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¹ 5, 2015

  Toxicology
   
Title:

USING BIOTEST METHOD TO EVALUATE PESTICIDES TOXICITY

   
Authors: Vishnyackova I.I. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; Guzalova A.G. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; Sidorova L.A. - Candidate of Biology Sciences.
   
Address:

National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia (SRI NRIVVaMR) of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Science (RAAS) (e-mail:VNIIVViM@niiv.petush.elcom.ru).

 

 

   
Abstract:

Using alternative methods to evaluate pesticides toxicity without involving warm-blood animals is a crucial problem. In this work the toxicity of peritroid (permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin) and phospho-organic (malathyon) pesticides were evaluated using a biotest method. Tetrachymena pyriformis infusoria cell line was used as a test object. The toxic effect of the investigated pesticides was evaluated according to changes of vital parameters of Tetrachymena pyriformis infusoria cell line. The culture was exposed to pesticides during 1, 2, and 4 hours. The tetrachymenic morphological and functional changes caused by toxicants were studied in serial dilutions ranging from 10-1 to 10-10. Permethrin had the highest toxicity retaining its medium toxicity up to dilution of 10-7. It was followed by cypermethrinthat with medium toxicity level up to 10-5. Deltamethrin was the weakest, its toxicity reduced as early as at 10-4. The test-object showed that deltamethrin totally lost its toxicity at dilutions ranging from 10-5 to 10-10, while permethrin and cypermethrin remained toxic up to dilution of 10-8. The testing of malathion, the organophosphorus pesticide, showed that that at dilution of 10-2 and 1- or 2-hour exposure period, the pesticide was highly toxic for Tetrachymena pyriformis infusoria (fixation, immobilization and/or cell lyses were observed, some ciliates made rotational or slow movements). Moreover, a longer exposure time up to 4 hours resulted in stronger toxic effect (a monolayer of dead cells and/or lyses of ciliates). A longer exposure period of Tetrachymeni to the pyrethroid pesticides was identified to have no effect on toxicity level, while malathion, the organophosphorus pesticide, tends to have a stronger effect on test-object with a longer exposure time. Therefore, the comparative studies of the pesticides toxicity showed a relationship between the pesticides toxicity and concentration and exposure period, the biotest method using Tetrachymena pyriformis infusoria culture provides rapid results, has a higher efficiency and sensitivity (dilution ranges from 10-1to 10-10) to the pesticides of various chemical groups.

 

 

   
Keywords: Keywords: toxicity, pyrethroids, organophosphorus pesticides, bioassay, test target.
   
References:

1. Dolgov, V.A. Metodicheskiye aspekty i prakticheskoye primeneniye uskorennoy biologicheskoy otsenki kormov, produktov zhivotnovodstva i drugih obyektov veterinarno-sanitarnogo kontrolya [Methodological aspects and practical use of rapid biological evaluation of fodder, animal products and other objects of veterinary and sanitation control]: diss. for degree of Doctor of Biology / V.À.Dolgov. - Ìoscow, 1992. - 440 p.

2. Agroekologiya. Metodologiya, tehnologiya, ekonomika [Agroecology. Methods, technology, economics] / edited by V.A.Chernikov, A.I.Chekeres. - Ìoscow: KolosS, 2004. - 400 p.: illustrated

3. Podunova, L.G. Alternativniye metody issledovaniya (ekspress-metody) dlya toksikologo-gigiyenicheskoy otsenki materialov, izdeliy i obyektov okruzhayuschey sredy [The alternative (rapid) methods of investigation for toxicological and hygienic evaluation of materials, ready products, and evironmebt] / L.G.Podunova. - Moscow: Goskomepidnadzor Rossii, 1999. - P. 4-5.

4. Eskov, A.P. Toksikologicheskiye ispytaniya. Alternativniye metody [Toxicological trials. The alternative ethods] / À.P.Eskov, R.I.Kayumov, À.Å.Sokolov // Toksikologicheskiy vestnik. - 2003. - Vol.5. - P. 25-27.

5. Ekspress-biotest. Biologicheskiy monitoring ekologicheskih sistem: metodicheskoye posobiye [A rapid biotest. Biological monitoring of ecological systems: a guideline] / V.S.Buzmlama, Yu.T.Titov, G.A.Vostroilova [et al.]. - Voronezh: VGU, 1997. – 12 p.

6. Salova, L.S. Biologicheskiye metody otsenki toksichnosti pochv [Biological methods evaluating soil toxicity] / L.S.Salova, V.N.Miroshkina, L.A.Punda // proceedings from the 2nd meeting of Russian toxigologists, Moscow, Nov.10-13, 2003. - Ìoscow, 2003. - P. 234-240.

7. Rozhnov, G.I. Razrabotka alternativnyh metodov otsenki toksichnosti himicheskih veshestv na osnove biotestirovaniya [Developing alternative biotest-based methods to evaluate substances toxicity] / G.I.Rozhnov, V.A. Proynova, A.V. Limantseva // Toksikologichesky vestnik. - 1995. - Vol. 6. - P. 27-29.

8. Martynyuk, I.À. Problemy ekologicheskoy bezopastnosti pischevyh dobavok i opredeleniye ih toksichnosti metodom biotestirovaniya [Ecological safety of food additives and evaluation their toxicity using biotest method]: dissertation for degree of Candidate of Biology / I.A.Martynyuk. - Ìoscow, 2002. – 158 p.

9. Radilov, A.S. perspektivy razvitiya sistemy gigiyenicheskogo normirovaniya himicheskih veschestv [Opportunities of developing the sistem of hygienic norms for chemical substances] / À.S.Radilov, V.R.Rembovsky, L.A.Mogilenkova // proceedings from the 2nd meeting of Russian toxigologists, Moscow, Nov.10-13, 2003. - Ìoscow, 2003. - P.216-218.

10. Bogdan, A.S. Ekspress-otsenka himicheskih veschestv mnogokomponentnyh smesey na Tetrachymenapóriformis [A rapid evaluation of chemical substances of multicomponental mixtures based on Tetrachymenapóriformis] / À.S.Bogdan, À.I.Kotelenets // proceedings from the 2nd meeting of Russian toxigologists, Moscow, Nov.10-13, 2003. - Ìoscow, 2003. - P. 61-63.

11. Zhulenko, V.N. Veterinarnaya toksikologiya [Veterinary toxicology] / V.N.Zhulenko, M.I.Rabinovich, G.A.Talanov. - Ìoscow: Kolos, 2001. – 392 p.

12. Gerasimenko, V.P. Praktikum po agroekologii: uchebnoye pposobiye [Practical course on agroecology: manual] / V.P.Gerasimanko. - St.Petersburg: Lan, 2009. - 432 p.: illustrated.

13.Dolgov, V.A. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po uskorennomu opredeleniyu toksichnosti produktov zhvotnovodstva i kormov [Methodical recommendations on rapid evaluation of animal products and fodder toxicity] / V.A.Dolgov, S.A.Lavina. - Ìoscow: VNIIVSGiE, 2000. - 4 p.

 

 

 

 

 

   
   
Title:

BRAIN CORTEX ULTRASTRUCTURE IN SWINE EXPOSED TO DIOXINS, T-2 TOXIN AND THERAPEUTICAL DRUGS

   
Authors: Salnikova M.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Idiyatov I.I.– Candidate of Biological Sciences; Kadikov I.R. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Saitov V.R. – Doctor of Biology.
   
Address:

Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety, Kazan; e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru 

   
Abstract:

The aim of our study was to investigate the features of dioxin and T-2 toxin influence (independent, associated, and using zeolite and dimephosphone) on cellular ultrastructure of swine brain cortex. Studies were carried out using 6-8 weeks-old 24 pigs of "Large White" breed with live weight of 14-18 kg, they were divided by analogy into 8 groups with 3 animals in each group. The experiment lasted 45 days. The first group was used as biological control; it received an adequate level of vegetable oil as part of the diet. The second, third and fourth groups were orally introduced 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in doses of 1/400 LD50, LD50 1/600 and 1/800 LD50 every day, accordingly. Piglets in the fifth group daily received T-2 toxin at dose of 2 MAC. Piglets in the sixth and seventh groups were daily orally challenged with both dioxin and T-2 toxin (1/400 LD50 + 2 MAC; 1/800 LD50 + 2 MAC). Along with toxicants (TCDD dose 1/400 LD50 and T-2 toxin in a dose of 2 MAC) the eighth group was introduced 15% solution of dimephosphone 90 mg / kg body weight and zeolite from Mainskij deposits, Ulyanovsk region, at dosage of 2% ration per day. Electron microscopic studies of swine cortex neurons showed that exposure to toxicants (independently or in associated manner) damages various cell compartments: spread of perinuclear space, swelling mitochondria, lower level of cytoskeleton in nerve poles. The most serious structural and functional changes were observed at associated exposure to dioxins and T-2 toxin (TCDD dose of 1/400 LD50, T-2 toxin at a dose of 2 MAC). Zeolite and dimephosphone in the proposed dosages were studied to have a protective effect.


   
Keywords: Keywords: pigs, ultrastructure, neurons, myelin membranes, cytoskeleton, dioxin, T-2 toxin, dimephosphone.
   
