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¹ 6, 2015

  Toxicology
   
Title:

CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOTRANSFORMATION MOLECULAR PROCESS IN HEPATOPANCREAS AND GILLS OF RIVER DREYSSENA (DREYSSENA POLYMORPHA) MATURE ADULT SPECIES AT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

   
Authors: 1,2SukharenkoH.V. - ; 3Nedzvetsky V.S. – Doctor of Biology;1Maksimov V.I. - Doctor of Biology
   
Address:
1Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology – MVA named after Skryabin K.I., Moscow (e-mail: rector@mgavm.ru).
2Kerch State Maritime Technological University (Kerch).
3Oles Gonchar Dnepropetrovsk National University (Dnepropetrovsk).

   
Abstract:
Introduction: During the recent decades in physiological justification of xenobiotic toxicology the terrestrial animals were used as a main object in physiological justification of xenobiotic toxicology while aquatic organisms remained neglected while the mollusks which due to their attached lifestyle, filtration-based feeding type, widespread, massive scale, availability of sampling are a comfortable object for biological survey. The aim of the research was to determine formation mechanisms of response to petroleum products in hepatopancreas and gills of zebra mussel mature species and to evaluate validity of oxidative stress parameters at biological threat of industrial contaminants of aquatic environment. Methods and materials: the experiments involved adult mature Dreyssena polymorpha river bivalve mollusk living in water reservoirs challenged with xenobiotics. During 28 days the water with the experimental mollusks was contaminated with oil residuals in constant concentration of 50 mg\l. In aquariums 1\4 of water was changed twice a week. The biological material was produced by homogenization of hepatopancreas and gills. The investigation results: a reliable (P<0.05) increase of ultimate products from lipid peroxidation and enzymatic activity of antioxidant defense (catalase, enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase) in a response to intoxication were determined. Differences oxidative stress parameters in hepatopancreas and gills of river bivalve experimental and control mollusks. A comparative analysis of antioxidant system enzymatic activity in experimental and control mollusks showed that an increase in activity of enzymes providing lower level of oxygen response compounds: catalase, enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase in tissues of bivalve mollusks living in the environment contaminated with oil residuals are accompanied by reduced activity of glutathione S-transferase – an enzyme catalyzing utilization of inflow exogenous aromatic compounds. Conclusion: The obtained results evidence the oxidation-reduction imbalance adequately reflects the processes of biotransformation in adult mature bivalve mollusks and a higher sensitivity of hepatopacreas cells to the effect of organic xenobiotics than that of the gills. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and a level of ultimate products from lipid peroxidation - one of the oxidative stress parameters – in tissues of adult mature species of river zebra mussle indicate that the peroxide processes peculiar to oxidative stress are sharply induced in the environment polluted with organic contaminants. These parameters show a high efficacy for bioindication and biomonitoring of mollusks performance at water bioresources pollution with organic pollutants. 

   
Keywords: Keywords:oil residuals, petroleum refining products, pollutants, oxidative stress, bivalve mollusks.
   
References:
1. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis / V.M.Victor[et al.]// Cur. Pharm. Des. – 2009. – V.26, ¹ 15. –Ð. 2988–3002.
2. Guzik, T.J. Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation / T.J.Guzik, R.Korbut, T.Adamek-Guzik // Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. – 2003. – V.54(4). –Ð. 469–487.
3. Galar-Martinez, M. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinuscarpio / M.Galar-Martinez, S.Garcia-Medina,
L.M.Gomez-Olivan // Environ. Toxicol. – 2015. –V. 2. – Ð. 23–28.
4. Gordzyalkovsky, À.V. Vodniyemolluski – perspektivniyeobyektydlyabiologicheskogo monitoring [Using aquatic mollusks as prospective objects for biological monitoring] / À.V.4. Gordzyalkovsky, Î.N.Makurinaíà // Herald of Samara state university. – 2006. – ¹ 7 (47). –P. 37–44.
5. Ohkawa, H. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction / H.Ohkawa, N.Ohishi, K.Yagi // Anal. Biochem.– 1979.– V. 95, ¹ 2. – Ð. 351–358.
6. Korolyuk, Ì.À. Metodopredelenniyaaktivnostikatalazy [A method to determine catalase activity] / Ì.À.Korolyuk, L.I. Ivanova, V.Å.Tokarev // Laboratornoyedelo. – 1988. – ¹ 1. –P. 16–19.
7. Chevari, S. Rol superoksiddismutazy v okislitelnyh protsessah kletki i metod opredeleniya yeyo v biologicheskih materialah [Role of superoxide dismutase in cellular oxidative processes and method of its determination in biological material] / S. Chevari, I. Chaba, I. Sekey // Laboratornoye delo.–1985.– Vol. 11. –P. 678–681.
8. Variations of antioxidant efficiency and presence of endosymbiotic diatoms in the Antarctic poriferaHaliclonadancoi / F.Regoli [et al.] // Mar. EnvironRes. – 2004. – V. 58, ¹2–5. – Ð. 637–640.
9. Antioxidant efficiency and detoxification enzymes in spotted dogfish Scyliorhinuscanicula / S.Gorbi[et al.] // Mar. EnvironRes. – 2004.– V. 58, ¹2–5. – Ð. 293–297. 
10. Gunzler, W.A. Glutathione Peroxidase / W.A.Gunzler, L.Flohe, E.R.Greenwald // CRC handbook of methods for oxygen radical research. – Boston: CRC Press, 1985. –Ð. 290–305.
11. Lakin, G.F. Biometriya [Biometry] /G.F. Lakin. – Moscow: Vysshayaskola, 1990. – 352 p.
   
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF COPPER TOXICITY USING AQUATIC ORGANISMS

   
Authors: Makaeva A.R. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
Federal centre of toxicological, radiation and biological safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
Introduction: at constant pollution of a water body it is necessary to evaluate not only the level of toxic substances in water but also to evaluate its level in aquatic organisms. Therefore, we studied copper toxic level in water using Lymnaea stagnalis pond snail and Bebistes reticulatus guppy. These fish are useful for water toxicology because of their small size and easy maintenance. Methods and materials: for acute experiments Lymnaea stagnalis pond snails of the same size and 1-2-days-old guppies for were used. The fish survival rate and behavior was evaluated. The experiments lasted for 96 hours. Copper sulfate diluted in settled tap water was used as a source of copper ions. Results: a higher concentration of copper in water was found to have a depressing effect on aquatic organisms. The pond snails trying to avoid a toxic environment stayed at the water surface and their heads increases in size because of edema. Fish swam at the water surface staying motionless for some time and weakly responding to stimuli. Copper LC50 was 0.278 and 0.549 mg/dm3 for snails and fish accordingly. Chronic experiment was carried out on pond snails at copper concentration of 0.1 mg/dm3. Copper caused increased secretion of mucus snails, reduced food and oxygen consumption. Chronic experiments on guppies were performed at copper concentration of 0.28 mg/dm3. Weight of fish in copper group was lower than that of the controls. Conclusion: Copper reduced a backup resources of fish body. 
   
Keywords: Keywords: water, copper, toxicity, pond snail, fishes.
   
