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Authors: Kuzminova E.V. DVM; Semenenko M.P. - DVM; Varivoda A.U. postgraduate; Tyapkina E.V. Candidate of Veterinary Medicine.
Address: Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute, Russia (350004, Krasnodar, 1st Liniya St., 1, tel. +7-861-221-60-84, e-mail: niva1430@mail.ru).
Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the subchronic toxicity of Polisilar drug. The experiments were done using laboratory animals (white outbred mice), the research involved the current methods of toxicological, clinical, biochemical, hematological and pathological studies. The investigation showed that in tested dosage Polisilar drug did not have a pronounced toxic effect on the animal organism. A survey showed that the experimental animals had a slightly increased weight gain. The lowest percentage of growth and weight gain was registered in the control group 13,3% while maximum rate of weight gain was showed in the 1st experimental group 15,9%. At the end of the experiment mice autopsy showed that the animal internal organs and their absolute and relative weight were free of pathology. The hematological studies revealed that the experimental mice had a reduced level of red blood cells by the norm limits (7,050,241012/l), while the parameters in mice from groups with lower doses of the drug were not significantly different from control animals. Using the drug at higher dosage resulted in the tendency of increasing leukocytes number for 13,9%. Blood biochemical test showed that Polisilar long-term injection brought total protein and urea to normal concentration, any other significant effect on blood parameters was not registered. Therefore, the Polisilar drug was experimentally proved to belong to the class of low-toxic compounds.
Keywords: toxicity, medicine, preclinical studies, laboratory animals
References: 1. Antipov V.A., Semenenko M.P., Kuzminova E.V. Vliyanie prirodnyh bentonitov na immuny status telyat [Effect of natural bentonites on calves immunity]//Moscow: Doklady RASHN.  2010.  Vol. 5.  P. 35-37.
2. Dorozhkin V.I., Urazayev D.N. Printsipy toksikologicheskoy otsenki novyh lekarstvennyh sredstv [Toxicological evaluation of novel drugs]//Veterinarnaya meditsina. 2006. Vol. 1-4.  P. 26-28.
3. Patent 2154951, Russian Federation, 7A 23K 1/16 AV. Kormovaya dobavka dlya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [A fodder additive for livestock animals]//Strunin B.P., Novak D.I., Nabiulin G.N., Antipov V.A., Dorozhkin V.I., Sattarov R.F., Gareyev Yu.F applicant and patent owner: LLC Polivit (RU). - 99119274/13; accepted in 13.09.1999; published in 27.08.2000, Bulletin 34. - 2000.
4. Patent 2366273, Russian Federation, MPK A61K 31/00, A61 R43/00. Sposob korrektsii mineralnogo i vitaminnogo obmenov v organizme zhivotnyh [A method to correct mineral and vitamin metabolism in animal body]//V.A. Antipov, M.P. Semenenko, E.V. Kuzminova, A.V. Fersunin. Applicant and patent owner: the Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute.- 2007147607/13; accepted in 20.12.07; published in 10.09.2009, Bulletin 25 (III part).
5. Ratoshny A.N., Biohimicheskiy kontrol za adekvatnostyu kormleniya korov v raznye fazy laktatsii i suhostoyny period [Biochemical control of cows adequate feeding at various stages of lactation and dry periods] /A.N. Ratoshny, N.V.Andreeva, A.N. Troshin // Trudy Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta Proceedings of Krasnodar State Agrarian Univesrsity.- 2006. - 1. - P. 193-200.
6. Troshin A.N. Ostraya toksichnost zhelezosoderzhaschego lekarstvennogo sredstva FERRO-KVIN [Acute toxicity of FERRO-KVIN ferrum-containing drug] / A.N. Troshin //Trudy Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta - Proceedings of Krasnodar State Agrarian Univesrsity. - 2006.- Vol. 2.- P. 134-145.
7. Habriev R.U. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veschestv [Guideline for  experimental (preclinical) studies of noval pharmaceuticals] / R.U. Habriyev; edited by prof. R.U. Habriyev, corrresponding member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.- 2nd edition added and revised.- Moscow. OJSC "Izdatelstvo "Meditsina", 2005. - 832 p.
