Our address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety - All Russian Research Veterinary Institute, 2-Nauchny gorodok, Kazan, 420075, Russia

Tel. / Fax:(843) 239-53-26 (editorial)

E-mail: vetvrach-vnivi@mail.ru

The journal is registered

The journal is registered in Federal Service for Oversight of Mass Media, Telecommunications, and Protection of Cultural Heritage.

The Registration Certificate number is 77-29757 

Decision of the Presidium

of the Russian Higher Attestation Committee

The Veterinarny Vrach journal is one of the Russian peer-viewed research journals eligible to publish main research findings and results of theses pending a scientific degree of Doctor or Cadidate of Sciences.

Archive

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

4, 2015

  Toxicology
   
Title:

THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PH ON SENSITIVITY OF CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS AND CAENORHABDITIS BRIGGSAE NEMATODES TO TOXIC EFFECT OF LEVAMISOLE AND NICOTINE

   
Authors: Belova E.B. - research assistant; Kolsanova R.R. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Tarasov O.Yu. - Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Shagidullin R.R. - Doctor of Chemistry; Kalinnikova T.B. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Gainutdinov M.Kh. Doctor of Biology, professor.
   
Address: Research Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Kazan (tel.+7(843)2985610; e-mail: mgainutdinov@gmail.com).
   
Abstract: Soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is generally accepted model organism for assessment of the effectiveness of nematocides using in medicine and veterinary medicine. The aim of this work was the study of the ambient pH influence on the sensitivity of C.elegans and C.briggsae organisms to toxic action of levamisole and nicotine. Results of experiments in which C. elegans and C.briggsae were exposed to levamisole (3-30 ?M) during 90 minutes showed that at 22C pH rise in the range 6,08,0 led to strong increase in nematode sensitivity to toxic levamisole action revealed in complete loss of locomotion. When levamisole concentration was 30 ?M, the percentage of paralyzed C. elegans was 14% at pH=6,0 and 52% at pH=8,0, and the percentage of paralyzed C. briggsae was 14% at pH=6,0 and 85% at pH=8,0. pH increase changed the sensitivity of C. elegans and C. briggsae organisms to the toxicity of nicotine (0,6-2,5 mM) in the same manner. However pH change in the range 6,08,0 did not influence on the aldicarb (60-240 ?M) toxicity for C. elegans and C. briggsae organisms. pH influence on the levamisole toxicity for C. elegans and C. briggsae organisms was stronger at 30C than at 22C. At the same time levamisole toxicity in the whole pH range was higher at 30C than at 22C. The synergism of the influence of temperature rise and pH on levamisole toxicity shows that mechanisms of the dependence of levamisole toxicity on ambient pH and temperature are different. The most likely mechanism of the increase of levamisole and nicotine toxicity for nematodes' organisms by ambient pH increase is the deprotonation of molecules of toxicants facilitating their penetration into organism.
   
Keywords: nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae, toxicity, behavior, levamisole, nicotine, aldicarb, pH, environmental temperature
   
References: 1. Holden-Dye, L. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans / L.Holden-Dye, R.J.Walker // Wormbook, ed. The C. elegans Research Community. - 2014. - 12.
2. Osei-Atweneboana, M.Y. Phenotypic evidence of emerging ivermectin resistance in Onchocerca volvulus / M.Y.Osei-Atweneboana, K.Awadzi, S.K.Attah et al. // PloS Negl. Trop. Dis. - 2011. - V. 5. - P. 998-1000.
3. Sattelle, D.B. Invertebrates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors targets for chemicals and drugs important in agriculture, veterinary medicine and human health / D.B.Sattelle // J.Pesti. Sci. - 2009. V. 34. - P. 233-240.
4. Opperman, C.H. Effects of aldicarb and fenamiphos on acetylcholinesterase and motility of Caenorhabditis elegans / C.H.Opperman, S. Chang // J. Nematology. 1991. V. 23. P. 20-27.
5. Leung, M.C. K.Caenorhabditis elegans: an emerging model in biomedical and environmental toxicology / M.C.K.Leung, P.L.Williams, A.Benedetto et al. // Toxicological Sciences. 2008. V. 106. P. 5-28.
6. Kolsanova R.R. Sensibilizatsiya organisma nematody Caenorhabditis elegans k deystviyu levamisola povysheniem temperatury sredy [Sensitization of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans organism to levamisole action by elevation of ambient temperature] / R.R.Kolsanova, M.Kh.Gainutdinov, T.B.Kalinnikova // Veterinaryi vrach Veterinary surgeon. 2011. V. 5. P. 57-60.
7. Brenner, S. The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans / S.Brenner // Genetics. 1974. V. 77. P. 71-94.
8. Ewe, K. Functions of alimentary channel / K. Ewe, U. Karbach // Human Physiology, 2nd edition / Eds. R.F.Schmidt and G.Thews. Russian edition. Moscow: Mir, 2005. V. 3. P. 740-784.
9. Kalinnikova, T.B. Thermotolerance of soil nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae AF16 and Caenorhabditis elegans N2 under experimental conditions / T.B.Kalinnikova, A.Kh.Timoshenko, O.Yu.Tarasov et al // Russian Journal of Ecology. 2011. V. 42. P. 435-437.
10. Fodor, A. Comparison of a new wild-type Caenorhabditis briggsae with laboratory strains of C.briggsae and C.elegans / A.Fodor, D.L.Riddle, F.K.Nelson et al. // Nematologica. 1983. V. 29. P.203-217.
11. Holzer, P. Acid-sensitive ion channels and receptors / P. Holzer // Handb. Exp. Pharm. 2009. V. 194. P.283-332.
12. Yildiz, D. Nicotine, its metabolism and an overview of its biological effects / D.Yildiz // Toxicon. 2004. V. 43. P.619-632.
13. Schievelbein, H. Absorption of nicotine through the oral mucosa. I. Measurement of nicotine concentration in the blood after application of nicotine and total particulate matter / H.Schievelbein, R.Ebernardt, K. Loeschenkohl et al. // Agents and actions. 1973. V. 3. P.254-258.
14. Sherman, T. Identification of a nuclear carbonic anhydrase in Caenorhabditis elegans / T.Sherman, S.C.Rongali, T.A.Matthews et al. // Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2012. V. 1823. P.808-817.
   
