. Opredelenye znachimosti otdelnykh nozoform v formirovanii nozologicheskogo profilya zaraznoy patologii razlichnykh vidov zhivotnykh, ptits i ryb v usloviyakh Nizhegorodskoy oblasti [The significance of some nosological forms in the formation of nosological profile of infectious pathology in various species of animals, birds, and fish in Nizhny Novgorod region] / Yu.V.Pashkina, P.A.Gorbunov // Veterinarnyy vrach. – 2013. –Vol. 6. – P. 20-22.
5. Otsenka epizootologicheskoy situatsii po fotmirovaniyu infektsionnoy i invazionnoy patologii ryb v zone regionalnogo prodovolstvennogo rynka [Epizootical evaluation of fish infectious and parasitic diseases in the regional food market] / Yu.V.Pashkina, A.V.Pashkin, P.A.Gorbunov// Veterinarny vrach. – 2014. – Vol. 1. – P. 55-58.
6. Pashkin, A.V. Domashniye zhivotnyye i vozbuditeli zaraznykh bolezney – soaktanty infektsionnykh i invazionnykh parazitarnykh sistem [Pets and pathogens of infectious diseases – infectious and parasitic co-actors in parasite systems] / A.V.Pashkin, O.M.Paraeva, E.V.Sergeeva // Veterinarnaya meditsina domashnikh zhivotnykh: a collection of articles. Issue 4. – Kazan: Pechatnyy dvor, 2007. – P. 133-136. 
7. Metodologiya nauchnykh issledovaniy v epiziitologii [An investigation methodology used in epizootology] / Yu.V.Pashkina [et al.]. – Nizhniy Novgorod: NGSHA, 2006. - 148 p.
8. Epizootologicheskiy analiz i ekspertnaya otsenka formirovaniya nozologicheskogo profilya infektsionnoy i invazionnoy patologii ryb v razlichnykh regionakh Rossii [Epizootological analysis and expert assessment of nosological profile of fish infectious and parasitic diseases in different regions of Russia] / D.A.Pomerantsev [et al.] // Veterinarnyy vrach. – 2010. – Vol. 4. – P. 29-32.

   
   
Title:

IMPROVING THE COPROLOGICAL METHOD TO DETECT CALVE CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS

   
Authors: Kirillov E.G. – postgraduate fellow; Latipov D.G. -Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
   
Address:
Bauman N.E.Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17), e- mail:nis_kgavm@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
Cryptosporidiosis is an acute or sub acute parasitic disease caused by protozoa from Cryptosporidium genus and characterized by gastrointestinal lesions and diarrhea. This parasitic disease is spread worldwide including our country and cause economic damage to farming economy. The aim of our research was to find the most effective method to detect calve cryptosporidiosis. Methods and materials: in the experiment 50 calves at the age from 4 to 30 days with symptoms of diarrhea were used. Feces samples from infected animals were preserved in 2.5% solution of potassium dichromate. The investigation results: For calve cryptosporidiosis detection the method of native smear was found to have a lower efficiency. The method of sedimentation by centrifuging enhanced efficiency of detecting of cryptosporidia oocysts by 65%, and Krasilnikov’s method of sedimentation – by 69% accordingly. However, the sample preparation staining resulted in contamination with feces residues. Using the methods based on ether –based sedimentation was effective in oocyst concentration. It resulted in pure smears as the suspension separated oocysts from fecal mass and ether raised organic debris and lipid-containing substances. Conclusion: The proposed modified method enabled detection of more than 96% of infected animals that is higher for 11% than the conventional formalin-ether-based method. The modified method enables to produce pure smear at staining and whole oocyst unlike formalin-ether –based method resulting in destructed oocyst and contaminated smears. Moreover, the proposed method is less toxic then its counterpart.
   
Keywords: diagnosis, cryptosporidiosis, sedimentation, calves.
   