References:

References

1. Papunidi, E.K. Eksperimyentalnoye obosnovaniye razrabotki sryedstv profilaktiki pri sochyetannom vozdyeystvii na zhivotnih toksichnyh elementov, mikotoksinov i piretroidov [Experimental justification of developing the measures to prevent animal associated poisoning with  toxic elements, mycotoxins, and pyrethroids]: abstract from postdoc. dissertation for Doctor of Biology: Papunidi Ellada Konstantinovna – Kazan, 2008. – 38 p.

2. Tremasov, M.Ya. Sluchay sochyetannogo mikotoksikoza svinyey [A case of swine associated mycotoxicosis] / M.Ya.Tryemasov, A.Z. Ravilov, B.V. Kamalov // Veterinariya. – 2000. – Vol. 11. – P. 15-17.

3. Kadikov, I.R. Sochyetannoye deystviye dioksina i T-2 toksina na zhivotnih [An associated affect of dioxin and T-2 toxin on animals] / I.R. Kadikov, A.I. Syergyechyev, V.A. Novikov, M.Ya. Tremasov // Toksikologiya. 2007. – Vol. 1. – P. 18–20.

4. Matvyeyeva, E.L. Morfologicheskoye obosnovaniye primenyeniya lechyebnyh i profilakticheskih sryedstv pri otravlyenii zhivotnyh dioksinom, sochyetannom vozdyeystvii T-2 toksina i aflatoksina B1[A morphological justification of using therapeutic and preventive means at animals poisoning with dioxin and associated exposure to T-2 toxin and aflatoxin B1]: posdoc. disseration for Doctor of Biology: Matvyeyeva Elyena Lanryentyevna – Kazan, 2007. – 270 p.

5. Vafin, I.F. Sochyetannoye dyeystviye dioksina i kadmiya hlorida na zhivotnih i iziskaniye lyechyebnih sryedstv [An associated affect of dioxin and cadmium chloride on animals and development of therapeutic drugs]: dissertation for Candidate of Biological sciences / Vafin Iskandyer Foatovich – Kazan, 2010. – 103 p.

6. Sofronov, P.V. Sochyetannoye vozdyeystviye T-2 toksina i kadmia na organism ovyets [An associated effect of T-2 toxin and cadmium on sheep organism] / P.V. Sofronov, D.R. Sharafutdinova, V.A. Konyuhova // Immunopatologiya, allergologiya, infektologia. 2010. – Vol. 1. –P. 208–209.

7. Osyanin, K.A. Vliyaniye sochyetannogo dyeystviya dioksina i atsetata svintsa na ultrastrukturu kletok krolikov i primeneniye sryedstv lecheniya i profilaktiki [An associated effect of dioxin and lead acetate on cellular structure in rabbits and using therapeutic and preventions means]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Biological sciences: Osyanin Konstantin Anatolyevich – Kazan, 2012. – 20 p.

8. Saitov, V.R. Izuchyeniye ultrastruktury kory bolshyh polushariy krolikov, pri sochetannom vozdeystvii ekotoksikantov i primenenii lyekarstvyennih sryedstv [Cortex cellular structure in rabbits exposed to an associated exposure of ecotoxicants and using therapeutic drugs ] / V.R. Saitov, M.M. Salnikova, L.V. Malyutina // Veterinarny vrach. – 2014. – Vol. 1. – P. 14–20.

9. Salnikova, M.M. Ultratonkiye issledovanya pyecheni, pochek i golovnogo mozga ovets pri hronichyeskom vozdeystvii ksenobiotikov [Ultrathin structure of sheep liver, kidney, and brain at chronic exposure to xenobiotics] / M.M. Salnikova [et al.]// Effektivnye i bezopasnye sredstva v veterinarii – Using efficient and safe means in Animal Health: proceeding from the III Int. Congress of Veterinary pharmacologists and toxicologists. - St.Petersburg, 2014. – P. 229–231.

10. Saitov, V.R. Toksikologicheskiy i ultrastrukturny analiz izmeneniy v organizme i kletkah zhivotnih pri hronicheskom vozdeystvii ksenobiotikov i primenenii lechyebno-profilakticheskih sredstv [Toxicological and structural analyses of cellular and body changes in animals exposed to chronic effect of xenobiotics and using therapeutic and prevention measures]: abstract from postdoc. Dissertation for Doctor of Biology: Saitov Vadim Rasimovich – Kazan, 2014. – 42p.

11. Weakley, B. Beginner’s  handbook in biological transmission electron microscopy / B.S.Weakley; translated into Russian by Viktorova I.V.; edited by Polyakova B.Yu,  – Moscow: Mir, 1975. – 324 p.



   
   
Title:

NEW HERBAL DRUGS TO TREAT ANIMAL HELMINTHOSES

   
Authors: 1R.Al Djomaa – postgraduate; 1Maksimov M.L. - Doctor of Medicine, professor; 1Strelayeva A.V. - Doctor of Pharmacy, professor; 2Sadykov V.M. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Vakhidova A.M.- Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address:

1I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia (e-mail: docstrelaeva@mail.ru).

2I.P.Pavlov Samarqand State Medical University, Samarqand, Republic of Uzbekistan (e-mail: sadykov.39@mail.ru; samsmi@umail.uz).

   
Abstract:

The aim of the research was to study antihelminthic activity and toxicity of drugs, made by extraction from plants using petroleum. From green fruits of walnut, pumpkin seeds, tansy flower heads, and other plans were used to develop a new drug, cheblin - SK - 1(CSK), Cucur-bito pepo+petroleum, Tanacetum vulgare + petroleum. For CSK wallnut of milk-wax ripeness was used. The new cheblin- SK-1(ChSK) drug was tested using 12 groups of cotton rats inoculated with alveolar echinococcosis (7 rats in each group) and showed its high anti-echinococcosis activity. The experiments were carried out using both conventional methods and original methods of echinococcosis immunodiagnostics by hooklets precipitation reaction and lymphocytes antigen-binding. The experiments showed that growth inhibition indexes of parasitogenic larvocysts (GIIPL) were as follows: GIIPL-1 -87.88%, GIIPL-2 -91.13%, GIIPL-3 -92.81%, for todicamp (A.G. Malenkov reference drug) accordingly 89.96; 90.56; 91.56%; for albendozol (medical reference drug) -47.3; 74.33; 60.0%; for mebendozol – 65.35; 79.21; 71.56%; for extragent – 40.05; 47.33; 50.94% accordingly. 1250 sheep echinococosis-positive according to hooklets precipitation reaction and lymphocytes antigen-binding were put on fattening. 620 of them were treated with todicamp drug, 630 - with ChSK. Autopsy showed that most of (80%) echinococci and fetal elements died. A high economic effect was received. In the control group of 150 untreated sheep all echinococci were alive, in the comparison group of 100 sheep treated with albendazol only 23 sheep had dead echinococci. Preparations Cucurbito pepo+petroleum (from pumpkin seeds), Tanacetum vulgare+ petroleum (from Tanacetum floscule) were tested for antihelminthic activity (each drug on 60 white mice) using laboratory models of hymenolepiasis, syphachiosis with 100% effect. The same drugs provided convalescence for ascaridosis in 70 chickens (by 35 hens for each drug). The new drug worth close attention for animal treatment.

   
Keywords: echinococcosis, hymenolepiasis, syphochiosis, antihelminthics, cheblin-SK–1., Cucurbito pepo+petroleum, Tanacetum vulgare + petroleum, treatment effect.
   
References:

1. Bobilev P.B. Izucheniye “maslichnosti” semyan tykvy vidov, razreshennyh k meditsinskomu primineniyu v SSSR [Oil content of pumpkin seeds from species  approved for medical use in USSR] / R.V.Bobylev // Resursovedcheskoye i fitohimicheskoye izucheniye lekarstvennoy flory SSSR. - 1991. -Vol.3 - P. 187–190.

2. Patent 2033803 Russian Federation, IPC A61 K35. Sposob polucheniya biologicheski aktivnogo preparata "Todikamp" [A method to produce "Todikamp", a biological active additive] / A.G.Malenkov, P.S.Deyneko, I.M.Kolotygina, L.G.Nehamkina, M.P.Todika, G.V.Schetkin,;applican and patentowner: A.G. Malenkov. - # 93043794; applied on 30.08.1993; published on 30.04.1995, Invention bulletin ¹15 (1995) - 6p.

3. Nesterova, O.V. Rasrabotka metodov standartizatsii kukurbina iz semyan tykvy [Development of standardization methods of cucurbin from pumpkin seeds] / O.V.Nesterova // Farmatsiya. –1989. - Vol.6. – P.36-38.

4. Nesterova, O.V. Sozdaniye metodov kontrolya kachestva syrya semyan  tykvy v usloviyah kompleksnoy pererabotki [Development of methods to survey pumpkin seeds quality in industrial processing] / O.V.Nesterova // Realizatsiya nauchnyh dostizheniy v prakticheskoy farmatsii - Implementation of scientific achievements into practical phatmacy: abstract presentations of Republican scientific conference, Kharkov, Oct.16-18,1991. - Kharkov, 1991. - P.198–199.

