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¹ 2, 2015



Authors: Glazyev E.N. - ðostgraduate.
Address: 1K.I.Skryabin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology Animal and Plant, Moscow, Russia (117218, Moscow, 28, B.Cheremushkinskaya, e-mail: vigis@ncport.ru).
Abstract: The acute toxicity of ritril, an anthelmintic drug, - a combination rikobendazol and triclabendazole - in oral and intramuscular administration to white mice and white rats, as well as cutaneous application to white rats has been studied. LD50 of the drug in oral administration to mice was 3300 mg / kg. LD50 of the drug in oral administration to male rats is 3800 mg / kg and to female rats - 3200 mg / kg. At cutaneous application to female rats the LD50 was 12,000 mg / kg. The dug was introduced intramuscularly to male rats at the LD50 equal to 2000 mg / kg, to female rats at 1800 mg / kg; to male mice -3500 mg / kg, female mice - 3750 mg / kg accordingly. Also, the drug was applied into the stomach at toxic doses (3000 - 6000 mg / kg) to rats and mice. At 30-40 minutes after inoculation the animals developed   shortness of breath, agitation, tremors, and seizures gradually turning into clonic convulsions, which were repeated at intervals of varying duration and resulted in the animal death or gradual restoration of vital functions. The dead animals autopsy showed congestion of the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum and small intestine filled with liquid mass of yellow-beige in the atria - not clot dark blood, liver and kidneys petechial hemorrhages, kidney capsule can be easily removed. At 10-15 minutes after intramuscular injection the animals became inactive, lethargy, sometimes showed higher reflex excitability. Then intoxication symptoms gradually increased, there were jerking limbs, tremors, shortness of breath. Dying the animal took a lateral position. The dead rats and mice autopsy showed that in the animals the drug at toxic doses of 3000 and 6000 mg / kg causes nonspecific changes parenchymal organs indicating an acute toxicity. Heart and lungs had visible petechial hemorrhages, liver was enlarged, and kidneys were flabby. The muscules in the injection site were swelled with petechial hemorrhages.  A single cutaneous application of Ritril does not have a negative effect on rats skin or their physiological state. The drug belongs to a 3 class of hazard (moderately dangerous substances). The drug cutaneous application to rats at 12,000 mg / kg dose has no toxic effect.
Keywords: ritril, rikobendazol, triclabendazole, toxic properties, mice, rats, LD50
References: 1. Podostraya toksichnost inyekstionnogo preparata rikazol [Subacute toxicity of rikazol injection drug]/ E.V.Abramova, I.A.Arkhipov, A.V.Balyshev, [et al.]// Rossiysky parazitologichesky jurnal.-2014.-Vol.3. P. 91-95.
2. Arhipov, I.A. Antigelmintiki: farmakologiya i primeneniye [Antihelminthic drugs: farmacy and application].- Moscow: RASHN, 2009. 409p.
3. Belenky, M.D. Elementy kolichestvennoy otsenki farmakologicheskogo efekta [Some aspects of quantitative evaluation of pharmacological effect of drugs]/ M.D.Belenky.-Leningrad: Gosmedizdat, 1963.-152p.
4. Effektivnost preparata ritril pri gelmintozah krupnogo rogatogo skota [Efficacy of using ritril drug at cattle helmithosis]/E.N.Glazyev, I.A.Arkhipov, A.V.Balyshev [et al.].//  Rossiysky parazitologichesky jurnal.-2014.-Vol.4. P. 84-90.
5. Podostraya toksichnost inyekstionnogo preparata ritril [Subacute toxicity of ritril injection drug]/ E.N.Glazyev, I.A.Arkhipov, N.B. Emelyanova [et al.]// Rossiysky parazitologichesky jurnal.-2014.-Vol.3. P. 102-106.
6. Ob utverzhdenii pravil laborotornoy praktiki: prikaz Ministerstva zdravoohraneniya i sotsialnogo razvitiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii ¹ 708n ot 23.08.2010 - On approval of laboratory practice rules: the order of the Russian Federation Ministry for healthcare and social development #¹ 708n of 23.08.2010
7. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veschestv [A guideline on on experimental (preclinical) studies of novel pharmaceuticals] .-Moscow:Remedium, 2000.-398p.



Authors: Kadikov I.R. - Candidate of Biology Sciences.
Address: Federal Centre for Toxicology, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: Currently, the human activity is a frequent source of the biosphere pollution. More and more gaseous, liquid and solid industrial wastes are discharged into the environment. First, various chemical substances from wastes contaminate the soil and water, and then from one environmental link to another they eventually enter a human body. In the areas with polluted environment the production of animal products meeting regulatory requirements still remains a completely unresolved problem. For successful implementation of therapeutic and prevention measures such areas need effective drugs with high absorption activity toward different classes of toxicants and enabling to promote animals natural resistance. An associated toxic exposure (2,3,7,8-TCDD and T-2 toxin, 2,3,7,8 - TCDD and cadmium chloride) results in  pathological processes related to a higher values of  bilirubin, ALT and AST, lower total protein in blood and higher values of β- and γ- globulin in serum, and lower phagocytic and lysozyme activities. We have tested a sorbent - bentonite and adaptogene - succinic acid at animal associated poisoning with natural or industrial ecotoxicants. Using the investigated drugs at such poisonings helps preserve animal herds, bring animals clinical signs, hematological and biochemical parameters, natural resistance and metabolism to norm.
Keywords: dioxin, cadmium, T-2 toxin, succinic acid, bentonite, ALT, AST, natural resistance
References: 1. Bokkelman,I. Neyrotoksicheskiye effekty mnogoletney ekspozitsii svintsom [Neurotoxic Effects of Long-term Exposure to Lead] // Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2001.-Vol.5.-P. 22-25
2. Vashakidze,V.I. Vliyaniye himicheskih soyedineniy na generativnuyu funktsiyu potomstva [Influence of chemical compounds on the generative function of offspring]. – Tbilisi:Sabchota sarartvello, 1984. - P. 184
3. Donnik,I.M. Ekologiya i zdorovye zhivotnyh [Ecology and Animal Health]/I.M.Donnik, P.N.Smirnov. -Ekaterinburg: Publishing and Editorial Agency UTK, 2001.- 332p.
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5. Kost, S.A. Opredeleniye fagotsitarnoy aktivnosti leikotsitov [Determination of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes]/ S.A.Kost, M.I.Stenko. // Klinicheskaya gematologiya zhivotnyh. -Moscow. 1974, - P.99-100.
6. Korbakova, A.I.. Svinets i yego deystviye na organism [Lead and its effect on body]/ A.I.Korbakova, N.S.Sorkina / Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2001. Vol.5. - P. 29-34
7. Kormoviye otravleniya: Metodicheskaya rekomendatsiya [Forage-borne poisonings: a guideline]/ K.Kh.Papunidi, A.V.Ivanov, M.Ya.Tremasov, [et al.], - Moscow: LLC “Stolichnaya Tipographiya", 2008. – 72p.
8. Rekomendatsii po diagnostike, lecheniyu i profilaktike toksikozov zhivotnyh vyzvannyh sinilnoy kislotoy i tsianidami [Guidelines for detection, treatment and prevention of animal toxicosis caused by cyanhydric acid and cyanide] / K.Kh.Papunidi, M.Ya.Tremasov, Z.M.Zuhrabova,[et al.]- Moscow: FGNU“Rosinformagrotech”, 2006. – 27p.
