Our address:
Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety - All Russian Research Veterinary Institute, 2-Nauchny gorodok, Kazan, 420075, Russia

Tel. / Fax:(843) 239-53-26 (editorial)

E-mail: vetvrach-vnivi@mail.ru

The journal is registered

The journal is registered in Federal Service for Oversight of Mass Media, Telecommunications, and Protection of Cultural Heritage.

The Registration Certificate number is ÏÈ ¹ÔÑ77-29757 

Decision of the Presidium

of the Russian Higher Attestation Committee

The Veterinarny Vrach journal is one of the Russian peer-viewed research journals eligible to publish main research findings and results of theses pending a scientific degree of Doctor or Cadidate of Sciences.











¹ 3, 2015



Authors: Korchemkin A.A. – graduate student, Ivanov A.A. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, associate professor, Papunidi K. Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Science, Professor, Deputy Director.
Address: Federal Centre for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: The environmental problems result in increasing sickness rate among human and animals. A large number of xenobiotics circulate in biosphere; of them dioxins are the most dangerous. They are accumulated in adipose tissue because they are biologically resistant. Of natural toxicants T-2 toxin is the most wide spread. Protection from these pathogens is impossible without coordinated immunity function. The article provides the study of immune parameters and leucocytes number in blood of chicken subjected to persistent exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and T-2 toxin at lower concentration. Also the studies included the groups subjected to subsequent treatment. Succinic acid, bentonite, and dimephosphone were used for treatment. The results showed that the chicken from the group exposed to toxicants only showed clinical signs of intoxication: the animals refused feed and water, manifested a general stress, lower mobility, and a reduced egg-laying rate.  Also, these chickens had a lower number of T and B lymphocytes, a lower phagocytic number, capacity index, and altered leukocytes number. The treatment group, administered both toxicants and drugs (succinic acid, bentonite, and dimephosphone) had no clinical of the disease, the egg-laying rate remained the same. Phagocyte activity, capacity index, and the number of T and B lymphocytes in the treatment groups did not significantly change.

Keywords: dioxin, T-2 toxin, succinic acid, bentonite, dimephosphone, natural resistance, leukocytes number
References: 1. Donnik, I.M. Ekologiya i zdorovye zhivotnyh [Ecology and animal health] / I.Ì.Donnik, P.N.Smirnov. - Yekaterinburg: izdatelsko-redaktsionnoye agentstvo UÒÊ, 2001. - 332 p.
2. Kormoviye otravleniyaÿ: metodicheskoye posobiye [Feed-borne poisoning: a guideline] / Ê.KH.Papunidi, À.V.Ivanov, Ì.Ya.Tremasov, E.I.Semenov. – Ìoscow: LLC “Stolichnaya tipografiya”, 2008. – 72 p.
3. Proynova, V.À. Zagryazneniye okruzhayuschey sredy “ksenoestrogenami” kak globalnaya problema [Environment contamination with “xenoestrogens” as a global problem] / V.À.Proynova // Toksikologicheskiy vestnik. - 1998. – Vol. 2. - P. 2–6.
4. Mikotoksikozy (biologicheskiye i veterinarniye aspekty) [Mykotoxicoses (biological and veterinary aspects) / À. V. Ivanov [et al.]. - Ìoscow: Kolos, 2010. – 392 p.
5. Tremasov, Ì.Ya. Profilaktika mikotoksokozov zhivotnyh v Rossii [Prevention of animal mycotoxocoses in Russia] / Ì.Ya.Tremasov // Veterinariyaÿ. - 2002. – Vol. 9. – P.3-8.
6. Frimel, H. Immunologische Arbeitsmethoden / H.Frimel; translated into Russian by A.P.Tarasova. - Ìoscow: Meditsina, 1987. – 472 p.
7. Kost, S.À. Opredeleniye fagotsitarnoy aktivnosti leykotsitov [Evaluation of leucocytes phagocytic rate] / S.À.Kost, Ì.I.Stenko // Klinicheskaya gematologiya zhivotnyh. - Ìoscow: Kolos, 1974. - P. 99-100.