5. Nesterova, O.V. Izucheniye sostava vitaminov gruppy E sortovyx semyan tykvy i dyni [Content analyses of pumkin and melon commercial seeds for vitamin E] / O.V.Nesterova // Sovremenniye aspekty izucheniya lekarstvennyh rasteniy. - Moscow, 1995. – P. 157–163.

6. Popkov, V.À. Standartizatsiya suppozitoriyev na osnove semyan  tykvy [Standardization of suppositories from pumpkin seeds] / V.A.Popkov // Aktualniye problemy farmatsevticheskoy himii - Current problems of pharmaceutical chemistry: collection of articlesof NIIF. - 1996. – Vol.35. - P.145– 148.

7. Rakitskaya, L.G. Terapevticheskaya effektivnost masla semyan tykvy v lechenii bolnyh yazvennoy boloznyu [Therapeutical efficiency of pumkin seeds oil to treat peptic ulcer] / L.G.Rakitskaya // Novoye v gastroenterologii. - 1995. - Vol. 2. - P.35–36

8. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmokologicheskih veschestv [A guideline on experimental (preclinical) trials of novel pharmacological substances]. - Moscow, 2000.– 350 p.

9. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmokologicheskih veschestv [A guideline on experimental (preclinical) trials of novel pharmacological substances]. - Moscow, 2005. – 827p.

10. Samylina, I.À. Semena tykvy [Pumpkin seeds] / I.A.Samylina // Gosudarstvennaya farmokopeya SSSR The USSR state pharmacopeia. - Moscow, 1990. - P.371–372.

11. Samylina, I.À. Lekarstvenniye rasteniya Gosudarstvennoy farmokopeyi. Farmakognoziya. Ch.1 [Medical herbs of State pharmacopeia. Pharmacognosy. Ch.1.] / I.À.Samylina, V.À.Severtsev. - Moscow: "ANMI", 1999. P. 488.

12. The hypoglycemic effect of pumpkin seeds, Trigonelline (TRG), Nicotinic acid (NA), and D-Chiro-inositol (DCI) in controlling glycemic levels in diabetes mellitus / G.G.Adams [et al.] // Crit Rev. - 2014. – N. 10. - P. 1322-1329.

13. Effects of gelling agents on growth, mineral composition and naphtoquinone content of in vitro explants of hybrid walnut trees / E.Barbas [et al.] // Annales des sciences forestieres. – 1993. - ¹ 50. – Ð. 177-186.

14. Tocopherol from seeds of Cucurbita pepo against diabetes: validation by in vivo experiments supported by computational docking / S.K.Bharti [et al.] // J.Formos Med Assoc. - 2013. – ¹ 11. – P.676–690.

15. Chenevard, D. Carbon allocation among tree organs / D.Chenevard, J.S.Frossard, A.Lacointe // Annales des sciences forestieres. – 1994. - ¹ 51. – Ð.177-186.

16. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review / M.Durante [et al.] // Int J Mol Sci. - 2014. – N. 4. – P. 6725–6740.

17. Optimization of preparation of antioxidative peptides from pumpkin seeds using response surface method / S.Fan [et al.] // PLoS One. – 2014. – N 3. – P. 23–35.

18. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities / J.Jiao [et al.] // Food Chem. - 2014. - N. 3. – P. 117-124.

19. Fibre from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds and rinds: physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity and application as bakery product ingredients / K.L.Nyam [et al.] // Malays J Nutr. - 2013. - –N. 4. – P. 99–109.

20. Nano-silicon dioxide mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on Cucurbita pepo L / M.H.Siddiqui [et al.] // Environ Toxicol Chem. - 2014. – N. 11. – P. 2429–2437.

  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

PERIODICITY OF RABIES SPREAD AMONG ANIMALS AND THE CYCLIC NATURE OF ITS MANIFESTATION IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC

   
Authors: Yavkin S.G., director
   
Address:

Izhevsk Animal Disease Control Station (e-mail: IzhSBBZh@yandex.ru).

   
Abstract:

The paper presents the retrospective data on rabies cases registered in animals of various species in the Udmurt Republic (UR) within 25 years. It also shows the periodicity and dynamic development of wildlife rabies in the area. Within the period of 25 years of rabies monitoring 4 maximum peaks of the disease were revealed. In the area, the periodicity of maximum number of animal rabies cases was 2-3 years with a short one-year interval of the disease decline. The paper presents the ratio of rabies cases registered in animals of various species in different years. In UR, the major vector of rabies infection is a fox with a 50% of annual sickness rate, and at the 1st half of 2015 – with 70% of sickness rate. The disease seasonal peak is April, when fox males are most active providing their offsprings with food; the peak reduces in June, July and August - the period when fox offsprings become active. Besides fox the epidemic process involves dogs, cats. However, lately dogs are in a lesser extent due to wide vaccination and control of stray dogs number while rabies cases among the cats increased as it is harder to detect detect and catch the infected ones. Because of the epidemic tension the rabies sickness rate among the livestock animals also remains critical – 8%. In this case, the relevant bodies such as hunting societies and the services engaged in capture of homeless animals are recommended to strengthen prevention measures and epidemiological survey and inform the local tenants about the danger of rabies infection and its prevention measures.

   
Keywords: animal rabies, retrospective analysis of infection spread, seasonal cyclicity, infection development.
   
References:

1. Bardina, N.S. Beshenstvo v Rossii. Otsenka riska: Informatsionno-analiticheskiy obzor [Rabies infection in Russia. Risk evaluation: data review] / N.S.Bardina, M.A.Titov, A.K.Karaulov. - Vladimir: ARRIAH,  2008. – 80 p.

2. Gulyukin, M.I. Situatsiya uzhe krizisnaya [The situation is already critical] / M.I.Gulyukin, V.A.Vedernikov // Veterinarnaya zhizn. - 2008. - Vol. 12. - P. 6-8.

3. Poleschuk, E.M. Beshenstvo v Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten [The rabies infection in the Russian Federation. The information and analytical bulletin] / G.N.Sidorov, D.G.Sidorova, E.M.Poleschuk. - Omsk, 2009. - 46 p.

4. Sidorov, G.N. Beshenstvo dikih mlekopitayuschih na territorii Rossii v kontse 20 v nachale 21 veka [Rabies in wild mammals at the late XX-early XXI centuries] // G.N.Sidorov, D.G.Sidorova, E.M.Poleschuk // Zoologicheskiy zhurnal. 2010. – vol. 89 (1). - P. 26-36.

5. Ivanov, A.V. Epizootologicheskiy i immunologicheskiy nadzor za beshenstvom [Rabies epidemiological and immunological survey] /A.V.Ivanov, N.A.Hismatullina, A.M.Gulyukin // Veterinarnyiy vrach.- Kazan. 2010. – vol.4 (17). - P. 3-6.

6. Ivanov, A.V. Beshenstvo: etiologiya, epizootologiya, diagnostika: Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie v illyustratsiyah [The rabies: etiology, epidemiology, detection: An illustrated methodical manual] / A.V.Ivanov, N.A.Hismatullina, A.N.Chernov. – Moscow: Kolos, 2010. - 54 p.

7. Gulyukin, A.M. Epizootologicheskiy monitoring i sovershenstvovanie serologicheskogo kontrolya effektivnosti vaktsinoprofilaktiki beshenstva [Rabies epidemiological monitoring and improvement of serological survey of vaccination efficacy]: abstract from dissertation of Candidate for Biol.Sci. / A.M.Gulyukin. - Kazan.-2011. - P.23.

8. Sergeeva, E.V. Godovaya dinamika epizooticheskogo proyavleniya rabicheskoy infektsii v usloviyah Nizhegorodskoy oblasti [An annual dynamics of rabies epidemic manifestation in Nizhny Novgorod region] / E.V.Sergeeva // Veterinarnaya praktika. 2009.- Vol.1. - P. 21-23.

  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

ARTERIAL HEMODYNAMICS IN RABBIT HIND LIMBS AFTER INTRAMEDULLARY OSTEOSYNTHESIS USING IMPLANTS COATED WITH TITANIUM AND HAFNIUM NITRIDES

   
Authors: 1Baklanova D.A. – postgraduate, 1Shakirova F.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 2Akhtyamov I.F. - Doctor of Medicine, professor; 3Klushkina Yu.A. - Candidate of Medical Sciences.
   
Address:

1Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel. +7(843) 273-96-17; e- mail: danya66russ@gmail.ru).

2Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (tel. +7(843) 236-06-52, e-mail: yalta60@mail.ru ).

3Kazan Medical Academy, the Russian Federation Ministry of Health (e-mail: klyushkina_1974@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:

The arteria poplitea hemodynamics was studied in rabbits before surgery and after experimentally induced injury of the tibia both on intact and operated limbs using ultrasonic dopplerography. The experiment involved 2 groups of rabbits: the experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 20) ones. Using an ultrasound scanner «SonoScape S6», with a high-frequency linear probe 7.5-10 MHz, the soft tissues at the fracture site were examined at B-mode before surgery and at 10, 30, 60 days after. The blood stream proximal at the fracture area was evaluated using color flow mapping. The parameters of the standard automatic reports: time averaged maximum velocity (TAMAX) of blood flow, pulsatility index (Pi) reflecting the elastic properties of the arteries, resistivity index (Ri) reflecting the resistance to the blood flow located distally to the measuring point were evaluated. Changes in parameters of arterial hemodynamics were compared with preoperative values. The studies resulted in detection of changes specific to the dilation of blood vessels in the injured area of the operated limb at early postoperative period (at 10 days after surgery) (decreased  Pi and Ri parameters) which can be regarded as a positive sign during primary synostosis. In the group with in which the implants with titanium and hafnium nitrides were used the parameters recovered back to the presurgical earlier than in the group with uncoated implants. 