9. Proynova, V.A. Zagryazneniye okruzhayuschey sredy “ksenoekstrogenami” kak globalnaya problema [Environmental pollution with “xenoestrogens” as a global problem]/ .A. Proynova./ Toksikologichesky vestnik, 1998. – Vol.2. - P. 2-6.
10. Speranskaya, Stoykiye organicheskiye zagryazniteli: obzor sityatsii v Rossii [Persistent organic pollutants: a review of the situation in Russia] O.Speranskaya, O. Tsitser.-Moscow:IPEP, 2004 – 45p.
11. Smirnov, A.M. Ekologicheskiye problemy veterinarnoy meditsiny i puti ih resheniya [Ecological issues of veterinary medicine and ways to solve them] A.M.Smirnov//Ekologicheskiye problem patologii, farmakologii i terapii zhivotnyh - ecological problems of animals pathology, pharmacology and therapy: proceedings from the Int. coordination meeting, 19-23 May, 1997. - Voronezh:VNIVIPFiT, 1997 P.8-11
  Infectious pathology


Authors: Akopyan V.B.- Doctor of Biology, professor; Bambura M.V.- Candidate of Biological Sciences; Korzhevenko G.N.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Papunidi K.Kh., Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Stupin A.Yu.- Candidate of Engineering Sciences.
Address: Protein Substances Biosynthesis State Research Institute;
All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Sanitation, Hygien, and Ecology (e-mail: vniivshe@mail.ru)
Federal Research Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru)
Abstract: The paper discusses the prospects of using drugs from natural products containing pine tar and amber processing cut offs for protective bacteriostatic and fungistatic coverings of working surfaces and hooves of animals, as well as using pine tar-based aerosols to reduce air contamination in woking area. Bactericidal drugs based on natural products have the best effect owing to cutting edge technologies particularly ultrasonic ones preserving all the biological components of natural products. The experiments on pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms showed that the drugs from pine tar have bactericidal effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ps.aurogenosa, Aeromona ssp., Moraxella, Nitrobacter, Bacillus and etc. species. Also, amber-based films prevent development and growth of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillum spp., Trichoderma viride, Fusarium culmorum fungi, Bacillus Subtilis bacteria species, Candida albicans yeast-like fungi and etc. frequently isolated from various surfaces in veterinary laboratories.
Keywords: veterinary sanitation, pine tar, amber, protective covering
References: 1.Stupin. A.Yu. Suspenzii prirodnyh smol i smolopodobnyh veshchestv [Suspensions from tar and tar-like substances] / À.Yu. Stupin .- Ìoscow: printed by Rosinformagroteh, 2010. -67p.
2.Pines, S. What was original in Arabic science / S. Pines  //Scientifique change.- New York, 1963.-P. 193-97.
3.Strathern, P. A brief history of medicine: from Hippocrates to gene therapy / P. Strathern.- New York: Running Press, 2005.- 414ð.
4. Fraquet, H. Amber / H.Fraquet; translated into Russian by N.Sutormina.- Ìoscow: «Ìir», 1990.- 198 p.
5. Bender,Ê.I. Ukazatel po primeneniyu lekarstvennyh rasteniy v nauchnoy i narodnoy meditsine [Catalogue of herbs used in traditional and evidence-based medicine] / Ê.I. Bender, G.A.Gomenyuk, S.L.Freydman.- Saratov: Saratov State University, 1988.-111 p.
6. Antibacterialnaya aktivnost ultrazvukovogo aerozolya suspenzii smoly sosny [Bactericidal effect of ultrasonic aerosol dispersion based on pine tar] / Ì.V. Bambura, V.R. Braslavets, G.N.Kozhevenko [et al.] //Veterinarny vrach.- 2012.- Vol.- P. 16-20.
7. Patent # 2472135 the Russian Federation, IPC G01N 15/06, G01N 33/44, G01N 33/26. Sposob otsenki kontsetratsii smolopodobnyh veshchestv v suspenzii [A method to evaluate the level of tar-like substances in suspension] / Akopyan V.B., Bambura M.V., Braslavets V.R., Stupin A.Yu, Pashinin À.Å.; applicant and patent owner: LLC “UNI Prof”.- ¹ 2011113702/05; applied on 11.04.2011; published on 10.01.2013, Bulletin ¹1.- 7 p.
8.Bankova, V. Recent trends and important developments in propolis research / V. Bankova //Evidence-based Compl. and Alt. Medicine.- 2005.- ¹1.- Ð. 29-32.
9.Bambura, M.V. Deystvuyushcheye nachalo protivomikrobnogo effekta ultrazvukovyh aerozoley vodnoy suspezii smoly sosny [The actual effect of bactericidal ultrasonic aerosol from pine tar water suspension] / Bambura M.V., Braslavets V.R., Pashinin À.Å.; // Farmatsevticheskie i meditsinskie biotehnologii - Pharmaceutical and medical biotechnology: proceedings from the Int. sci. and pract. conf., March 20-22, 2012.- Ìoscow, 2012.- P.313-314.
10. Aerozol ekstraktsionnoy smoly sosnovoy drevesiny [An aerosol based on tar extracted from pine timber] / Ì.V. Bambura, V.R. Braslavets, A.V. Prizenko [et al.]  // Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. - 2010.- Vol. 4.- P. 32-39.
11.Akopyan, V.B. Yantarnoye ozherelye zdorovya [An amber necklace of health] / V.B.Akopyan.- Ìoscow: Mezhdunarodny tsentr nauchnoy i tehnicheskoy informatsii, 1999.- 38 p.
12. Korzhevenko, G.N. Skrytiy reserv rosta i razvitiya zhivyh system [A hidden potential of growth and development in living system] / G.N Korzhevenko, G.N. Shangin-Berezovsky, V.B.Akopyan // Vestnik selskohozyaystvennoy nauki.- 1988.- Vol.4 (380).-P.96-105.


Authors: Evstifeev V.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiating and Biological Safety, Kazan, (å-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: Basing on the proposed specific chlamydial antigen "A preparation kit for detection of chlamydia in pigs using ELISA method» consisting of all the appropriate components for analysis was developed. To make the reaction easier to perform, improve the accuracy, sensitivity, and reduce its cost, an optimal delusion of the reaction components, test time and temperature regimes were determined, as well as better working solutions were chosen and optimal concentration of antigen at plate sensitization and dilution of the conjugate were determined. The experiments showed that the best results the test gives at protein concentration of 3.8 mg/ml which corresponds to antigen dilution 1: 256 and sera diluted from 1: 200 and conjugate working dilution in 1: 12000 ratio. In this case, the optical density of negative controls was less than 0.2 units, and the values of the positive controls were always higher than 1.2 units of optical density while specificity coefficient in some cases, was as high as 11. The developed ELISA method based chlamydial antigen was trialed in the laboratory for the detection of chlamydial infection in pigs from 6 infected farms in Tatarstan and other regions of Russia. In total, 174 pig sera were tested. Also, all the samples were subjected to compliment fixation test. The positive results detected by the trialed kit enabled to recommend for the field tests. For this purpose the following necessary regulatory and technical documents: instructions for the kit production, technical specification and instructions for its use have been developed and approved. During the field tests 821 blood serum samples from 24 infected with chlamydia pig farms in Tatarstan and other regions of Russia were studied. The ELISA kit results proved a high efficiency for chlamydia serological monitoring of pig population.