  Infectious pathology


Authors: Shakhov A.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Sashnina L.Yu. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Erina T.A. – postgraduate.
All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy, Russia, Voronezh (e-mail: A.G.Shakhov@mail.ru).
Abstract: The research results showed that the associated using of “Subtilis-G” probiotic for upper air passages and “Prolam” probiotic drug with intravaginal introduction of “Simbiter-2” or “Giprolam” to cows at late stages of gestation promoted the indigenous microflora in maternal passages at physiological level and improved gut microbiocenosis formation in newborn calves. As a result of both the biotypes physiological microflora colonization and microecological preparation of cows’ maternal passages, the newborns’ intestine microbiocenosis had a higher level of Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, lactose-positive Escherichia, saprophytic staphylococci and relatively lower level of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (enterococci, bacteria of citrobacter, enterobacter, proteus species, lactose-negative Escherichia) in comparison with biocenosis in intact animals. Microbiocenosis of upper air passages was characterized by high content of saprophytic (Staph. hyicus, Staph. saprophyticus è Staph. epidermidis) microorganisms and by low content of conditionally pathogenic (staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic staphylococcus, streptococci of C and D groups, Escherichia, enterobacteria, etc.) microorganisms in comparison with biocenosis in intact animals. Improving the intestine microbiocenosis formation and upper respiratory tract in newborn calves significantly reduces sickness rate of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases.
Keywords: calves, probiotics, biotope, microbiocoenosis, prophylaxis, diseases
References: 1. Andreeva, I.V. Probiotiki v klinicheskoy praktike [Probiotics in clinical practice]/ I.V.Andreeva. // Klinicheskaya mikrobiologiya antimikrobnoy himioterapii. - 2006, Vol. 8, Issue 2 - P.151-172.
2. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu lekarstvennogo sredstva Prolam dlya profilaktiki disbakteriozov i povysheniya nespetsificheskoy rezistentnosti organizma selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh i ptits [A guideline on using “Prolam” drug to prevent disbacterioses and improve non-specific resistance in livestock and poultry]: approved by N.A.Vlasov, deputy head of The Federal Veterinary and Phytosanitation Monitoring Service of 27.08.2010. – Ìoscow, 2010. – 3 p. - PVR-1-4.0/02558.
3. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu Subtilis-Zh dlya profilaktiki i lecheniya disbakteriozov i povysheniya estestvennoy rezistentnosti organizma zhivotnykh, v tom chisle ptits i ryb [A guideline on using “Subtilis-G” approved by N.A. Vlasov, deputy head of The Federal Veterinary and Phytosanitation Monitoring Service of 27.08.2010. – Ìoscow, 2010. – 3 p. - PVR-001260-OP.
4.Gaffarov, Kh.Z. Mono- i smeshannye infektsionnye diarei novorozhdennykh telyat i porosyat [Mono- and associated viral diarrhea in newborn calves and piglets]/ Gaffarov Kh.Z., Ivanov A.V., Nepoklonov E.A. -Kazan: «Fen».-2002.-252p.
5. Glotov, A.G. Effektivnost profilakticheskikh meropriyatiy pri smeshannykh respiratornyh virusnyh infektsiyah krupnogo rogatogo skota [The efficiency of using prevention measures at cattle associated  respiratory and viral infections]/ A.G., Glotov [et al.]// Aktualnye problemy infektsionnoy patologii i immunologii zhivotnykh – Current issues of animal infectious pathology and immunology: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Moscow, May 16-17, 2006.-Moscow: Izograf, 2006.-P.186-191.
6.Grigoryeva, G.I. Rol mikroorganizmov (bakteriy i virusov) v vozniknovenii zheludochno-kishechnyh zabolevaniy novorozhdennyh telyat [The influence of microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) on occurrence of gastro-intestinal diseases of newborn calves] / G.I.Grigoryeva [et al.]// Veterinarnaya patologiya.-2005.-Vol.4.-P.108-113.
7.Grishel, A. I. Probiotiki i ih rol v sovremennoy meditsine [Probiotics and their role in modern medicine] / A.I. Grishel, E.P. Kishkurno.// Vestnik farmatsii. - 2009. - Vol.1(43). - P.1-4.
8.Dzhupina, S.I. Etiologiya i profilaktika massovyh zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney telyat [Etiology and prevention of mass gastro-intestinal diseases in calves] / S.I.Dzhupina //Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennykh usloviyakh – The current problems of young livestock diseases : proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf.,  Voronezh, Sept. 23-25, 2002.- Voronezh: VGU. - 2002.- P.8-11.
9.Ivanov, A.V. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po diagnostike, profilaktike i lecheniyu zheludochno-kishechnykh bolezney novorozhdennykh telyat [Methodological guidelines to detect, prevent, and treat gastro-intestinal diseases in newborn calves] / A.V.Ivanov, K.Kh.Papunidi, M.Ya.Tremasov [et al.]. – Kazan: FGBU “FCTRB-ARRVI”, 2011. – 39 p.
10. Izvin, A.I. Mikrobnyy peyzazh slizistoy obolochki verhnih dyhatelnyh putey v norme i patologii [Mucous membranes microflora in respiratory tract: the norm and pathology] / A.I.Izvin, L.V.Kataeva // Vestnik otoringologii. - 2009. - Vol.2:64. - P. 64-68.
11.Instruktsiya po primeneniyu biologicheskogo preparata Giprolam dlya profilaktiki endometrita u korov [A guideline on using “Giprolam” drug for endometritis prevention in cows]. Registration number PVR-1-35.13/02987: approved by Å. À. Nepoklonov, deputy head of The Federal Veterinary and Phytosanitation Monitoring Service of 22.11.2014. – Timashevsk: LLC “Biotehagro”, 2012. –2 p.
12.Kunelskaya, R.L. Rol probioticheskikh sredstv v sezonnoy zabolevaemosti ORVI [The influence of probiotic drugs on seasonal ARVI sickness rate] / R.L.Kunelskaya, G.N.Izotova, T.P.Bessarab et al. // Meditsinskiy sovet. - 2013. – Vol.2. - P.46-50.
13. Mannapova, R.T. Molochnaya syvorotka v komplekse s probiotikom i propolisom dlya po-vysheniya produktivnyh pokazateley telyat [An associated usage of whey with probiotic and propolis to improve calves performance parameters] /R.T.Mannapova, I.M.Fayzullina// Veterinarnaya patologiya.- 2009. – Vol.4. - P.74-77.
14. Palunina, V.V. Profilaktika bronhopnevmoniy u telyat [Prophylaxis of bronchopneumonia in calves] / V.V.Palunina, M.V.Bilokur, Yu.S.Alikin// Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennykh usloviyakh – The current problems of young livestock diseases: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Voronezh, Sept. 17-19, 2008.- Voronezh: izdatelstvo «Istoki». – 2008.- P. 205-206.
15.Panin, A.N. Probiotiki v zhivotnovodstve - sostoyanie i perspektivy [Probiotics in animal husbandry – state and perspectives] / A.N.Panin, N.I.Malik, O.S.Ilaev// Veterinariya. - 2012. - Vol.3. -P.3-8.
16. Sidorov, M.A. Opredelitel zoopatogennyh mikroorganizmov [The determinant of zoopathogenic microorganisms] / M.A.Sidorov, D.I.Skorodumov, V.B.Fedotov - Moscow: Kolos, 1995. - 320p.
17.Subbotin, V.V. Primeneniye probioticheskogo preparata laktobifadol v ptitsevodstve i promyshlennom zhivotnovodstve [Using “Lactobifadolum” probiotic drug in poultry farming and livestock industry] / V.V. Subbotin, N.V. Danilevskaya// Aktualnye problemy infektsionnoy patologii i immunologii zhivotnykh – Current issues of animal infectious pathology and immunology: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Moscow, May 16-17, 2006.-Moscow: Izograf, 2006.-P.370-373.
18.Terekhov, V.I. Problemy ostryh kishechnyh bolezney molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh i puti ih resheniya [Acute intestinal diseases of young farm animals and the ways of their control] / V.I.Terekhov// Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennykh usloviyakh – The current problems of young livestock diseases: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Voronezh, Sept. 23-25, 2002.- Voronezh: VGU. - 2002.- P.48-51.
19. Shakhov A.G. Etiologiya i profilaktika zheludochno-kishechnyh i respiratornyh bolezney telyat i porosyat [Etiology and prevention of gastro-intestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets] / A.G.Shakhov// Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennykh usloviyakh - The current problems of young livestock diseases: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Voronezh, Sept. 23-25, 2002.- Voronezh: VGU. - 2002.- P.3-8.
20.Shakhov A.G. Dostizheniya i osnovnye napravleniya issledovaniy po izucheniyu bolezney molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [The achievements and main directions of investigation of farm animals diseases] / Shakhov A.G.// Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennykh usloviyakh – The current problems of young livestock diseases: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Voronezh, Sept. 23-25, 2002.- Voronezh: VGU. - 2002.- P.3-12.
21.Yurov, K.P. Etiologiya, diagnostika i profilaktika massovyh respiratornyh bolezney telyat [Etiology, detection and prevention of mass respiratory diseases in calves] / K.P.Yurov, A.F.Shulyak, S.V.Alekseenkova. [et al.] // Aktualnye problemy infektsionnoy patologii i immunologii zhivotnykh – Current issues of animal infectious pathology and immunology: proceedings from the Int.sci.and pract.conf., Moscow, May 16-17, 2006.-Moscow: Izograf, 2006.-P.128-132.
22. Yankovsky, D.S. Mikrobnaya ekologiya cheloveka: sovremenniye vozmozhnosti yeyo podderzhaniya i vosstanovleniya [Human microbial ecology: current methods of its promotion and reconery] / D.S.Yankovskiy - Kiev: Ekspert LTD, 2005.- P.362.


Authors: Yu. Nikolayenko – postgraduate.
Address: State experimental poultry-breeding station the Ukraine National Academy of Agrarian Sciences.
Abstract: The article describes clinical, epizootological, serological, and virological results of studies carried out in poultry farms in Ukraine. The economic loss from ducks disease ranged from 10 to 30% and more. Using erythrocyte diagnosticum in red cell-linked-antigen test the serological study of 30 blood serum samples from the infected ducks detected specific antibodies to reovirus from 1: 8 to 1: 128. Using 10-11-days-old duck embryos and cell cultures from duck fibroblast the virological studies of pathological material from the sick poultry isolated a reovirus with infection titer of 7.7 lg TCD50/ cm 3. Based on the test results muskovy ducks were registered to have a reoviral infection that resulted in ducks death. This indicated the necessity to control the infection spread not only among chicken and domestic poultry but the waterfowl too. In the final diagnosis, the disease clinical signs and laboratory test results should be taken into consideration too.
Keywords: ducks, epizootological, serological, virological research, clinical signs, pathological changes, reovirus infection, embryo, fibroblast, cell, culture and ducks
References: 1. German, I.V. Vivchennya vyrulentnih vlastivostey avyreovyrusyv, izolyovannih vyd kurei-nesuchok, broileryv ta gusenyat [Study of virulent features of avian reoviruses isolated from layer hens, broilers, and geese] / ².V.German, V.V.German // Veterinarna meditsina Ukrainy. – 2002. – Vol. 7. - P. 37-38.
2. German, I.V. Provedennya epyzootichnogo monytoringy reovyrusnogo zahvoryuvannya [Epizootic monitoring of reoviral diseases] / ².V.German, Î.Nevolko, Î.Khamko // Veterinarna meditsina: interagency scientific articles collection - 2007. – Vol. 86. – Ñ. 159-162.
3. Parkhomenko, L.². Byologychny vlastivosty yzolyatyv reovyrusu ptahyv pri kultivuvanny u raznyh byositemah [Biological features of avian reoviruses isolates at their culturing in various biosystems] / L.I.Parhomenko, Ì.Ì.²gnatov, Î.Î.Zemlyanska // Veterinarna meditsina Ukrainy. - 2006. – Vol. 5. – P. 35-36.
4 Surin, V.N. Veterinarnaya virusologiya [Veterinary virology] / V.N.Surin, R.V.Belousova, N.V.Fomina. – Ìoscow: Kolos, 1984. - 376 p.
5. German, I.V. Î nekotoryh biologicheskih svoystvah reovirusov, izolirovannyh ot kur, broylerov, gusyat [On some biological features of reoviruses isolated from chiken, broilers, and geese] / I.V.German // Veterinariya: Republic interagency scientific articles collection. - 1982. – Vol. 55. - P. 83-88.
6. Guangqing, Liu Outbreak-associated Novel Duck Reovirus / Liu Guangqing // Emerging infectious diseases. – 2012. – Vol. 18, ¹ 7. – Ð. 1209-11.
7. Robertson, M.D. Avian reovirus / M.D.Robertson, G.E.Wilcox // Vet Bull. - 1986. - ¹ 56. - P. 155-174.
8. Complete genome sequence of the new origin in Muscovy duck reovirus from China / Dan Wang [et al.] // J.Virol. - November. - 2012. - Vol. 86, ¹ 22. - P. 12445-12447.
9. Wozniakowski, G. Distribution of reovirus infection among musk duck (Cairina moschata) in south-western Poland / G.Wozniakowski, Å.Samorek-Salamonowicz, À.Gawel // Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. - 2014. - Vol. 17, ¹ 2. - P. 299–305.