References:
1.Abdulmagomedov, S.Sh. Metod lecheniya ostryh zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney telyat [Treatment of acute gastrointestinal diseases in calves] /S.SH.Abdulmagomedov, R.A.Nuratinov, R.M.Bakrieva, A.Yu.Aliev // Ucheniye zapiski Kazanskoy Gosudarstvennoy Akademii Veterinarnoy Mediciny im. N.E.Baumana. – 2014. – Vol. 217. – P. 3-7.
2. Petrovich, E.V. Kriptosporidioz telyat i sovershensvovanie mer borby s nim v usloviyah Tsentralnoy Nechernozemnoy zon [Calves cryptosporidiosis and improvement of control measures in Central non-Chernozemarea]: abstract from thesis for Candidate of Vet. Sci.: 03.02.11 / Petrova Elena Vyachechlavovna. – Moscow, 2013. – 19 p.
3. Akbaev, M. Sh. Diagnostika kriptosporidioza telyat: Metodicheskie rekomendasii [Detection of calves cryptosporidiosis: guidelines] / M.SH.Akbaev, N.V.Esaulova, S.A.Shemyakova, D.N.Shemyakov– Moscow: K.I. Skryabin MGAVMiB, 2004. – 14p.
4. Vasileva, V.A. Osobennosti rasprostaneniya kriptosporidioza u zhivotnyh v usloviyah respubliki Mordoviya [Features of spreading animal cryptosporidiosis in the Republic of Mordovia] / V.A.Vasileva, P.A.Kulyasov// Mezhdunarodniy zhurnal prikladnyh i fundamentalnyh issledovaniy – International journal of applied and fundamental researches – 2014. –vol.2 – P.155-156.
5. Kasatkina, N.M. Analiz effektifnosti izvestnyh metodov diagnostiki po kriteriyu viyavlenia kishechnyh parazitov [Analysis of efficiency of the available detection methods according to the criterion to detect intestinal parasites] / N.M.Kasatkina, N.A. Ilina// Uspehi sovremennogo yesyestvoznaniya. – 2007. – Vol. 12. – P.145.
6. Vohra, P. A comprehensive review of diagnostic techniques for detection of cryptosporidium parvum in stool samples / P.Vohra, M.Sharma, U.Chaudhary IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. – 2012. – Vol. 2. – P.15-26.
7. Kara, S., Quantitative comparison of different purification and detection methods for Cryptosporidium parvumoocysts / S.Kara, S.Gawlowskab, A.Daugschiesb, B.Bangourab // Veterinary Parasitology. – 2011. – Vol. 177. – P.366 – 370.
8. Aliev, A.A. Kriptosporidioz (diagnostika, kultivirovaniye Cryptosporidium parvum v kletkahtkaney, ekspress-otsenka preparatov) [Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium parvumdetection, cultivation in tissue cells, rapid evaluation of drugs)]: abstract from thesis for Candidate of Vet. Sci: 03.00.19 / Aliev Ali Abakorovich. – Saint Petersburg, 1993. – 19 p.
9. Laboratornaya diagnostika gelmintozov i protozoozov: Metodicheskie rekomendatsii [Laboratory diagnosis of helminthosis and protozoan diseassis: methodology]. - Moscow: Federalny tsentr gigieny i epidemiologii Rospotrebnadzora. – 2014. - 43-53 p.
  Zootechny
   
Title:

EFFECT OF NEW DISINFECTANT ON LABORATORY ANIMAL BODY AT INHALATIVE USE

   
Authors: 1Miroshnikova A.I. – postgraduate fellow; 1Michaylenko V.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Kireev I.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Orobets V.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Serov A.V. - Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor; 2Blinov A.V. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
1Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol (tel.+7(8652) 28-67-42, e-mail: ai-miroshnikova@mail.ru, kireev@stgau.ru).

2North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol.
   