   
Title:

CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF USING NEW DRUGS: ROLFKLUB 3D DROPS FOR CATS AND 3D ROLFKLUB DROPS FOR DOGS

   
Authors: 1Arisov M.V. -Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 2Danilevskaya N.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 3Kataeva T.S. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address: 1 K.I.Skryabin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology Animal and Plant, Moscow (e-mail: arisov@vniigis.ru).

2 K.I.Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named, Moscow.

3Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar.
   
Abstract: The article presents novel triple-component drugs: RolfKlub 3D drops for cats and 3D RolfKlub drops for dogs, the advantage of which is having D-cifenotrin and ethofenprox next-generation pyrethroids as one of their ingredients. The results of experimental preclinical and clinical studies proved the following: according to the level of the effect on mammals at internal introduction the drugs are referred as moderately hazardous and at cutaneous application - as low hazard; do not have local irritating and sensitizing effect. Experimentally the drugs were proved to have an expressed knock-down effect, which is up to 2.16 minutes at average height up to 25.2 cm. At natural condition the repellent activity was studied and indentified to retain during 7 days. The drug therapeutic and prevention effect at ectoparasitoses of dogs and cats in clinical trials was 100%, the prevention effect against myiasis retains for 60 days and against ixodid ticks for 30 days.
   
Keywords: arachnoides, drug, fipronil, D-cyphenothrin, etofenprox, pyriproxifen, dogs, cats
   
References: 1. Akbaev, M.Sh. Praktikum po diagnostike invazionnyh bolezney zhivotnyh [Practical course on detection of animal parasitic diseases] / M.Sh.Akbaev, F.I.Vasilevich, V.G.Menshikov [et al.]. - Moscow: KolosS, 2006. - 536 p.
2. Vasilevich, F.I. Parazitarniye bolezni plotoyadnyh zhivotnyh [Parasitic diseases of carnivore] / F.I.Vasilevich, N.V.Yesaulova, R.M.Akbaev. Moscow: Monografiya, 2010. 150 p.
3. The state standard # 12.1.007-76. Vredniye veschestva. Klassifikatsiya i obschiye trebovaniya bezopasnosti [Hazardous substances. Classification and general requirements of safety]. - effect.since 01.01.77. - Moscow, 1976.
4. Kerbabaev, E.B. Osnovy veterinarnoy akarologii. Metody i sredstva borby s kleschami [Basics of veterinary acarology. Methods and means of ticks control] / E.B.Kerbabaev // Trudy Vserossiyskogo institute gelmintologii - Articles of All-Russian Helminthology Research Institute. - 1998. - T.34. - P.218.
5. Kirillovskih, V.A. Insektoakaricidniye preparaty, ispolzuyemiye v veterinarii i zhivotnovodstve [Drugs against insects and parasites, used in veterinary and animal breeding] / V.A.Kirillovskih. - Moscow, 1998. 372 p.
6. Metody laboratornyh issledovaniy i ispytaniy mediko-profilakticheskih dezinfektsionnyh sredstv dlya otsenki ih effektivnosti i bezopasnosti: rukovodstvo [Methods of laboratory studies and trials of therapeutic and prevention disinfection drugs to evaluate their efficiency and safety: guideline]. Moscow: Federalny tsentr gigiyeny i epidemiologii Rospotrebnadzora, 2010. 615 p.
7. Tkachev, A.V. Piretroidniye insektitsidy analogi prirodnyh zaschitnyh veschestv rasteni [Pyrethroid disinsectants are analogues of herbal natural protective substances] / A.V.Tkachev // Sorovsky obrazovatelny zhurnal. 2004. Vol. 8. Issue 2. P.56-63.
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

MANIFESTATION OF BRUCELLOSIS REINDEERS OUTBREAK IN YAMAL

   
Authors: 1Zabrodin V.A. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Gordienko L.N. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Kulikova E.V. scientist.
   
Address: 1North-Western Center of Interdisciplinary Investigations in Food Supply (e-mail: layshev@mail.ru).
2All-Russian Institute For Animal Brucellosis And Tuberculosis Research, Russian Federation, Omsk (e-mail: vniibtg@rambler.ru).
   
Abstract: The northern reindeer farming is adapted to the natural conditions of the Arctic Circumpolar and finds its development in the regions of the Far North. The greater part (two-thirds) of the reindeer population is concentrated in the Russian Federation. The number of domestic northern reindeer reached more than 1.6 million animals while the wild reindeer herds are about 1.5 million species in this area. The industry is largely influenced by geographical factors and ethnic peculiarities of the native population. Keeping the reindeer population number and the industry further development largely depends on animal welfare. Brucellosis is the most dangerous and widespread disease among the reindeer. The reindeer brucellosis epidemics and infection is influenced by the industry technology, the reindeer physiology, the left natural foci with the infection source among reindeer herds. The studies taken place from 1998 to 2013 associated methods of epizootic, clinical and laboratory analyses enabled to have reliable conclusions. The north-western part of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area remains free from the infection. In the central and north-eastern part of the peninsula the infection was registered in Tazovsky and Nadym regions. In various herds brucellosis spread intensity was from 10 to 80% during the epidemic outbreaks. In reindeer brucellosis foci the epidemic outbreaks have cyclic character: the widely spread infection (more than 10% of the infected) the intervals were 3-4 years; at significant distribution (5-10% of the infected ) the intervals were 6-7 years). The infection rate among all the groups of the both sex and all the ages did not significantly differ. The number of  the infected animals was equal in both among the adult and young animals born the previous year. In the infection foci the circulation of brucella with features peculiar to the 4th biotype, B.sius (B. rangiferi) with a high pathogenicity rate was registered.
   