Keywords: Diagnostics, Chlamydiosis, Antigen, ELISA-test, compliment fixation test
References: 1. Bortnichuk, V.A. Hlamidioz sviney [Chlamyia pigs] / V.A.Bortnichuk. - Kiev: «Urozhay», 1991. – 191 p.
2. Domeika, M.A. Nekotorye metodicheskiye osobennosti provedeniya immunofermentnogo analiza dlya izucheniya hlamidiozov KRS [Methodological features of ELISA method to study cattle chlamydiosis] / Ì.À.Domeika, V.P.Rishkyavichene, V.I. Lyutkivyachene // Ferementativniye preparaty v veterinarii i zivotnovodstve - Ensymatic drugsin veterinary and animal breeding: Abstract reports from scientific conference,  Êàunas, 28-29 september 1989. - Êàunas,  1989. -P.32-33.
3. Evstiffev, V.V. Izuchenie nabora diagnostikumov dlya immunofermentnogo analiza pri hlamidioze sviney [The study of an ELISA diagnostic kit for chlamydiosis detection in pigs] / V.V.Evstiffev, F.M.Husainov, L.A.Barbarova // - Veterinarnaya biotehnologiya: nastoyascheye i budusxheye -Veterinary biotechnology: the present and future: proceedings the scientific conference dedicated to the 80 th anniversary of FGYP «Shchelkovsky biocombinat», Shcholkovo, Sept.20-23, 2004. - P. 189-191.
4. Evstiffev, V.V. Usovershenstvovaniye complementsvyazyvayushchego antigena dlya diagnostiki hlamidioza zhivotnyh [Improvement of complement-fixating antigen for animal chlamydiosis detection] / V.V.Evstiffev, F.M.Husainov, L.A.Barbarova, A.Z.Ravilov // Veterinarnaya biotehnologiya: nastoyascheye i budusxheye -Veterinary biotechnology: the present and future: proceedings the scientific conference dedicated to the 80 th anniversary of FGYP «Shchelkovsky biocombinat», Shcholkovo, Sept.20-23, 2004. - P. 187-188.
5. Complementary Immunoassays / M.Turton, D.R.Bangham, K.A.Caulcott [et al.] edited by W.P.Collins; Translated by S.A.Yeryomina, V.I.Tishkova; Edited in Russian by A.M.Yegorova – Moscow: Mir. Redaktsiya literatury po himii, 1991.-P.117-121.
6. Hamadeyev, R.H. Hlamidiozy: sovershenstvovaniye diagnostiki, mery borby i spetsificheskoy profilaktiki [Chlamydiosis: improving detection, control measures and specific prevention] / R.H. Hamadeyev, F.M.Husainov, V.V.Evstiffeev, [et al.] // Aktualniye problemy veterinarnoy meditsiny - Current issues of veterinary medicine: proceedings from scientific conference, Vol.I, Ulyanovsk, Sept.25-26, 2003. – Ulyanovsk: Ulyanovsk State Agrarian Academy, 2003.- P.188-192.
7.Hamadeyev, R.H. Hlamidiozy rogatogo skota u sviney [Chlamydiosis in cattle and pigs]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Veterinary Sciences: 16.00.03. / Hamadeyev Rifnur Hazievich – Kazan, 1991. - 40 p.
8. Shcherban, G.P. Hlamidioz sviney. Hlamidioz selskohozyastvennyh shivotnyh [Chlamydiosis in pigs. Chlamydiosis in farm animals] / G.P.Shcherban – Moscow. Kolos, 1984. - 54 p.
9. Donn, À. Serological diagnosis of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goat: comparison of the complement fixation test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay employing solubilised proteins as antigen / A.Donn, G.E.Jones, A.Ruiu, M.Ladu, J.Machell, A.Stancanelli // Veterinary microbiology an infectional journal 1997. - P.27-36.


Authors: Obukhovskaya O.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Stegniy B.T. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, academician of the NAANU and RAAS, director.
Address: Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine (83, Pushkinskatya str., Kharkiv, 61023, Ukraine, e-mail: olgaobukhovska@gmail.com, +38 (057) 707-20-11).
Abstract: In order to study the aspects of cellular immunity activation in chickens vaccinated against Avian mycoplasmosis we investigated dynamics and intensity of changes in number of different lymphocyte subpopulations in immunocompetent organs of chickens after double booster intramuscular injection of two inactivated vaccines based on Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The short-term activation of T-killer cells subpopulation in both groups of birds was established. The process took place most intensively in the group immunized with a vaccine based on M. gallisepticum bacterin (VB), and changes in CD8 T-killer cells were the most revealing in the spleen of birds. Thus, at 7 days after vaccination this parameter was as high as 5.899% which is 1.87 times highe than the controls; at 21 days cells number reduced to 3.490% while in the group immunized with the vaccine based on disintegrated M. gallisepticum cells (VS)  the number of these CD8 T- killer cells was 4.785% and 4.009%, respectively. In cecum and lungs of chicken from the VB group the short-term activation process of this lymphocyte subpopulation was the indexes of the parameters were 5.440% and 5.503% at 7 days and 4.010% and 3.0949% at 21 days, respectively. In the VS group the number of CD8 T-killer cells in the cecum and lungs were slightly lower, 4.860% and 4.014%  at 7 days, and 3,990 and 3,603% at 21 days, respectively. In the trachea the value of CD8 T-killer cells increased slightly and at 7 days was 2.180% in the VB goup and 1.973% in the VS group, respectively, at 21 days their level decreased and was equal to the control group.
Keywords: Avian mycoplasmosis, inactivated vaccines, T-killer cells
References: 1. Androsik, N.N. Etiologocheskaya rol mikoplasm v infektsionnoy patologii ptits [An etiological role of mycoplasmas in avian infectious pathology] / N.N.Androsik, O.L.Logvinov, B.Y.Birman // Vet nauka – proizvodstvu / Belorus research institute of experimental veterinary. – 2001. – Vol. 35. – P.87-91.
2. Borisenkova, À. Respiratorniy mikoplazmoz ptitsy [Avian mycoplasmosis] / À.Borisenkova, Ò.Rozhdeststvenskaya // Ptitsevodstvo. – 2008. – Vol. 1. – P. 12-14.
3. Girin, Ì.V. Epizootocheskaya situatsiya po mikoplazmozam ptits v Rossii i stranah SNG, sposoby borby s etimi zabolevaniyami [Epizootoc situation of avian mycoplasmosis in Russia and CIS, ways to control the disease] / Ì.V.Girin // Novoye v epizootologii, diagnostike, i profilaktike infektsionnyh i nezaraznyh bolezney ptits v promyshlennom ptitsevodstve - Novel approaches in epizootiology, diagnosis and prevention of avian infectious and noncontagious diseases in poultry industry: Proceedings from the international jubilee scientific conference, Sept.14-16, 2004. - St. Petersburg. Lomonosov: Rus. Institute for poultry research. – , 2004. – P. 150-152.
4. Lysko, S.B. Kompleksnaya systema mer borby i profilaktiki s respiratornym mikoplazmozom ptits [Integrated system of Avian mycoplasmosis control and prevention] / S.B.Lysko // Novoye v diagnostike i profilaktike bolezney ptits - New approaches in avian diseases diagnosis and prevention: proceedings from scientific confernce, June 3-4, 2008 - St.Petersburg, Lomonosov: Rus. Institute for poultry research, 2008. – P.157-162.