   
Keywords: doppler sonography, rabbits, internal fixation, titanium and hafnium nitrides.
   
References:

1. Ultrazvukovaya diagnostika techeniya reparativnogo protsessa pri operativnom lechenii perelomov kostey goleni [Ultrasound diagnosis of reparative process in surgical treatment of shin bones fractures] / Pisarev V.V.[et al.] // Vestnik Ivanovskoy meditsinskoy akademii. - 2013. - Vol.18, Issue. 3 - P. 35-39.

2. Otsenka krovosnabzheniya kostnogo regenerata metodom vyisokochastotnoy ultrazvukovoy doplerografii [Evaluation of blood supply to bone regeneration by high-frequency ultrasound Doppler] / V.A.Schurov [et al.] // Travmatologiya i ortopediya Rossii. – 2008. - Vol 3. - P. 39-41.

3. Ermak, E.M. Sovremennyie ultrazvukovyie tehnologii v diagnostike destruktivnyih i reparativnyih protsessov v kostnoy i hryaschevoy tkanyah [Modern ultrasound technology in the diagnosis of destructive and reparative processes in bone and cartilage tissues: abstract from postdoc. dissertation of Doctor of Medicine // Ermak Elena Mihaylovna. – Ermak Elena Mihailovna. – 2006. – 36p.

4. Dolganova, T.I. Ultrazvukovaya doplerografiya paltsevyih arteriy pri udlinenii kultey falang paltsev mini-fiksatorami [Ultrasonic Doppler digital arteries at an elongation of phalanges stump mini clamps] / T.I.Dolganova, D.A.Shabalin, N.G.Shihaleva // Travmatologiya i ortopediya Rossii. – 2011. - Vol. 2 (60). - P. 107-113.

5. Krovoobraschenie i osteogenez pri zameschenii kostnyih defektov v eksperimente [Circulation and bone formation in the bone defects in experiment] / V.I.Shevtsov [et al.] // Geniy ortopedii. 2006. - Vol. 4. - P. 59-64.

6. Fishkin, V.I. Regionarnaya gemodinamika pri perelomah kostey [Regional hemodynamics in bone fractures] // V.I.Fishkin, S.E.Lvov, V.E.Udaltsov. – Moscow: Meditsina- 1981. – 184 p.

7. Dinamika krovosnabzheniya paltsev pri lechenii patsientov s opuholevyimi i opuholepodobnyimi zabolevaniyami kostey kisti metodom chreckostnogo osteosinteza [The dynamics of the blood supply to the fingers in the treatment of patients with tumor and tumor-like bone diseases brush method transosseous osteosynthesis] / T.I.Dolganova [et al.] // Geniy ortopedii. – Genius of orthopedics. – 2012. - Vol. 3. - P. 113-117.

8. Ultrazvukovaya diagnostika techeniya reparativnogo protsessa pri operativnom lechenii perelomov kostey goleni [Ultrasound diagnosis of reparative process in the surgical treatment of fractures of the shin bones] / V.V.Pisarev [et al.] // Vestnik Ivanovskoy meditsinskoy akademii. - 2013. – Vol.18, Issue. 3. - P. 35-39.

9. Dolganova, T.I., Perifericheskaya gemodinamika u postradavshih s polisegmentarnyimi perelomami nizhnih konechnostey pri lechenii metodom chreskostnogo osteosinteza [Peripheral hemodynamics in patients with polysegmental fractures of the lower limbs under treatment by transosseous osteosynthesis] / T.I.Dolganova, A.G.Karasev, D.V.Dolganov // Vestnik travmatologii i ortopedii Urala. –2012. - Vol. 1-2. - P. 11-17.

   
   
Title:

THE EFFECT BIODRUG FROM LACTOBACILLUS HOMOPROBIOTIC STRAIN ON WEANED PIGLETS INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND PERFORMANCE IN INDUSTRIAL SWINE FARMS

   
Authors: 1Pozolotina N.V. - postgraduate; 1Darmov I.V. – Doctor of Medicine, professor, member of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences; 1Marakulin I.V.- Doctor of Medicine, professor; 1Pogorelsky I.P. - Doctor of Medicine, professor, member of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences; 2Sevrugin V.A. – director general; 2Demakova O.N. – deputy director; 2Zhavoronkova A.V. – head.
   
Address:

1Vyatka State University, Kirov (e-mail: biologiavgu@yandex.ru).

 

2 CJSC «Zarechye», Kirov (e-mail: zarechie43@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:

We evaluated the effect an experimental sample of a new probiotic drug based on Lactobacillus paracasei homoprobiotic strain on the qualitative and quantitative composition of weaned pigs intestinal microflora and performance. The laboratory and farm trials involved 189 weaned pigs which were introduced three forms of the probiotic drug: liquid, dry and culture fluid extracted from microbial cells by centrifugation. We have investigated quantitative composition of coliform bacteria, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, staphylococcus, hemolytic forms of bacteria, and enterococcus by culturing the samples of intestinal contents on the diagnostic nutrient media. The new probiotic has provided improvement of the intestinal microflora: increase in bifidobacterium and lactobacillus for 1-2 of the order of magnitude more, lactose-positive E. coli up to their original values, it inhibited the growth of pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria. The studies of samples of intestinal contents in the controls showed a general trend to substitute obligate microflora with allochthonic pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.  In the control groups the bifidobacterium level was lower than the norm by 1 order, lactobacillus - by 2 orders of magnitude, lactose-positive E. coli - more than 3 orders of magnitude. The intestinal contents of the control pigs had colibacteria with lower enzymatic activity, hemolytic forms of bacteria, Proteus, Staphylococcus bacteria with lecithinase activity. The level of the average daily weight gain in the experimental groups was higher for 4-20%, and the live weight for 3-10.5%comparing to that of the controls.

   
Keywords: probiotic, homoprobiotic strain, weaned pig, lactobacillus, enterobacteria, opportunistic pathogenic microbial flora
   
References:

1. Sheyko, I.P. Svinovodstvo [Swine breeding]/ I.P.Sheyko. - Minsk: Novoye znaniye, 2005. - 384p.: il.

2. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost ispolzovaniya yantarnoy i limonnoy kisloty s probiotikom  «Probiol-L» v ratsionah pitaniya sviney [An economic efficacy of using succinic and citric acids with «Probiol-L» probiotic in swine feeding] [an electronic resource]. – URL: http://svinovodstvo.blogspot.com/2014/05/probiotik-dlya-sviney.html (application date: 05.06.2015).

3. Kormlenie porosyat-sosunov Chast 1. [Feeding suckling piglets. Part1][an electronic resource]. – URL: http://svinovodstvo.blogspot.com/2011/05/1.html (application date: 05.06.2015).

4. Andreeva, A.A. Profilaktika zheludochno-kishechnyh rasstroystv u novorozhdennyh telyat i porosyat otyemnogo perioda fitoprobiotikami [Prevention of gastro-intestinal disorders in newborn calves and weaned piglets using phytoprobiotics] / A.A.Andreeva, O.N.Nikolaeva // Vestnik Bashkirskogo agrarnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta.- 2010. – Vol.2 (10). – P.47-51.

5. Gryazneva, T.N. Sravnitelnaya effektivnost fugatov B. subtilis, shtamm TPI 13 i B. licheniformis, shtamm TPI 11 i zhidkoy formy probiotik «BIOD-5» pri zheludochno-kishechnyh infektsiyah porosyat-otyomyshey [A comparative efficacy of B. subtilis TPI 13 strain and B. licheniformis TPI 11 strain filtrate fluids and «BIOD-5» probiotic liquid form at weaned piglets gastro-intestinal infections] // Gryazneva T.N., Tihonov I.V., Vasilyev P.G. / Veterinarnaya patologiya. – 2003. – Vol.1. – P.153-154

6. Nugumanov, G.O. Vliyanye probiotika «Vitafort» i «Vetom» na sostav kishechnoy mikroflory porosyat-otyomyshey [The effect of «Vitafort» and «Vetom» probiotics on intestinal microflora in weaned piglets] // G.O.Nugumanov, F.S.Haziahmetov, A.V.Andreeva // Fundamentalnye issledovaniya. – 2013. – Vol.6. – P.606-610.

7. Nekrasov, R.V. Vliyaniye probiotika laktoamilovarin na produktivnost i biohimicheskie pokazateli krovi porosyat [The effect of lactoamilovarin probiotic on piglets performance and blood biochemical parameters]/ R.V. Nekrasov [et al.] // Teoriya i praktika kormleniya [an electronic resource]. – URL: http://fermlab.ru/razrabotki/probiotik-v-kormlenii-porosyat (application date: 05.06.2015).