Authors: Gumerov V.G. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: The major reason of death and premature culling in young calves is respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. The viruses of parainfluenza-3, infectious rhinotracheitis, virus diarrhea- mucosal disease, adenovirus, and chlamydia, mycoplasma, and others play a leading part in onset of these diseases. The aim of this work was to isolate and identify etiological agents causing cattle respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections. The article provides the results of complex viral investigations. During the studies 16 infectious agents referring to various taxonomic groups of microorganisms were isolated that indicates the polyetiology of cattle respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.
Keywords: culture cells, chicken embryo, isolates, virus, chlamydia
References: 1. Etiopatogenez i kliniko-epizootologicheskiye aspekty nekotoryh virusnyh infektsiy u importnogo pogolovya krupnogo rogatogo skota [Etiopathogenesis, clinical and epizootological aspects of some viral infections in imported cattle herds] / H.Z.Gaffarov, V.G.Gumerov, M.A.Yefimova [et al.]// Aktualniye problem zdorovya skota, vvozimogo v Rossiyu v ramkah natsproekta “Razvitiye agropromyshlennogo kompleksa” – Current issues of health of animals imported to Russia under the national project “Development of agrarian industry”: proceedings from the Int. Conf., Kazan, Nov. 28-30, 2007.- Kazan, 2008.- P.47-54.
2. Îsobennosti proyavleniya virusnyh i assotsiativnyh virusno-bakteriynyh bolezney krupnogo rogatogo skota [Expression of viral and both viral and bacterial associated diseases in cattle herds] / À.G. Glotov, N.A.Shkil, Ò.I. Glotova [et al.] // Veterinariya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh.- 2009.- Vol.2.- P.17-27.
3. Ivanov, A.V. Etiopatogenez respiratorno-genitalnyh infektsiy KRS, problem i perspektivy ih diagnostiki, profilaktiki i borby s nimi [Etiopathogenesis of cattle respiratory and genital infections, problems and prospective of their detection, prevention, and control] / À.V.Ivanov, H.Z.Gaffarov // Veterinarny vrach.- 2008.- Vol.4.- P.2-7.
4. Konopatkin, À.À. Diagnostika mono- i smeshannyh respiratornyh infektsiy krupnogo rogatogo skota [Detection of cattle single and associated respiratory infections] / À.À.Konopatkin, N.À.Maksimov, V.P.Tischenko // Veterinariya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh.- 2009.- Vol.1.- P.9-20.
5. Mischenko, V.A. Problema respiratornyh smeshannyh infektsiy molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [The problem of associated respiratory diseases in young cattle herds] / V.À.Mischenko // Aktualniye problemy infektsionnoy patologii zhivotnyh – The current issues of animal infectious pathology: proceedings from the Int. Sci. Conf. dedicated to 45th anniversary of ARRIAH, Vladimir, Oct.30-31, 2003.- Vladimir, 2003. - P.73-77.
6. Etiologicheskaya struktura i osobennosti epizooticheskogo protsessa virusnyh respiratornyh zabolevaniy krupnogo rogatogo skota na territorii Urala [Etiological structure and epizootical peculiarities of cattle viral diseases in the Urals area] / Î.G.Petrova, À.G.Tatarchuk, Ì.F.Hamatov [et al.] // Zdorovye-pitaniye-biologicheskiye resursy RASHN – Health- diet- biological resources RASHN: proceedings from the Int.Sci.and Pract.conf. dedicated to 125th anniversary of academician Rudnitsky N.V.- Kirov, 2002.- P.388-395.
7. Etiologiya, diagnostika i profilaktika massovyh respiratornyh bolezney telyat [Etiology, detection, and prevention of calves mass respiratory diseases] / Ê.P.Yurov, À.F.Shulyak, S.V.Alekseenkova [et al.] //Aktualniye problemy infektsionnoy patologii i immunologii zhivotnyh: proceedings from the Sci.Prakt. Conf., Moscow, May 16-17, 2006.- Ìoscow, 2006.- P.128-132


Authors: 1Ivanov A.V. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Gruzdev K.N. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 1Aslanov R.M. - Doctor of Biology, professor.

1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety, Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Federal Centre for Animal Health, Vladimir (e-mail: mail@arriah.ru).

Abstract: An information and analytical investigation of African swine fever epizootic situation was carried out. The article provides the evaluation of animal blood-free slaughter methods during ASF elimination measures.
Keywords: African swine fiver, epidemic situation, pigs
References: 1. Prognoz po afrikanskoy chume sviney v Rossiyskoy Federatsii na 2015 god [A forecast on ASF in the Russian Federation for 2015] / Î.N.Petrova [et al.]. – Vladimir: ARRIHA, 2015. – 34 p.
2. Terrestrial animal health code Vol. 1 General provisions / OIE – 23rd edition - Paris, France, 2014. - 432 p.
3. Terrestrial animal health code Vol. 2. Recommendations applicable to OIE listed diseases and other diseases of importance to international trade / OIE – 23rd edition - Paris, France, 2014. - 730 p.
4. Instruktsiya o meropriyatiah po preduprezhdeniyu i likvidatsii afrikanskoy chumy sviney [A guideline to prevent and eliminate African swine fever]: Approved by Main Office Veterinary Administration, The USSR Ministry of Agriculture of 21.11.80. – Ìoscow, 1980. – 12 p.
5. Kharkevich, D.À. Farmakologiya miorelaksantov / D.À.Kharkevich. - Ìoscow: Meditsina, 1989. – 287 p.
6. Opyt organizatsii i provedeniya meroproyatiy v pervichnyh ochagah infektsii [An experience of arranging and taking measures in infection primary foci] / Ê.N.Gruzdev [et al.] // Trudy / Federal Center for Animal Health Protection. – Vladimir, 2008. - Vol. VI. - P. 78-86.
  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: Ismagilova A.F. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Bazekin G.V.– Candidade of Biological Sciences, associate professor.
Address: Bashkir State Agrarian University, Ufa (tel.+7 (347) 228-08-98, e-mail: bgau@ufanet.ru).
Abstract: A large economic loss to cattle breeding is caused by young herds diseases; of them the respiratory diseases take 25-40%, and the share of bronchopneumonia is more than 80% of all lung diseases. In some farms the main reason of calves death and forced slaughter (77%) is the damage of upper respiratory tract and lungs. Because of lower natural resistance the calves having bronchopneumonia fall behind the healthy animals in growth and performance, being susceptible to other diseases. Regarding all the above mentioned facts the aim of the research was to study the effect glycyrrhizic acid has on performance, their natural resistance and antioxidant parameters in calves having an acute form of bronchopneumonia. The studies showed that using glycyrrhizic acid at a dose of 50 mg / kg had a promotion effect on the sick calves natural resistance, restrained the damage of biological membranes and functional activity of proteins - enzymes ensuring the function of key antioxidant protection mechanisms, which have play an important role in homeostasis and indicate a favorable effect of glycyrrhizic acid on calves performance.
Keywords: glycyrrhizic acid, pharmacology, bronchopneumonia, antioxidant status
References: 1. Ivanov, A.V. Anomalii selskih ekosistem i printsipy veterinarnoy zaschity v zonah zagryazneniya toksinami [Abnormalities in rural ecosystems and principles of veterinary protection in areas contaminated with toxins] / À.V.Ivanov, K.H.Papunidi, À.Ê.Chulkov // Veterinarny vrach. - 2007. - Vol.3. - P. 2-4.
2. Papunidi, K.H. Fitoterapiya pri boleznyah organov duhaniya i pischevareniya [Using herbals-based therapy to treat respiratory and digestional diseases]. / K.H.Papunidi, À.V.Ivanov, O.A.Gracheva // Methodological guidelines. Kazan, 2000. - 22p.
3. Pahomov, G.À. Immunoreguliruyuschaya terapiya pri vospolenii legkih u telyat [Using immunity-control therapy at calves pneumonia]/ G.À.Pahomov // Ratsionalniye metody profilaktiki, diagnostiki i terapii nezaraznyh bolezney zhivotnyh - Rational methods of prevention, detection, and therapy of animal non-contagious diseases. Kazan, 1993. - P.79-82.
4. Borsuk, Î.S. Mehanizmy immunotropnogo vliyaniya ekstrakta korney alteya [Mechnisms of immunotropic effect of sweatweed roots essence]/ Î.S.Borsuk, N.V.Masnaya, E.Yu.Sherstoboyev, N.V.Isaykiva, G.I.Kalinkina // Vestnik Uralskoy meditsinskoy akademicheskoy nauki. 2009. - Vol. 2/1. - P. 199-200.
5. Plyaschenko, S.I. Povysheniye yestestvennoy rezistentnosti organizma zhivotnyh - osnova profilaktiki bolezney [improving animal natural resistance is the basics of diseases prevention] / S.I. Plyaschenko // Veterinariya. - 1991. - Vol.6. - P. 49-52.
6. Retsky, M.I. Vzaimosvyaz nekotoryh pokazateley biohimicheskogo statusa s intensivnostyu vsasyvaniya kolostralnyh immunoglobulinov u novorozhdyonnyh telyat [Collerelationof some biochemical parameters and intensiry of colostral immunoglobulines absorption in newlyborn calves]/ Retsky M.I., Shahov A.G., Masyanov Yu.N., Chudnenko O.V., Bliznetsova G.N. //Doklady RASHN. – 2005. - Vol.5. – P.44-46