  Infectious pathology


Authors: Zakutsky N.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Shirokova T.G. - Process Engineer; Anisimova L.I. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; Neverovskaya N.S. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; Yurkov S.G. - Doctor of Biology, professor.
Address: Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences Resarch All-Russian National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology, Pokrov (tel/fax +7 (492) 43-62125, e-mail:vniivvim@niiv.petush.elcom.ru).
Abstract: The report is devoted to coping with a vital task to study a possibility of transition from laboratory culturing techniques in reactors to a technology of a large scale culturing of cells or viruses using industrial bioreactors for both scaling-up the process and maintaining the optimal technological parameters. At scaling-up of a culturing technique, as a rule, parameters are preliminarily adjusted in automated laboratory reactors having a geometric similarity to the industrial bioreactors. At this point the study of the mass transfer characteristics is of primary importance. The main attention here is paid to geometric similarity of the devices, hydrodynamic mode, mass transfer coefficient and other parameters. No reference data on cultivation scaling using bioreactors, particularly growing of PBM (pig bone marrow) primary cells or BHK-21/13 passed cells for recovery of bluetongue and ASF viruses, respectively, is available. This article describes general principles and technological justification of scaling the mammalian cells and/or viruses cultivation in bioreactors, and presents the results of this research. To solve the above problem, we obtained data on optimization of cultivation conditions for ASF and bluetongue virus in PBM and BHK-21/13 cell cultures, accordingly, and determined the major technological parameters providing maximal virus yields. More over, mass transfer characteristics of bioreactors of various capacities and with required technological parameters were determined. It has been established that an increase in the mass transfer coefficient can be achieved by bubble aeration and increasing the stirrer rotations number as well as using an upgraded stirring mechanism. The studies showed an opportunity of scaling the cultivation of both PBM and BHK-21/13 intact and infected cells on volumetric mass transfer coefficient with a geometric similarity of devices because reactor capacity - be it 50, 100 liters or industrial-type bioreactors (630 liters) - does not render any influence on this process. However, some peculiarities of this process were revealed during the cultivation of recovered (PBM) cells and actively proliferating passed BHK-21/13 cells. Also, the studies showed that unlike the primary PBM cells (the ratio is 0.3 to 0.6-1) to provide maximal bluetongue virus yield with an adequate mass transfer (at the ratio of 0.9 to 1.2h-1) at growing in suspension the passed BHK-21/13 cells need some additional conditions. The data obtained evidence that 6- to 12-fold (by volume) scaling of the above mentioned cells and viruses cultivation with the same mass transfer characteristics and geometric similarity of laboratory and industrial bioreactors and considering peculiarities of the survived (PBM) and proliferating cells BHK-21/13 (for a transfer rate) is  possible. The data obtained suggest that the study results can be useful for researchers developing the large-scale cultivation techniques using high-capacity industrial bioreactors for mass production of cell and/or virus material.
Keywords: bioreactor, mass transfer, scale-up, parameters, cells, ASF virus, bluetongue virus
References: 1. Vasilyev, N.N. Modelirovaniye protsessov mikrobiologicheskogo sinteza [Designing microbiological synthesis processes]/ N.N.Vasilyev, V.A. Ambrosov, A.A.Skladnev.-Moscow: Lesnaya promyshlennost.- 1975.-340p.
 2. Grachov, V.P. Sovremenniye aspekty krupnomasshtabnogo kultivirovaniya kletochnyh substratov i virusov [Current aspects of large-scale cultivation of cells and viruses]/ V.P.Grachov// Kultivirovaniye kletok zhivotnyh i cheloveka Cultivation of animal and human cells: abstracts from II USSR meeting, Puschino, 26-28 November, 1985.- Puschino: NTsBI, 1985.- P.61-64.
3. Materialy zarubezhnyh publikatsiy NII Medstatistiki Minzdravmedproma RF po perspektivnym napravleniyam biologicheskih issledovaniy foreign references on promising prospective in biological investigations, Research Institute of Medical Statistics, the Russian Federation Ministry of Public Health and Medical Production: Review of Vol. 11 (11-96).- Moscow: NII Medstatistiki Minzdravmedproma RF, 1996.- 420p.