8. Lactobacillus Brevis strain: pat. ¹ 60397654 SShA, ¹ 2004/01266871; appl. 22.07.2003 publ. 08.04.2008 – 10p.

9. Korshunov, V.M. Ratsionalniye podhody k korrektsii mikroflory kishechnika [A rational approach to treat intestinal microflora] // V.M.Korshunov, V.V.Smeyanov, B.A.Efimov / Vestnik RAMN. - 1996. – Vol.2. – P.60-65.

10. Sidorov, M.A. Normalnaya mikroflora zhivotnyh i eyo korrektsiya probiotikami [A normal animal microflora and its treatment using probiotics]/ M.A.Sidorov, V.V.Subbotin, N.V.Danilevskaya // Veterinariya. – 2000. – Vol. 11. – P.17-22.

11. Pozolotina, N.V. Issledovaniye antibiotikorezistentnosti novyh probioticheskih shtammov laktobatsill, vydelennyh iz kishechnogo soderzhimogo molochnyh porosyat [Studies of antibiotic resistance of new lactobacterium probiotic strains isolated from intestinal content of suckling piglets] // N.V.Pozolotina, I.V.Marakulin, A.Yu.Orlova / Obshhestvo, nauka, innovatsii - Society, science, and innovations: proceedings from All-Russina annual scientific conference, Kirov, Apr.15-16, 2014. - Kirov: Vyatka state university, 2015. – P.147-148.

12. Pozolotina N.V. Vydeleniye i sravnitelnaya harakteristika shtammov laktobatsill – predstaviteley normalnoy kishechnoy mikroflory porosyat [Isolation and comparative characterization of lactobacterium strains - representatives of swine normal intestinal microflora] // N.V.Pozolotina [et al.] / Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoy mikrobiologii. – 2015. – Vol.2. – P.3-10.

13. Sovershenstvovaniye metodov diagnostiki disbakterioza tolstogo kishechnika: informatsionnoye pismo [Improvement of methods to detect large intestinal dysbacteriosis: newsletter] // V.P.Ivanov [et al.] / St. Petersburg: Centr gossanepidnadzora, 2002. –  31p.

14. Labinskaya, A.S. Mikrobiologiya s tehnikoy mikrobiologicheskih issledovaniy [Microbiology and techniques of microbiological investigations]. – Moscow: Meditsina, 1978. – 394p.

15. Ashmarin, I.P. Statisticheskiye metody v mikrobiologicheskih issledovaniyah [Using statisticalmethods in microbiological studies] / I.P.Ashmarin, A.A.Vorobyev. – Leningrad: MEDGIZ, 1962. – 179 p.

16. Shenderov, B.A. Meditsinskaya mikrobnaya ekologiya i funktsionalnoye pitaniye. T.1 [Medical microbial ecology and functional diet. Vol.1] / B.A.Shenderov. - Moscow: GRANT, 1998. – 288p.

  Parasitology
   
Title:

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF ANTIHELMINTIC DRUGS AT AVIAN NEMATODE DISEASE

   
Authors: Bayramov S.Y. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences
   
Address: Azerbaijan Research Veterinary Institute, Baku (e-mail: bayramovs@rambler.ru)
   
Abstract:

The article provides the results of comparative studies of the efficiency of treating chicken ascariasis and heterakidosis by the mixture of various antihelmintic drugs: alben with askazin, and ashimid 30% with fen panakur introduced in half dosage ratio depending on live weight and in associated combination. Each group of  chicken was introduced a half dose of entihelmintic drugs mixture in ratio of 30%-ashimid 0.175g, fen panacur 0.13g, alben 0.05g, and askazin 0.5g. per each chicken. The healthy Adler silver chicken breeds with good appetite, without any reported death rate or deviations in clinical status and behavior were used in the experiment. All the experimental chickens were contaminated with suspensions containing 300.0+2.1 Askaridia qali eggs and 250+2.1 Heterakis qallinarum eggs. The efficiency of antihelminthic drugs was varied in different combinations. The effect of some antihelmintic drugs was evaluated using coprological data and postmortem studies of chicken intestines. All the experimental chicken (100%) were infected. The associated use of antihelmintic drugs according to the proposed scheme showed that extended effect of 30%-ashemid and fen panacur mixture is 86.6% in chicken infected with ascaridosis, heterakidosis - 73.3% while the mixture from alben and askazin had 100% extended efficacy at both diseases. The birds recieved alben and askazin in the indicated doses had no helmintes found in cecum and small intestine. A synergic effect of alben and askazin drugs mixture against ascarids and heterakidosis was fond out.

   
Keywords: ascaridiosis, heterakidosis, bird, infection, autopsy, treatment, efficiency.
   
References:

1. Bayramov, S.Yu. Primeneniye super alben, abictin, i fenosala pri smeshannyh invaziyah ptits [Using Alben super, Abictinum, and Phenasalum at associated invasions in birds] / S.Yu.Bayramov // Agrarnaya nauka Azerbaydjana. – 2008. – Vol. 8-9. – P. 76–77.

2. Gadjiyev, Ya.G. Ispolzovaniye pastbishnuh lekarstvennyh rasteniy dlya borby s gelmintozami zhivotnyh [Using pasture herbal drugs to control animal helminthoses] / Ya.G.Gadjiyev // Sbornik nastavleniy po borbe s gelmintozami zhivotnyh – A collection of guidelines to control animal helminthoses. – Baku, 2002. – P. 62–65.

3. Gaysina, L.A. Epizootologicheskaya situatsiya po askaridozu kur v hozyaystvah Respubliki Tatarstan [Epidemic situation on chicken ascariasis in farms of the Republic of Tatarstan] / L.A.Gaysina // Proceedings on current issues in Animal health and husbandry]. – Kazan, 2001. – Part1. – P. 25–26.

4. Gaysina, L.A. Sravnitelnaya effektivnost flotatsionnyh metodov pri diagnostike askaridoza ptits [Comparative efficacy of flotation methods at detection of avian ascariasis] / L.A.Gaysina, Yu.N.Shilyayeva // Proceedings from scientific conference on current issues in Animal health and husbandry. – Kazan, 2002. – Part 1. – P. 31–32.

5. Sravnitelnaya otsenka deystviya antigelmintikov [Comparative evaluation of antihelminthic drugs] / L.A.Gaysina, I.N.Zalyalov, S.G.Fattahov, I.S.Shorkin // Proceedings from scientific conference on current issues in Animal health and husbandry. – Kazan, 2002. – Part 1. – P. 32–33.

6. Veterinarnaya parazitologiya [Animal parasitology] / À.G.Mamedov [et al.]. – Baku: Azerneshr, 1986. – 428 p.

7. Mamedova, S.A. Ispytaniye lekarstvennyh preparatov pri smeshannyh invaziyah ptits [Trial of therapeutic drugs against avain associated invasion] / S.A.Mamedova // Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. - 2013, Vol. 9 (33), P. 148 - 151

8. Petrochenko, V.I. Noviy metod himiko-profilaktiki askaridoza i geterakidoza kur [A novel method of chemical prophylaxis of chicken ascaridiosis and heterakidosis] / V.I.Petrochenko, A.I.Korchagik // Veterinarnariya. - 1964. - Vol.1. - P. 69-70.

9. Sharma, N.D. Efficacy of Butea Frondosa seeds against Ascaridia qalli worms in paulty / N.D.Sharma, C.S.Sisodia // Cldian vet. S. – 1976. – V 53, ¹ 12. – Ð. 920–922.

   
   
Title:

THE LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PYRETHROIDS FOR COMMON HOUSE FLY MUSCA DOMSTICA L.

   
Authors: Levchenko M.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Science; Silivanova E.A. - Candidate of Biological Science; Balabanova G.F. - Candidate of Veterinary Science.
   
Address:

Research Institute for Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology, Tyumen (e-mail: vniivea@mail.ru).

   
Abstract:

Pest management in livestock facilities involves the control of adult insects and their larvae. In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids deltamethrin (as a part of the preparation "Deltsid") and cypermethrin (as a part of preparations "Breeze" and "Samarovka-insecticide") for larvae of housefly Musca domestica L. The study involved laboratory and field studies using Musca domestica L. larva laboratory (sensitive) culture and wild populations. Laboratory experiments were set to determine the larval death rate depending on the quantity of insecticide introduced into the substrate. The experimental results allowed calculation of lethal dose for each insecticide using weighted probit analysis. Delcid had the greatest larvicidal activity, its LD50 for larvae laboratory culture reached 36.8 (19.4?69.9) mg active ingredient / m2 of substrate surface, this is for 5 and 13 times lower than LD50 "Breeze" and "Samarovka" accordingly. LD50 of Deltcid for wild larvae population was 114.2 (71.6?182.1) mg of active ingredient/m2 of substrate surface, and the rate of resistance was 3.1, which indicates the formation of resistance in flies wild population to deltamethrin. In livestock facilities, we treated fly larvae loci with water emulsions of insecticides. The insecticide efficiency was evaluated by change of fly larvae dencity in substrate (dung, straw bedding). Deltcid remained more effective than the "Breeze" and "Samarovka-insecticide" at its application as a water emulsion with 0.025% active ingredient in a volume 1-2 l/m2 for treating livestock facilities.