Authors: Sharipov M.R. - Senior Scientist; Aliyev A.Y. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Abstract: Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute, Laboratory for ovine diseases research (e-mail: alievayb1@mail.ru).
The Dagestan Republic is one of areas of the Russian Federation, where the number of sheep was saved and increased. Sheep milking and cheese (white cheese) production has a long history. The sheep milk has more dry matter for 1.5 times than the cow milk and therefore sheep cheese production needs less milk. The farmers in the Republic use hand milking, as sheep in the summer are shepherded on alpine and subalpine pastures and Caucasian or Moldavian milking methods. At the Caucasian method sheep are milked into a wineskin, while at Moldavian sheep milking method a bucket is used. The aim of this study was to reveal the correlation between milking methods and sheep mastitis cases. The disease was detected using milk-control plate developed by the staff of the Caspian ZVRI (patent ¹2495645) and using 3% - solution of masttest. The carried out studies showed that subclinical mastitis among lactating ewes occurs up to 5% at the Moldovan method milking, while the number of sick ewes is as high as  15.8% at Caucasian method. The reason is that at Moldovan milking method all the ewes are milked twice a day and no ewe stays unmilked, while at Caucasian method of milking the same ewes may remain unmilked and frequent milking omissions lead to breast diseases.
Keywords: methods of milking sheep; subclinical mastitis, ewes
References: 1. Aliyev, A.Yu. Etiologiya i rasprostraneniye mastita u ovets [Etiology and spread of mastitis in sheep] /A.Yu.Aliyev // Veterinarnaya patologiya. 2013. – Vol.4. - P.5-8.
2. Guseynov, E.M. Diagnostika i profilaktika skrytogo mastita [Detection and prevention of latent mastitis] /E.M.Guseinov, Sh.B.Shabanov, K.B.Hasanov // Ovtsevodstvo, 1993. – Vol.2.- P.37-38.
3. Zubairov, M.M. Doyeniye ovets ekonomicheski vygodno i biologicheski polezno [Ewe milking is profitable and biologically useful]. /M.M.Zubairov // Ovtsevodstvo, 1980. – Vol.2. - P.32-34.
4. Karpov, V.A. Akusherstvo melkih zhivotnyh [Obstetrics of small animals]. /V.A.Karpov.- Moscow, Rosselkhozizdat, 1984. – 240 p.
5. Mirgiev, I.A. osobennosti oborudovaniya dlya doyeniya ovets i pererabotki ovechyego moloka [Peculiarities of sheep milking and sheep milk processing] / I.A.Mirgiev, S.V.Ryzhov // Abstracts of VII Russian Symposium on livestock mechanical milking], - Orenburg, - 1995, - P. 43-44.
6. Radjabov, M.D. K voprosu o zabolevayemosti i gibeli yagnyat v usloviyah Dagestana [On the issue of lambs morbidity and mortality in Dagestan] /M.D.Radjabov, K.O.Sharipov // Abstracts from the 3rd USSR Conf. on epizootology]. - Novosibirsk. 1991. - P.391-393.
7. Mills, O. Practical sheep dairying/ O.Mills. - 1982. P.212.



Authors: Tuhtamanov A.V. - postgraduate; Sunagatullin F.A. - Doctor of Biology, professor.
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiating and Biological Safety, Kazan (å-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: The paper describes the proposed method of bulls percutaneous castration using Sand’s castration clamps. The animal is fixed in an upright position. The both testicles with skin are twisted for one turn (360o). Stepping back from the place of torsion for 2 cm toward the testicles the Sand’s castration clamps are placed so that the vascular ends with spermatic cords are captured by the instrument jaws. The clamps handles are compressed with a moderate force but sharply and kept them for 5-10 seconds. Parenchymatous tissues are resolved in 5-6 months. The paper practical significance is provides a comparative assessment of the both open castration method and blood-free castration method using Sand’s castration clamps on entire animals. The comparative evaluation of the both methods showed that the proposed method of percutaneous castration using the Sand’s clamps yielded 24 kg more than that of the non-castrated animals and 7 kg more than animals castrated using the blood open method. The average daily gain was 0.51 kg at the blood-free castration method, at blood open method – 0.48 kg, and the entire bulls – 0.44 kg accordingly.
Keywords: bulls, percutaneous castration, Sand’s castration clamps
References: 1. Mosin, V.V. Ratsionalniye sposoby kastratsii produktivnyh zhivotniyh [The rational methods of productive animals castration]/V.V.Mosin. – Moscow: Rosselhozizdat, 1977. – 79 p.
2. Telyatnikov, I. Beskrovniy sposob kastratsii zhivotnyh [Animal blood-free castration method]/I.Telyatnikov // “Selskoe hozyaystvo Urala”. – 1963. Vol.2. – 32-33.
3. Koliskin, N.S. Vliyaniye kastratsii na rost, formoobrazovaniye i kachestvo molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [The influence of castration method on young calves growth, morphogenesis and welfare]/N.S.Kolyshkin// Sovetskaya zootehniya. – 1947. – Vol.7. – P.43-45.
4. Kuznetsov, G.S. Hirurgicheskiye operatsii u krupnogo rogatogo skota [The cattle surgery]/G.SKuznetsov. – Leningrad; “Kolos”, 1973.- 296 p.
5. Mochalovsky, A.N. O novyh sposobah srerilizatsii samtsov selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [On novel  methods of livestock males sexual sterilization] /A.N.Mochalovsky // Selskoye hozyaystvo Severnogo Kavkaza. – 1961. – Issue 1. – P.44-46.
6. Semenov, B.S. Chastnaya veterinernaya hirurgiya [ Specific veterinary surgery]/B.S.Semenov, A.V.Lebedev. – Moscow: “Kolos”, 1999.- 496 p.
7. Burdenyuk, A.F. Hirurgicheskiye bolezni selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh:uchebnoye posobiye [The livestock surgical diseases:manual] / A.F.Burdenyuk, V.M.Vlasenko, I.S.Panko. - Kyiv: “Urozhay”, 1988. - 155-158 p.


Authors: Ziatdinov M.G. – postgraduate; Yakimov A.V. - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor.
Address: Research Centre «Korma», Russia (e-mail: korma_116@mail.ru).