References:
1. Golubeva, Ye. M. Ekosistemniy podhod k otsenke zagryazneniya reki Amur toksichnymi elementami [Ecosystemic approach in evaluation of the River Amour contamination with toxic elements]:PhD dissertation (Biology): 03.02.08 / Golubeva Yevgeniya Mihaylovna. – Khabarovsk, 2012. – 163 p. 
2. Vliyaniye smesi tyazhyolyh metallov na lipidniy sostav i spektry  vodorastvorimyh belkov myshts molodi osetra [An effect of heavy metals mixture on lipid content and hydrophobic proteins range in young sturgeon muscules] / V.V. Bogdan, Z.A. Nefyedova, L.P.Smirnov, S.D. Kirilyuk // Vtoraya vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya po rybohozyaystvennoy toksikologii - proceedings from II USSR conference on fish breeding toxicology. – St. Petersburg. 1991. 
3. Sezonniy monitoring vodnyh obyektov Respubliki Tatarstan [A seasonal monitoring of water bodies in the Republic of Tatarstan] / M. Ya. Tremasov, R.M. Aslanov, E.K. Papunidi, [et al.] // Veterinarniy vrach. – 2014. – No. 3. – P. 3-8. 
4. Rezultaty issledovaniya kachestva vody v r. Kazanke i oz. Sredniy Kaban [The results of seasonal evaluation of water quality in the Kazanka River and the Sredniy Kaban Lake] / A.R. Makaeva, E.K. Papunidi, M.Ya. Tremasov [et al.] // Ucheniye zapiski KGAVM im. N. E. Baumana. – 2014.– Vol.. 220 (4).– P. 159-162. 
5. Arshanitsa, N. M. K voprosu bioindikatsii prirodnih vod na rybah [On an issue of bioindication of water quality using fish]] / N. M. Arshanitsa // Vtoraya vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya po rybohozyaystvennoy toksikologii - proceedings from II USSR conference on fish breeding toxicology. – St. Petersburg. 1991. 
6. Lukyanenko, V. I. Biotestirovaniye na rybah toksichnosti stochnyh vod:  metod. rekomendatsii [Biotesting of waste water toxicity using fish: a guideline recommendation]/ V. I. Lukyanenko, T. A. Karpovich. – Moscow:  I. D. Papanin Research Institute aquatic biology, 1989. – 91 p.
7. Reichenbach-Klinke, H.H. Ryba kak test-obyekt. Obzor / Heinz Herman Reichenbach-Klinke// Metody issledovaniy toksichnosti na rybah. – Moscow: «Agropromizdat», 1985. – 119 p.
8. Chernyshyova, V. M. Guppi kak obyekt dlya opredeleniya deystviya toksicheskih veshestv na ryb [Using guppi fish as an object to evaluate toxic effect on fish]// Metodiki biologicheskih issledovaniy po vodnoy toksikologii - Methods of biological research on aquatic biology. -Moscow: Nauka, 1971.-P. 183-190.
9. Federalnoye agentsvo po rybolovstvy. Ob utverzhdenii metodicheskih ukazaniy po razrabotke normativov kachestva vody vodnyh obyektov rybohozyaystvennogo znacheniya, v tom chisle normativov predelno dopustimyh kontsentratsiy vrednyh veshestv v vodah vodnyh obyektov rybohozyaystvennogo znacheniya: Prikaz Rosrybolovstva ot 04.08.2009 No 695 [Russian Federal Fisheries Agency. On approving methodological guidelines on developing standardization of quality norms for fishery water and water including norms for maximum allowed concentration of hazardous substances in water bodies for fish breeding: order No 695  of 04.08.2009
10. Belenkiy, M. L. Elementy kolichestvennoy otsenki farmakologicheskogo effekta [Elements of quantitative evaluation of pharmacological effect]. - 2nd edition added and revised. - Leningrad: Medgiz, 1963. - 146 p.
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

ANTIGENIC CLUSTERS OF TRANSMEMBRANE AND CAPSID PROTEINS OF CAPRINE ARTHRITIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS AND THEIR BIOINFORMATIC ANALYSIS

   
Authors: Pokrovskaya E.S. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Shuralev E.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Mukminov M.N. - Doctor of Biology, professor; Elizarova I.A. - research assistant; Faizov T.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Introduction: caprine arthritis encephalitis is a highly contagious slowly flowing viral infection of goats which spread on all continents. It is not sufficient to make a decision on basis of virus isolation on cell culture, and the diagnosis through the detection of specific antibodies may become more effective. Currently available with open access bioinformatic databases allow analysing protein amino acid sequences that would greatly reduce the costs of labor-intensive experimental surveys. The aim of this work is to study Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus antigens with immunogenic epitopes that have the greatest similarity among different strains of the pathogen. Methods and materials: using the methods of bioinformatics, database of proteins (NCBI PubMed) and immunogenic epitopes (IEDB), the antigenic determinants of Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus proteins were investigated. Results: two specific groups of the virus which are 1) protein epitopes encoded by env gen, and 2) protein epitopes encoded by gag gen were discovered. Using BLAST analysis of amino acid sequences of the antigens it was found that the majority of epitopes of studied proteins have significant overlaps with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and group specific small ruminant lentiviruses. In terms of a score and amount of alignments the epitopes were divided into three conventional groups with high, medium and low degree of matching. Conclusion: It has been established that the greatest diagnostic value is provided by two epitopes of transmembrane protein TM gp38 and one epitopes of capsid protein p25. That is expressed in high probability, sufficient degree and maximum number of matches of the amino acid sequences with proteins of both most strains of Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, and the group specific small ruminant lentiviruses.

   
Keywords: Keywords: small ruminant lentiviruses, CAEV, glycoproteins, immunogenic epitope, BLAST analysis.
   