Abstract:
Introduction: disinfection of animal and poultry facilities is a part of technological process in animal production and effects on animal welfare and product quality. The article provides the results of investigation of new disinfectant efficiency by studying macro- and micromorphological parameters of laboratory animals. Methods and materials: white mature rats of both sexes were used as an investigation objects. The animals were divided into two groups: the experimentals and controls. After the animals were exposed to dense vapors of the disinfectant the histological samples were taken and prepared at 60min, 24h and 10 days after the exposure. The organ fragments were fixed in paraffin blocks according to the conventional methods.  Further, the histological cuts were stained and microscopic pictures were taken. The investigation results: the experimental results showed that the trialed disinfectant has no effect on inner organs and no negative effect on micromorphological parameters of parenchyma organs and stomach. Besides insignificant afflux of fluid in surrounding arteries the histological cuts of heart showed no structural difference in the groups and the referent parameters. Microscopic studies of kidneys showed no inflammatory or degenerative process. Liver histological studies evidenced the absence of pathological changes in structure both in the experimental and control groups. In the cuts stomach mucous epithelium had an expressed structure and free of lesions. At 10 days of studies the pulmonary microscopic studies showed better results in the experimental group while the controls showed the sings of focal pneumonia. Conclusion: at inhalation introduction to animals the trialed disinfectant does not have a negative effect on morphological structure of inner organs and provided that the further investigations show positive results it can be recommended for disinfection of facilities at the presence of animals and poultry and prevention of respiratory diseases by aerosol method.
   
Keywords: disinfection, disinfectants, nanosilver, morphology, histological cuts, threat of inhalation, laboratory animals.
   
References:
1. Mashneva, L.V. Dezinfitsiruyuschie sredstva – chto vybrat? [Disinfectants – what to choose?] / L.V.Mashneva // Myasnye tehnologii – Meat technology. – 2011. – Vol. 9. – P. 66-68.
2. Miroshnikova, A.I. Ingalyatsionnaya toksichnost novogo dezinfitsiruyuschego sredstva [Inhalation toxicity of a new disinfectant] / A.I.Miroshnikova, A.V.Blinov, A.A.Blinova // Vestnik APK Stavropolya – Agricultural Bulletin of Stavropol Region. – 2015. – Vol. (Special issue) 1. – P. 149-152.
3. Nosova, A.V. Noviye dezinfitsiruyuschie sredstva [New disinfectants] / A.V.Nosova // Veterinariya – Veterinary. – 2009. – Vol. 9. – P. 43-45.
4. Smirnov, A.M. Rol veterinarno-sanitarnoy nauki v obespechenii blagopoluchiya zhivotnovodstva [The role of veterinary science in providing livestock welfare] / A.M.Smirnov // Rossiyskiy zhurnal “Problemy veterinarnoy sanitarii, gigieny i ekologii” – Russian Journal “Problems on Veterinary Sanitation, Hygiene and Ecology”. – 2009. – Vol. 1. – P. 7-19.
5. Effektivnostayrozolnoysanatsiivozduha v pomescheniyahdlyaovets [Effectiveness of aerosol sanation of air medium in sheep houses] / Truhachev V.I. [et al.] // Rossiyskiyzhurnal “Problemyveterinarnoy sanitaria, gigienyiekologii” – Russian Journal “Problems on Veterinary Sanitation, Hygiene and Ecology”. – 2015. – Vol. 3. – P. 39-45.
6. Hudyakov, A.A. Effektivnaya dezinfektsiya i podbor dezinfektanta [Effective disinfection and selection of appropriate disinfectant] / A.A.Hudyakov // Veterinariya – Veterinary. – 2010. – Vol. 2. – P. 18-22.
7. Staphylococcus epidermidis device-related infections: pathogenesis and clinical management / F.Furno [et al.] // J. Antimicrob. Chemother. – 2004. – Vol. 54. – P. 1019–1020.
8. Holt, K.B. Synthesis and Ag(I) Complexation Studies of Tethered Westiellamide / K.B.Holt, A.J.Bard // Bio chem. – 2005. – Vol. 44. – P. 13214–13216.
9. Lansdown, A. Silver in Health Care: Antimicrobial Effects and Safety in Use / A.Lansdown, U.C.Hipler, P.Elsner // Biofunctional textiles and the skin. – 2006. – Vol. 33. – P. 17–34.
   
   
Title:

A CORRELATION BETWEEN BOAR PRODUCTION RATE AND MEAT QUALITY REGARDING LOCAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND HYGIENIC BACKGROUND

   
Authors: ¹Shukanov R.A. – applicant; ²Eremeev V.N. – applicant; ³Shukanov A.A. – professor.
   