Abstract: The paper presents experimental data on studying the possibility to improve energetic value of mixed fodders and ration efficacy as a whole to fully make use the bioresource potential of meat production from bulls of Black-and-White Dutch breed in the Republic of Tatarstan. The laboratory-based studies showed that in Tatarstan the green feed lacks the energy value for 7.9 - 9.1% than the average across the Russian Federation. Laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that enrichning the mixed feed with energetic mineral additives promoted metabolic energy increase for 9.3-10.8% which resulted in increase of daily weight gain for 10.6-11.7% and production rate for 4.5%. Meanwhile, the rumen digestion studies confirmed the reinforcement of cellulose degradation and fermentation of carbohydrates till the ultimate enzymatic products - volatile fatty acids for 23.9%, and increase in protozoa number for 53.7 thousand/ml. Blood biochemical tests showed a significant increase in total protein for 5.1 g/l and reduction of reserve alkalinity for 3.4% /CO2, glucose – for 0.17 mmol/l at the end of the experiment that evident the increase of protein and carbonic metabolism with aging. Significantly heavier live weight of the experimental bulls gained more meat for 18.8 kg and increased slaughter yield for 0.81% and the meat index for 1.9%. Higher biological value of the muscle tissue in the experimental group is conditioned by a higher level of tryptophan and a lower level of oxyproline.
Keywords: diet, fodder, premix, cattle
References: 1. Medvedev, D.A. Novaya stranitsa razvitiya otrasli [A new page in development of the industry] / Stenogramma vstrechi predsedatelya pravitelstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii D.Medvedeva s gubernatorom Stavropolskogo kraya Vladimirovyim V. - Transcript of the meeting of Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev with the Governor of the Stavropol territory V.Vladimirov // Selskaya zhizn. - 2014. - Vol.32 - P.1
2. Kalashnikov, V. Sostoaynie i perspektivy proizvodstva govyadiny v Rossii [Status and perspectives of beef production in Russia] / V.Kalashnikov, H.Amerhanov // Molochnoye i myasnoye skotovodstvo. - 2005. - Vol. 6. - P. 3-7.
3. Dzhaparidze, T.N. Rossiya mozhet i dolzhna stat stranoy razvitogo zhivotnovodstva [Russia can and should become a country with developed livestock industry] / T.N. Dzhaparidze // Agrorynok. - 2006. - Vol. 6. - P. 6-8.
4. Amerhanov, H.A. Znacheniye sovremennyh porod myasnogo skota v proizvodstve govyadiny [The importance of modern cattle meat breeds in beef production] / H.A.Amerhanov, F.G.Kayomov // Vestnik myasnogo skotovodstva. - 2010. - Vol. 63. - Issue 3. - P.19-24.
5. Zaripova, L.P. Korma Respubliki Tatarstan: sostav, pitatelnost i ispolzovanie [Feed in the Republic of Tatarstan: composition, nutritional value and use] / L.P. Zaripova, M,G. Nurtdinov, N.N. Hazipov et al. - Kazan: Foliant. - 2010. - 272 p.
6. Yakimov, A.V. Vliyaniye energosberegayuschih kormovyh dobavok na produktivnost korov [The significance of energy feed additives on cows production] / A.V.Yakimov, V.V.Gromakov, A.E. Nefedev // Molochnoye i myasnoye skotovodstvo. - 2011. - Vol. 7. - P.10-11.
7. Kirilov, M.P. Energeticheskaya kormovaya dobavka v ratsione vysokoproduktivnyh korov [Using energy feed additive in the diet of productive cows] / M.P.Kirilov, V.V.Vinogradov, A.V.Golovin // Kombikorma. - 2007. - Vol. 4. - P. 5-8.
8. Kalashnikov, A.P. Normy i ratsiony kormleniya sekskohozyastvennyh zhivotnyh [Norms and rations of livestock feeding] / A.P.Kalashnikov, V.V.Scheglov, N.G.Pervov. - Moscow, 2003. - 422 p.


Authors: 1Pozov S.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor;1Porublev V.A. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 1Rodin V.V. - Doctor of Agriculture;2Orlova N.E. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: 1Stavropolsky State Agrarian University (tel.+7 (8652) 35-22-82; e-mail: fvm-fvm@yandex.ru).
2Smolensk State Agricultural Academy (e-mail: sgsha@smoltelecom.ru).
Abstract: Filling calves diet with lacking level of microelements promotes a body growth and development, and enhancing body natural protective forces which gradually become more active. They become more expressed at 1.5 - 2 months after diet enrichment. Calves from the second (experimental) group had higher values of body natural resistance parameters. Phagocytic activity and intensity of phagocytosis were higher than in the first (control) group. The calves fed with enriched diet during the dry period delivered calves with higher values of natural resistance and heavier live weight for 7.2% at the first days after the birth. It is useful to enrich lactating calves' diet with microelements to promote young animal resistance to various diseases at post-natal period. The additives efficacy is conditioned by optimization of adaptation mechanisms, enhancement of body resistance, increase of survival rate, performance, and reduction of sickness rate.
Keywords: microelements, dietnrichment, etiology, postnatal, resistance, activity, phagocytic, leukocytes, production, lysozymic, bacterial action, diet, natural, avirulent
References: 1. Pozov, S.A. Vliyaniye razlichnyh doz medi na nekotoriye biohimicheskiye pokazateli syvorotki krovi telyat [The effect of copper in various doses on some biochemical parameters of calves blood serum]/ Pozov, S.A., Komarova L.N. // Diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyh -Diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases in farm animals: Collection of sci.articles.- Stavropol: Stavropol State Agricultural Academy, 2000.-p 111-113.
2. Pozov, S.A. Vliyaniye fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na prirost zhivoy massy porosyat i ih rezistentnost [The effect of phytobiostimulator (PBS) on improvement of pigs weight gain and their resistance]/ Pozov S.A., Belyaev V.A., Vorobyov A.V. //Proceedings from the International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary prof. Nikolsky S.N. Stavropol: GAU, 2003. P.268-270.
3. Pozov, S.A., Vliyaniya podkormok mikroelementami i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na nekotoriye fiziologicheskiye pokazateli ovets [The effect of fodder enrichment with minerals and phyrobiostimulator (PBS) on some physiological parameters in sheep]/ S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina// Diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyh -Diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases in farm animals: Collection of sci.articles.- Stavropol: "AGRUS", 2007. – P.2-4.
4. Pozov, S.A. Vliyaniye medi, kobalta i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na kliniko-gematologicheskiye pokazateli ovets [The effect of copper, cobalt and fitobiostimulator (FBS) on clinical and hematological parameters in sheep]/S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina// Sostoyaniye, perspektivy i strategiya razvitiya i nauchnogo obosnovaniya ovtsevodstva i kozovodstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii - State, prospects and strategy of further development and scientific justification of sheep and goat breeding in the Russian Federation: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference / Stavropol, 2007. – Part.3-P.5-7.
5. Pozov, S.A., Vliyaniya podkormok mikroelementami i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na nekotoriye fiziologicheskiye pokazateli ovets [The effect of fodder enrichment with minerals and phyrobiostimulator (PBS) on some physiological parameters in sheep]/ S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina, E.A.Halimonova//Diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyh -Diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases in farm animals: Collection of sci.articles.- Stavropol: "AGRUS", 2007. – P.76-77.
6. Pozov, S.A. Vliyaniya podkormok mikroelementami i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na produktivnost ovets [The effect of fodder enrichment with minerals and phyrobiostimulator (PBS) on on sheep production]/ S.A.Pozov, Yu.V.Beliy, N.E.Orlova, [et al.]// Ovtsy, kozy, sherstyanoye delo.- 2008. P. 50-52.
7. Pozov, S.A., Vliyaniya podkormok mikroelementami i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na dinamiku gematologicheskih pokazateley u yagnyat [The effect of fodder enrichment with minerals and phyrobiostimulator (PBS) on blood parameters in lambs]/ S.A.Pozov, V.A. Shalygina//Diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyh -Diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases in farm animals: Collection of sci.articles.- Stavropol: "AGRUS", 2008. – P. 160-162.
8. Pozov, S.A., Vliyaniye mikroelementov i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na pokazateli ovets[The effect of fodder enrichment with minerals and phyrobiostimulator (PBS) on sheep parameters]/ S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina// Veterinariya .2008.-Vol.9.-P.76-77.
9. Orlova, N.E., Biogeohimicheskiye provintsii i svyazanniye s nimi mikroelementozy zhivotnyh [Biogeochemical provinces and the related microelementoses in animals/ N.E.Orlova, S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina//Diagnostika, lecheniye, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyh -Diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases in farm animals: Collection of sci.articles.- Stavropol: "AGRUS", 2008. – P.132-135.
10. Pozov, S.A. Mikroelementozy zhivotnyh v biogeohimicheskih provintsiyah[Animals microelementoses in biogeochemical provinces] /S.A.Pozov, N.E.Orlova.-Haburg:LAP,2012.-148p.
11. Pozov, S.A. Mikroelementy plazmy krovi i eritrotsitov u ovets pri bronhopnevmonii v assotsiatsii s sarkotsitozom [Microelements of blood plasma and erythrocytes in sheep with bronchopneumonia in association with sarcosporidiosis]./S.A.Pozov, V.A.Shalygina, S.A.Eziev// Diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases in farm animals: Collection of sci.articles.- Stavropol: "AGRUS",2010.-P.41-42.
12. Znacheniye mikroelementov v profilaktike smeshannyh zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyh[The value of minerals in the prevention of associated diseases of farm animals]/ S.A.Pozov, V.A.Porublev, N.E.Orlova, [et al.] //Veterinarny vrach.-2014.Vol.4.-P.3-5.