References:
1. Ob utverzhdenii perechnya zaraznykh i inyh bolezney zhivotnyh: prikaz ot 9 marta 2011g. ¹62» [The order ¹62 of  9 March, 2011 «On statement of the List of infectious and other diseases of animals»]. The official internet-portal of the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture. URL: http://www.mcx.ru/documents/document/show/17371.156.htm.
2. Voronin, B.A. Obespecheniye kachestva i bezopasnosti produktsii zhivotnovodstva v ramkakh Tamozhennogo soyuza (informatsiya o tekhnicheskikh reglamentakh) [Providing the quality and safety of animal products in the framework of the Customs Union (information on technical regulations)] / Voronin B.A., Donnik I.M., Loretts O.G. // Agrarniy vestnik Urala. 2014. 4(122). P.78-84.
3. Artrit/entsefalit koz [Caprine arthritis encephalitis] // In: Terrestrial Animal Health Code. V.II. General. 22th ed. OIE, 2013. – P.694-699.
4. Transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses / B.Blacklaws [et al.] // Vet Microbiol. – 2004. – V. 101, 3. – P. 199-208.
5. Mammary transmission of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: a 3D model for in vitro study / C.Le Jan [et al.] // Reprod. Nutr. Dev. – 2005. – V. 45, 4. – P. 513-523.
6. Opyt ozdorovleniya khozyaystva, neblagopoluchnogo po artritu-entsefalitu koz [Experience of recurrence the herd affected by caprine arthritis encephalitis] / G.D. Sidelnikov [et al.] // Veterinariya. - 2007. - Vol.12. - P.25-26.
7. Nozogeografiya artrita-entsefalita koz [Nosogeography of caprine arthritis encephalitis]/ A.Yu.Chichikin // Veterinariya. -  2011. -  Vol.2. -  P.19-21.
8. Sidelnikov, G.D. Biologicheskiye svoystva virusa artrita-entsefalita koz [Biological properties of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus]: thesis of Candidate of biological sci./ G.D. Sidelnikov.-  Pokrov, 2009.  - 129p.
9. Experimental infection of Mouflon-domestic sheep hybrids with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus / F.Guiguen [et al.] // Am. J. Vet. Res. – 2000. – V. 61, 4. – P. 456-461.
10. Larruskain, A. Retroviral infections in sheep and goats: small ruminant lentiviruses and host interaction / A.Larruskain, B.Jugo // Viruses. – 2013. – V. 5, 8. – P. 2043-2061.
11. Zabolevaniye telyat, assotsiirovannoye s virusom artrita-entsefalita koz [Calves disease associated with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus] / A.A.  Strizhakov [et al.] // Veterinariya. - 2005. - Vol.8. - P.21-22.
12. Tesoro-Cruz E., Feria-Romero I.A., Orozco-Suárez S., et al. Frequency of the serological reactivity against the caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus gp135 in children who consume goat milk // Arch Med Res. 2009. V.40, 3. - P.204-207.
13. Chichikin A.Yu., Strizhakov A.A., Tsybanov S.Zh. Klinicheskaya i patomorfologicheskaya diagnostika artritaentsefalita koz [Clinical and pathomorphological diagnosis of caprine arthritis encephalitis] / I.Yu.Volkova [et al.] // Veterinariya. 2007. V.1.- P.23-25.
14. Laboratornaya model dlya izucheniya virusa artrita-entsefalita koz [The laboratory model to study Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus]/ G.D. Sidelnikov [et al.]// Veterinariya. - 2009. - Vol.4. - P.52-55.
15. Tsybanov, S.Zh. Identifikatsiya genoma lentivirusov melkikh zhvachnykh metodom PTsR [Identification of small ruminant lentivirus genome by PCR] / S.Zh. Tsybanov, D.V. Kolbasov, E.I. Baryshnikova // Veterinariya. -  2009.  - Vol.8. - P.58-59.
16. Leitner G., Krifucks O., Weisblit L., et al. The effect of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on production in goats // Vet J. 2010. V.183, 3. P.328-331.
17. Bertoni G., Hertig C., Zahno M.L., et al. B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats // J Gen Virol. 2000. V. 81, pt.12. P. 2929-2940.
18. Valas S., Benoit C., Baudry C., Perrin G., Mamun R.Z. Variability and immunogenicity of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus surface glycoprotein // J. Virology. 2000. V.74, 13. P.6178-6185.
   
   
Title:

MODERN APPROACHES FOR SPECIFIC PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ANAIROBIC ENTEROTOXEMIA AND ESCHERICHIOSIS DIARERRHEA

   
Authors: À.G.Spiridonov – Candidate of Biological sciences, senior staff scientist; D.D. Nasertdinov – research assistant; H.N. Makaev – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; G.N. Spiridonov – Doctor of Biology, head of laboratory.
   
Address: 2Federal Centre for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
Cl.perfringens and their associations with other enterobacteria particularly E.coli are of growing significance in etiology of gastrointestinal diseases in calves. The aim of the investigation was to develop an associated vaccine from hyperimmune serum to prevent and treat anaerobic enterotoxemia and Escherichiosis diarrhea and to evaluate its efficacy in laboratory and fields studies. Methods and materials: for vaccine development and hyperimmune serum inactivated antigens to Cl. perfringens bacteria A, C, D serotypes and E.coli synthesizing adhesive K99, A20 antigens were used. In the infected farms the biopreparations were evaluated on spot. Vaccine was twice subcutaneously injected into down-calving cows in dosage of 10cm2 50-60 days before calving with interval of 14 days. The calves born to vaccinated cows were vaccinated at the age of 18-20 days old in dosage of 3cm3 twice with interval of 14 days. The hyperimmune serum was intramuscularly introduced into newborn calves in 2 cm3/kg dose for prevention and 2.5 cm 3/kg dose for treatment. The investigation results: an associated vaccine was determined to have high antigenic and immunogenic activity. Using the vaccine for prevention purpose reduces sickness rate for 4.6 times and increases survival rate for 16.6% in permanently infected farms. Hyperimmune serum has an expressed treatment and prevention properties. Using the serum in treatment allowed to cure 93.0% sick calves that if higher for 13.6% than in the control group.  Conclusion: an associated vaccine and hyperimmune treatment and prevention serum against anaerobic enterotoxemia and E.coli-borne bovine diarrhea were developed and evaluated. Positive results of evaluation allow their recommendation for veterinary use in the Russian Federation. 


   
Keywords: Keywords: calves, anaerobic enterotoxemia, Escherichiosis diarrhea, vaccine, hyperimmune serum treatment, prevention
   
References:
References:

1. Kurilenko, A.N. Bakterialniye i virusniye bolezni molodnyaka s.-h. zhivotnyh [Bacterial and viral diseases in livestock animals] / A.N. Kurilenko, V.L. Krupalnik, N.V. Pimenov. – Moscow: KolosS, 2005. – 296 p.
2. Gaffarov, H.Z. Mono- i smeshanniye infektsionniye diarei novorozhdennyh telyat i porosyat [mono- and associated viral diarrhea in newborn calves and piglets] / H.Z. Gaffarov, A.V.Ivanov, Å.À.Nepoklonov. – Kazan: «Fen», 2002. – 592 p.
3. Salimov, V.A. Nekotoriye osobennosti patologoanatomicheskoy diagnostiki anaerobnoy enterotoksemii telyat, vyzvannoy Cl. perfringens tipa À [Some specific features of postmortem detection calves anaerobic enterotoxemia caused by Cl. perfringens type À] / V.A. Salimov, N.P. Salimova // Current problems of young animal diseases: proceedings from scientific and practical conference, Voronezh, 23-25 Sept. 2002. – Voronezh, 2002. – P. 527–528.
4. Infektsionnaya enterotoksemiya molodnyaka selskohozyaysvennyh zhivotnyh v regione Srednego Povolzhya i Preduralya [Infectious enterotoxemia of young livestock animals in the region of Middle Volga and Pre-Urals] / G.N. Spiridonov [et al.] // Current issues of veterinary medicine in Siberia: proceedings from scientific conference, Krasnoobsk, 28-29 Oct. 2010 ã. – Krasnoobsk, 2010. – P. 134–139. 
5. Mery borby s diareyami novorozhdennyh telyat [Control measures against newborn calves diarrhea] / V.À. Mischenko [et al.] // Veterinariya selskohozyaysvtvennyh zhivotnyh. – 2008. – Vol. 3. – P. 182–184.
6. Sokolova, N.L. Perspektivy diagnostiki i spetsificheskoy profilaktiki zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney novorozhdennyh zhivotnyh / N. l. Sokolova // Trudy VIEV. – Vol. 75. – Moscow: VIEV, 2010. – P. 112–114.
7. Rezultaty ispytaniya vaktsiny assotsiirovannoy protiv anaerobnoy enterotoksimii i esherihioznoy diarei telyat na laboratornyh zhivotnyh [Evaluation of associated vaccine against calve anaerobic enterotoxemia and escherichiosis diarrhea using laboratory animals] / À.V.Ivanov [et al.] // Veterinarny varch. – 2012. – Vol. 2. – P. 10–12.
8. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost primeneniya vaktsiny assotsiirovannoy protiv anaerobnoy enterotoksimii i esherihioznoy diarei telyat [Economic efficacy of using an associated vaccine against calve anaerobic enterotoxemia and escherichiosis diarrhea]/ À.G.Spiridonov [et al.] // Ucheniye zapiski KGAVM. – 2014. – Vol. 220. – P. 212–215.
   