Address:
¹Skryabin K.I. Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow (tel. +7(8352) 39-74-93, e-mail: shukanovr@rambler.ru).

²JSC «Agrofirma «Srednyaya Volga».

³Affiliate of Saint Petersburg State University of Economics in Cheboksary (tel. +7(8352) 39-74-59, e-mail: its@cbx.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the work was to study a correlation between growth rate and meat quality in boarswith biogeochemical and zoohygienic peculiarities of Chuvashia. Materials and methods. Two series of researches using 60 weaned boars-analogs with 15 animals in each group were performed. In two groups the boars at the age from 60 days to 300-days old (duration of experiments) were fed the basic diet (BD) with the main parameters balanced according to the norms for diets and feeding recommended by the Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences. During the research the animals from the experiment groups were fed both BD kizelgur natural zeolite at the rate of 1.25 g/kg of body weight (b.w.) and «Suvar» biogenous substance in a dose of 25-50 mg/kg of b.w. for 20 days with 10-day intervals until the animals were 240-days old (I series) or intramuscularly were injected «Polistem» biological product twice at the age of 60-and 240-daysold at the rate of 0.1 and 0.03 mg/kg of b.w. accordingly (II series). In fattening housewith the experimental animals main microclimatic parameters were monthly evaluated according to standard animal hygienic methods. 5 boars from each group and the age of 60-, 120-, 180-, 240-, 300—days old were tested for clinical and physiological parameters and growth rate, and the decapitated animals at the age of 300-days old were tested for meat quality according to conventional veterinary methods. Results of researches. In both investigation series the experimental pigs were kept in the environment meeting animal hygienic norms. Parameters of clinical and physiological status, hair, skin, finish, build, rhinoscope mucosa, eye conjunctiva, and surface lymph nodes evidenced normal habit in animals. At 120-, 180-, 240-, 300-day (the I series) and at 240-, 300-day (the II series) of the experiments  the body weight in boars from the second group fed with enriched diet containing either «Suvar» or «Polistem» was higher for 13.1–22.0% (Ð<0,05-0,001) than that of the controls. Meat samples taken from both experimental and control groups had almost identical organoleptic, physical and chemical parameters that indicates a high quality of meats. Conclusion. Regarding biogeochemical specificity of Volga area in Chuvashia, boars maintenance in fattening house with favorable microclimate parameters and feeding the diet enriches with kizelgurand “Suvar” resulted in more expressed growth-promoting effect on organism than using kizelgur and “Polistem” biological drug. In the studies meat from experimental boars was characterized by identical organoleptic, biochemical and spectrometric parameters that testifies the resistance of carcass meat to the studied biogenous compounds and their ecological harmlessness for an organism.
   
Keywords: biogeochemical conditions, microclimate, pigs, feed additives, kizelgur, «Suvar», biological product «Polistem», body growth rate, meat quality.
   