Authors: Ivanov V.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Koreshkov S.V. - agronomist; Dyumin M.S. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Address: Academician D.K.Belyaev Ivanovo State Agricultural Academy, Ivanovo (tel. (4932) 32-81-44, e-mail: rektorat@ivgsha.ru).
Abstract: The aim of the research was to identify the possibility of using plants of the cabbage family to protect the sheep from ionized radiation. In two series of experiments on sheep of Romanov breed used rapeseed flour in dosage up to 1.5 g per 1 kg weight during 45 days. Then they were individually exposed to irradiation 60Co using the “Rocus-M” in dosage of from 3.5 to 6.5 Gr for from 20 to 43 minutes. Post-irradiation observations (an hour and a half) showed that the phase of primary reactions had undulation fluctuation with a subsequent reduction to norm, i.e., with the greatest fluctuations in the intervals between 350 and 450 rad. In animals exposed to dosage of 650 this phase began in two hours with parameters of HR = 280, BH = 166 with less smooth changes. During 9-10 hours they showed a 4-fold increase in parameters. Thus, the latter had more pronounced depression of the central nervous system and the inability to adequately respond to the irritation. The blood test revealed no lesions of the hematopoietic system. Therefore, the feeding sheep with rapeseed flour in dose of 1.5 g per 1 kg of live weight during the 45 day prevents the development of explicit clinic of radiation injuries.
Keywords: radioprotector, plant canola, cabbage family, amino acids, dose, rad, 60-cobalt
References: 1. Avivalov, B.S. Biohimicheskiy mehanizm deystviya radioprotektorov [Biochemical mechanism of radioprotectors effect]/ B.S. Avivalov. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1989.-193p.
2. Buryakov, Y.P. Raps ozimiy i yarovoy [The rape plant as winter and spring crop] / Y.P.Buryakov - Moscow: Rosagropromizdat, 1988.
3. K voprosu o prirode radiatsionnogo effekta [On the nature of radiation effect] / E.Ya.Gruevski [et al.]. - Moscow: Radiobiology, vol. ¹ 3.- p. 356-359.
4. Kozlov, V.A. Vliyaniye gamma-radiatsii na gemodinamiku u loshadey i ovets [The effect of gamma-radiation on hemodynamics in horses and sheep] / V.A.Kozlov. - Obninsk, 1992.-P109-112.
5. Koreskov, S.V. Sravnitelnaya otsenka sortov rapsa [Comparative evaluation of rapeseed varieties] / S.V.Koreshkov. - Ivanovo: Ivanovo state agricultural academy, 1998. - 48 p.
6. Okada, Sh. Radiation biochemistry: cells / Kurt I. Altman, Georg B. Gerber, Shigefumi Okada; translated into Russian by B.Borenfeld, E.Grayevskaya, A.Sobolev. - Moscow: Mir, 1974. - 331 p.
7. Polivoda, B.I. Deystviye ioniziruyuschego oblucheniya na kletochniye membrany [Effect of ionizing radiation on cell membrane] / B.I.Polivoda, Y.N.Smolin. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1980. - 168 p.
8. Raps, surepitsa i redka maslyachenichnaya v Vostochnoy Sibiri [Rape, colza, and oil radish in Eastern Siberia] / V.I.Brikman [et al.] - Moscow: Rosagropromizdat, 1989.-109p.
9. Romantsev, E.F. Biohimicheskiye osnovy deystviya radioprotektorov [Biochemical basis of radioprotective effect]/ E.F.Romantsev, V.D.Blokhina. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1980. - 168 p.
10. Sulfgidrilniye gruppy i radiochuvstvitelnost [Sulfhydryl groups and radiosensitivity] / E.Ya.Gruevski [et al.]. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1969.
11. Tokarskaya, V.I. Narusheniye funktsiy DNK v nachalnyh etapah radiatsionnogo porazheniya [DNA function failure during the initial stages of radiation injury] / V.I.Tokarskaya. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1972. - 130 p.
12. Hanson, K.P. Biochemical aspects of ionizing radiation on living organism / K.P.Hanson, V.E.Komor. - Leningrad: Medicine, 1977.-264p.
13. Himiya i farmakologiya sredstv profilaktiki radiotsionnyh porazheniy [Chemistry and pharmacology of means preventing radiation injuries] / H.N.Suvorov [et al.]. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1980. - 168 p.
14. Yarmolenko, S.P. Protivoluchevaya zaschita organizma [Body radioprotection] / S.P.Yarmonenko. - Moscow: Atomizdat, 1976.-264p.
15. Yarmonenko, S.P. Radiobiologiya cheloveka i zhivotnyh [Radiobiology of human and animals] / S.P.Yarmonenko, A.A.Vainson. - Moscow: vysshaya shkola, 2004. - 549 p.


Authors: Krasnikova E.V. – postgraduate.
Address: Perm State Agricultural Academy, Perm (Tel. +7 (342) 212-53-94, å-mail: Viki-eva1002@rambler.ru).
Abstract: Investigation of microorganisms caryopathic properties is one of the current issues in human and animal medicine. This article provides the investigation results of the effect of Sporovit probiotic drug on white mice marrow and testicle cells. The drug was introduced orally in therapeutic dosage. The control animals remained intact. The studies revealed that using the probiotic reduces mitotic index of marrow cells, the number of dividing cells in testicles reduces by two times. The both organs manifested pathology in cells division. Anisopolar anaphases and metaphases with premature chromosomal disjunction are the most frequent pathology. Also, chromatic agglutination was registered. Therefore, the damage of microtubular apparatus of cells division and chromosomal structure takes place. The studies showed that the Sporovit drug should be used for infection therapy very carefully.
Keywords: sporovit, cells, division
1. Infektsionnaya kriopatologiya [Infectious cryopathology] / I.N.Ilinskih, V.V.Novitsky, E.N.Ilinskih [et al.]; edited by N.N.Ilinskih. - Òîmsk: Izdatelstvo Toskogo universiteta, 2005.-168p.: illustrated 2.
2. Krasnikova E.V. Kariopaticheskoye deystviye preparata "sporovit" na laboratornyh zhivotnyh [The caryppathic effect of Sporovit drug on laboratory animals] / Å.V.Êrasnikova // Veterinarny vrach.- 2013.- Vol.6.- P.3-5.
3. Protektivny effekt Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis 44-P i B. subtilis ssp. Subtilis B3 pri eksperimentalnoy stafillokokovoy infektsii [A protective effect of Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis 44-P and B. subtilis ssp. Subtilis B3 at experimental staphylococcal infection] / N.À.Timoshok, À.V.Cheypesh, V.Î.Àgeev [et al.]  //Gastroenterologiya Sankt-Peterburga.- 2011. - Vol.4. – P.33-34.
4. Shaposhnikova, M.Yu. Vliyaniye kompleksov BAV, poluchennyh iz fugatov glubinnyh kultur B.subtilis i B.licheniformis, na sostoyaniye zdorovya i prirost massy otkormochnogo molodnyaka sviney v period vspyshki zheludochno-kishechnyh zabolevaniy neustanovlennoy etiologii [An influence of clusters of bioactive substances produced from deep culture fugates of B.subtilis and B.licheniformis on health and weight gain in finishing piglets during outbreaks of gatrointestinal infections of unknown etiology] / Ì.Yu.Shaposhnikova, P.G.Vasilyev, V.V.Shelgachev //Veterinarny vrach. – 2012. – Vol.3. – P.15-19.
5. Antogonisticheskaya aktivnost, profilakticheskaya i lechebnaya effektivnost probiotika na osnove Bacillus subtilis i Bacillus licheniformis pri kolibakterioze (otyochnoy bolezni) [Antogonistic, prevention and therapeutic effect of probiotic based on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis at piglets colibacteriosis (edema disease) / À.G.Shahov, Yu.N.Brigadirov, L.Yu.Sashnina [et al.] //Veterinarny vrach. – 2012. – Vol. – P.7-10.
6. Manna, G.K. Mouse bone marrow as a means of resting clastogenic agents / G.K.Manna // Nucleus. – 1986. – Vol.29, ¹3. – P.141-168.
7. Manna, G.K. The living mutagens / G.K.Manna //Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci. (India). – Calkutta: Naya Prokash, 1980. – P.573-606.
8. Manna, G.K. Chromosome aberrations in mice indused by the bacterium, Klebsiella pneumonia and their alterations by chloramphenicol injection / G.K.Manna, S.Gupta // Tokyo Cytology. – 1977. – Vol.23. – P.30-31.
9. Manna, G.K. Cytogenic evaluation of the mutagenic potential of various samples of bacterium, Bacillus megaterium in intraperitoneally injected mice / G.K.Manna, K.C.Mohanty // Nucleus. – 1994. – Vol.382, ¹3. – P.283-289.
10. Manna, G.K. The genotoxic potential of the bacterium, Serratia marcescens in mice as experimental model / G.K.Manna, A.Sadhukhan // Nat.Acad.Sci.Lett. – 1990. – Vol.13, ¹7. – P.273-288.