Keywords: reindeer, brucellosis, infection, epizootic process, manifestation, features
   
References: 1. Volodina, .. Dikiy severniy olen [Wild reindeer] [electronic resource] / ..Volodina. oscow: "Tsentokhotkontrol", 2009. - URL: http://centrohotkontrol.ru/29.html (application date 23.07.2013).
2. Krupnik, I.I. Arkticheskaya etnoekologiya [Arctic ethnoecology] / I.I. Krupnik. - Moscow: Nauka, 1989. - P. 89-119.
3. Layshev, .. Problemy upravleniya otraslyami traditsionnogo prirodopolzovaniya i APK v avtonomnom okrugah na Kraynem Severe [Management in natural resources-based traditional industries and agriculture in the extreme North] / ..Layshev, .D. Mukhachev, V..Zelensky // Vestnik kadrovoy politiki agrarnogo obrazovaniya i innovatsiy - Herald of HR-policy, education and innovations in the agriculture. 2002. - Vol. 6. - P. 2-7.
4. Gordienko, L.N. Sistema meropriyatiy pri domoniruyuschih infektsiyah v severnom olenevodstve [The system of measures to control infections prevailing in reindeer farming] / L.N.Gordiyenko // Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya APK i yego nauchnoye obespecheniye v Respublike Saha (Yakutiya) - Problems and opportunities of agrarian development and its scientific support in the Republik of Saha (Yakutia): proceedings from the joint meeting and scientific sessionof Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences and the government of the Saha republik (Yakutia). - Novosibirsk, 2011. - P. 127-128.
5. Gordienko, L.N. Sistema protivobrutsellyoznyh meropriyatiy v severnom olenevodstve [Brucellosis control measures in reindeer farming]. / L.N.Gordiyenko, E.V.Kulikova, A..Listishenko // Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK. - 2011. - Vol 9. - P. 70-72.
6. Layshev, K.. Kontseptualniye problemy veterinarnogo obespecheniya v severnom olenevodstve [Conceptual issues of veterinarian support in reindeer farming] / ..Layshev, ..Samandas, S.V.Fedyayev. // Razvitiye APK Aziatskih territoriy - Development of agriculture in Asian territories: proceedings from the 11th Int. sci. and pract. conf., Novosibirsk, June 25-27, 2008. Novosibirsk, 2008 - Vol. 2. - P. 95-99.
7. Nastavleniye po diagnostike brutsellyoza zhivotnyh [Recommendations on animal brucellosis detection]: approved by Veterinary Department, the Russian federation Ministry of Agriculture on 29.09.2003. oscow, 2004 2 p. - 13-5-02/0850.
   
   
Title:

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FMD CIRCULATION IN THE PRIMORSKY KRAI IN 2014

   
Authors: 1Gulenkin V.M. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Karaulov A.K. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Mischenco A.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Kuzin D.Y.
   
Address: 1Federal Centre for Animal Health (ARRIAH), Russia (e-mail: gulenkin@arriah.ru).
2The National Veterinary Inspection in Primorsky region (-mail: uprvet@primorsky.ru).
   
Abstract: This paper presents the data on FMD serotype O outbreaks which were detected in susceptible swine population of the Primorsky krai of the Russian Federation in 2014. The epizootic data on FMD spread and economic losses caused by FMD circulation is provided. It shows how important the issues of FMD control and choosing effective strategies of its elimination in the regions with high risk of FMD occurrence are. A preliminary estimate of economic losses is about 245 million rubles.
   
Keywords: foot and mouth disease, economic impact, control measures, efficiency of animal disease control
   
References: 1. Metodicheskoye rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu ekonomicheskogo uscherba i effektivnosti protivoepizooticheskih meropriyatiy pri osobo opasnyh boleznyah zhivotnyh [A guideline to evaluate economic losses and effeiciency of antiepizootic measures at particularly hazardous diseases] / V.M.Gulenkin, .Z.Baybikov, V.. Zaharov [et al.].- Vladimir: ARRIHA, 1996.-86p.
2. Plan poetapnoy borby s yaschurom. Printsipy, opisaniye etapov i standartov [Plan of FMD staged control: principles, stages description, and standards] /OIE, FAO.- oscow: Rosselhoznadzor, 2013.- 16 p.
3. Data bases of OIE WAHID/WAHIS http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home.- 15.03.2015.
   
   
Title:

ACTIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF PARATUBERCULOSIS ANTIGENS IN THE COMPLEMENT FIXATION TEST (CFT)

   
Authors: Goncharova N. postgraduate.
   
Address: NSC Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Kharkiv, Ukraine (e-mail: natali.v.goncharova@gmail.com).
   
Abstract: The article presents data on the study of activity and specificity of paratuberculosis antigens from the cultural filtrate of MAP grown on synthetic nutrient media produced by the laboratory of tuberculosis study NSC "IECVM". Three variants of antigen were investigated in complement fixation test (CFT) with positive paratuberculosis serum (definition of activity), and with homologous and heterologous sera from various animal species (definition of specificity). The  produced antigens were determined to have an uneven activity. Thus, working titer in CFT for the antigen PPA was 1:300, for the ACF from the cultural filtrate of MAP grown on Soton nutrient media 1:320 and for the ACF from the cultural filtrate of MAP grown on Watson-Raid nutrient media 1:480. During a comparative study of the antigen specificity it has been found that highest specificity belong to the antigen ACF from the cultural filtrate of MAP grown on Watson-Raid nutrient media. It detected antibodies to M. paratuberculosis only in sera from MAP-infected and MAP-immunized animals and does not react with heterologous sera. Antigen PPA detected antibodies in blood serum (dilutions 1:10 and 1:20) in calves with tuberculosis (M. bovis), in rabbits sensitized with M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. avium and in MAP-infected and MAP-immunized animals. False-positive results in CFT with the antigen ACF from the cultural filtrate of MAP grown on Soton nutrient media was indicated in sera (dilution 1:10) from rabbits sensitized with alive cultures of M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare and from rabbits infected with M. avium.
   