   
Keywords: pyrethroids, deltamethrin, cipermethrin, larvae, housefly, Musca domstica L.
   
References:

1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po dezinsektsii i dezakarizatsii zhivotnovodcheskikh ob"ektov veterinarno-sanitarnogo nadzora [Guidelines for the pest management on livestock facilities of the veterinary and sanitary control] / G.S.Sivkov [et al.]. - Tyumen: Dels Publ., 2010. - 45 p.

2. Dremova, V.P. Meditsinskaya dezinsektsiya. Osnovnye printsipy, sredstva i metody. [Medical disinfestation. Basic principles, means and methods] / V.P.Dremova, L.S.Putintseva, P.E. Khodakov. - Ekaterinburg: Vitar-Putived, 1999. – 320 p.

3. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po primeneniyu «Deltsida» protiv ektoparazitov zhivotnykh (v poryadke proizvodstvennykh ispytaniy v 2003-2004 gg) [Guidelines for the use of "Delcid" against animal ectoparasites (as field trials during 2003-2004)]. - Tyumen, 2003. - 6 p.

4. Instruktsiya ¹ 2 po primeneniyu insektoakaritsidnogo sredstva «Briz 25% e.k.» (OOO «Spetsbioservis», Rossiya) dlya unichtozheniya sinantropnykh nasekomykh [Instruction # 2 on the use of the insecticidal and acaricidal solution "Breeze 25% EK" (LLC "Spetsbioservis", Russia) for extermination of synanthropic insects]. - Moscow, 2003. – 320 p.

5. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po primeneniyu sredstva insektoakaritsidnogo «Samarovka-insektitsid» [Guidelines on the use of the insecticidal and acaricidal solution "Samarovka-insecticide"]. - Moscow, 2002. - 6 p.

6. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po ispytaniyu pestitsidov, prednaznachennykh dlya borby s ektoparazitami zhivotnykh [Methodical instructions for testing of pesticides designed to control animal ectoparasites] / A.A.Nepoklonov, G.A.Talanov. - Moscow: VASHNIL, 1973. – 48 p.

7. Kotlyar, V.I. K metodike ispytaniya larvitsidov v veterinarnoy dezinsektsii [On the evaluation method of larvicides in veterinary disinsection] / V.I.Kotlyar // Voprosy veterinarnoy arakhno-entomologii: nauchn.-tekhn. byul. VNIIVEA - The issues of veterinary arachnology and entomology: Scientific and Technical Bulletin VNIIVEA. - Tyumen, 1979. Issue 17. - P. 3-4.

8. Pavlov, S.D. Izuchenie effektivnosti insektitsidov i rezistentnosti populyatsiy nasekomykh k ikh deystviyu metodom dozirovannogo kontaktirovaniya (metodicheskie rekomendatsii) [Evaluation of insecticides efficiency and insect populations resistance by method of dose contacting (a guideline)]. / S.D.Pavlov, R.P.Pavlova. - Tyumen: Tyumen State Agricultural Academy Publ., 2005. - 38 p.

9. Roslavtseva, S.A. Dezinsektsiya v sisteme sbora, khraneniya i udaleniya otkhodov v lechebno-profilakticheskikh uchrezhdeniyakh [Desinsection in the system of collection, storing and elimination of waste products in treatment-and-prophylactic institutions] / S.A.Roslavtseva, E.A.Makhneva // RET-INFO. - 2006. - Vol. 3. - P.63–64.

  Zootechny
   
Title:

NATURAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL BASICS OF VIABLE LAMBS PRODUCTION

   
Authors: 1Akhmadiev G.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Safin M.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor
   
Address:

1Naberezhnye Chelny State Institute of Trade and Technology Institute (e-mail: ahmadievgm@mail.ru).

2Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine.

 

   
Abstract:

To understand the current studies on newborn health it should be mentioned that organism viability basics are set during the earliest periods of life - fetus prenatal development and the first months and years of life. Therefore, the health of any living organism largely depends on parental health, primarily mothers. The importance of prenatal development was recognized only recently. The experiments results enabled to draw the following conclusion: the father genes are responsible for placenta development while the mothers' ones - for embrional cells development into body organs and parts. In the experiment the animals were divided into two groups. In winter when animals were at 2nd half of pregnancy the ewes from the 1st experimental group were kept in out wintered housing using the open strawed pens and in the control group the ewes were kept both in sheepfold sheds and open pens. The lambs born to experimental ewes showed better parameters in performance, blood serum total protein, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, daily weight gain than that of the lambs born to the control ewes. In the experimental lambs sickness rate was 14.3%, death rate was 2.9%, while in the controls these parameters were 55.9% and 12.7% accordingly. Therefore, the above mentioned results show than the natural technology of sheep housing allow production of more viable lambs.

   
Keywords: technology, diet, human, animal, compatibility, parental couples, viability, offsprings, ecology, contamination, alien chemicals
   
References:

1. Ahmadiev, G.M. Immunobiologicheskiye aspekty otsenki i prognozirovaniya zhiznesposobnosti novorozhdennyh zhivotnyh [Immunobiological aspects of evaluation and forecast of newborn animals viability] / G.Ì.Ahmadiev. – Kazan: Ruten, 2005. – 168 p.

2. Malikovich, À.G. Otsenka i prognozirovaniye zhiznesposobnosti novorozhdennyh  telyat v zavisimosti ot temperatury tela pri rozhdenii [Evaluation and forecast of newborn calves viability depending on body temperature at birth] / À.G.Malikovich // Veterinarny vrach. – 2014. - Vol. 1. – P. 59-63.

 3. Ahmadiev, G.M. Yestestvennaya rezistentnost yagnyat v zavisimosti ot vozrasta i allergicheskoy reaktivnosti materey [Lambs natural resistance depending on mothers age and resistance] / G.Ì.Ahmadiev, À.F.Dmitriev, Ì.À.Safin // Osobennosti vozniknoveniya i proyavleniya zaraznyh zabolevaniy v usloviyah promyshlennoy tehnologii - Peculiarities of occurence and manifestation of contagious diseases in industrial technology: collection of scientific articles of Kazan veterinary institute. - Kazan, 1983. - P. 50-57.

 4. Borisov, D.N. Vliyaniye immunizatsii na nekotoriye faktory yestestvennoy resistentnosti organizma yagnyat [Immunization effect on some factors of natural resistance in lambs] / D.N.Borisov // Veterinriya Kubani. - 2013. - Vol. 6. - P. 11-13.

5. Dmitriev, A.F. Otsenka funktsionalnoy zrelosti novorozhdennyh zhivotnyh / À.F.Dmitriev, G.Ì.Ahmadiev // Povysheniye produktivnyh i plemennyh kachestv s.-h. zhivotnyh - Improving performance and breeding features of livestock: collection of scintific articles of Stavropol agrarian Institute. – Stavropol, 1985. – P. 72-76.

6. Zdorovye sberegayuschey tehnolologii v obscheobrazovatelnoy shkole: metodologiya analiza, formy, metody, opyt primeneniya: metodicheskiye rekomendatsii [Health of sustainable technoloogy in public school: analyses methods, forms, methods, implementation experience: a guideline] / edited by Ì.Ì.Bezrukih, V.D.Sonkina. – Ìoscow: Triada-pharm, 2002. – 114 p.

7. Donchenko, L.V. Bezopasnost pischevoy produktsii: uchebnik [Safety of food products: a manual] / L.B.Donchenko, V.D.Nadykta. - 2nd edition, addited and revised. – Ìoscow: Deli print, 2007. – 539 p.

8. Ridley, M. Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters / Ì. Ridley; translated into Russian and edited by Î.N.Reva. – Ìoscow: Eksmo, 2008. – 432 p.

9. Garmaeva, Zh.Ts. Vliyaniye lekarstvennyh sredstv prirodnogo proishozhdeniya na uroven yestestvennoy rezistentnosti novorozhdennyh yagnyat [The effect of natural drugs on natural resistance in newborn lambs] / Zh.Ts.Garmaeva, P.B.Tsyrempilov // Herald of V.R.Fillipov Buryat state agrarian academy – 2013. - Vol. 2 (31). - P.125-128.

   
   
Title:

THE UDDER CAPACITY OF RUSSIAN HEAVY DRAFT BREED MARES

   
Authors: Chirgin E.D. - Candidate of Biological Sciences
   
Address: Mari State University (e-mail: chirgindmitrievich@gmail.com)

 

   
Abstract: The main feature of mare milk production is a small capacity of the udder and a high rate of milk formation. The Heavy Draft horse breed is best adapted to intensive mare milk production. But their udder capacity is not well studied. Therefore, the aim of our research was to study the udder capacity in mares of Russian Heavy Draft breed and its correlation with milk production. The Russian Heavy Draft is the most numerous breed in this sphere in the Russian Federation. During the studies, the results of control milking mares in breeding factory "Semenovsky" Mari El Republic from 1982 to 2012 were processed. During the investigation data from 121 animal and 798 lactations were studied. The mares were studied for the udder maximal capacity, physiological capacity, the filling degree. We proposed to evaluate the udder maximum capacity at four hours after the previous milking. In our research the udder physiological capacity in Russian Heavy Draft mares ranged from 1.16 liters to 1.52 liters. The maximum capacity varied from 1.63 liters to 3.90 liters. In mares the udder capacity positively correlated with milk production. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.57 to 0.81. Also, the change in the udder capacity during the lactation period and the animal lifetime. Repeatability (0.15) and heritability (0.28) coefficients of mares udder capacity were calculated. In our research the udder filling degree ranged from 35.08% to 63.58% of the udder physiological capacity. The results of these studies can be used in further selection of the Russian Heavy Draft breed.
   