Authors: Lezhnina M.N. – Candidate of Biology Sciences.
Address: Cheboksary Branch, Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics (e-mail: its@cbx.ru, merinochek2@rambler.ru).
Abstract: During the recent years, using zeolites from various Volga region places the cation composition of which significantly differs from the well-known and well-studied deposits of volcanic and volcanogenic type is of high interest. Therefore, one of the current problems in modern biology and biotechnology is to provide a reliable justification of the biogenic effect these natural minerals have on productive animal body regarding their regional peculiarities. The aim of the research was to study the ontogenetic features of natural resistance in boars and hogs fed with diet containing the trepeli natural zeolite which has biogeochemical specificity peculiar to South-Eastern area of the Chuvash Republic. The investigation included a series of laboratory and field studies and experiments using 20 physiologically mature 2-days old boars, selected according to their clinical and physiological parameters, age, sex, breed, body weight with 10 animals in each group. During 57 days all the studied boars were grown together with lactating sows. After the animals were castrated till the end of the research (300 days) the hogs from the first group were fed main ration (MR) while the second group ration was enriched with trepel natural zeolite at dose of 1.25 g/kg body weight. The results revealed the specificity of natural resistance in the second group pigs at different periods of postnatal ontogenesis due to using trepel zeolite with biogeochemical features peculiar to the South-East area of Chuvashia.
Keywords: boars, hugs, trepel zeolite, blood, natural resistance, postnatal ontogenesis
References: 1. Skalny, A.V. Radiatsiya, mikroelementy, antioksidanty i immunitet [Radiation, minerals, antioxidants, and immunity]/ À.V.Skalny, A.V.Kudrin.- Ìoscow: Lir Market, 2000.- 427 p.
2. Sudakov, K.V. Stress: postulaty s pozitsii obschey teorii funktsionalnyh sistem [Sress: the principles regarding general theory of functional systems] / K.V.Sudakov // Patologiya, fiziologiya i eksperimentalnaya terapiya. -1992.- Vol. 4.- P.86?93.
3. Suslikov, V.L. Geohimicheskaya ekologiya bolezney [The geochemical ecology of diseases]. P.3 /V.L.Suslikov.- Ìoscow: Gelios ÀRV, 2002. -670 p.
4. Fedorov, Yu.N. Immunokorrektsiya: primeneniye i mehanism deystviya immunomoduliruyuschih preparatov [Immunocorrection: using and action mechanism of immunomodulating drugs] / Yu.N.Fedorov // Veterinariya. - 2005.- Vol. 2.- P.3-6.
5. Vliyaniye tseolita i natriya sulfida na yestestvennuyu rezistentnost zhivotnyh pri sochetannom otravlenii dioksinom i kadmiya hloridom [The influence of zeolite and sodium sulphide on animal natural resistance at associated poisoning with dioxin and cadmium chloride] / I.F.Vafin, K.H.Papunidi, À.V.Novikov [et al.]//Veterinarny vrach.- 2010. - Vol. 3.- P.14-16.
6. Vinichenko, G.V. Vliyaniye prirodnyh mineralov na gumoralniye faktory rezistentnosti sviney v rannem postnatalnom periode [The influence of natural minerals on resistance humoral factors in pigs at early postnatal period] / G.V.Vinichenko, V.S.Grigoryev // Research articles of N.E. Baumann Kazan State academy of veterinary medicine.- 2010.- Vol.204. -Iss. 1.- P.47-53.
7. K mehanizmam biologicheskoy aktivnosti nano- i microchastits prirodnyh mineralov v eksperimente [To the mechanism of biological activity of natural minerals nano- and microparticles in experiment] / À.À.Sergeyevich, V.V.Chayka, K.S.Golohvast [et al.]// Vestnik novyh meditsinskih tehnology.- 2013. - Vol. 20, Iss. 4.- P.160–165.
8. Immunogenez i metabolism hryachkov i borovkov v biogeohimicheskih usloviyah Chuvashskoy respubliki [Immunigenesis and metabolism in hogs and boars bred in biogeochemical environment of the Chuvash Republic: manuscript] / R.À.Shukanov, M.N.Lezhnina, À.À.Shukanov [et al.].- Ìoscow: Izdatelstvo "Kapital Print", 2011.- 242p.
9. Normy i ratsiony kormleniya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh: spravochnoye posobiye [Livestock feeding norms and rations: reference book] / À.P.Kalashnikov, V.I.Fisin, V.V.Sheglova [et al.].- Ìoscow: Rosselhozakademiya, 2003.- 456 p.


Authors: Alekseyev I.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine professor; Volkov A.M.- postgraduate; Kadikov R.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Address: Chuvash State Agricultural Academy, Cheboksary (tel. +7(965)684-36-97); e-mail: Dekanatfvmz@mail.ru).
Federal Centre for Toxicology, radiation and biological safety, Kazan (tel. (843)239-53-20, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).

Abstract: The recent studies and references showed probiotics can have immunomodulatory effect, promoting natural resistance factors, Moreover, various probiotics, belonging to different bacteria species and strains have different effects on immunological process. Development of new effective probiotics and justification their application way is a promising direction for further research. In this regard, the aim of the field studies was to reveal the effect the liquid Sporobacterin, new probiotic antibiotic, has on parameters of calves natural resistance and survival rate. The drug application in calves during the period from 5th to 30th days of live at dosage of 1.5 ml per had a more expressed physiological effect on the calves body. The experimental calves of 30 days age showed an improved blood morphological and biochemical content than the intact (control) ones: erythrocyte number increased for 6.12% (P<0.01), hemoglobin - 4.92%(P<0.01), phagocyte activity - 7.16% (P<0.01), lymphocytes - 6.35%(P<0.01), T- lymphocytes - 4.64%(P<0.05), B-lymphocytes - 7.05%(P<0.01), in blood serum total protein increased for 6.97%(P<0.01), albumin - 3.38%(P<0.05), gamma-globulin – 10.8%  (P<0.01) than that of the controls  accordingly.
Keywords: sporobakterin liquid, natural resistance, immunity, lymphocytes, probiotic, total protein, albumin, globulin, gamma-globulins
References: 1. Bakulina, L.F. Probiotiki na osnove sporoobrazyuschih mikroorganizmov roda Bacillus i ih ispolzovaniye v veterinarii [Probiotics based on spore-forming microorganisms of Bacallus genus and their use in veterinary] // Biotehnologiya. - 2002.- Vol.2.- P. 48-52.
2. Bessarabov, B.F. Probiotiki effektivny i bezvredny [Probiotics are effective and harmless] / B.F.Bessarabov, A.A.Krykanov, I. I. Melnikov// Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii.- 2006.- Vol.5.-P. 28-29.
3. Vremennoye nastavleniye po primeneniyu preparata sporobakterina zhidkogo [Temporary instruction on using Sporobacterin liquid drug] – Orenburg: LLC “Bakoren”, Orenburg.-2011.- 1p.
4.Grachev, N.M. Effektivnost novogo probioticheskogo preparata pri lechenii kishechnyh infektsiy [Effeciency of a new probiotic drug to treat intestinal infections] // Mikrobiologiya.-2006.-Vol.4.-P. 77-78.
5.Deblik, A.G. Vliyaniye probiotikov na morfologiyu organov zhivotnyh [Probiotic influence on animal organs morphology] / A.G.Deblik, A.R.Malikov // Rossiyskiy veterinarny zhurnal.-2001.-Vol.2.- P. 14-16.
6.Zinchenko, E.V. Immunobiotiki v veterinarnoy praktike: o mehanizme deystviya probiotikov i immunoprofilakticheskih preparatov pri ispolzovanii v veterinarii [using immunobiotics veterinary practice: the action mechanism of probiotics and immunoprophylactic drugs for veterinary use]/ E.V.Zinchenko, A.P.Pronin.-Puschino:ONTI PNC RAN, 2006.- 163 p.
7.Kalmykova, A.I. Probiotiki: terapiya i profilaktika zabolevaniy, ukrepleniye zdorovya [Probiotics: disease prevention, therapy and health promotion] / A.I.Kalmykova; edited by S.M.Gavalova; SibHIPTIP SO RAN. – Novosibirsk; MPF “Bio-Vesta”, 2001. – 208p.
8.Korsakov, V.M. Ispolzovaniye probiotikov pri vyraschivanii telyat profilakticheskogo vozrasta [Using probiotics in growing calves at early age]/ V.M.Korsakov, L.A.Litvina // Scientific achievements for agrarian industry. – Kurgan, 2004. – P. 143-145. – (Collection of articles from Kurgan state agrarian academy; Vol.2).
9.Litvinov, O.B. Resheniye problemy zaschity novorozhdennyh telyat ot infektsionnoy diarei smeshannoy etiologii [Addressing newborn calves protection from viral diarrhea of associated etiology] / O.B.Litvinov, H.Z.Gafarov, N.G.Spiridonov //Veterinarny vrach.- 2005.- Vol.3.- P.29-31.
10.Mazankova, L.N. Probiotiki na sovremennom etape – klinicheskiye podhody i oblasti primeneniya [Probiotics in the modern methods – clinical approaches and the application] / L.N.Mazankova, S.A. Sheveleva, E.A. Lykova. – Moscow. Agropromizdat, 2005. – P. 40- 41.
11.Nozdrin, G.A. Probiotiki na osnove B. subtilis i ih rol v podderzhanii zdorovya zhivotnyh raznyh vidov [Probiotics based on B. Subtilis and their effect on health support in different animals]/ G.A.Nozdrin, A.B. Ivanova // Siberian Bulletin of Agrarian science.- 2006.- Vol.7.-P. 63- 66.
12.Chumachenko, V.E. Opredeleniye yestestvennoy rezistentnosti i obmena veschestv u selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Evaluation of natural resistance and metabolism in farm animals].- Kyiv: Urozhay, 1990.- 136p.