   
Title:

AN ASSOCIATED ALLERGEN FROM MYCOBACTERIA-LIKE ORGANISMS

   
Authors: 1Baratov M.O. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Ahmedov M.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Sakidibirov O.P. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1Caspian Zonal Research veterinary institute (e-mail: alama500@rambler.ru).
2M.M.Dzhambulatov Dagestan state agrarian university  

   
Abstract:
Introduction: A mixed antigen from M.scrofulaceum #12-C and M.intracellulare #13-H are widely used in veterinary practice to discriminate cattle non-specific responses to tuberculine. To improve its discriminatory functions the antigen content was enlarged with sensitines from N.asteroides VKM Ac1077 and R.bronchialis IMV Ac737 strains. The aim of the work was to improve specificity and efficiency of mycobacteria complex antigen by including corynebacterium sensitin. Materials and methods: To produce tuberculosis allergen a culture of Corinebacterium xerosis N1911 was used.  The threshold sensitivity for allergen was determined using guinea pigs inoculated with corynebacteria (the protein was used in 6 concentrations). The determined threshold level of 0.0003mg protein was further used to develop an allergen , i.e. 1350 units of activity of each component (atypical mycobacteria, nocardia, rodoccoci) was tested in 0.2 mg and 0.0003 mg corynebacteria proteins. Results: The discriminatory ability of allergen was determined using guinea pigs at 27 days after inoculation with mycobacteria, corynebacteria, nocardia, rodoccoci. The animals from the experimentally challenged group (C.xerosis, M.scrofulaceum, Nasteroides and R.Bronchialis) responded to the allergen under the trial in more expressed way than to the complex allergen. In guinea pigs inoculated with M.BCG response to complex allergen was slightly higher. A significant discriminatory ability of the tested allergen was also detected during examination of 136 cattle herds from tuberculosis-free farm where previously nonspecific responses were regularly registered. Conclusion: sensitin from corynebacteria as component of complex allergen was experimentally proved to enhance efficiency of simultaneous testing to discriminate nonspecific responses caused by corynebacteria.  

   
Keywords: keywords: PPD-tuberculin for mammals, associated allergen for mycobacteria, sensitization, Corynebacterium, Rodococcus, monoallergen, atypical.
   
References:
1. Kassich, Yu.Ya. Izucheniye sensibiliziruyuschih i patogennyh svoystv atipichnyh mikobakteriy [Study of sensitizing and pathogenic features of atypical mycobacteria] / Yu.Ya. Kassich // Veterinaria. - 1989. - Vol. 4. – P. 13-15.
2. Martma, Î.V. Paraallegicheskiye reaktsii na tuberkulin i ih differentsiatsiya [Paraallegic responses to tuberculin and their discrimination] / O.V.Martma, K.K. Tyahnas// Veterinaria. – 1978. - Vol. 4. - P. 35-38.
3. Martma, Î.V. Patogennost i virulentnost razlichnyh vidov mikobakteriy [Pathogenicity and virulence of various species of mycobacteria] / O.V.Martma, N.P.Ovdienko, A.V.Tkachev-Kuzmin // Tuberkulez selskohozyaystvennyh zhivonyh - Livestock animals tuberculosis. – Ìoscow: Agropromizdat, 1991. – P. 28-32.
4. Nesterenko, Î.À. Nokardopodobniye i korinepodobniye bakterii [Nocardia- and Coryne-like bacteria] / Î.À.Nesterenko. - Kiev: Naukovo dumka, 1985. – 333 p.
5. Naymanov, À.H. Sovremenniye zadachi v borbe s tuberkulezom KRS [Current tasks in cattle tuberculosis control] / À.H.Naymanov, N.P.Ovdienko // Vetinform. - 2002. - Vol. 4. – P. 8-9.
6. Naymanov, À.H. Problemy diagnostiki i profilaktiki tuberkuleza KRS v sovremennyh usloviyah [Current problms of cattle tuberculosis detection and prevention] / À.H.Naymanov// Veterinarnaya patologiya. - 2004. - Vol. 1-2 (9). – P. 18-23.
7. Patent 2146946 the Russian Federation, IPC À61Ê39/35. Sposob differentsialnoy diagnostiki tuberkuleza [A method of discriminatory detection of tuberculosis] / R.À.Nuratinov, Ê.R.Urguev, N.P.Ovdienko, À.H.Naymanov, Ì.N.Magomedov; claimant and patent-owner Caspian zonal research veterinary institute. - ¹ 98121992/13; applied on 03.12.1998; published on 27.03.2000, Bulletin ¹ 39. – 6 p.
8. Patent 2217165 the Russian Federation, IPC À61Ê39/35. Kompleksny allergen dlya differentsiatsii allergicheskih reaktsiy u krupnogo rogatogo skota na PPD-tuberkulin dlya mlekopitayuschih [An associated allergen to disctiminate allergic responses to PPD-tuberculin for mammals in cattle herds] / R.À.Nuratinov, M.O.Baratov, E.À.Verdieva; claimant and patent-owner Caspian zonal research veterinary institute. - ¹ 2002106160/13; applied on 06.03.2002; published on 27.11.2003, Bulletin ¹ 32. – 5 p.
9. Sharov, À.N. Preparaty dlya diagnostiki tuberkuleza u zhivotnyh [Drugs detecting tuberculosis inanimals] / À.N.Sharov // Kurskaya biofabrika 100 let: doklady NPK, posvyaschenniye 100-letiyu Kurskoy biofabriki - The 100th aniversary of Kursk biofactory: Reports of scientific and production complex dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Kursk biofactory]. – Kursk, 1996. – P. 374-403.
10. Sharov, À.N. Allergicheskaya diagnostika tuberkuleza u zhivotnyh: povysheniye yeyo effektivnosti [Allergic detection of tuberkulosis in animals: improving its efficiency]: dissertation for degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine / À.N.Sharov. – Ìoscow, 1989. – 329 p.
11. Ridll, M. Serologycal relationships of Nocordia, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and the Rhodochrous taxon with special reference to taxonomy / M.Ridll. - Goteborg: ICAO. 1977. – 52 ð.
12. Shukla, R. Observations on non-specific reactions to tuberculin in sheep and goats with Corynebacterium ovis / R.Shukla, N.Nath, G.Singh // «Experientia». – 1971. - ¹ 2. – Ð. 204-205.

   
   
Title:

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES, MOLECULAR AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF RABIES VIRUS ISOLATES AT THE REPUBLIC TATARSTAN

   
Authors: 1Gulyukin A.M. – Candidate of Biology Sciences; 1Shabejkin A.A.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Zaykova O.N. – researcher; 1Polyakova I.V. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; 1Zaberezhny A.D. - Doctor of Biology, professor;2Khismatullina N.A. - Dîctor of Biology, professor; 2 Samerkhanov I.I. - research assistant.
   