Keywords: udder capacity , volatility, correlation, repeatability, heritability
   
References:

1. Grachev, I.I. Fiziologiya laktatsii selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnih [The lactation physiology in farm animals] / I.I.Grachev, V.P.Galantsev. - Moscow: Kolos, 1974 - 297 p.

Saygin, I.A. Zootehnicheskiye osnovy molochnogo konevodstva (eksperimentalnyie issledovaniya po molochnomu konevodstvu Bashkirskoy ASSR) [Zootechnic basics of dairy horse breeding (experimental studies on dairy horse breeding in Bashkiria)]: abstract from dissertation for degree of Doctor of Agrarian Sci./ I.ASaygin. - Leningrad, 1962. - 32 p.

2. Duysembaev, K.I. Issledovanie aminokislotnogo sostava i elektroforeticheskih svoystv belkov kobylyego moloka, ispolzuyemogo dlya proizvodstva kumysa [Study of the amino acid composition and electrophoretic properties of proteins in mare milk used to produce koumiss]: abstract from dissertation for degree of Candidate of Agrarian Sci. / K.I.Duysembaev - Alma-Ata, 1968. - 23 p.

3. Ammosova, T.V. Molochnaya produktivnost yakutskoy loshadi i puti ee ratsionalnogo ispolzovaniya [Diary production in Yakut horses and ways of its rational use]: abstract from dissertation for degree of Candidate of Agrarian Sci. / T.V.Ammosova. - Ufa, 1971. - 18 p.

4. Dusembin, H.D. Zakonomernosti molokoobrazovaniya i molokootdachi u kobyl i nekotoryh vidov zhvachnyh zhivotnyh [Laws milk formation and production in mares and some species of ruminant animals]: abstract from dissertation for degree of Doctor of Agrarian Sci. / H.D.Dusembin. - Alma-Ata, 1970. - 31 p.

5. Chirgin, E.D. Molochnoe konevodstvo – rezerv povysheniya effektivnosti otrasli [Dairy breeding is a spare source of improving the industry efficiency] / E.D.Chirgin, V.S.Yavorskiy, K.S.Novoselova //Konevodstvo i konniy sport. - 2001. - Vol.2. - P.9.

6.Garkaviy, F.L. Selektsiya korov i mashinnoye doyeniye [Cow breeding and machine milking] / F.L.Garkavy. - Moscow: Kolos, 1974. - 160 p.
  Radiobiology
   
Title:

ON AN ISSUE OF RADIOLEAD-210 MIGRATION THROUGH A CHAIN VEGETABLE FORAGES – ANIMAL BODY – ANIMAL PRODUCT

   
Authors: Gorkovenko N.E. - Doctor of Biology, professor; Makarov Yu.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
   
Address:

Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar (gorkovenko-n@mail.ru)

   
Abstract:

So far the issues on radiolead-210 migration in ecosystems and its accumulation in animal body are not studies well. The aim of the research was to investigate the level of radiolead-210 accumulating in chain links "vegetable forages – animal body - animal products" depending on areal ecology. The obtained data showed that the level of radiolead-210 in the four grass (mineral deposit) and the six farms (intensive agricultural technology) was respectively for 1.2 and 1.5 times higher than the average in all the other farms. The greatest concentration of lead in cattle bones was detected in the third, fourth, and sixth farms which was 19.7, 15.9 and 17.6 Bq/kg respectively. In the studied farms the level of radiolead-210 in vegetable fodder and animal body significantly differ. The higher the level of vegetable forages and animal body contamination with radiolead-210 radionuclide the higher the industrial impact on agrarian ecosystem. The farms located in coal-mining industrial area intensive agricultural production were characterized by radiolead-210 highest concentration both in fodder and cattle body

   
Keywords: radionuclides, radiolead-210, vegetable forages, animal products, cattle.
   
References:

1. Istochniki i effekty ioniziruyuschego izlucheniya: otchet NKDAR OON [Sources and effects of the ionizing radiation: the UNSCEAR report], 2000. – New York, 2000. – 308 p.

2. Atomnaya energrtika: za ili protiv? Sravnitelniy analiz radioaktivnogo zagryazneniya, sozdavayemogo AES i TES [Nuclear power: for or against? The comparative analysis of the radiocontamination from atomic power stations and thermal electric power station]/ V. Gordiyenko [et al.] // the Bulletin of the Moscow university. Series 3. Physics, astronomy. - 2012. - Vol. 1. - P. 123–130.

3. Effluent and Dose Control from European Union NORM Industries Assessment of Current Situation and Proposal for a Harmonized Community Approach // Radiation Protection, 135. – V. 1. Main Report, 2003. – P. 47-56.

4. Radiobiologiya [Bioradiology / A.D.Belov [et al.]; edited by A.D.Belov. – Moscow: Kolos, 1999. – 384 p.

5. Instruktivno-metodicheskiye ukazaniya poradiohimicheskim metodam opredeleniya radioaktivnosti v obektah vetnadzora [Methodological guidelines on radiochemical methods to determine radioactivity level in objects of veterinary survey]. – Moscow, 1984 – 47 p.

6. Radiatsionniy kontrol. Strontsiy-90 i tseziy-137. Pischevye produkty. Otbor prob, analiz i gigienicheskaya otsenka: metod. ukazaniya po metodam kontrolya [Radiation monitoring. Strontium-90 and cesium-137. Foodstuff. Sampling, analysis and hygienic evaluation: methodical instructions on control methods. MI 2.6.1.717-98. – Moscow: Federal center of Gossanepidnadzor of the Russian Ministry of Health, 1998. – 60 p.

7. Gorkovenko, N.E. Immunobiologicheskiy status zhivotnyh v razlichnyh ekologicheskih usloviyah Priamurya i puti ego korrektsii [Immunobiological status of animals in various ecological areas Amour river region and a way of its correction]: abstract from postdoc. thesis  Doctor of Biology. – Novosibirsk, 2006. – 49 p.

8. Instruktsiya o radiologicheskom kontrole kachestva kormov: Kontrolniye urovni soderzhaniya tseziya-134,137 i strontsiya-90 v kormah i kormovyh dobavkah [A guideline on radiological quality control of forages: Control levels of Cesium-134,137 and Strontium-90 level in fodders and fodder additives] – Moscow: the Russian Federation ministry of Agriculture and Production. – 1994. – 2 p.

9. SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya bezopasnosti pischevoy tsennosti pischevyh produktov [Sanitation Code and Standards 2.3.2.1078-01 Hygienic requirements for safety and nutrition value of foodstuff. – Moscow, 2002. – 164 p.

  Physiology
   
Title:

AGE FEATURES OF LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND EFFECT ON WHITE BLOOD CELLS

   
Authors: Oleshkevich A.A. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Vasilevich F.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, academician of Russian Academy of Sciences.
   
Address:

Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology K.I.Skryabin (e-mail: rector@mgavm.ru).

   
Abstract:

The in vitro effect of low-intensity acoustic (ultrasonic) progressive wave on blood cells in healthy dogs of various breeds and age and the both sex was studied.  The effect from continuous ultrasound (US) with 880 kHz frequency rate and therapeutic intensities (ISATA) ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 W/cm2 at exposure time from 5 seconds to 2 minutes on white blood cells were characterized and analyzed. For the experiment the UST-1-01F; UST-5 and UST-1.02S, combined with thermostat U7C were used as therapeutic equipment for ultrasonic therapy. The irradiated blood samples volume was from 1 ml to 1.5 ml. The aim of the work was to study the main features of the interaction of pet leukocytes and ultrasound and to determine safe modes for blood cells. The data obtained showed that the increasing the US intensity from 0.05 W/cm2 to 2.0 W/cm2 resulted in lower number of viable cells. The degree of change depends on ultrasonic dose and the age of an animal. At longer US exposure time (more than 2 minutes) cellular conglomerates, cell fractures were observed within the microscope field and progressively increase of the cellulacidal effect was registered. The dogs exposure to continuous ultrasonic progressive wave resulted in change of leukogram: higher number of limphocytes and monocytes, and lower number of segmented neutrophils. The eosinophilic leucocytes were the first to reduce in leukogram. Beginning from the ultrasonic intensity of 0.05 W/cm2 and exposure time of 30 seconds and 0.2 W/cm2 and exposure time of 15 seconds the old animals blood showed cell degeneration, change in nuclear granulocytes structure and shift in leukogram. The obtained results can be used in animal health involving ultrasonic, blood studies and diagnostics.