4. Samuylenko, .Ya. Avtomatizirovanniye sistemy upravleniya tehnologicheskimi protsessami [Automated systems technological processes control]/ A.Ya.Samuylenko, .. Ruban// Nauchniye osnovy tehnologii proizvodstva veterinarnyh biologicheskih preparatov Scientific basics of veterinary biologicals production: abstracts from the USSR conference of All-Union Research Institute of Biological Production Technology, Moscow, 23-25 April, 1991.- Moscow:, 1991.- P.209-212.
5. Grin, S.. Sovremenniye biotehnologicheskiye protsessy i immunologicheskiye metody pri promyshlennom proizvodstve veterinarnyh preparatov[Current biotechnological processes and immunological methods at industrial production of veterinary drugs]: abstract from dissertation for Doctor of Vet.Medicine / S..Grin. - Moscow:, 2008.- 52 p.
6. Ruban, .. Optimizatsiya i masshtabirovaniye protsessov glubinnogo kultivirovaniya mikroorganizmov i kletok zhivotnyh s ispolzovaniyem metodov sistemnogo analiza [Optimization and scaling of deep cultivation of microorganisms and animal cells using methods of systemic analysis]: dissertation of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine / ..Ruban.-  Moscow:, 1995.-47 p.
7. Samokhvalov, L.. Masshtabirovaniye protsessa brozheniya s pomoschyu teorii podobiya [Scaling of fermentation processes using the law of similarity]/ L..Samokhvalov //Na glavnyh putyah nauchno-tehnicheskogo progressa Mainstream of scientific and technical progress: abstracts from VI meeting of microbiological society.- Riga, 1980.- Vol.4.- P.129-135.
8. Samuylenko, .Ya. Osnovy tehnologii proizvodstva veterinarnyh biologicheskih preparatov [Basics of veterinary biological drugs production] /.Ya.Samuylenko, ..Ruban.- Moscow: published by RASHN, 2000.-Vol. 1.- 375 p.
9. Samuylenko, .Ya. Masso-obmen v protsesse kultivirovaniya [Mass-exchange during cultivation process] / .Ya.Samuylenko, ..Ruban // Osnovy tehnologii proizvodstva veterinarnyh biologicheskih preparatov - Basics of veterinary biological drugs production.- Moscow: published by RASHN, 2000.- Vol. 1.- P.154-158.
10. Method soflangersnale tissue culture // Ilanischavoff Larzick Jumes.- NewYork, 1985.- p. 458-465.
11. Karpov, .. Masshtabirovaniye protsessov glubinnogo kultivirovaniya mikroorganizmov v bioreaktorah [Scaling of deep cultivation of microorganisms in bioreactors]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Biological Science / ..Karpov.- Scholkovo, 2004.- 26 p.


Authors: Shikhragimov E.M. postgraduate; Budulov N.R. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Salikhov Yu.S. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Musaeva M.N. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Mustafaev A.R. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Gaydarbekova H.M.
Address: Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute (e-mail: mila-azarova@mail.ru).
Abstract: Bovine leukemia has a leading position in nosological structure of cattle infectious diseases in the Dagestan Republic. During 9 years of observation the parameters of epizootic bovine leukemia virus (BLV) remained the same in farms of the republic. The average infection rate and leukemia sickness rate in animals was as high as 15.132.22 and 6.520.91% accordingly. Of all the animals tested, the level of seropositivity was 27.1% in cows, 10.3% in young calves of different ages. The number of clinical and hematological leukemia-infected cows ranged from 2.12 to 11.44% in various areas. The serological test detected the BLV infection in 22.2% animals in public farms and 5.1% animals in private households. Of the surveyed 257 farms 122 (47.5 %) were BLV-free. Determination of the BLV spread revealed an uneven tension of epizootic bovine leukemia infection. Thus, of 35 areas surveyed the six (17.1%) were free from the BLV infection, 20 areas (57.1%) had a relatively low infection rate less than 10%. Four areas (11.4%) and both Kaspiysk and Makhachkala cities had a strained epizootic situation: the number of BLV-infected cattle varied from 10 to 30%, even more alarming situation was in five (14.2%) districts where more than 30% of the infected animals were registered. Territorial confinement of leukemia infection and bovine leukemia virus is expressed in the farms located in the lowland part of the republic with death rate of 2.011.3% and infection rate of 5.150.1%, accordingly.  In the republic the cover of livestock serological and hematological studies remains low - in average 0.850.08% and 0.140.01%, accordingly.