Address:
1Y.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV), Moscow (e-mail: plych@mail.ru).
2Federal Centre for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
Introduction: the article describes the epizootic situation on rabies in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods and materials: the methods of molecular epizootology the species and number content of the animals with the laboratory-based confirmed infection and phylogenetic analyses of the rabies agents isolated in various regions of the republic of Tatarstan were used. As the results of rabies epizootical monitoring were analyzed the sickness rate, coefficient of focality, and infection rate were calculated. The parameters were rather high, thus confirming the endemic situation in Tatarstan and allowing the local veterinary service performing complex analysis and risk forecast. The G gene fragment of rabies field isolates from Tatarstan was sequenced and compared with similar fragment from reference strains. The investigation results: a comparative analysis showed no genomic differences in nucleotide and amino acid sequences between the field isolates. The difference in nucleotide sequence between field and reference strains was as high as 8%, while in their amino acid sequences no difference was found. This suggests high selective pressure on the amino acid structure of the analyzed fragments. Since live vaccines are widely used to control rabies in wild animals, it is necessary to check potential reversion of vaccine strains to the virulent one. Conclusion: in the enzootic area of Tatarstan rabies was determined to be eventual and natural focal infection. Nozoologic maps were developed in a computed geo-informational system and the vector of epidemic process in the Republic of Tatarstan within 2013-2014 was determined.

   
Keywords: Keywords: rabies, Republic Tatarstan, epizootic monitoring, epizootic process, sequencing, geo-information system, phylogenetic analysis, immune pressure, molecular epizootology.
   
References:
1. Neobhodim uchet novyh osobennostey epizootologii beshenstva [It is necessary to record the new features of rabies epizootiology]/ A.M. Gulyukin [et al.]// Veterinariya. – 1998. - Vol.6. - P.3-5
2. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po epizootologicheskomu issledovaniyu [Guidelines for epizootical survey]/ Bakulov A.I. [et al.] – Moscow: “Kolos”, 1982 – 16 p.
3. Gulyukin, A.M. Znachimost sovremennyh metodov laboratornoy diagnostiki i identifikatsii vozbuditelya beshenstva dlya immunologicheskogo monitoringa dannogo zoonoza [The significance of modern methods for laboratory diagnosis and identification of a rabies causative agent for immunological monitoring of the zoonosis] /  Gulyukin A.M. // Voprosy virusologii. - 2014. - Vol.59, ¹3. - P. 5-10
4. Gulyukin, A.M. Epizootologicheskiy monitoring i sovershenstvovanie serologicheskogo kontrolya effektivnosti vaktsinoprofilaktiki beshenstva [Epizootological monitoring and improving serological control of vaccine efficiency to prevent rabies]: Thesis for Candidate degree in Biological Sciences/A.M. Gulyukin. – Kazan: Federal Center of Toxicological and Radiation Safety of Animals (All-Russian Research Veterinary Institute), 2011- 216p.
5. Gulyukin, A.M. Puti sovershenstvovaniya meropriyatiy po borbe s beshenstvom [Ways to improve measures for rabies control]/A.M. Gulyukin // Current issues of infection science: proceedings of jubilee conference dedicated to 85th anniversary of the department of infection diseases in Kazan state medical university, Kazan, Oct.29, 2010. – Kazan,2010. - P. 66-67.
6. Monitoring beshenstva u dikih zhivotnych v Bryanskoy oblasti [Monitoring of wildlife rabies in Bryansk region] / A.L. Elakov [et al.]// Veterinariya. - 2015. - Vol.1. - P. 11-14.
7. Differentiation between vaccine strain and field isolates of classical swine fever virus using polymerase chain reaction and restriction test / Zaberezhny A.D. [et al.]// DTW. Deutsche tierarztlicheWochenschrift. - 1999. - Vol. 106,¹9. - P. 394-397.
8. Ivanov, A.V. Epizootologicheskaya situatsiya i borba s beshenstvom v Kaliningradskoy oblasti [Epizootic situation and rabies control of in Kaliningrad region]/A.V. Ivanov, N.A. hismatullina, T.P. Petrova // Veterinariya. - 2015. - Vol. 4. - P. 9-13.
9. Lvov, D.K. Virusy grippa: sobytiya i prognozy [Influenza viruses: events and forecasts] /D.K. Lvov, A.D> Zaberezhny, T.I. Aliper// Priroda - 2006. - Vol. 6. - P. 3-13.
10. Sidorov, G.N. Sotsialno-ekonomicheskoe znachenie beshenstva [Socio-economic significance of rabies]/ G.N. Sidorov, A.M. Gulyukin, Yu.I. Smolyaninov // Current issues of veterinary medicine in productive and non-productive animals health: Proceedings of the 5th Interregional Scientific and Practical Conference. - Omsk, 2006. - P 64-70.
11. Khismatullina, N.A. Dva sluchaya gidrofobii v Respublike Tatarstan: prizhiznennaya i postmortalnaya laboratornaya diagnostika [Two cases of hydrophobia in the Republic of Tatarstan: lifetime and postmortem laboratory diagnostics] / N.A. Khismatullina, A.M. Gulyukin, M.I. Gulyukin // Voprosy virusologii. - 2015. - Vol. 60, ¹ 2. - P 18-24.
12. Khismatullina, N.A. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya i control  effectivnosti vactsiniprofilaktiki beshenstva zhivotnych v RespublikeTatarstan [Epizootic situation and monitoring the efficacy of animal vaccination against rabies in the Republic of Tatarstan] / N.A. Khismatullina, A.G. Khisamutdinov, A.M. Gulyukin // Current issues in control of animal infectious diseases: proceedings from the International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 55th anniversary of VNIIVVIM. – Pokrov, 2014. - P 331-338.
13. Khismatullina, N.A. Razrabotka i primenenie sredstv i metodov diagnostiki beshenstva [Developing and using the tools and methods to detect rabies]/ N.A. Khismatullina, A.N. Chernov, R.H. Yusupov // Scientific bases of production and quality of biological products for agriculture: proceedings from the Int. sci. and pract. conf.,  Schelkovo, Dec. 5-7,2012. – Schelkovo, 2012. - P.146-152.
14. Shabeykin, A.A., Analiz zakonomernostey epizooticheskogo protsessa beshenstva na territorii Evropeyskoy chaste RossiyskoyFederatsii [Analysis of laws in rabies epizootic process in the European part of the Russian Federation]/ A.A. Shabeykin, A.M. Gulyukin, A.V. Parshikova // Veterinariya i kormlenie. - 2015. - Vol. 1. - P. 29-34.
15. Summary of rabies in the Russian Federation – Particularities of the present situation/ V.A. Vedernikov [et al.] // Rabies bulletin Europe. - 1999. - Vol. 23, ¹ 4. - P. 13-15.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF NEPHROTOXIC ACUTE RENAL FAILURE IN DOGS

   
Authors: Buchenova A.V. – postgraduate; Usha B.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, RAS academician.
   