Authors: Glagoleva T.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Address: Kursk Institute of Social Education (branch) of Russian State Social University, Kursk (e-mail: ilmedv1@yandex.ru).
Abstract: A successful blood circulation particularly in smaller vessels largely depends on aggregation of blood cells. The evaluation of expressiveness in blood cells aggregation is becoming significant in calves of early ontogenesis – the neonatal phase. The aim of the work was to identify expressiveness of aggregation properties of blood cells in calves during the newborn phase. The studies were carried out on 1-2-days old Black and White Dutch calves (n=32). The calves were sampled 5 times during the neonatal phase. The animals were tested for expressive aggregation of erythrocytes, platelets and neutrophils using the conventional methods. During the neonatal phase the calves tended to spontaneous aggregation of red blood cells, indicated by a higher level of total erythrocytes number in aggregation, an increased number of aggregations and reduced number of free red blood cells. The animals tended to have an increased platelet aggregation in regard of all of the tested parameters. Optimal platelet aggregation with strong and weak agonists was provided by a lower activity of A2 and C phospholipases promoting thromboxane and phosphoinositol way of platelet activation. During the neonatal period the calves tended to have an increased neutrophil aggregation in a higher ratio to A concanavalin and a lower ratio to lectin and phytohemagglutinin. This was provided by an increased number of receptors of adhesion, containing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, mannose, and bD-galactose in leukocytes. Thus, during the first 10 days of life the calves tended to have a promoted aggregation of blood cells number.
Keywords: neonatal phase, calves, aggregation, erythrocytes, platelets, white blood cells
References: 1. Volchegorsky, I.À. Eksperimentalnoye modelirovaniye i laboratornaya otsenka adaptivnyh reaktsiy organizma [Experimental designing and laboratory evaluation of organism adaptive responses]/ I.A.Volchegorsky, I.I.Dolgushin, O.L.Kolesnikov.- Chelyabinsk: Izdatelstvo Chelyabinsk State pedagogical University, 2000.– 167p.
2. Gavrilov, V.B. Spektrofotometricheskoye opredeleniye soderzhaniya gidroperekisey lipidov v plazme krovy [Spectrophotometric evaluation of lipid hydroperoxides in calves plasma] / V.B.Gavrilov, M.I. Mishkorudnaya // Laboratornoye delo.– 1983.– Vol.3.– P.33-36.
3. Zavalishina, S.Yu. Kontrol sosudistoy stenki nad indutsirovannoy agregatsiyey trombotsitov u novorozhdennyh telyat v usloviyah defitsita zheleza [Vascular wall control of induced platelet aggregation in newborn calves with iron deficiency]/ S.Yu. Zavalishina, T.I.Glagoleva // Veterinarnaya praktika.–2013.– Vol.2(61).– P.40-42.
4. Zavalishina, S.Yu. Antiagregatsionnye vozmozhnosti sosudov u novorozhdennyh telyat s defetsitom zheleza na fone ferroglyukina i gamavita [Vascular anti-aggregation potential in newborn calves with ferrous deficiency treated with Ferroglucinum and gamavit] / S.Yu.Zavalishina, T.I.Glagoleva, I.N.Medvedev, // teoreticheskiye i prikladniye problem agropromyshlennogo kompleksa. –2013.– Vol.2(15).– Ñ.3-5.
5. Zavalishina, S.Yu. Gemostaticheskaya aktivnost sosudov u novorozhdennyh telyat s defitsitom zheleza na fone primeneniya ferroglyukina i krezatsina [Vascular hemostatic activity in newborn calves having ferrotic deficiency and treated with Ferroglucinum and  krezacin] / S.Yu. Zavalishina, T.I.Glagoleva I.N.Medvedev, // Veterenariya. –2013.– Vol.6. – P.47-49.
6. Kutafina, N.V. Mehanizmy funktsionirovaniya sosudistogo gemostaza [Functional mechanism of vascular hemostasis] / N.V.Kutafina // Mezhdunarodniy nauchno-issledovatelsky zhurnal. –2012.– Vol.5-3(5).– P.64-65.
7. Kutafina, N.V. Mehanizmy funktsionirovaniya sosudisto-trombotsitatnogo gemostaza [Functional mechanism of vascular and patelet hemostasis] / N.V.Kutafina, S.Yu. Zavalishina, // Vestnik Rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov -  Bulletin of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Series of “Ecology and life safety”.– 2012–. Vol.1.– P.30-37.
8. Kutafina, N.V. Agregatsiya eritrotsitov i trombotsitov u molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota v perviye 10 sutok zhizni [Erythrocytes and platelet aggregation in newborn calves during the first ten days of life] / N.V.Kutafina, Ò.À.Belova // Magistr KZ.– 2014.– Vol.10.– P.16-18.
9. Medvedev, I.N. Metodicheskiye podhody k otsenke agregatsii I poverhnostnyh svoystv trombotsitov i eritrotsitov [Methodological approach to evaluate aggregation and surface properties of erythrocytes and platelet] / I.N.Medvedev, S.Yu. Zavalishina, Å.G. Krasnova // Fundamentalniye issledovaniya. –2014.– Vol.10-1.– P.117-120.
10. Medvedev, I.N. Osobennosti sistemy gemostaza korov v techeniye stelnosti [Hemostasis peculiarities in caws during pregnancy] / I.N.Medvedev, S.Yu. Zavalishina, // reports of the Russian Academy of agrarian sciences. –2014.– Vol.6.– P.44-47.
11. Medvedev, I.N. Fiziologiya vistseralnyh system: ucheblik dlya vuzov [Phisiology of visceral systems: a manual] / I.N.Medvedev, S.Yu.Zavalishina, N.V.Kutafina // Uspehi sovremennogo yestestvoznaniya. – 2014.– Vol.10. – P.87-88.
12. Maksimov, V.I. Fiziologo-biohimicheskiy status krovi telyat v rannem postnatalnom ontogeneze v protsesse vaktsinatsii [Blood physiological and biochemical parameters in calves at early postnatal ontogenesis during vaccination] / V.I.Maksimov, Î.À.Verhovsky, À.S.Moskvina // Bulletin of N.E.Baumann Kazan State academy of veterinary medicine. –2013.–Vol.214. – P.317-321.
13. Maksimov, V.I. Osobennosti antikoagulyatsionnoy i fibrinoliticheskoy aktivnosti krovi u zdorovyh porosyat molochnogo pitaniya [Specifics of blood anti-coagulation and fibrinolytic activity in healthy prenursery piglets] / V.I.Maksimov, I.N.Medvedev, À.V.Parahevich // Veterinariya, zootehniyai biotehnologiya. –2014. – Vol.– P.12-16.
14. Maksimov, V.I. Sravnitelnaya otsenka trombotsitarnyh funktsiy v rannem ontogeneze u telyat i porosyat [Comparative evaluation of platelet function in calves and piglets at early ontogenesis] / V.I.Maksimov, I.N.Medvedev, // Veterinaria. –2008.– Vol.11.– P.50-54.
15. Parahnevich, A.V. Aktivnost sistemy koagulyatsii krovi u svinomatok posle otyoma, soderzhaschihsya v usloviyah tsentralnoy Rossii [Activity of blood coagulation system in sows after weaning in Centerl Russia area] / À.V.Parahevich, V.I.Maksimov, I.N.Medvedev // Bulletin of Stavropol agrarian industry. –2013.– Vol.1(9). – P.141-143.