Keywords: cattle leucosis, bovine leukemia virus, hematologic and serologic studies, leukemia-infected object, immunoprecipitation test, Dagestan Republic
References: 1. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po diagnostike leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Methodical recomendations to detect cattle leucosis]. / M.I.Gulyukin, G.A.Simonyan, N.V.Zamaraeva [et.al.].-Moscow:VNIIEV, 2000.- 22 p.
2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po epizootologicheskomu issledovaniyu pri leykoze krupnogo rogatogo skota [Methodical recomendations on epizootic research of bovine leukemia]  / M.I.Gulyukin, P.N.Smirnov, V.V.Razumovskaya [et al.].- Moscow: RASHN. Otdel Veterinarnoy Meditsiny, 2001.- 28 p.
3. Obzor epizooticheskoy situatsii po leykozu krupnogo rogatogo skota v subyektakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2008 god [Review of bovine leikemia epidemy in areas  of  the Russian Federation in 2008] / M.I.Gulyukin, I.I.Barabanov, L.A.Ivanova [et al.] // Informatsionno-analitichesky byulleten - Informational and analytical bulletin.- Moscow: All-Russian research institute of experimental veterinary medicine, 2009.- 29 p
4. Stepanyan E.D. Leykoz krupnogo rogatogo skota v raznyh vysotnyh zonah  [bovine leukemia in different highland areas]/ E.D.Stepanyan //Veterinariya.- 1988.- Vol. 6.- P. 31-32.
5. Gulyukin M.I. Osobennosti infektsionnogo protsessa, indutsirovannogo virusom leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Peculiarities of the infectious process induced by bovine leukemia virus] / M.I. Gulyukin  //Sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy issledovaniy po infektsionnoy i protozoynoy patologii zhivotnykh i pchel: materialy Mezhdunar. Nauch.- prakt. konf.- Current state and prospectives of studies in contagious and protozoal pathology in animals and bees: proceedings of the International Theoretical and Practical Conference, Moscow, October 9-10, 2008.- Moscow:, 2008.- p. 106113.
6. Rosselhoznadzor - Epizooticheskaya situatsiya [epizootic situation]  [electronic resource]available on http://www.fsvps.ru/iac2011_year.pdf. (application date: February, 01, 2012).
7. Rosselhoznadzor - Epizooticheskaya situatsiya [epizootic situation]  [electronic resource]available on http://www.fsvps.ru/iac2012_3mes.pdf. (application date: April, 06, 2012).


Authors: Stegniy B.T.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, academician of the RAAS and NAANU; Babkin A.F.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Bliznetzov A.G. postgraduate; Obukhovskaya O.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: NSC Institute of Experimental and Clinical veterinary Medicine (83, Pushkinskatya str., Kharkiv, 61023, Ukraine, olgaobukhovska@gmail.com, +38 (057) 707-20-11).
Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of using the modified micromethod CFT (mm-CFT) for diagnostic studies and possible further implementation of this reaction into veterinary practice. The research included a comparative study of the activity and specificity of the mm-CFT, m-CFT, CFT and LCFT using blood field sera from clinically ill and healthy sheep, with control laboratory, commercial and reference Brucella ovis-infected sera. The studies showed mm-CFT to have a higher activity and specificity than m-CFT and CFT, especially in the case of weakly positive serum studies that dilution at 1: 5 responded + (CFT), and in mm-CFT optical extinction value was 0, 6-1,0 OU. The study of positive sera with high antibody titres showed that mm-CFT has also a higher sensitivity. While CFT detected doubful or weakly positive (+ or +++) results the mm-CFT registered positive results (0.5-0.9 OU). The sensitivity of LCFT and mm-CFT was almost the same; at detection of antibody titers from 1:5 to 1:80 the LCFT had response ranging from  # to +++ while the mm-CFT's response ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 OE. Nonspecific reactions were not detected. Potential of the mm-CFT to reliably detect animals with low antibody titers confirm the efficiency of using this method in the field studies to detect the Brucella ovis-infection in herda at early stages of the disease development.