5. Georgiades, G.K. Detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in day-old broiler chicks and broilers / G.K.Georgiades // Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society. -2002. – Vol. 53, ¹ 1. – P. 33-38.
6. Olanrewaju, H.A. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens / H.A.Olanrewaju, S.D.Collier, S.L.Branton // Poult. Sci. – 2011.-Vol. 90, ¹ 2. –P. 358-363.
7. Protective immune response of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in poultry / Ael-D.Hussein [et al.] // Egypt J. Immunol. – 2007. – Vol. 14, ¹ 2. – P.93-99.
8. The efficacy of three commercial Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in laying hens / N.Ferguson-Noel [et al.] // Avian Dis. – 2012. – Vol. 56, ¹ 2. –P. 272-275.


Authors: Azayev G.H. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Musiyev D.G. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Magomedov M.Z. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
Address: Dzhanbulatov M.M. Dagestan Agrarian University (367032 Makhachkala, St.M.Gadzhiyev 180, tel: (8722) 69-35-25, (å-mail: daggau@list.ru).
Abstract: Colibacteriosis takes a leading place in avian contagious diseases, which causes 60-70% chicken mortality in Russia and Dagestan. The reason of the infection spread is not only a violation of veterinary and sanitation measures, but also a large number of serogroups causing the disease. Quite a wide range of serotypes is isolated in Dagestan. The article presents data on the study of colibacteria serogroups from various poultry farms in the Republic of Dagestan during 2007-2013. The analysis of the epidemic survey of avian colibacteriosis in Dagestan has shown that the disease is widely spread in poultry farms of the Republic. Over the recent seven years in the Republic more than 30 E.Coli serovariants were isolated of which the most widely spread were the types 02, 078, 026, 0111, 0115.
Keywords: ñolibacteriosis, serogroup, flash, disease, antigen, laboratory studies, poultry farms
References: 1. Azayev, G.H. Harakteristika epizooticheskoy situatsii po infektsionnym boleznyam ptirs v respublike Dagestan [Characteristics of the epizootic situation on avian contagious diseases in the Republic of Dagestan]/ G.H.Azayev, D.G.Musiyev// Sovremenniye problemy i innovatsionniye tendentsii razvitiya agrarnoy nauki - Current problems and prospects of innovation trends of agricultural science development: proceedings fron the Int.Pract. Conf.- Mahachkala, 2010.- P.1.- P.15-21.
2. Bakulin, V.A. Bolezni ptits [Avian diseases].- Saint Petersburg: SPb, 2006.-688 p.
3. Bessarabov, B.F. Profilaktika kolibacterioza ptits [Prevention of avian colibacteriosis]/ B.F.Bessarabov, I.I.Melnikova //Agrorynok.- 2008.- Vol.1.-P.4-5.
4. Borisenko, A.N. Bakterialniye bolezni ptits, vyzyvayemiye zoopatogennymi i epidemiologicheski opasmyni mikroorganizmami [Avian bacterial diseases caused by zoopathogenic and epidemiologically dangerous microorganisms] / À.N.Borisenko // Proceedings of All-Russian Veterinary Congress.- Ìoscow, 2004.- P.34-37.
5. Vinokhodov, V.Î. Kolibakterioz - lyubimaya tema sovremennoy Rossiyskoy veterinarii [Colibacteriosis is a favourite topic of Russia's currrent veterinary] / V.Î.Vinokhodov // Veterinaria v ptitsevodstve.- 2008.- Vol.1.- P. 19-24.
6. Ibragimov, À.À.Etiologiya i patomorfogenez kolibakterioza ptits [Etiology and pathomorphogenesis of avian colibacteriosis] / À.À.Ibragimov // Proceedings from III Int. veterinary Congress on Poultry breeding, Moscow, 10-13 April. 2007.- Ìoscow, 2007.- P. 158-161.
7. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po bakteriologicheskoy diagnostike kolibakterioza (esherihioza) zhivotnyh [Methodical guidelines for bacteriological diagnosis of animal colibacteriosis (esherichiosis).- Ìoscow: published by GUZ MSH Prodovolstviya SSSR,1991.- 25 p.


Authors: 1Baratov M. O. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Akhmedov M.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Sakidibirov O.P. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: 1Caspian Zonal Scientific Research Veterinary Institute, Makhachkala (e-mail: Alama500@rambler.ru).
2M.M.Dzhambulatov Dagestan State Agrarian University.
Abstract: Every year the identification of mass non-specific reaction to tuberculin creates a serious problem in tuberculosis detection which sometimes call into question the using the routine methods in diagnosis of the infection in animals.  In the infection-free farms the number of animals responding to tuberculin is higher for more than 5 times than in the infected ones. The reason of the diverse nature of nonspecific reactions was reported to be atypical mycobacteria, the presence of parasites in the body, purulent necrotic processes, and etc. Quite often in the infection-free farms with a large percentage of tuberculin-positive animals the reason of sensitization cannot be explained and the results of simultaneous trials remain undetermined. In this regard, the mycobacteria-like microorganisms as nocardia, Rhodococcus and Corynebacterium are of high interest. A number of references evident the possibility of sensitization of macroorganism to tuberculin at its inoculation with nocardia or Rhodococcus and propose to develop monoallergens for discrimination of allergic responses. At the same time, regardless a series of reports about close relation between Corynebacterium and mycobacteria, the issue of potential sensitization of a macroorganism using Corynebacterium is still unresolved.
Keywords: sensitization, Corynebacterium, allergic test, rosette test, leukocytes blastogenic response, leukocytes specific lysis response, leukocyte migration inhibition test
References: 1. Baratov M.O. Vydelenie iz obyektov okruzhayuschhey sredy bakteriy usvaivayuschih n-alkany [Isolation of bacteria digesting n-alkans from environment]/ M.O. Baratov, R.A.Nuratinov , E.A.Verdieva. // Tez. dokl. XVI – nauchno-prak. konf. po ohrane prirody Dagestana - abstract presentations from XVI scientific and practical conference on nature preservation in Dagestan. - Mahachkala, 2001.-P.204-205.
2. Baratov M.O. Tsirkulyatsiya korinebakteriy v obyektah vneshnej sredy v uslovijah Dagestana /Baratov M.O., Ahmedov M.M., Sakidibirov O.P. . //Dostizhenija vet. nauki i praktiki s/h proizvodstvu - Implementation of achievements in veterinary medicine in agriculture: proseedings from Int.Sci. and Pract. conf. dedicated to 70th anniversary of Veterinary medicine Department.- Mahachkala: DGSHA, 2008.-P79-81.
3. Martma, O.V. Patogennost i virulentnost razlichnyh vidov mikobakteriy [Pathogenicity and virulence of various spacies of mycobacteria]/O.V. Martma, N.P.Ovdienko , A.V.  Tkachev – Kuzmin // Tuberkulez selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh – Farm animals tuberculosis - Moscow: «Agropromizdat», 1991. – P.28-32.
4. Nesterenko, O.A. Hemotaksonomicheskiye priznaki nekotoryh korinepodobnyh bakteriy i gruppy «rhodochrous» [Blood taxonomic signs of some corynebacteria-like microorganisms and the rhodochrous group/  O.A.Nesterenko,T.M. Nogina , E.I. Kvasnikov. // Mikrobiologiya . – 1978.- 47. - Vol.6. – P.1055-1062.