Keywords: paratuberculosis, MAP, serological diagnostic, antigen, specificity, activity, blood serum, the titer of antigen
   
References: 1.Schurevskiy V.Y.Paratuberculoz selskokhozyaystvennikh zhyvotnykh [Paratuberculosis of farm animals] / V.E.Schurevsky. - Moscow: Kolos, 1971 159 p.
2. Stable Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from feral cats on a dairy farm with MAP-infected cattle / V.Mitchell V [et al.] // Journal of Wildlife Disease. - 2005. - 41 (3). - P. 629-635.
3. Do not-ruminant wildlife pose a risk of paratuberculosis to domestic livestock and vice versa in Skotland? / M.J.Daniels [et al.] // Journal of Wildlife Disease. - 2003. - 39 (1). - P.10-15.
4. Paratuberculosis in saiga antelope (Saiga Tatarica) and experimental transmission to domestic ship / T.W.Dukes [et al.] // Journal of Wildlife Disease. - 1992. - 28 (2). - P. 161-170.
5. OIE: Reporting for countries. URL: http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Countryinformation/Animalsituation.
6. Zavgorodniy, A.I. Ryzyky poshyrennya paratuberculozu v Ukraini [The Risk of Paratuberculosis in Ukraine] / ..Zavgorodniy, S.A.Pozmogova, V.M.Gorzheev // Veterinary Medicine of Ukraine. 2011. Vol.3. - P.4-5.
7. OIE: Paratuberculosis (Johnes disease), Chapter 2.1.11 / OIE Terrestrial manual, Version adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE in May 2014. London: OIE, 2014. - URL:http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.01.11_PARATB.pdf- Last access: 2015. Title from the screen.
8. Yokomizo, Y. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine immunoglobulin G1 antibody to a protoplasmic antigen of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis / Y.Yokomizo, R.S.Merkal, P.A.Lyle // American Journal of Veterinary Research. - 1983. - 44. - .2205-2207.
9. Lipoarabinomannan and lipid-free arabinomannan antigens of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis / E.A.Sugden, B.S.Samagh, D.R.Bundle, J.R.Duncan // Infection and Immunity. - 1987. - 55. - . 762-770.
10. Development of an ELISA technique for serodiagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis / U.Jark [et al.] // Veterinary Microbiology. - 1997. - 57. - .189-198.
11. Early induction of humoral and cellular immune responses during experimental Mycobacterium aviumsubsp. Paratuberculosisinfection of calves / W.R.Waters [et al.] // Infection and Immunity. - 2003. - 71. - . 5130-5138.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

DETECTION OF HEPATIC TUMORS IN DOG USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED TOMOGRAPHY

   
Authors: Kayurova M.U. - postgraduat; Usha B.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, member of Russian Academy of Sciences.
   
Address: Moscow State University of Food Production, Moscow (tel. +7(499)7500111, e-mail: info@mfupp.ru).
   
Abstract: The article provides an investigation of using computer-assisted tomography (CAT) for differential diagnosis of liver tumors in dogs. Using Toshiba Asteon Super 4 equipment multiple cutting technology of Asteon 4 system allowed true isotropic 3-D data imaging which enabled to view the research results in any projection without losing image quality. Basing on standard investigation with native phase, 80% of the dogs were scanned with intravenous contrast. The CAT- results identified the differences between the form of primary tumor focus, hepatocellular cancer and cholangiocellular cancer, as well as the contours of tumors and liver morphology. The CAT accuracy in metastases detection was 86%. Using the computer-assisted tomography method to investigate liver tissues allows evaluation of liver size and contours, direct and detailed imaging of both the inner structure and  various neoplasms in an organ  for more accurate detection and discriminatory diagnosis.
   
Keywords: dogs, liver, tumors, computer-assisted tomography, primary tumor, hepatocelluler carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma, metastasis
   
References: 1. Anohin, B.M. Lechenie sobak pri gepatoze [Hepatosis treatment in dogs] / B.M. Anohin, V.A. Kornushina, A. B. Anohin // Veterinariya. 1999. - 2. - P. 55-57.
2. Vilkovysky, I.F. Diagnostika i lechenie opuholey y sobak [Tumor detection and treatment in dogs] / I.F. Vilkovysky, S. A. Kusenkov, O.V. Solovyova // Tezisy 6 konferentsii po onkologii i anesteziologii Proceeding from the 6th Conf.on oncology and anesthesiology. - Moscow, 2009. - P. 10-12.
3. Karmazanovsky, G.G. Kompyuternaya tomografiya pecheni i zhelchnyh pytey [Computer-assisted tomography of liver and biliary tracts] / G.G. Karmazanovsky, M.Yu. Vilyavin, N. S. Nikitaev. - Moscow: Paganel buk, 1997. - 358 p.
4. Hofer, M. CT teaching manual / M.Hofer; Russian edition; translated into Russian by A.Katko[et al.]; S.N.Koval, B.I.Chernin; edited by G.E.Trufanov. - Moscow: Meditsinskaya literatura, 2008. - 208 p.
5. Baker, M. E. Hepatic metastases: basic principles and implications for radiologists / M. E. Baker, R. Pelly // Radiology. - 1995. - P. 329-331.
6. Ichikawa, T. CT Imaging Teoru / T. Ichikawa. - Tokyo: IGAKU-SHOIN, 2004. - 380 .
7. Taniura, T. Study on protocol of contrast-enhanced CT-imaging by fixed-time injection of contrast media / T. Taniura // J. Anim. Clin. Med. - 2006. - 3. - P. 11-17.

  Parasitology
   
Title:

PARASITES COMPLEX OF MEAT BREEDS OF CATTLE IN FARMS OF ALTAI REPABLIC

   
Authors: 1Marchenko V.A. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Efremova E.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 3Saitov V.R. - Doctor of Biology; 1Ayrapetyan A.R. - Junior Researcher.
   
Address: 1 Gorno-Altay Research Institute of Agriculture (-mail: ganiish@mail.ru).
2Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science of Siberia and Far East Novosibirsk area, Krasnoobsk (-mail: alfa_parazit@mail.ru).
3Federal Center for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: The aim of the investigation is to characterize the epidemical situation on major animals parasites and structure of helminthoses in meat cattle herds from the farms of the Altay republic. Helminthes of all the basic taxonomic groups are widespread among the meat breeds (Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Kazakh Whitehead, Galloway). The total structural indexes of trematods, nematodes and cestodes parasites are 33.9, 66.3, and 2.8 accordingly. Mostly the animals are infected with intestinal strongilata, the average tension in the farms was 59.4%, maximum infection extensity was registered in Maiminsky (83.5%) and Choisky (85.8%) regions with infection index equal to 52.6 and 125.9 eggs/g in biomaterial samples accordingly. The cattle infection rate ranged from 36.0% in 2007 to 66,7 and 60.0% in 2006, 2009  and the average rate was 51,7%. In general, long-term dynamics of the animal infection rate did not change significantly.  In the Altai Republic the species composition of helminthes and the infection level did not significantly differ among various cattle breeds. The infection index of Strongilata intestine helminthes prevailing in the species composition was 66.6 89.3, the average extensity of invasion was 27.9 44.1%. The infection rate by certain parasitic species varies from 10 to 90%. In meat cattle breeds hypodermotosis, sifunculatosis and psoroptosis are of primary epidemic interest. The current infection rate in cattle with helminths and parasitic arthropods requires regular scheduled parasite control measures aimed to reduce the number of pathogens causing major helminthoses and arachnoenthomosis.
   