Address:
Moscow State University of Food Production, Moscow (e-mail: anuta-bychenova@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
The aim of the research was theoretical and experimental validation of new methods for the differential diagnosis of nephrotoxic ARF (acute renal failure) in dogs, and using a number of techniques for effective treatment. Methods and materials: using the traditional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, biopsy, blood and urine tests, ultrasound) 46 dogs of various breeds having acute renal failure were initially selected for further study. Blood for laboratory analyses (number of leucocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin) was taken from forearm subcutaneous vein. Abdominal organs and kidneys were examined using ultrasound scanner. Results: in some dogs etiology of nephrotoxic ARF was confirmed by differential diagnosis based on direct determination of nephrotoxicants in blood and urine using the "Abraxis OP / C"™ test system for in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. This method allow detecting OPS (organophosphorus compounds) and carbamates. Endogenous acetylcholinesterase was inactivated during the implementation of this technique. Immune-microarray technology showed that antigens specific to nephrotoxicants responded to monoclonal antibodies immobilized on the biochips, and the final results were registered using automatic chemiluminometer Randox™. This method allowed both qualitative and quantitative detection of nephrotoxicants having medical origin (antibiotics, sulfonamides, antiparasitic drugs). During the study of dogs with ARF, nanogram amounts of neomycin, cefoperazone (medotsef) and diazinon were found out, and intoxication by these substances could occur either due to treatment of different kinds of diseases or to fodders containing residual amounts of these substances. Conclusion: Basing on the obtained data and confirmation of the etiology, the dogs affected with ARF were treated using a comprehensive system including a consistent application of hemodialysis and drugs recovering nitrogen and amino-acid balance. The treatment efficiency was confirmed by the normalization of biochemical and physiological parameters.

   
Keywords: Keywords: dogs, nephrotoxic, acute renal failure, inhibition, acetylcholinesterase, differential diagnosis, treatment, hemodialysis, nitrogen and amino acid balance.
   
References:
1. Milovanov, Yu.S. Ostraya pochechnaya nedostatochnost [Acute renal failure]/ Yu.S. Milovanov, A. Yu. Nikolaev // Rossiyskiy meditsinsky jurnal.– 1998.–Vol.6.–¹ 19.– P. 142-198.
2. Denisova, E.A. Uskorennye metody kontrolya toksichnyh i vrednyh veshchestv v syrye i produktah zhivotnogo proishozhdeniya [using rapid methods for control of toxic and hazardous substances in raw materials and foods of animal origin] / E.A. Denisova, V.S. Babunova, V.V. Svetlichkin  // Veterinariya i kormleniye. – 2014. – Vol. 3. – P. 26–27.
3. Svetlichkin, V.V Skriningoviy metod opredeleniya ostatochnyh kolichestv fosfororganicheskih soedineiy v syrye, produktah i kormah [Using screening method for indication of residues of organophosphorus compounds in the raw materials, food and feed]/ V.V. Svetlichkin, A.V. Galkin // Problemy sanitarii, gigiyeny i ekologii. 2014. – Vol. 1 (11). – P. 20–22.
4. Sovremennye metody  i test-sistemy dlya kontrolya toksichnyh veshchestv  v obektah veterinarnogo nadzora [Current methods and test systems to control toxic substances in objects of veterinary survey]/ A.M. Smirnov [et al.]// Problemy sanitarii, gigiyeny i ekologii . – 2015. – Vol. 2 (14). – P. 78–82.
5. Yarova, O.A. Immunomikrochipovaya tehnologiya kak ekspress-metod kontrolya za urovnem ostatochnyh kolichestv antimikrobnyh preparatov v myode [Using immune microarray technology as a rapid method to control the level of residues from antimicrobial drugs in honey] / O.A.Yarova, V.V.Svetlichkin, L.P.Mihaleva // "Living systems and biological safety of population": proceeding from VIII Int. Conf. of young scientists and students. – Ìoscow: MGUPB, 2010. – P. 221–222.
6. Antibiotic residues in Brazilian UHT milk: screening study / A.P.Fonseca [et al.] // Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment. – 2009. – V. 29, ¹ 2. – Ñ. 451–453. 
7. Development of an Evidence biochip array kit for the multiplex screening of more than 20 anthelmintic drugs / J.Porte [et al.] // Anal.Bioanal Chem. – 2012. – ¹ 403 (10). – Ð. 3051–6.
   
   
Title:

PHASED QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF REPARATIVE OSTEOGENESIS AT INDUCED TRAUMA

   
Authors: Zhitlova E.A.- postgraduate; Shakirova F.V.- Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Achtyamov I.F.- Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor.
   
Address:
Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan(E-mail: largo-kazan@mail.ru).Kazan State Medical University, Kazan(E-mail: yalto60@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:
Introduction: the problem of compensation of bone defects is one of the important problems in veterinary orthopedics. The issue can be solved by using various implantable materials compatible with the composition and properties of native bone tissues. The aim of the research was to study the effect of “Inrok” drug based on lanthanide and calcium ions after it is injected into a bone with experimentally induced defect. Methods and materials: using computed tomography, density parameters of the bone regenerate in the area of the experimentally made local defect of the tibial cortical layer were evaluated. The experimental researches were carried at the beardless rabbits. Animals were divided on two groups: the comparison and experimental. First animal group were double inoculate with the “Inrok” preparation in distress of the cortical plate. For the local change control on the injury zone researches were conducted on the computer tomography Brilliance 64(Philips). A cut processing of reparative zone was conducted in the multiplanaris reconstruction mode in sagittalis plate. Results: the average value of the density in the first 10 days after surgery in rabbits of the test group (where the drug "Inrok" was injected into the experimentally made bone defect) is 1.5-2 times higher than that of the rabbits from the compared group. Conclusion: further terms of the experiment were characterized by a continuing trend towards increasing the density of regenerate in both groups. 

   
Keywords: Keywords: rabbit, reparative bone regeneration, X-ray computed tomography.
   