5. Nesterenko O.A. Nokardopodobniye i korinepodobniye bakterii [Nocardia and corynebacterium-like  bacteria]// Kiev: Naukovo dumka, 1975.-333p.
6. Nuratinov R.A. Tuberkulez  KRS v respublikah Severnogo Kavkaza i Kalmykii (epizootologiya, problemy differentsialnoy diagnostiki i mery borby) [Cattle tuberculosis in the republics of the Northern Caucases and Kalmykia]: abstract from postdoc. dissert. for Doc.of Vet.Med. - Moscow; 1998. – 37p.
7. Azuma J., Biken Z. The micolis acida of  Mycobacterium rhodochrous and Nocardia corollina. // - 1974. -17. ¹ 1. - P.1-9.
8. Goodfellow M., Orchard V. A. Antibiotic sensitivity of some nocardioform bacteria and ist value as a criterion for taxonomy. // Z. gen. Microbiol - 1974. – 83. -¹ 2. – P  375-387.
9. Ridel M. Serologucal relationships of Nocardia, Mucobacterium, Corunobacterium and the Rhodochrous taxon with special reference to tacxonomy Gotebord. / 1977. - 52p.


Authors: Ndayishimiye E.W.- postgraduate; Khammadov N.I. - PhD, Senior Research Fellow; Osyanin K.A. - PhD, Senior Research Fellow; Faizov T.Kh. - Dr.Sc., professor, Chief Researcher; Shuralev E.A. - PhD, Associate Professor; Mukminov M.N. - Dr.Sc., professor.
Address: 1Kazan Federal University (e-mail: eduard.shuralev@mail.ru).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation, and Biological Safety (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: Honey-bee mycoses are widespread in many countries worldwide including the Russian Federation. The differential diagnosis of aspergillosis and ascospherosis remains an important issue. The method of polymerase chain reaction in that regard is the most promising. Present paper focuses on nucleotide sequences of the genomes large-scale bioinformatic analysis of honey-bee fungal infections major pathogens, such as Ascosrhaera genus – A.apis and Aspergillus genus – A.flavus, A.fumigatus, A.niger. The aim of this study was to design specific primer oligonucleotides for further use in the differential indication of honey-bee aspergillosis and ascospherosis pathogens by polymerase chain reaction. Using the GenBank and PubMed NCBI databases with software Vector NTI 9.1.0 application, primers and probes which parameters were evaluated in an oligonucleotide calculator were designed. To determine the degree of matching with the desired and undesired organisms BLASTIN 2.2.30+ software was used. During the study fungi species and strain diversity of the genera Aspergillus and Ascosphaera was investigated. Designed oligonucleotides showed high specificity for the maximum number of honey-bee aspergillosis and ascospherosis pathogen strains and isolates. One of the main requirements such as obligatory of the specificity of all three components, forward and reverse primers and probe, was achieved. Various combinations of the components were performed; for indicating of A.apis is 1, and for A.fumigatus and A.niger are 2 and 3, respectively. The primer oligonucleotides of A.flavus showed a cross-reaction with other species and strains of Aspergillus genus. Due to that, so-called "negative" primers were designed. The nucleotide sequences of these primers are found in the genome of the genus Aspergillus various species, but absent in A.flavus. The designed primers are highly specific, they are found in most strains and isolates of honey-bee mycoses biopathogens, they meet uniform demands, allowing their use in the development of a diagnostic kit for the differential indication of aspergillosis and ascospherosis pathogens in biomaterials and environmental samples using a real time polymerase chain reaction.
Keywords: GenBank, Aspergillus, Ascosphaera, PCR, primers
References: 1. Yeskov E.K. Mikroklimat pchelinogo zhilischa [A microclimate of honey-bee dwelling]. Moscow: Rosselkhozizdat, 1983. P.67-90.
2. Grobov O.F., Smirnov A.M., Popov E.T. Bolezni i vrediteli medonosnykh pchel [Diseases and pests of honey bees]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1987. P.52-85.
3. Smirnov A.M., Klochko R.T., Luganskiy S.N. Veterinarno-sanitarniye meropriyatiya na pasekakh [Veterinary and sanitary activities at apiaries] // Veterinariya. 2000. V.8. P.3-6.
4. Mukminov M.N., Vakilova D.G. Potentsialnaya patogennost shtammov gribov roda Aspergillus dlya medonosnikh pchel [Potential pathogenicity of the genus Aspergillus fungi strains for honey-bees] // Immunologiya, allergologiya, infektologiya. 2010. V.1. P.119-120.
5. Klochko R.T., Luganskiy S.N. Bolezni pchel: problemi i resheniya [Honey-bee diseases: problems and solutions] // Pchelovodstvo. 2011. V.9. P.28-31.
6. Mukminov M.N., Zaynullin L.I. Indikatsiya vozbuditeley aspergillyoza pchel metodom PTsR [Indication of honey-bee aspergillosis pathogens by PCR] // Vestnik RASKhN. 2004. V.5. P.61-63.
7. Zinatullina Z.Ya., Ignatyeva A.N., Zhigileva O.N., Tokarev Yu.S. Aziatskiy nozematoz v Rossii [Asian nosematosis in Russia] // Pchelovodstvo. 2012. V.10. P.24-26.
8. Lomakina N.F., Batuyev Yu.M. Noviy genotip virusa meshotchatogo rasploda u pchel Apis mellifera [A new genotype of saccular brood in honey-bees Apis mellifera] // Molekulyarnaya genetika, mikrobiologiya i virusologiya. 2012. V.3. P.34-40.
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  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: Kalyuzhny I.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Barinov N. D. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Address: N.I.Vavilov Saratov State Agricultural University, Saratov (Russia, Saratov, Teatralnaya Ploshad, 1; 410012; tel: (8452)-233292; fax: (8452)-234781; e-mail: rector@sgau.ru).
Abstract: This article describes the problems of liver disorders in cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, presents the results of clinical, morphological and biochemical studies. The object of the study was high producing cattle of Holstein-Friesian breed from Western Europe. Materials of the study were blood, urine, contents of the rumen, milk of the animals. Urine analyses showed a decrease in pH, increase in density, presence of protein, sugar, blood cells and liver epithelium, the index of ketone number increased for more than 2.5 times. Also, the following parameters were studied in animals: clinical status, behavioral responses, ration, and feeding schedule. The animals showed a reduced milk production, poorer quality of milk, a shorter period of their economic usefulness, which in turn affects the profitability of dairy cattle farming. Cows fed with mixed fodder stuff had more defecations in the form of diarrhea than the animals kept on a common diet. Moreover, the animals had lower appetite, less number of ruminations and rumination periods reduced by at least 30%. Changes were registered in all the body systems, especially the musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital and cardiovascular systems, as well as the general state of the animals. Patches of alopecia of various sizes, dermatitis and many persistent sore wounds often complicated with trivial microflora developed on animal skin.  Swellings of various sizes were revealed at palpation of the lower part of abdomen, udder and dewlap. Major changes are observed in the digestive system: the appetite disorders including anorexia, the number of rumen contractions reduced to 47 per cent than the norm, 43 % of animals had a reduced strength and duration of rumen contractions. Tachycardia was registered in almost 50 per cent of the examined cows, and 8 per cent of the animals had an overflow of jugular vein with blood, indicating failure of the heart functions. Both lack and excess of carbohydrates in the ration was detected to cause metabolic disorders. Having analyzed the results, we can conclude that all the metabolic disorders result in adipose-hepatic fatty liver syndrome.