Keywords: helminths, meat cattle, parasitic arthropods, infection rate, structure of helminthes species composition, dynamics of infection
   
References: 1. Teterin,V.I. K izucheniyu rasprostraneniya gelmintov i gelmintozov krupnogo rogatogo skota v Gornom Altae[On study of cattle helminthes and helminthoses spread in the Altai mountains] / V.I.Teterin, A.T.Kostyaeva, V.A.Bezrukov // Profilaktika zaraznyh i nezaraznyh zabolevaniy zhivotnyh v Sibiri Prevention of animal contagious and non-contagious diseases in Siberia]. Omsk, 1973. P. 232-236.
2. Marchenko,V.A. Struktura gelmintotsenoza krupnogo rogatogo skota Gornogo Altaya [Structure of cattle helminthocinosis in Gorny Altai] / V.A.Marchenko, E.A.Efremova, E.A.Vasilyeva // Rossiyskiy parazitologocheskiy zhurnal. Moscow, 2008. Vol. 3. P. 6-9.
3. Gorohov,V.V. Sovremennaya epizooticheskaya situatsiya po osnovnym gelmintozam v Rossiiskoy Federatsii (2005 g.) [Current epidemic situation on main helminthoses in the Russian Federation (2005)] / V.V.Gorohov, V.N.Skira, I.F.Klenova // Teoriya i praktika borby s parazitarnymi boleznyami Theory and practice of parasitic diseses control: proceedings fron the Int. sci. conf. Moscow, 2007. - Issue 8. P. 78-82.
4. Dargie, D. Trematode Infections in Sheep and cattle: Effects on Productivity and Metabolism/ D.Dargie // Proceedings of the MSD AGVET Symposium. Montreal, 1987. S. 3541.
5. Safiullin, R.T. Rasprostraneniye i ekonomicheskiy uscherb ot osnovnyh gelmintozov zhvachnyh zhivotnyh [Widespread and economic loss from the main ruminant helminthoses] / R.T.Safiullin // Veterinariya. 1997. Vol. 6. P. 28-32.
6. Kotyelnikov, G.A. Kombinirovanniy metod laboratornoy diagnostiki opistorhoza[An associated  method of laboratory diagnosis opisthorchiasis]/ G.A.Kotyelnikov, A.A.Varyenichev // Meditsinskiye parazitologicheskiye i parazitarniye bolyezni 1991. Vol. 5. P. 27-29.
7. Marchenko, V.A K epizootologicheskoy otsenke parazitotsenozov selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh[On epidemiological evaluation of farm animals parasitocenosis] / V.A.Marchenko, E.A.Efremova, V.R.Saitov // Parazitologicheskiye issledovaniya v Sibiri i na Dalnem Vostoke Parasitic investigations in Siberia and Far East: proceedings II interregional sci. conf. - Novosibirsk., 2007. P. 130-132.
8. Unifitsirovannaya sistema lechebno-profilakticheskih meropriyatii pri zooparazitozah v molochnom skotovodstve v Respublike Altai [The unified system of animal parasitoses treatment and prevention in dairy cattle herds in the Republic of Altai] / V.A.Marchenko, [et al.]. Novosibirsk Gorno-Altaisk, 2014. 51p.
   
   
Title:

THE STRUCTURE OF THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF TICKS CARNIVORES IN DIFFERENT AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES OF THE ULYANOVSK REGION

   
Authors: Akimov D.Y. - postgraduate; Romanova E.M. - Doctor of Biology, professor; Shadyeva L.A. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Shlenkin T.M. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy them. P.A.Stolypin (tel.: +7 (8422) 55-95-38; -mail: ugsha@yandex.ru).
   
Abstract: Ticks are obligate hematophagous highly specialized temporary. On the territory of the Russian Federation described more than 60 species of ticks. The results of studies of distribution, species diversity, population density, species of carnivorous mites ratio in different agro-climatic zones of the Ulyanovsk region. In Ulyanovsk Region 2 mark the peak activity of ticks - from May to June and mid-August - before the end of autumn. Therefore, the collection of adults ticks carried out since the thawing of the soil and up to the formation of snow cover. Ticks collected in sunny weather during their highest activity in the morning from 7 to 13 and in the evening from 16 to 20 hours. As a result of the research, we concluded that the fauna of mites, parasitic on humans and animals in the Ulyanovsk region, represented by two genera Dermacentor and Ixodes with a clear dominance of the genus Dermacentor. Species diversity includes representatives of four types: D. reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. persulcatus, I. ricinus. The ratio of different types of ticks had expressed agroclimatic confinement. The lowest density of ticks was found in Southern climate zone, and the maximum in Zavolzhskaya agro-climatic zone.
   
Keywords: species diversity, ticks, vector-borne diseases, population density, carnivorous North, pasture and meadow ticks
   