References:
1. Kompyuternaya tomografiya v kompleksnoy otsenke reparativnogo kosteobrazovaniya pri lechenii perelomov [Computer tomography in complex evaluation of reparative osteogenesis to treat fractures]/ G.V. Dyachkova [et al.]// A collection of articles dedicated to jubilee of department of X-ray diagnostics in Kazan university. – Kazan, 2006. –P.120-123.
2. Analiz reparativnogo kosteobrazovaiya pri lechenii bolnyh s perelomami dlinnyh trubchatyh kostey po dannym kompyuternoy tomografii i dvuhenergeticheskoy rentgenovskoy absorbtseometrii [Studies of reparative osteogenesis at treatment pipe bone fracture using computer tomography and dual X-ray energy absorptiometry] / G.V. Dyachkova [et al.] // Vestnik novyh meditsinskih tehnologiy. – 2006. – Vol.3. – P. 74-78.
3. Kolichestvennaya otsenka reparativnogo kosteobrazovaniya pri lechenii perelomov i udlinenii konechnostey [Quantitative evaluation of reparative osteogenesis at treating fractures and bone lengthening] / G.V. Dyachkova [et al.]// Proceedings from the IV All-Russian scientific conference, Barnaul, Sept. 21-24, 2005. - Barnaul, 2005. - P. 52-54.
4. Kompleksnaya kolichestvennaya otsenka sostoyaniya myshts pri udlinenii nizhih konechnostey [Comprehensive quantitative assessment of muscles for lengthening of lower limbs]/ G.V. Dyachkova [et al.]// Proceedings from the IV All-Russian scientific conference, Barnaul, Sept. 21-24, 2005. - Barnaul, 2005. - P. 57-59.
5. Otsenka kachestva kosti metodom multisrezovoy kompyuternoy tomografii u bolnyh hronicheskim osteomielitom [Assessment of bone quality by the technique of multispiral computer tomography in patients with chronic osteomyelitis ] / G.V. Dyachkova [et al.] // Zhurnal travmatologiya i ortopediya Rossii.-2013. – Vol.3. – P. 88-95.
6. Dyachkova, G.V. KT- semiotika proliferativnyh izmeneniy v bedrennoy kosti pri hronicheskom osteomielite, razvivshemsya poslegematogennogo osteomielita[CT-semiotics of proliferative changes in femoral bone at chronic osteomyelitis developed after acute hematogenous osteomyelitis] / G.V. Dyachkova, U.L.Mitina // Vestnik travmatologii i ortopedii im. N.N.Pirogova. – 2011. -Vol4. –P.60-64.
7. Patent 2248210 the Russian Federation, IPC À61 Ê33/24, À61 Ê33/14, À61 Ê31/663, À61 Ê31/662, À61 Ð19/08. Sposob regeneratsii kostnoy tkani v eksperimente [A method to regenerate bone tissue in experiment] / F.V. Devyatov, E.G. Kholmogortsev; applicant and patent owner: Devyatov Fedor Vladimirovich. - ¹ 2003120703/14; applied on 07.07.2003; published on 20.03.2005, Bulletin ¹ 8. – 5 p.
8. Talashova, I.A. Sravnitelnaya kolichestvennaya otsenka reparativnogo protsessa pri implantatsii biokompozitnnyh materialov v kostniye defekty [Comparative quantitative evaluation of reparative process for implantation of biocomposite materials into bone defects] / I.A. Talashova, E.A. Osipova, N.A. Kononovich  // Geniy Ortopedii. – 2012. – Vol.2. – P.68-69
9. Cooper C. The crippling consequences of fractures and their impact on quality of life / C. Cooper // Am. J. Med. — 1997. — Vol. 103, ¹ 2. — 12S-19S.
10. Risk of new vertebral fracture in the year following a fracture /  E.A. Chrischilles [et al.] // JAMA. — 2001. — Vol. 285. — P. 320-323.
11. Secular trends in the incidence of hip and other osteoporotic fractures / C. Cooper [et al.] // Osteoporos Int. — 2011. — Vol. 22, ¹ 5. — P. 1277-1288.
   
   
Title:

ETIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF UVEITIS IN HORSES IN UKRAINE

   
Authors: Mezhenskiy A.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
State Scientific and Research Institute of Laboratory Diagnostics, Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise (e-mail: mezhaavet@gmail.com).

   
Abstract:
Introduction: the article provides the investigation results of etiological structure of equine uveitis in Ukraine. Methods and materials: at ophthalmologic examination of 615 horses uveitis of various course was diagnosed in 87 animals. Blood serum taken from the sick animals was tested for leptospirosis, brucellosis, viral arteritis, influenza and eqiune herpes virus of I and IV type, also, orthopedic and dental examinations were carried out. Investigation results: equine uveitis was determined to be a polyetiological disease having the same type of clinical signs and changes in the eye. In Ukraine leptospira-borne uveitis (50.6%), idiopathic uveitis (29.9%) and uveitis of non-contagious etiology, emerging after physical activity (5.7%) and closed mechanical trauma of eyeball (4.6%) were the most spread. Leptospira Grippotyphosa group prevail in uveitis cases of this etiological structure – its serological prevalence was 79.5%. In positively responding horses with acute Leptospira uveitis single responses for microagglutination test prevailed (75%), whereas at subacute and chronic uveitis polyreactions were frequently recorded – 83.3 and 59.1%. Conclusion: etiological detection of equine uveitis should be comprehensive and include a general clinical, ophthalmic, orthopedic and dental examination as well as laboratory studies of biological material from sick horses for the most common infectious diseases, primarily for leptospirosis. The results of Leptospira etiological range should be considered at developing prevention measures against uveitis in horse breeding.

   
Keywords: KEYWORDS: horse, eye disease, uveitis, etiology of uveitis, leptospirosis, leptospiral uveitis.
   
References:
1. Avrorov, V.N. Veterinarnaya oftalmologiya [Veterinary ophthalmology] / V.N.Avrorov, A.V.Lebedev - Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985. - 270p.
2. Vogel, Colin Complete horse care manual / Collin Vogel. - Moskow: Akvarium, 2000. - 132p.
3. Kopenkin, E.P Retsidiviruyushhiy uveit loshadi: diagnosticheskiye kriterii prognozirovaniya bolezni, lecheniye i profilaktika [Recurrent equine uveitis: diagnostic criteria for the disease forecast, treatment and prevention: guidelines] / E.P.Kopenkin, L.F.Sotnikova . Moskow: MGAVMiB.
4. Gilger, B. Recurrent (relapsing) uveitis of horses]. Bolezni loshadey. Sovremennye metody lecheniya – Horse Diseases. Modern methods of treatment: translated in Russian. - Moskow: OOO «Akvarium–Print», 2007. – P. 518-523.
5. Borisevich, V.B. Hvorobi ochej u konej [Eye diseases in horses]/ V.B.Borisevich, A.O.Mezhenskiy; edited by D.Î. Melnichuk [et al.] // Naukovy v³snik Nats³onalnogo agrarnogo un³versitetu . – 2008. – Issue 118. – P. 116-120.
6. Equine Ophthalmology / [Gilger Brian C.] – Copyright© Elsevier Saunders, 2005. – 475 p
7. Sotnikova, L.F. Retsidiviruyushhiye uveity loshadey [Equine recurrent uveitis] / L.F.Sotnikova// Veterinariya. – 2003. – Vol. 6. – P. 9-11.
8. Veterinarno-medichna oftalmolog³ya [Veterinary and medical ophthalmology: tutorial] / [V.B.Borisevich et al.]; edited by V.B.Borisevich. – Kyiv: Aristey, 2006. – 212 p.
9. Lavach, J.D. Large Animal Ophthalmology / J.D.Lavach. – St. Louis, Nosby, 1990. – 659 ð.
10. Veterinary ophthalmology / K.N.Gellat [et. al.]. – 3-rd ed. – Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williamsa Wilkins, 1999. – 585 ð.
11. Gerhards, H. (2013) Periodicheskoe vospalenie glaz [Periodic eye inflammation] / H.Gerhards // Pervyiy ukrainskiy konnyiy zhurnal «HORSES UKRAINE» – The first Ukrainian equestrian magazine «HORSES UKRAINE», 16(22), 72-73.
12. Mezhenskiy, A.O. Oftalmoskopiya ochnogo dna u koney: metodichni rekomendatsiyi [Ophthalmoscopy of eye fundus in horses: guidelines] / A.O.Mezhenskiy. - Kyiv, 2009. – 36 ñ.
13. Laboratorni metody doslidzhen u biolohiyi, tvarynnitstvi ta veterynarniy medytsini; dovidnyk [Using laboratory research methods in biology, animal breeding and veterinary medicine; dictonary] / [V.V.Vlizlo et al.]. - Lviv: SPOLOM, 2012. – 764p.
14. Praktikum iz zahalnoyi ta spetsialnoyi hirurgiyi [Workshop on general and specialized surgery] / [ I.O.Kalashnik et al.]; edited by I.O. Kalashnik. -. Kyiv: «Urozhay» , 1995. – 253 p.
15. Galatyuk, A.E. Osobennosti infektsionnogo protsessa i diagnostika leptospiroza loshadey [Features of infectious process and detection of leptospirosis in horses] / A.E.Galatyuk, A.I.Kanevskiy // Materialy vtoroy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii po boleznyam loshadey – proceedings from II scientific conference on horses diseases. - Ìoscow, 2001. – P. 22-26.