References:
1. Altuhov, A.I. Obespecheniye prodovolstvennoy bezopasnosti Rossii: osnovniye zadachi i puti resheniya [providing food safety in Russia; major tasks and ways of solution] / A.I.Altuhov // Mir agrobiznesa. – 2010. – Vol. 1. – P. 11–13.
2. Draganov, I.F. Kormleniezhivotnyh [Animal feeding] / I.F.Draganov, N.G.Makartsev, V.V.Kalashnikov. – Ìoscow: RAGU-MSHA named after Ê.À.Timiryazev, 2010. – 341 p.
3. Kontseptsiya proizvodstva i potrebleniya osnovnyh vidov selskohozyaystvennoy produktsii, syrya i prodovolstviya v Rossii na period do 2015 g. [The concept of the production and consumption of basic agricultural products, raw materials and food in Russia for the period up to 2015]. – Moscow: GNU VNIIESH, 2009. – 146 p.
4. Kontseptsiya ustoychivogo razvitiya selskih territoriy Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2020 g. (utv. rasporyazheniem Pravitelstva RF ot 30.11.2010 g. ¹ 2136-r) [The concept of sustainable development of rural territories of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 (approved by the. Order of the RF Government of 30.11.2010 ¹ 2136-p) // A collection of legislative acts the Russian Federation. – 2010. -¹ 50. - Article No. 6748.
5. Praktikum po zoogigiene [Animal hygiene manual] / A.F.Kunetsov [et al.]. – Moscow: Kolos, 1999. – 208 p.
6. Medvedev, D.A. My i dalshe budempodderzhivat agrariev [We are going to keep supporting farmers] // Ekonomika selskogo hozyaystva Rossii. - 2011. – Vol. 8. – P. 4-7.
7. Mullakaev, A.O. Osobennosti ultrastruktury selezenki u borovkov v modeliruemyh usloviyah eksperimentov [Boar spleen structure in experiments] // nauka i innovatsii – 2014 - scince and innovations in 2014; proceedings from IX Int. sci. school: a collection of articles. – Yoshkar-Ola: Povolzhsky GTU, 2014. – P. 242-246.
8. Pechonik, O. I. Sravnitelniy analiz stanovleniya tehnologicheskih ukladov v APK Rossii i razvityh stranah mira/O.I.Pechonik // Agrarnaya Rossiya. – 2013. – Vol.2. - P. 18-24.
9. Pravila veterinarnogo osmotra ubonyh zhivotnyh i veterinarno-sanitarnoy ekspertizy myasa i myasnyh produktov [Rules of veterinary inspection of slaughter animals and veterinary-sanitation examination of meat and meat products]: approved by Chief veterinary administration the USSR Ministry of agriculture on 27.12.1983. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1988. - 64 p.
10. Ushachev, I. G. Prodovolstvennaya bezopasnost – osnova stabilnogo razvitiya rossiyskoy ekonomiki [Food safety is a basics of further development of Russian economy] / A.G.Ushachev// APK: ekonomika, upravlenie. - 2008. – Vol. 8. – P. 2-9.
11. Hislavsky A.G. Programmny kompleks dlya kolichestvennogo analiza pishhevyh produktov na rentgenovskom spektrometre «Spektroskan-346» [Software package for quantitative analysis of food products on the X-ray spectrometer "Spectroscan-346."] / A.G.Hislavsky. – St.Petersburg: GIORD, 1998. - 10 p.
12. Ernst L.K. Sovremennoe sostoyaniye i perspektivy biotehnologii selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Current state and prospects of using biotechnology in livestock breeding] / L.K.Ernst// Zootehniya. – 2008. – Vol.1. – P. 11-12.
   
   
Title:

USING BENTONITES IN WEANED PIGLETS FEEDING

   
Authors: Pskhatsiyeva Z.V. – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
   
Address:
Gorsky State Agricultural University, Vladikavkaz (tel. +7 (8672) 53-23-04, e-mail: ggau@globalalania.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the research was to study the effect bentonite clay – a fodder additive – on weaned piglets. Our studies piglets were supposed have a free access to bentonite clay. Methods and materials: trays with bentonite clay were placed near the feeding trays with the main ration. Leftovers of the bentonite clay were evaluated every day and a new portion of clay was placed next day. Because clay is an efficient sorbent of toxic substances entering a body with food we studied its useful parameters for farming such as live weight, safety, pure and relative gains, meat weight were studied. Results: using bentonite clay in weaned piglets diet resulted in higher live weight in the second group within two-three months by 4.0%, and at the age of four months it increased by 5.3% comparing to the first group. Also the experimental piglets had higher pure gain for 7.7% and average daily gain – for 7.8% than the controls. The meat weight in the second group was for 1.8 kg more, than in the first group. Conclusion: during the investigations an optimal ratio of bentonite clay was found out – 3.0% per fodder mass. Also bentonite clay feed additive was proved to have a favorable effect on weaned piglets performance parameters.
   