References: 1. Akimov, D.Y. Age features infestation of stray dogs and P. sanis P. gibsoni in Ulyanovsk / D.Y. Akimov, A.E. Schegolenkova, L.A. Shadyeva // Proceedings of the IV International scientific and practical conference "Youth and Science", 2014. - P. 3-7.
2. Akimov, D.Y. Monitoring of the age and sex structure of deaths in affected dogs canis R. and R. gibsoni in Ulyanovsk / D.Y.Akimov, L.A.Shadyeva, A.E.Schegolenkova, T.A.Indiryakova // Proceedings of the IV International scientific and practical conference "Youth and Science", 2014. - P. 8-12.
3. Akimov, D.Y. Environmentally induced seasonal dynamics of piroplasmosis dogs in urban areas / D.Y. Akimov, L.A. Shadyeva, T.A. Indiryakova, A.E. Schegolenkova // Proceedings of the All-Russian scientific-practical conference "Agricultural science in the XXI century: problems and prospects". Saratov: Saratov State Agrarian them. NI Vavilov, 2014, pp 145-148.
4. Belonenko V. Epidemiology of babesiosis of dogs in the modern city / V.V.Belonenko, P.I.Hristianovsky, Sarukhanyan A.R. // proceedings of the VI International scientific-practical conference "Veterinary news" - Prague: Publishing House "Education and Scince", 2010, Pp. 37-39.
5. Georgiou, H., Application of serological reactions (RDSC and Phragmites) to identify babesiosis in dogs / H. Georgiou, V. V. Belonenko, P. I. Hristianovsky // IV international scientificpractical conference "Scientific progress at the turn of the Millennium" - Orenburg: Orenburg state agrarian University, 2008, Pp. 74-76.
6. Salutin V. V. analysis of the incidence of piroplasmosis of dogs in the Saratov region / V. salutin, A. N. Gostev // Agricultural research magazine Saratov: Saratov state agrarian University named after. N. And. Vavilov, 2015, Pp. 37-39.
7. Fedorov V. G. Mites mammals of the city of Omsk / V. G. Fedorov, I. A. Nesterov, L. N. Gordienko // proceedings of the 2nd regional conference "Actual problems of veterinary medicine of small animals in the North Caucasus p. Persianesque: don state agrarian University, 2012, Pp. 47-48
  Zootechny
   
Title:

STRATIFIED SAMPLING FOR THE SURVEY OF URBAN DOG OWNERS

   
Authors: 1Makenov .. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Bekova S.. - master student.
   
Address: 1Omsk Research Institute of Natural Focal Infections, Russia (644080 Omsk, e-mail: mail@oniipi.org).

2National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia, Moscow (e-mail: hse.lcss@gmail.com).
   
Abstract: This article describes a method of sampling design to study pets by interviewing the pet owners. This includes the following methodological problems: sampling design when the general data on pets lacks and the scheme of territorial stratified sampling is needed. We propose to use a two-stage survey scheme to identify the total number of the households with pets. The first stage is to sample the households fulfilling the following tasks: to identify the general number of houses with pets and evaluate the obtained data. To identify the number of pet-owners all the houses were interviewed using a short questionnaire consisting from 7-13 questions. This information was further used for the second stage of the sampling design, when the empirical data is collected. During the second stage only pet owners were interviewed using a longer questionnaire this time (68 questions). The scheme of shorter and longer questionnaire significantly reduced the costs for interviewing. For reliable results the peculiarities of the city territory should also be taken into consideration. As various parts of the city do not usually have the same conditions the samples data was stratified using the following algorithm: 1. dividing the city territory into the areas to identify strata with homogeneous conditions; 2. to assess the amount of each strata; 3. to evaluate the samples using the obtained data. The city territory was divided into the areas regarding the peculiarities of housing unit density. The amount of the identified strata was assessed using the free-access GIS-resources - Google Maps and Double-GIS. The proposed method of sampling design is illustrated on dog-owners on the city of Omsk: the amount of the first stage sampling was 1695 pet-owners, the second stage - 382 dog-owners.

   
Keywords: sampling design, population interview, pets, dogs, stratified sampling, territorial sampling, GIS
   
References: 1. Foot and Mouth Disease and Livestock Husbandry Practices in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon / B.M.Bronsvoort [et.al.] // Tropical Animal Health and Production. - 2003. - 35. - P. 491-507.
2. Acosta-Jamett, G. The role of domestic dogs in diseases of significance to humans and wildlife health in central Chile:Ph.D. Thesis / G.Acosta-Jamett. - U.K. - Edinburgh: The University of Edinburgh, Institute of Zoology, 2009. - 223 p.
3. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania / A.S.Gsell [et.al.] // BMC Veterinary Research. - 2012. - 8. - P. 236-240.
4. Yates, F.R.S. Sampling methods for censuses and surveys / F. Yates, translated into Russian by E.I. Aron, edited by A.G. Volkova; Russian edition. Moscow: Satatistika, 1965.  - 434 p.
5.Cochran, W.G. Sampling techniques / W.G. Cochran, translated into Russian by I.M. Sonin,  edited by A.G. Volkova; Russian edition. Moscow: Satatistika, 1976.  - 440 p.
6.Kachanov, Yu.L. Algoritmy postroyeniya predstavitelnoy territorialnoy vyborki pri nalichii ogranicheniy na stoimost izmereniy [Using an algorithm to design a representative territorial sampling at limited costs for measurements]// Voprosy sotsiologii. - 1992. Vol.1. - P.135-149.
7.Kozerenko, E.V. Proektirovaniye territorialnoy vyborki dlya regulyarnyh obsledovaniy naseleniya subekta Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Designing a territorial sampling for regular surveys of the population in Russian Federation]: Dissertation for degree of Candidate of Sociological Sciences / E.V. Kozerenko. Moscow, 1999. - 134 p.
8.Yausheva A.A. Formirovaniye vyborki: poisk novyh vozmozhnostey [Sampling collection: the search for new opportunities] // Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya. -  2007.  Vol.8. - P.90-96.
9.Makenov, M.T. issledovaniye populyatsii svobodnozhivuschih sobak g. Omska [A study of free-ranging and stray dogs population in Omsk] // Zhurnal Sibisrskogo federalnogo universiteta. Seriya Biologiya. - Journal of Siberian Federal University. Biology. - 2014. - 1(7). - P.87-98.
10.Weng, Q. Urban Remote Sensing / Q.Weng, D.A.Quattrochi. - USA: CRC Press, 2006. - 432 p.
11.Shmerlina, I. O lyubvi k sobakam i ne tolko [On loving dogs and et cetera] // Sotsialnaya realnost. - 2008.  - 1. - P. 40-48.
12.Ibarra, L. Demographic aspects of dog and cat populations in Santiago city, Chily / L.Ibarra, M.A.Morales, P.Acuna // Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias. - 2003. - 18. - P. 13-20.
13.A survey of dog populations in Urban and rural areas of Yucatan, Mexico / A.Ortega-Pacheco [et.al.] // Anthrozoos. - 2007. - 20 (3). - P. 261-274. doi:10.2752/089279307X224809.
14.Cat and dog ownership and management patterns in central Italy / M.R.Slater [et.al.] // Preventive Veterinary Medicine. - 2008. - 85(3-4). - P. 267-294. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.02.001.
15.Number and ownership profiles of cats and dogs in the UK / J.K.Murray [et.al.] // Veterinary Record. - 2010. - 166. - P. 163-168. doi:10.1136/vr.b4712.
16.Bennett, P.C. Owner-companion dog interactions: Relationships between demographic variables, potentially problematic behaviors, training engagement and shared activities / P.C.Bennett, V.I.Rohlf // Applied Animal Behavior Science. - 2007. - 102 (1-2). - P. 65-84. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.03.009.
17.Dotson, M.J. Understanding doghuman companionship / M.J.Dotson, E.M.Hyatt // Journal of Business Research. - 2008. - 61 (5). - P. 457-466. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.07.019.
18.Downes, M. Demography of the pet dog and cat population on the island of Ireland and human factors influencing pet ownership / M.Downes, M.J.Canty, S.J.More // Preventive Veterinary Medicine. - 2009. - 92 (1-2). - P. 140-149. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.07.005.
   