   
   
Title:

THE EFFECT OF RONCOLEUKIN AND THYMOGEN NUCLEIC ACIDS - BASED DRUGS ON FORMATION NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN CALVES

   
Authors: Mosseva A.I. – postgraduate.
   
Address:
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, Gagarin Avenue 97, 603137, e-mail: anatomifarmitox@mail.ru.

   
Abstract:
Introduction: Two experiments were carried out on 20-30-days old calves in a vivarium All-Russian Research Institute of Physiology, Biochemistry and Nutrition of Animals, Borovsk, Kaluga region, and a farm "Tsentralnoe" in Nizhny Novgorod region. The aim of the research was to study the effect of mixture of nucleates and interleukin-2 (Roncoleukin) drugs on calve leukopoiesis during the lactation period and on the formation of calves non-specific resistance comparing to that of the thimogen drug. Methods and materials: the level of blood immunoglobulins and morphological parameters in calves parenterally introduced nucleic acids and interleukin-2, as well as Òhymogen drugs was studied. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at 10 days after the drugs were administerd and in the second experiment - at 30 days. Results: using nucleic acid-base drugs increased the level of white blood cells (+ 7.7%), protein (+ 23.6%) and immunoglobulins (+ 24.1%) in the calve blood and was similar to the effect of thymogen. Using IL-2 resulted in a significant increase of leucocytes level in calve blood (+ 31.2%), and gamma-globulins (+ 57.6%) comparing to thimogen (21.5% and 33.8% correspondingly) but both drugs promoted the formation of non-specific resistance, that was demostrated by a higher blood phagocytic and bactericidal activity parameters. An increased non-specific resistance parameters were accompanied by a higher live weight during the milk-feeding period in newly born calves. Conclusion: The results of the study allow clarifying some aspects of the formation of calves immune system and non-specific resistance during the milk-feeding period.

   
Keywords: Keywords: calves, immunoglobulins, nonspecific resistance.
   
References:
1. Asatiani, V. S. Novye metody biokhimicheskoj fotometrii [New methods of biochemical photometry]/ V.S. Asteniani. – Ìoscow: Nauka, 1965. – 543 p.
2. Detoksikatsiya aminokislotami i peptidnymi preparatami benzola i aflatoksina B1 u tsyplyat [Detoxification of amino acids and peptide drugs from benzene and aflatoxin B1 in chickens]/ [G.A. Belokrylov]// Reports of the RAAS. – 2001. – Vol. 2. – P. 51–52.
3. Kondrakhin, I. P.  Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika v veterinarii: Spravochnoe izdanie [Clinical laboratory diagnostics in veterinary medicine: Reference book]/ I. P.  Kondrakhin – Ìoscow: KolosS, 2004. – 520 p.
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  Zootechny
   
Title:

CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF BOARS METABOLIC, IMMUNOLOGICAL AND GROWTH PROCESSES REGARDING SOIL CONDITIONS IN VOLGA REGION OF CHUVASHIA

   
Authors: Shukanov R.A., applicant
   
Address:
K.I.Scriabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology 
(e-mail: shukanovr@rambler.ru).
   
Abstract:
The aim of the work was to study a correlation between a condition of in boar metabolic, natural resistance, performance parameters and the level of their adaptation in the Volga biogeochemical area of Chuvashia using kizelgur, «Suvar», «Polistem». Materials and methods: II series of researches using 60 weaned boars-analogs with 15 animals in each group were performed. In two groups the boars at the age from 60 days to 300-days old (duration of experiments) were fed the basic diet (BD) with the main parameters balanced according to the norms for diets and feeding recommended by the Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences. During the research the animals from the experiment groups were fed both BD kizelgur natural zeolite at the rate of 1.25 g/kg of body weight (b.w.) and «Suvar» biogenous substance in a dose of 25-50 mg/kg of b.w. for 20 days with 10-day intervals until the animals were 240-days old (I series) or intramuscularly were injected «Polistem» biological product twice at the age of 60-and 240-daysold at the rate of 0.1 and 0.03 mg/kg of b.w. accordingly (II series). The correlation of metabolic, immune and growth parameters in experimental pigs was analyzed according to the standard techniques used in Biology.The investigation results showed that under the experimental conditions the number of significant relations (r=0.70) among the studied metabolic, natural immunity and growth parameters of the experimental boars varied, and in the second group animals the range of fluctuations was narrower. Thus, inthe control animals the correlation relations changed from 3±0.12 to 7±0.40 (I series) and from 4±0.17 to 9±0.41 (the II series), and in their experimental counterparts – from 5±0.09 to 6±0.24 and from 4±0.11 to 7±0.20 accordingly. Moreover, the metabolic, immunological and growth processes showed better physiological parameters in pigs fed diet enriched with both zeolite kizelgur and «Suvar» bioactive additive, while the associated using of both kizelgur and «Polistem» biological product had less effect on optimization of physiological parameters.Conclusion: The different levels of adaption revealed in the control and experimental animals areaffected by the tested biogenous compounds. Therefore, using kizelgur natural zeolite and «Suvar» bioactive agent in the main diet promotes a more expressed eurybiontic features of organism than an associated using zeolite kizelgur and «Poliståm» biological product regarding the biogeochemical specificity of Volga region of Chuvashia.

   
Keywords: KEYWORDS: boar, kizelgur, «Suvar», «Polistem», blood, correlation.
   
References:
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  Radiobiology
   
Title:

RADIOPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF IODINE-CONTAINING DRUGS AT ACUTE EXTERNAL SINGLE GAMMA IRRADIATION OF GUINEA PIGS

   
Authors: Vasilev R.O. – postgraduate.
   
Address: Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk (e-mail: veterenar4ik@mail.ru).
   
Abstract:
The aim of the research was to study comparative efficiency of radioprotective features of "Monklavit–1" and potassium iodide iodine-containing drugs at a single external gamma irradiation of guinea pigs at half-lethal dose. Methods and materials: "Monklavit–1" and potassium iodide containing 20g of iodine elements was introduced twice introgastrically  through a probe. The experiments were carried out using male guinea pigs grown in biogeochemical province lacking iodine in soil, water, and fodders. During the experiment clinical, haematological, pathological and immunological methods were used. Results: during the experiment an acute irradiation sickness of moderate severity was experimentally restored. A positive radioprotective effect of iodine-containing drugs at intragastric administration to guinea pigs a day before the exposure and three days after: animal sickness rate reduced and velocity of peripheral blood parameters improved, thyroid gland functions stabilized at first days after exposure to irradiation with consequent increase of its activity by the 26th day. At 26 days a number of leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets was lower in pigs receiving "Monklavit–1» and potassium iodide than that of the intact by 25%, 12%, 33% and 31% 17%, 49% accordingly. Conclusion: the experiments showed that radioprotective properties of "Monklavit–1" were more that of potassium iodide, but these changes are not reliable. By the moment of exposure to irradiation to some extent the state of thyroid gland as a leading organ of endocrine system can determine the level of nonspecific resistance.

   
Keywords: Keywords: radiation sickness, gamma irradiation, Monklavit¬1, potassium iodide, thyroid hormones, guinea pigs.
   
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