Keywords: highly productive cows, metabolism, rumen digestion, liver diseases, clinical symptoms
References: 1. Goncharova, N. Adaptatsiya importnogo skota [Adaptation of import cattle]/N.Goncharova, N. Tkachyova// Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii.-2009.-Vol.6.-P.43-44.
2. Kalyuzhny, I.I. Zdorovye importnyh zhivotnyh spustya pyat mesyatsev posle zavoza [The health of imported animals at five months after delivery]/I.I.Kalyuzhny, N.D.Barinov// Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii.-2008.-Vol.3.-P.6-8.
3. Kalyuzhny, I.I. Metabolizm i klinika atsidoza rubtsa [Metabolism and clinical picture of rumen acidosis]/ I.I.Kalyuzhny, V.A.Blinov.- Saratov: Saratov State Agrarian University, 2003.- 265 ð.
4. Kalyuzhny, I.I. Kliniko-biokhimichesky pokazateli pri atsedoze rubtsa u zhvachnyh zhivotnyh [Clinical and biochemical parameters at rumen acidosis in ruminants]/ I.I.Kalyuzhny, N.D. Barinov// Diagnostika, lecheniye, i profilaktika nezaraznyh bolezney selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [ Diagnostics, treatment and prevention of noncontagious diseases in farm animals]: [research collection]. – Saratov,1989.-P.55-64.
5. Kalyuzhny, I.I. Atsidoz rubtsa u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Rumen acidosis in cattle herds]/ I.I.Kalyuzhny.- Saratov: Privolzhskoye knizhnoye izdatelstvo, 1996.- 238 p.
6. Kalyuzhny, I.I. Kriticheskaya otsenka parametrov rubtsovogo pishevareniya v diagnostike zabolevaniy [Critical evaluation of parameters of rumen digestion in diagnosis of cattle diseases] / I.I.Kalyuzhny// Voprosy etiopatogeneza, lecheniya, i profilaktiki nezaraznyh bolezney krupnogo rogatogo skota v usloviyah povolzhya [Questions of etiopathogenesis, treatment and prevention of cattle noncontagious diseases in Volga region]: [research collection].- Saratov, 1986.-P.37-40.
7. Klinicheskaya gastroenterologiya zhivotnyh [Clinical gastroenterology of animals]/ I.I.Kalyuzhny, N.D.Barinov, V.I.Phediuk [et. al.]; edited by I.I.Kalyuzhny. –Moscow: KolosS, 2010.- 568 p.
8. Ispolzovaniye fagovyh mini-antitel dlya opredeleniya kontsentratsii ferritina v syvorotke krovi zhivotnyh [Using phage mini-antibodies for determination of ferritin concentration in animal blood serum]/ S.A.Staroverov, A.S.Phomin, A.A.Volkov [et. al.] // Rossiyskiy veterinarny zhurnal. Farm animals. -2012.-Vol.4.-P.30-33.
9. Nikulin, I.A. Metabolicheskaya funksiya pecheni u krupnogo rogatogo skota pri silosno-kontsentratnom tipe kormleniya i yeyo korrektsiya gepatotropnymi preparatami [Liver metabolic function in cattle fed with silage mixed fodder and its correction using hepatotropic drugs]: dis. … Dr. Vet. Med. Sciences / I.A.Niculin.-  Voronezh, 2002.- 368ð.
10. Gipotrofiya telyat [Calves alimentary hypotrophy] / I.N.Khayrullin, A.N.Kazamir, N.K.Shishkov, A.Z.Mukhitov //Agrarnaya nauka i obrazovaniye na sovremennom etape razvitiya: opyt, problem i puti ih resheniya - Agrarian science and education at the present stage of development: experience, problems and ways of their solution: proceedings from the IV International scientific conference 22-24 November, 2012.- Ulyanovsk: P.A.Stolypin State Agricultural Academy, 2012.-Vol.1.-P.228-231.


Authors: Brigadirov Yu.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Kotsarev V.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Shaposhnikov I.T.- Doctor of Biology; Masyanov Yu.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Mikhaylov E.V.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Manuylov A.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Shumskiy N.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Filippova M.S. - postgraduate.
Address: State Scientific Institution All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (394087, Lomonosova st., 114b, tel. (473)253-92-81, e-mail: vnivipat@mail.ru).
Abstract: The investigations focused on detection of latent endometritis in sows. Two series of experiments were made for this purpose. In the first experiment a comparative evaluation of the available tests detecting latent endometritis was done to select an appropriate one for pig breeding. Cervical-uterine mucus was sampled at the beginning of the sex cycle stimulation during estrus phenomenon using the “Set for sampling cervical-uterine mucus” from 52 crossbred sows (the large white and landrace) that already had from 2 to 7 farrows and with the body weight of 180-230 kg, belonging to a large pig-production farm. The cervical-uterine mucus was studied according to method proposed by I.S. Nagornova, Yu.N. Popov, G.G. Kozlov, G.M. Kalinovskiy. After the results were evaluated the G.M. Kalinovskiy’s test was selected as the most appropriate. During the second experiment this test was compared to the method of evaluation of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzymatic activity by studying 29 samples of cervical-uterine mucus of sows. The studies showed that an appropriate method to detect latent endometritis diagnostics in sows is the G.M. Kalinovskiy’s test, which at the research of sows cervical-uterine mucus detected 7,7% of ambiguous responses versus 15,4-42,3% detected by using the other tests. Comparative evaluation of cervical-uterine mucus according to the G.M. Kalinovskiy’s test and determination of the GGT enzymatic activity showed a significantly high percent of research results consistency. The accuracy of cervical-uterine mucus evaluation according to the GGT enzymatic activity was 77,8%, specificity – 85,7%, sensitivity – 69,2%. Thus, sows latent endometritis can be detected using the G.M.Kalinovskiy’s test and evaluation of the GGT enzymatic activity.
Keywords: sows, latent endometritis, cervical-uterine mucus, diagnostics
References: 1. Veterinarniye aspekty resheniya problemy metrit-mastit-agalaktii u svinomatok [Veterinary aspects to solve the problem of metritis-mastitis-agalactia in sows] / S.V.Shabunin, A.G.Nezhdanov, V.N. Kotsarev, L.V.Cheskidova // Dostizheniya nauki i tehniki APK.-2013. - Vol. 9. – P.62-65.
2. Filatov, A.V. Rasprostraneniye poslerodovyh zabolevaniy sviney v usloviyah spetsializirovannyh predpriyatiy i vliyaniye ih na vosproizvoditelnuyu sposobnost [Spread of postpartum diseases in sows in specified industrial farms and their effect on their reproduction] /À.V.Filatov, Ì.V.Kotelnikova, G.D.Akkuzin // Aktualniye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennyh usloviyah - Current issues of young animals diseases: proceedings from All-Russian sci.pract.conf. – Kirov, 2004. – P.180-182.
3. Hlopitsky, V.P. Osnovniye patologii, snizhayushchiye intensivnost ispolzovaniya svinomatok [Basic pathologies reducing intensity of sow using] /V.P.Hlopitsky// Veterinaria. – 2010. - Vol. 110. – P.12-15.