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF MEAT QUALITY IN TURKEY FED WITH "VINIVET" AND "VINIVET PLUS" FODDER ADDITIVES

   
Authors: Galieva A.M. assistant; Alimov A.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Mikrukova E.J. -Candidate of Chemical Sciences; Jarekhina A.V. - Candidate of Chemical Sciences.
   
Address: Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Russia (tel. +7(843) 273-36-27, e-mail: jaila@inbox.ru).
   
Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate meat quality in turkey fed with "Vinivet" and "Vinivet plus" fodder additives containing chlorella biomass rich with selenium. In the experiments e White Broad-Breasted  turkeys of "Universal" cross were used. The animals were studied using organoleptic and chemical tests. The test results showed that the moisture content in the white meat was 74.4+0.76% in the controls, the experimental group results were lower for 2.3-3%. The moisture content in the red meat did not significantly differ in the both groups. The fat level in the white meat was 1.4+0.21% in the control group that is lower for 1.8+0.14% than in the first experimental group and for 1.64+0.11% in the second experimental group. The red meat fat level was highe in the both experimental groups than in the control for 0.2 and 0.26% accordingly. The white meat in the experimental groups had highe protein level. The protein level in red meat of the control group was 23.0+0.5%, in the first experimental group - 24.2+0.42 and in the second experimental group - 24.6+0.47 accordingly. The mineral content in the pectoral muscules did not difer aming the groups, however, the parameters tended to increase. Meanwhile, the thigh muscules in turkeys from the second experimental group had significantly higher level of minerals. The both experimental groups had reliably higher selenium content in thigh and pectorial muscules than the controls. The energetic value was higher for 9.0 and 12.6 kcal in white meat and in the red meat for 7.2% and 9.2% in the experimental groups than that of the controls. Therefore, the experiments showed that the Vinivet and Vinivet plus fodder additives increase the meat energetic value, improve its quality and chemical content.
   
Keywords: Vinivet, vinivet plus, turkey, white meat, red meat, chemical content, energetic value
   
References: 1. Akhmetova, L.T. Vinivet effectivnaya kormovaya dobavka v ptitsevodstve [Vinivet is effective supplement in poultry production] / L.T.Akhmetova, G.G.Sibgatullin, A.M.Alimov, M.Sh.Aliev // Ptitsa i ptitseprodukty. 2012. Vol.5. P.34-37.
2. Belekhov, G.P., Mineralnoe i vitaminnoye pitaniye selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Mineral and vitamin diet of livestock animals] / G.P.Belekhov, A.A.Chubinskaya.- Moscow: Selkhozgiz. 1960. 253 p.
3. Vyshtakaluk, A.B., Effectivnost ispolzovaniya travyanoy muki iz amaranta pri vyraschivanii remontnogo molodnyaka roditelskogo stada kur-nesushek [Efficiency of using amaranth grass meal for growing replacement chickens of layer parent flock]/A.B.Vyshtakalyuk, S.S.Hirug // Veterinariya i kormleniye. 2009. Vol.2. P. 36-37.
4. Gonotsky, V.G., Gusi-lebedi i utki [Geese and ducks]/ V.I.Gonotsky, L.I.Fedina // Ptitsefabrika. 2007. Vol. 2. P. 40-44.
5. Zhukov, P.., Chimicheskii sostav i energeticheskaya tsennost myasa tsipliat-broilerov pri vklyuchenii v ratsion germivita [Chemical composition and energetic value of broiler chicken meat at using germivit in their diet]/ P.A.Zhukov, G.M.Topuria // Bulletin of Kazan State academy of veterinary medicine. 2012. Vol. 211. P. 349-353.
6. Kalashnikov, A.P. Kormleniye selskohozyastvennyh zhivotnyh:spravochnik [Feeding of livestock animals: a reference book] / A.P.Kalashnikov - Moscow: Rosagropromizdat, 2003. 379 p.
7. Ivanov, V.N., Selen v zhizni cheloveka i zhivothykh [Selenium in human and animal life]/IV.N.Ivanov, L.V. Nikitina. - Moscow: Rosagropromizdat, 1995. - 242p.
8. Pokazateli usvoyeniya korma indoutkami pri ispolzovanii ekstrakta travyanoy muki iz amaranta [Parameters of feeding intake in turkeys fed with amaranth grass meal] O.V.Semina, R.U. Biktashev, K.H.Papunidi, V.N.Shilov// Bulletin of Kazan State academy of veterinary medicine. 2014. Vol.. 219. P. 255-259.
9. Fisinin, V.I. Promyshlennoye ptitsevodstvo Rossii: sostoyanie, innovatsionnie napravlenia razvitiya, vklad v prodovolstvennuy bezopasnost [Poultry industry in Russia: state, innovative perspectives of development, contribution to the feed safety] / V.I.Fisinin // Proceedings from the V Int. Veterinary congress on poultry breeding. oscow, 2009. P. 5-26.
   