Keywords: Brucella ovis-infection, modified micromethod CFT, m-CFT, CFT, LCFT
References: 1.Nastanova po diagnostiki brucellosy tvarin [Guidelines for diagnosis of animal Brucellosis]. Kyiv, 1998. 59 p.
2.Nastavleniye po diagnostike brutsellyoza zhivotnyh [Guidelines for diagnosis of animal Brucellosis]. Moscow, 2003. 62 p.
3.Chapter 2.7.9 Ovine epididymitis / Version adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE in May 2009 // Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2014. http:www.oie.int/terrestrial manual
4.Ridler A.L., Smith S.L., West D.M. Seroconversion and semen shedding in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis // N Z Vet J. 2014  Vol. 62 (1). P. 47-50.
5.Lpez G., Escobar G.I., Ayala S.M. et all. Detection of antibodies to Brucella ovis in sheep milk using B.ovis and B. canis antigen // Vet Microbiol. 2006. Vol. 116(1-3) P. 232-238.
6.Muoz P.M., Estevan M., Marn C.M. et all. Brucella outer membrane complex-loaded microparticles as a vaccine against Brucella ovis in rams // Vaccine. 2006. Vol. 24(11). P.1897-1905.
7.Estein S.M., Baldi P.C., Bowden R.A. Comparison of serological tests based on outer membrane or internal antigens for detecting antibodies to Brucella ovis in infected flocks // J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002. vol. 14(5). P.407-411.
8.Patent Ukraini na korisnu model 60429, MPK 61 39/00 Sposib instrumentalnogo obliku resulsultatov doslidzhennia micrometodom RZK / Babkin A.F., Stegniy B.T., Bliznetzov A.G., zaiavnik ta pravovlasnik NNC IECVM [The method of instrumental registration of micromethod CFT results, the applicant and the owner NSC IECVM] - u201011475; appl. 27.09.2010, publ. 25.06.2011; Bull.12. 6 p.


Authors: Balysheva V.I. - Doctor of Biology Sciences; Loshmanova N.I. Scientist; Zhivoderov S.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Zhesterev V.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Lunitsin A.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: State Research Institution National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of  Russia (SRI NRIVVaMR) (601125, Volginsky, Academician Bacoulov str.1; e-mail: VNIIVViM@niv.petush.elcom.ru; Vladimir region, Russia).
Abstract: The article proposes an Aujeszkys disease field virus vaccine strain AC-21/07 as less pathogenic for rabbits and more proliferating in passed PSGK-60 (Siberian mountainn goat kidney) and BHK-21/13 cells up to 8.0 to 8.5 lg TCID50/cm3 for production of an associated vaccine against Aujeszkys and Teschen diseases. At 28 days after a booster immunization of gilts with an associated and inactivated vaccine from the AC-21/07 strain with the Montanid ISA-70 adjuvant, the VN-antibody titers were 7.0 log2 against Aujeszkys disease and 7.0 to 8.0 log2 against Teschen disease. Replacement of an adjuvant containing Marcol-52 mineral oil and emulsifier for Montanid ISA-70  adjuvant enabled to avoid pork culling at the site of injection due to granuloma formation, and reducing both vaccine viscosity level (making the vaccine more usable for practical application on farm) and raw virus consumption by 40%, the immunogenic potency of the preparation being at the same level. Of the examined cell systems sensitive to Teschen disease and Aujeszkys disease viruses, the passed PSGK-60 cell culture with a high reseeding index = 1:60 and in which both viruses proliferate with infectious activity rates of 8.0 to 8.5 lg TCID50/cm3 for Teschen disease virus and 7.5 to 8.0 lg TCID50 cm3 for Aujeszkys disease is regarded as technologically most promising. Also, the paper describes the immunogenic potency of samples from the associated vaccine prepared using raw virus grown in various cell substrates.