4. Belikov. F.M. Subklinicheskiye endometrity u svinomatok i ih profilaktika [Sublinical emdometriris in sows ans theirprevention] / F.M.Belikov //Veterinarnaya meditsina. – 2008. - Vol.1. – P.3-4.
5. Kompleksnaya terapiya svinomatok pri poslerodovyh endometrite i metrit-mastit-agalaktii [Associated therapy at sows postpartum endometritis and amd metritis-mastitis-agalactia] /V.N.Kotsarev, A.G.Nezhdanov, G.A.Vostroilova [et al.] //Veterinaria.-2014. - Vol. 4. – P.37-40.
6. Netecha, V.I. Sistema mer po borbe s besplodiyem svinomatok na promyshlennyh fermah [System of control measures against sows infertility in industrial farms] /V.I.Netecha, L.A.Mityagina // Zdorovye, pitaniya-biologicheskiye resursy. – Kirov, 2002. – Vol..2 – P.417-425.
7. Filatov, A.V. Nauchniye osnovy i praktichskiye metody primeneniya ozona i biologicheski aktivnyh veshchestv dlya povysheniya vosproizvoditelnoy sposobnosti svinomatok i hryakov-proizvoditeley [Scientific basics and practical methods of using neutrogen and biological active substances to improve reproduction in sows and stud boars]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of vet.med. / Filatov À.V.- Saratov, 2005. -38 p.
8. Popov, Yu.N. Diagnostika skrytogo endometrita u korov [Detection of latent endometritis in cows] /Yu.N.Popov //Veterinaria. – 1969. - Vol.4. – P.85-87.
9. Kozlov, G.G. Sravnitelnaya otsenka metodov diagnostiki skrytogo endometrita [Comparative evaluation of methods detecting latent endometritis] /G.G.Kozlov //Aktualniye voprosy akushersko-ginekologicheskoy i hirurgicheskoy patologii s.-h.zhivotnyh. - Ìoscow, 1982. – P.43-44.
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Authors: 1Velmatov A.A. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; 2Yerofeyev V.I. - Doctor of Biology; 3Lomanov V.N. – postgraduate; 3Neyaskin N.N. - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
Address: 1Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture,  Department of Scientific and Technological policy and education, Moscow (tel. 8(495)607-67-37, e-mail: a.velmatov@polit.mcx.ru).
2Mordovia Institute of Agribusiness staff retraining, Saransk (Tel.8(342-2) 25-37-40, ipka-rm@mail.ru).
3Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk (e-mail: kafedra_tpppzh@agro.mrsu.ru).
Abstract: The aim of the research is to study the effect of genotype on the animals’ reproductive quality in industrial milk production technology. The study of reproductive ability of red-and-white breed, Simmental cows of Austrian selection, the crossbred animals of first and second generations from Simmental cows crossed with red-and-white Holstein stud bulls of European breeding revealed their relatively good reproductive abilities. Half-blood heifers were inseminated at the age of 14.47 months, three-quarters of blood heifers  -at the age of 15.83 months, the red-and-white heifers - at the age of 15.67 months, and the Simmentals - at the age of 16.73 months. Significant differences were found between crossbred and Simmental animals (Ð<0,001) also between crossbred and red-and-white ones. The duration of the service period in experimental animals on the first lactation is 95.7-99.5 days in case of nonsignificant difference between the groups. On the second lactation, Simmental cows have the best service period (64 days) that was significantly shorter than that of red-and-white and crossbred animals of different genotypes (Ð<0,001). According to the third lactation, the Simmentals, on the contrary, have the best service period (119 days). The difference among the other groups is 10-15 days, in case of unreliable difference. Analysis of productivity and duration of service period shows that cows with service period shorter than 60 days and longer than 121 days have the lowest productivity (6452-6488 kg), and the cows with service period of 101-120 days have the highest productivity. An increase of dry period results in reduction of milk production (P <0,001). The first calving interval in the experimental animals ranged from 366 to 380 days, which indicates cow good fertility. As cow get older and milk yield increase, the calving period in the experimental animals increases too. In the mongrel second generation had calving period of 371 days, in the red-and-white and half-blooded cows it lasts for 385-390 days, and the Simmental animals have 428-days calving period.
Keywords: service period, dry and calving periods, industrial technology, milk, reproduction, genetic potential, Holstein breed, crossbred animals
References: 1. Reshetnikova N.M. Sovremenniye tendentsii v vosproizvodstve stada[Cutting-edge tendencies in cattle production] / N.M.Reshetnikova, À.Ì.Malinivsky, Ò.À.Moroz // Proshloye, nastoyascheye i buduscheye zootehnicheskoy nauki – The past, present, and future of zootechnical science: proceedings from the Int.sci.conf., 7-10 Sept.,. 2004 ã.- Dubrovitsy: Articles of All-Russian research institute of farm animal breeding, 2004.- Vol..3, Issue62.- P. 39-44.
2. Agalakova, Ò.V. Metody intensifikatsii vosproizvodstva krupnogo rogatogo skota [methods intensifying cattle reproduction] / Ò.V.Agalakova, Å.À.Òyapugin.- Vologda: Molochnoye IC VGMHA, 2013. – 216 p.
3. Ratoshny, À.N. Povysheniye effektivnosti ispolzovaniya kormov v ratsionah doynyh korov [Improving efficient using of fodder in dairy cows ratio] / À.N.Ratoshny, N.V.Andreeva, A.I.Babunov // Proshloye, nastoyascheye i buduscheye zootehnicheskoy nauki – The past, present, and future of zootechnical science: proceedings from the Int.sci.conf., 7-10 Sept.,. 2004 ã.- Dubrovitsy: Articles of All-Russian research institute of farm animal breeding, 2004.- Vol..3, Issue62.- P. 267-272.
4. Alexandrov,Yu..À.Sovershenstvovaniye kormleniya i soderzhaniya korov v usloviyah Respubliki Mariy-El [Improving cows feeding and housing conditions in the republic of Mariy-El] / Yu.A.Alexandrov// Aktualniye voprosy sovershenstvovaniya tehnologii proizvodstva i pererabotki produktsii selskogo hozyaystva – current issues of improving technology of production and processing of agricultural products: proceedings from X Int.sci.conf.- Yoshkar-Ola: MarGU, 2008. – P. 270-279.
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Authors: Tarasova N.B. – Doctor of Biology; Konyukhov G.V. - Doctor of Biology, professor; Papunidi K.H. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Vagin K.N. - Candidate of Biology Sciences.
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiating and Biological Safety, Kazan, (å-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: Animal products safety is evaluated by a number of parameters of the environment. In this regard the most promising studies are the investigation of ecotoxicants of various nature introduced through food chains; of them especially chains including the farm animals are of great value considering animal products quality. The animal products are known to have special value for human as source of irreplaceable amino acids, the vital fat acids, mineral substances, vitamins and etc. Therefore, determining biological full value of foodstuff is a significant problem. We performed veterinary and sanitation examination of meat from animals exposed to physical (ionizing radiation) and chemical (Ò-2 toxin) factors. Laboratory researches were done according to certified metrological methods. The research results showed that it corresponded to the state standard requirements to a good-quality product and had identical to biological full value of meat from the intact animals.
Keywords: associated exposure, meat, biological full value
References: 1. Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii po biologicheskoy otsenke produktov pitaniya [methodical guidelines for biological evaluation of foodstuff] / N.G.Beleky,  V.A.Shablin, À.D.Ignatyev [et al.].- Ìoscow: VASHNIL, 1973.- 18 p.