   
Title:

CORROSIVENESS OF "BIODEZ-EXTRA DVU" DISINFECTANTS

   
Authors: Kabardov S.Sh. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Koichuev A.U. - postgraduate; Saypullaev M.S. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
   
Address: Caspian Zonal Scientific Research Veterinary Institute, Mahachkala (e-mail: strong.alialiev@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article provides a trial test of corrosivity of "Biodez Extra-TVU" novel disinfectant using metal plates. The drug 1.0% solution (the proposed concentration for animal facilities treatment) was tested using steel (St 3), stainless steel, galvanized steel and aluminum (mark A) plates. The standard, 2.0% solution of sodium hydroxide was used as control. The timing for the both experimental and control drugs was 24 hours. To evaluate the drugs' corrosivity the weight of all plates was registered both before and after immersing into the solutions for 24 hours. Basing on the obtained data we determined corrosion coefficient per a year (g / m2) and corrosion coefficient per 1 hour (g / m2) for the both tested and control drugs. The experiment results showed that after 24 hours immersion the new disinfectant, 1.0% "Extra-Biodez TVU", induces less metal corrosion in steel  (St-3) plates for 5.5 times; Galvanized steel - 4.0; stainless steel - 2.2; aluminium for 12 times than the control drug accordingly. Moreover, the plates' surface remained unchanged.

   
   
References:
  Physiology
   
Title:

THE INFLUENCE OF SPOROBACTERIN PROBIOTIC DRUG ON PIGLET NON-SPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN SWINE INDUSTRIAL FARMS

   
Authors: 1Alexeyev I.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 1Pavlov M.A. postgraduate; 2Kadikov I.R. - Candidate of Biological Science.
   
Address: 1The Chuvash State Agricultural Academy, Cheboksary (e-mail: Dekanatfvmz@mail.ru).
2Federal Centre of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article presents the results of studying the new home probiotic antibacterial drug, Sporobacterin, influence on piglet non- specific immunity parameters. At using the probiotic drug in the first experimental group blood lysozymic activity raised for 6,4% (p<0,01) in the second experimental group it raised for 6,92% (p<0,01) than the control one. The cellular  protection in the piglet organism is known to be produced  by phagocyte activity of microphags and macrophags the functions of which are closely interrelated. At the same time, being a non- specific protection factor the phagocytes influence on the antigen and promote T- and B- lymphocyte activity needed for body immune response. Exposed to Sporobacterin tested probiotic antibacterial drug the piglets from the first experimental group showed a raise of phagocyte activity in the blood at average for 7,32% (p<0,01), and the second experimental goup - for 7,97% (p<0,01) than in the controls. The increase of lymphocytes was characterized in the first and the second tested groups of animals for 16,42 and 18,31 % (p<0,01), the number of T- lymphocytes for 7,08 and 7,84% (p<0,01) and the number B- lymphocytes for 6,48 and 6,65 % (p<0,01) in comparison with the control accordingly.
   
Keywords: sporobacterin, probiotic, immunity, non-specific resistance, lysozymic, phagocytar activity, lymphocytes
   
References: 1. Antipov, V.A. Ispolzovaniye probiotikov v zhivotnovodstve [Using probiotics in livestock farming] / V.A.Antipov // Veterinary, 1991. - Vol 4. - P. 55-58.
2. Laboratorniye issledovaniya v veterinarii [Laboratory research in veterinary] / B.I.Antonov [et al.]. - Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1991.- 287 p.
3. Tselesoobraznost probiotikoterapii pri diareynyh zabolevaniyah zhivotnyh [Usefulness of probiotic therapy at animal diarrhea]/ G.F.Bovkun [et al.] // Scientific and practical journal "Gastroenterologia Sankt-Peterburga". 2009. - Vol.4. - P. 60-61.
4. Bondarenko, V.M. Disbiozy i preparaty s probioticheskoy funktsiyey [Disbiosis and drugs with probiotic function]/ V.M.Bondarenko, A.A.Vorobyev // Microbiologia. - 2004. - Vol. 1. P. 107-112.
5. Voronin, E.S. Immunologiya: uchebnik [Immunology: manual] / E.S.Voronin, A.M.Petrov, M.M.Seryh. - Moscow: Kolos-Press, 2002. - 408 p.
6. Vremennoe nastavlenie po primeneniyu preparata sporobakterina zhidkogo [Temporary instructions for using Sporobacterin liguid drug]: registration sertificate MZ RF 000794/01-2001 f 01.11.2001; specifications -10-07-042-92: approved by deputy head of Chief veterinary Administration 31.07.1992. - Orenburg: Bakoren LLC, 2011. - 2p.
7. Gorelov, A.V. Bifidobakterii i immunitet [Bifidobacteria and immunity] / A.V.Gorelov // Voprosy sovremennoy pediatrii. 2004.- Vol.3, Issue 2. - P. 55-58.
8. Zdanov, P.I. Pokazateli estestvennoy rezistentnosti sviney pri dlitelnom primenenii sporobakterina [Swine natural resistance at prolonged use of Sporobacterin]/ P.I.Zdanov // Aktualniye problemy veterinarii - Actual problems of veterinary: proceedings from the II Int. Sci. Pract. Conf. - Barnaul, 2005.- P. 137-138.
9. Zinchenko, E.V. Prakticheskiye aspekty primeneniya probiotikov [Practical aspect of probiotic use] / E.V.Zinchenko, A.N.Panin, V.A.Panin // Veterinarny konsultant.- 2003. - Vol.3. - P. 12-14.
10. Kalmykova, A.I. Kletochniye i sistemniye mehanizmy deystviya probiotikov [Cellular and system mechanism of probiotic action] / A.I.Kalmykova, V. G. Selyatnitskaya, N.A. Palchikova. - Novosibirsk: Novosibirskoye knizhnoye izdatelstvo, 2007. - 280 p.
11. Malik, N.I. Probiotiki - teoreticheskiye i prakticheskiye aspekty [Probiotics. Theoretical and practical aspects]/ N.I.Malik, A.N.Panin, I.U.Vershinina // BIO. Jurnal dlya spetsialistov ptitsevotcheskih i zhivotnovodcheskih hozyaystv. - 2002.- Vol.3.- P. 9-12.
12. Havkin, A.I. Mikrobiotsenoz kishechnika i immunitet [The intestine microbioceonosis and immunity] / A.I.Havkin // Russky meditsinsky jurnal.- 2003.- Vol. 11, Issue 3.- P. 122-126.