Keywords: bentonite clay, weaned piglets, live weight, average daily and pure gains, meat weight
   
References:
1. Kalnitsky, B.D. Metody issledovaniya pitaniya s.-h. zhivotnyh [Research methods to investigate livestock feeding] / B.D.Kalnitsky - Borosk: RASHN, 1998. - 405p. 
2. Guziyev, I.S. Tseolitizirovanniye tufy basseyna reki Geyzernoy (Kamchatka) [Zeolite tuffs from the bassin of Geizernaya river] / I.S.Guziyev, A.S.Mikhaylov, S.E.Maslov // reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences – 1975. – Vol. 222. – P. 1194-1197.
3. Grigorieva, T.E. Primeneniye tseolitosoderzhaschego trepela v zhivotnovodstve [Using zeolite-containing bergmeal in livestock farming] / T.E.Grigorieva, G.I.Ivanov // Zootekhniya. – 1997. – Vol. 7 – P. 14-15.
4. Gabindo, J. The aldolietion of zeolites tosilagedects / J.Gabindo, A.Elcas, J.Gardero, J.Cuban // Agrc. Sci – 1982. – vol. 16. – No. 3. – P. 271–284.
5. Masliyeva, O.I. Analiz kachestva korma i produktov ptitsevodstva [The analysis of fodder evaluation and poultry products quality] / O.I.Masliyeva // Moscow: Kolos. – 1970. – P.9-27.
6. Dzagurov, B.A. Prakticheskoye i biologicheskoye obosnovaniye ispolzovaniya tseolitopodobnyh glin mestorozhdeniy [Practical and biological justification of using the zeolite-like clays from fields of the Central Ciscaucasia in swine and poultry breeding] / B.A.Dzagurov.//Abstract from postdoctoral dissertation for Doctor of Biology. – Vladikavkaz. –2001. – 59p.
7. Perspektivy primeneniya prirodnyh alyumosilikatnyh mineralov v veterinarii [The opportunities of using natural aluminosilicate minerals in Animal Hralth] / V.A.Antipov [et al.] // Veterinariya. – 2007. – Vol. 8. – P.54-57.

  Economics
   
Title:

FRANCHISE NETWORK OF COMMERCIAL VETERINARY CLINIC

   
Authors: 1Semchenko R.A. - applicant; 1Yershov P.P. - applicant; 2Vasilevsky N.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 3Domolazov S.M. – Candidate of Veterinary Science.
   
Address:
1LLC “K.I.Skryabin Academy Innovative Veterinary Center”, Moscow (e-mail: 6643641@gmail.com).

2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

3 Bauman N.E. Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.+7(843) 273-96-17).

   
Abstract:
This article discusses the problem of developing a veterinary clinics network by franchising as an integrative form of veterinary business, as well as an analysis of its application in veterinary medicine focusing on its advantages, disadvantages, and opportunities. “Svoy doctor”, a network of veterinary clinics, has 9 modern, full-service, 24-hour veterinary clinics (equity affiliates) located in Moscow and Moscow region and 2 clinics that successfully work on the franchise. The network is the owner of the Russian Federation three trademarks (service marks), duly registered and certified the State Register. A partnership with a network of veterinary clinics provides an access to a franchisor’s unique system for opening a clinic and its successful functioning according to the network standards; selection of facilities for a potential veterinary clinic; calculation of market capacity of veterinary service and evaluation of attendance by patients depending on its location; counseling and active participation of experts in recruitment; carrying out marketing and promotional events; management support and promotion of a veterinary clinic once it is opened; development of a unique style of external and internal appearance of veterinary clinics and successful functioning of the veterinary clinic according to the network standards. Using franchising to develop commercial veterinary clinics supposes transfer and commercialization of intellectual property, calculation of market capacity for veterinary services, counseling and active participation of experts in recruitment; carrying out marketing and promotional events; management support and promotion of a veterinary clinic once it is opened; development of a unique style of external and internal appearance of veterinary clinics and successful functioning of the veterinary clinic according to the network standards, improving the quality of veterinary service.

   
Keywords: veterinary entrepreneurship, commercial concession, a small business, a network of veterinary clinics, franchising.
   
References:
1. Bodina, K.V. Problemy razvitiya franchaizinga kak formy predprinimatelskoy deyatelnosti v Rossii [Problems of developing franchising as a form of entrepreneurial activity in Russia] / V.K.Bodina // International student scientific Bulletin. – 2014. – Vol. 1. - available on: URL: www.eduherald.ru/118-11791. - (reference date: 10.01.2015).
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