2. State Standard document # 21237-75. Myaso. Metody bakteriologicheskogo analiza [Meat. Methods of bacteriological analysis].- Ìoscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1980.- 28 p.
3. State Standard document # 23392-78.  Myaso. Metody himicheskogo i mikroskopicheskogo analiza svezhesti myasa [Meat. Methods of chemical and micropscopic analysis to identify meat freshness].- Ìoscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1980.- 7p.
4. State Standard document # 7269-79.  Myaso. Metody otbora obraztsov i organolepticheskiye metody opredeleniya svezhesti [Meat. Methods of samples selection and organoleptic methods to identify meat freshness].- Ìoscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1980.- 7p.
5. Radioekologicheskaya mikrobiologiya [Radioecological microbiology] / A.V. Ivanov, R.N. Nizamov, E.M. Plotnikova [et al.].-Ìoscow: «Kolos», 2009.-678p.
6. Kolobotsky, G.V. Praktikum po veterinarno-sanitarnoy ekspertize [Practical course on veterinary and sanitation expertise] / G.V.Kolobotsky.-  Ìoscow.: «kolos», 1996.- 304 p.
7. Kuzin, À.Ì.  Radiotoksiny [Radiotoxins] / À.Ì. Kuzin, V.À. Kopylov.-  Ìoscow: Nauka, 1983.-173p


Authors: A.O.Mullakayev – Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Address: Federal Centre of Toxicological, Radiological and Biological Safety (e-mail: merinochek2@ramble.ru).
Abstract: The aim of the research is to study the nature of the age-related changes in hematological and biochemical picture of the boars fed with vodnit and shatrashanit natural zeolites considering biogeochemical features soil in thearea of South-Eastern Kama of the Republic of Tatarstan. A series of laboratory and field experiments using 45 boars, which were selected according to the principle of analogues with regard to clinical and physiological state, age, sex, breed, body weight parameters with 15 animals in each of the three groups. In the first group (the controls), 60- to 300-days old (duration of the survey) pigs were fed the basic ration (BR). Animals from the second and third groups were fed BR enriched with the following zeolites: the vodnit from Vodninsky area of the Samara region and shatrashanit from Tatar-Shatrashan deposit of the Republic of Tatarstan accordingly; the both additived were introduced at the ratio of 2% of additive per BR dry weight daily until the end of the investigations. The studies proved the physiological usefulness of the vodnit and shatrashanit zeolites considering the soil biogeochemical features in South-Eastern Zakamsky area of the Republic of Tatarstan. The experiments proved a promoting effect of the tested minerals on animals hematological parameters and biochemical picture regarding their growth and performance. Moreover, the biological effect was more significant using the shatrashanit additive.
Keywords: zeolites vodnit, shatrashanit, boars, hematological and biochemical picture
References: 1. Vliyaniye tseolita i natriya sulfida na yestestvennuyu rezistentnost zhivotnyh pri sochetannom otravlenii dioksinom i kadmiya hloridom [The effect of zeolite and sodium sulphide on animal natural resistance at assosiated poisoning with dioxin and cadmium chloride] / I.F.Vafin, K.H.Papunidi, A.V.Novikov [et al.]// Veterinarny vrach.- 2010.- Vol. 3.- P. 14–16.
2. Vinichenko, G.V. Vliyaniye mestnyh prirodnyh mineralov na fermenty pereaminirovaniya krovi sviney v rannem postnatalnom ontogeneze [The influence of local natural minerals on lood interaminationin pigs at early postnatal ontogenesis] / G.V.Vinichenko, V.S.Grogoryev // Izvestiya Orenburgskogo Gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta - herald of Orenburd state agrarian unversity.- 2010.- Vol.4.- Issue 281.- P.258–261.
3. Ontogeneticheskiye osobennosti morfofiziologicheskih reaktsiy endokrinnyh zhelyoz sviney pri naznachenii tseolita trepel [ontogenetic features of morphological and physiological responses of endocrine glands in swine fed with diet enriched with trepel zeolite] / M.N.Lezhnina,  À.Î.Mullakayev, À.D.Blinova [et al.] // Veterinaria. - 2015.- Vol. 1.- P.43–48.
4. Tehnologiya proivodstva produktsii zhivotnovodstva [technology of animal products production] / F.S.Sibagatullin, G.S.Sharafutdinov, G.F.Qabirov [et al.].- Kazan: Izdatelstvo Idel Press, 2010.- 672 p.
5. Papunidi, K.Kh. metodicheskiye rekommendatsii po sposobu povysheniya produktivnosti i sohrannosti molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh (v poryadke shirokogo proizvodstvennogo opyta v 2007-2011 gg.) [Methodical guidelines to promote production and survival rate of young herds of farm animals (as a wide-range field experiment during 2007-2011) / K.Kh.Papunidi, S.Yu.Smolentsev / Aproved by the Mariy El Republic Animal Health Committee and Ministry od Agriculture in Feb.7, 2012.- Yoshkar-Ola: MSHiP. Mariy El, 2012.- 19 p.
6. Papunidi, K.Kh. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu adsorbenta "Modibent" dlya profilaktiki i lecheniya otravleniy krupnogo rogatogo skota kadmiyem i svintsom [Guideline to use "Mobident" absorbent for prevention and treatment of cattle poisonings with cadmium and lead] / Ê.Kh. Papunidi, M.Ya.Tremasov.- Kazan: FCTRB-ARRVI, 2013.- 13 p.
7. Svini: soderzhaniya, kormleniye i bolezni: uchebnoye posobiye [Pigs: keeping, feeding, and diseases: a handbook] / À.F.Kuznetsov, I.D.Alemaykin, G.Ì.Andreev [et al.].- S.Petersburg: «Lan», 2007.- 544 p.


Authors: Indyukhova E.N.- postgraduate.
Address: K.I.Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Russia, Moscow (e-mail: zxcv33980@yandex.ru).
Abstract: Liver morphology of a day-old chicks of «Shaver 2000» egg cross was evaluated at different temperatures (38,0; 38,5 and 39,0 îÑ) during incubation. Changing the temperature rate often can have negative consequences, so the study of the effect the temperature factor has on the growth and development of chicken internal organs is an important issue. The liver is known to be the most susceptible to morphofunctional disorders at fluctuation of temperature during incubation. The liver plays an important part in metabolism that makes it involved in functions of almost all organs and systems. The studies showed that histoarchitecture of birds liver failed. General morphological and functional state of organs reflects expressed fat and poorly developed granular dystrophy of hepatocytes without significant failure of hemodynamics. The most pronounced fat dystrophy was registered in animals from second group (t = 38,5 °C) and lowest - in the first group (t = 38,0 °C). So, liver macrovesicular fat dystrophy was registered in chickens hatched at incubation temperature 38,5 and 39,0 °C, which confirms numerous data about the negative effect of high temperatures on the formation of chicken embryos body. Disorders caused by the influence of different incubation temperatures also depend on the degree of free radical oxidation. Hepatic steatosis is associated with the intensification of free radical oxidation and, consequently, with the processes of lipoperoxidation, activation of which depends on incubation temperature. Therefore, the investigation showed a tendency to fatty liver in chickens hatched at higher temperature during the entire incubation period.
Keywords: liver, chicken, incubation, temperature, lipid peroxidation, hepatic steatosis
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