   
Keywords: dogs, white blood cells, ultrasound, leukogram
   
References:

1. Use of ultrasonic standing wave in biological studies and cell technologies / T.N.Pashovkin [et al.] // Bull ExpBiol Med. – 2007. – ¹ 144(1). – Ð. 118–22

2. Dolinko, N.P. Gemodinamicheskiye i ultrastrukturniye osobennosti predstatelnoy zhelezy u muzhchin na etapah postnatalnogo ontogeneza [Hemodynamic and ultra structural features of prostate cancer in men at postnatal ontogenesis stages] / N.P. Dolinko // Nauchnoye obozreniye. – 2014. – Vol. 9. – P. 454–457.

3. Skyba, D.M. Hemodynamic characteristics, myocardial kinetics and microvascular rheology of FS-069, a second generation echocardiographic contrast agent capable of producing myocardial opacification from a venous injection / D.M.Skyba, G.Camarano, N.C.Goodman // J. of the American College of Cardiology. – 1996. – Vol. 28, Nî 5. – P. 1292–1300.

4. Miller, D.L. Ultrasound contrast agents nucleate inertial cavitations in vitro / D.L.Miller, R.M.Thomas // Ultrasound in med. ànd Biol. – 1995. – Vol. 21, Nî 8. – P. 1059-1065.

5. Christiansen, C. Lack of immune response to Albunex, a new ultrasound contrast agent based on air-filled albumin microspheres / C.Christiansen // Int. Arch. of Allergy and immunol. – 1994. – Vol. 104, Nî 4. – P. 372–378.

6. Kudryavtsev, A.A. Klinicheskaya gematologiya zhivotnyh [Clinical hematology in animals] / A.A.Kudryavtsev, L.À.Kudryavtsevà. – Ìoscow: Kolos, 1974. – 399 p.

7. Oleshkevich, A.A. Vozmozhnost izmeneniya leykogramm zhivotnyh pri deystvii nepreryvnogo ultrazvuka terapevticheskogo diapazona intensivnostey [An opportunities of changing animal white cells number at exposure to continuous therapeutic ultrasound] // A.A.Oleshkevich, T.N.Pashovkin // Agrarnaya Rossiia. - 2015. - Vol.6. - P. 13-17.

8. Oleshkevich, A.A. Osobennosti vozdeystviia ultrazvuka na leykotsity melkih domashnih zhivotnyh [The specific features of ultrasonic effect on pet leukocytes number] / A.A.Oleshkevich // Nauchnoe obozreniye. - 2015. - Vol. 7. - P. 23-30.

9. Oleshkevich, A. A. Izucheniye kletochnogo otveta palochkoyadernyh neytrofilov na obrabotku ultrazvukom minimalnoy terapevticheskoy intensivnosti [Study of band neutrophils response on minimal -intensity therapeutic insonation] / A.A.Oleshkevich, I.V.Kutlikova, O. A. Kishkinova // Nauka i obrazovanie v XXI veke – Scinece and education at the XXI century: collection of scientific articles from Int.sci. pract. conf. 2014. – Tambov, 2014. – Part 9. - P.91-95.

10. Oleshkevich, A.A. Rezultaty pervichnogo statisticheskogo analiza obrabotki eozinofilov in vitro ultrazvukom minimalnoy terapevticheskoy intensivnosti. [Results of primary statistical analysis of eosinophils insonation in vitro with therapeutic minimum intensity ultrasound] / A.A.Oleshkevich, I.V.Kutlikova, I.A.Cherenkova // Nauchnaia diskussiya: voprosy matematiki, fiziki, himii, biologii – Scientific discussions: issues of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology: proceedings from the XÕIII Int. distance sci.and pract. conf. - Moscow: Mezhdunarodniy tsentr nauki i obrazovaniya, 2014. - Vol.11(21). – P. 54-59.

11. Hamitova, G.V. Otsenka tumortitsidnogo effekta ultrazvuka v eksperimentalnyh i klinicheskih issledovaniyah [the evaluation of tumorticydal ultrasound effect in experimental and clinical studies] «Kreativnaia hirurgiia i onkologiia», 2011, S.96-100.

   
   
Title:

PRODUCTION AND CULTIVATION OF LUNG CELL CULTURES FROM BUFFALO FETUS

   
Authors: Gaydarbekova H.M. – postgraduate; Budulov N.R. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Musaeva M.N. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:

Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute (e-mail: mila-azarova@mail.ru).

 

   
Abstract:

The article provides the investigation results on production and cultivation of primary culture and subcultures of buffalo fetus lung. The investigations were done using of fetus from buffalo at 3-8-months of pregnancy, nutrient media and solutions (0.5 GLA, 199, Eagle's medium, 0.02% Versen, 0.25% trypsin, Hank's balanced salt solutions, pH 7.7-7.6). The lung was extracted in sterile cabinet according to all the aseptic guidelines and washed in Hank's stable saline solution and antibiotics (200 units/ml penicillin, and 200 µkg/ml streptomycin). Pleura, trachea, bronchi, large blood vessels were extracted and the lung was cut into the pieces of 1-3mm3 size. The cut tissue was washed until the supernatant fluid became clear. The cell cultures from buffalo fetus lung were prepared using two methods: culturing primarily trypsinized cell suspension and explanting lung tissue fragments. Because the culturing of trypsinized cell suspension did not yield homogenuous cultures and the parent tissue had the cells of various morphology. Therefore, we chose the method of explanting tissue fragments to produce cultures prevailing with epithelial cells. The explants were placed into Carrel's vial and cultivated with nutrient medium changed at 48-72 h. At 6-8 days the explants were removed and the cells which had grown in explants growth foci after their removal. The cells were taken from the glass surface using 0.02%-Versen solution warmed up to 35-37C. The produced cells were cultivated without being passed during three weeks with medium changed every 4-5 days adding 0.5%- glutamine solution. The accomplished investigations enabled to develop a method of production and subcultivation of epithelial-like cells from buffalo fetus lung by passage-free cultivation. Therefore, the method can be recommended for research and detection.

   
Keywords: cell cultures, subculture, fibroblast-like cells, epithelial-like cell, buffalo fetus, explant, nutrient medium
   
References:

1. Adams, R.L.P. Cell culture for biochemists / R.L.P. Adams: edited by V.Polyakov: translated into Russian by M.Panov. - Ìoscow: Mir, 1983. - 264 p.

2. Aspanidze, B.P. Pervichniye i diploidniye kultury kletok legkogo ploda korovy dlya virusologicheskih issledovaniy [[Primary and diploid cell cultures of calf fetus lung for virological investigations]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Veterinary Medicine/ B.P.Aspanidze. - Moscow: 1987. - 20 p.

3. Budulov, N.R. Rostostimuliruyushchie svoystva syvorotki krovi plodov buyvolits [Growth-stimulating properties of buffalo fetus serum] / N.R.Budulov //Vestnik veterinarii. - 2014. - Vol. 70. - P.38-40.

4. Dyakonov, L.P. Problemy kultivirovaniya kletok zhivotnykh i nekotorye voprosy tsitopatologii [Problems of animal cells cultivation and some issues of cytopathology] / L.P.Dyakonov // VIEV Bulletin, 1983. - Vol. 49. - P. 3-8.

5. Dyakonov, L.P., Zhivotnaya kletka v culture [Animal cells in culture] / L.P.Dyakonov, V.I.Sitkov. - Moscow: "Sputnik +", 2000. - 400 p.

6. Lobuntzova, D.V. Razrabotka metodov polucheniya i subkultivirovaniya kletok kishechnika ploda korovy [Development of methods to produce and subculture cow fetus intestinal cells] / D.V.Lobuntzova, G.Y.Pleshanova, B.P.Aspanidz // Proceedings of VIEV. - 1985. - Vol. 62. - P. 69-73.

7. Osidze, D.F. Poluchenie kultury kletok iz tkaney zhivotnykh i ikh ispolzovanie v virusologii [Production of cell cultures from animal tissues and their use in virology] / D.F.Osidze. – Moscow: VNIITEISK, 1975. - 103 p.

8. Sergeev, V.A. Reproduktsiya i vyrashchivanie virusov zhivotnykh [Reproduction and growth of animal viruses] / V.A.Sergeev. - Moscow: Kolos, 1976. - 304 p.

9. Patent 2496870 the Russian Federation, IPC Ñ12N 5/073, À61L 27/38. Sposob polucheniya epiteliopodobnykh kletok lyogkogo ploda buyvolitsy dlya kultivirovaniya virusov [A method for producing epithelial cells of buffalo fetus lung for viral cells culturing] / Budulov N.R.,Kabardiev S.Sh., Gaydarbekova KH.M., Magomedov M.N.; applicant and patent owner: Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute. -¹ 2011105713/10; accepted on 15/02/2011; published on 27.10.2013, Bulletin ¹ 30. - 6 p.

10. Syurin, V.N. Veterinarnaya virusologiya [Veterinary Virology.] / V.N.Syurin, R.V.Belousova, N.V.Fomina. - Moscow: Kolos, 1984. - 376 p.

11. Mather, J.P. Mammalian cell culture / J.P.Mather. – London: Plenum. Press, 1984. - 284 p.

12. Speer, R.S. Animal ñell âiotechnology / R.S.Speer, J.R.Griffiths. - London: Acad. Press, 1985. – 384 ð.