Keywords: Aujeszkys disease, Teschen disease, virus culture, associated and inactivated vaccine, adjuvants
References: 1. Virusnye bolezni zhivotnyh [Animal viral diseases] / V.N.Sjurin, A.Ya.Samuylenko, B.V.Solovyov, N.V.Fomina. Moscow:VNITIBP, 1998. 928 p.
2. Ivanov, A.V. Infektsionnye bolezni sviney (Etiologiya, epizootologiya, diagnostika, profilaktika)[Swine contagious disesases (etiology, epizootology, diagnosis, prevention) / A.V.Ivanov, R.H.Yusupov. - Moscow: FGNU Rosinformagroteh, 2006. 108 p.
3. Sergeev, V.A. Virusy i virusnye vaktsiny [Viruses and viral vaccines] / V.A.Sergeev, E.A.Nepoklonov, T.I.Aliper. Moscow: Biblionika, 2007.523 p.
4. Konstantinov, A.V. Razrabotka sposoba polucheniya virusvaktsiny protiv bolezni Aueski sviney i ovets  iz markirovannogo shtamma VK, izuchenie ee immunobiologicheskih svoystv [Development of a method to produce viral vaccine against swine and sheep Aujeszky's diseases from the "VK" marked strain, study ofimmune and biological properties of the vaccine]: abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Vet.Sci. / A.V.Konstantinov. - Vladimir, 2003. 26 p.
5. Romanov, E.A. Biologicheskiye veterinarniye preparaty v Rossii: vaktsiny, syvorotki, diagnostikumy: spravochnik [Biological veterinary preparations in Russia: vaccines, sera, diagnostic kits:a reference book ]/ E.A.Romanov. Kazan : Ruten, 2005. -636 p.
6. Balysheva, V.I. Assotsiirovannaya inaktivirovannaya vaktsina protiv bolezney Aueski i Teshena [An associated inactivated vaccine against Aujeszky's and Teschen disease]/ V.I.Balysheva, A.A.Shishkova, A.A.Zhesterev // Veterinariya.- 2007.- Vol.6.- P.20-23.
7. Assotsiirovannaya vaktsina protiv bolezni Aueski i bolezni Teshena [An associated vaccine against Aujeszky's and Teschen disease]/ V.I.Balysheva, V.I.Zhesterev , N.I.Loshmanova [et. al.] // Veterinariya.- 2011.- Vol. 9.- P.25-27.
8. Aueszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor / I.Slivac, VG.Srcek, K.Radosevic [et al.] // J.Biosci. 2006. - Vol.31, N.3. P. 363-368.
9. Lipowski, A. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of Aujeszky's disease vaccines / A.Lipowski // Pol J Vet Sci. 2006. Vol.9, N.1. P. 75-79.


Authors: Simanova I. N. applicant.
Address: Ya.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary, Vologda affiliation (e-mail: nivs35@mail.ru).
Abstract: To investigate the causes of calves diseases in the six Vologda farms were exposed to epidemiological research involving comprehensive virological, bacteriological, coprological and immunological studies, including field experiments. The analysis of veterinary reports data showed that during the recent five years an average cattle sickness rate was 48.2% while that of among the young calves was as high as 60.5 per cent. However, the ratio of young calves sickness rate per common sickness rate was 71.7%, and persistently remained at high level (CV coefficient variation of 8.2%) during a long period. The mortality rate remained at the same level and was as high as 6.5%.  89 samples from dead and sick calves with diarrhea symptoms were exposed to bacteriological studies. As a result 64 microorganism cultures were isolated and following types were identified: 15 cultures as Proteus (23.4%), 8 as Salmonella (12.5%), 6 - E.coli (9.4%), 4 - Citrobacter (6.5 %), 3 - Klebsiella (4.6%),7 -  coccal flora (10.9%), 18 cultures (28%) were not identified. The culture isolation rate of pathological material from dead animals as high as 72%. These studies results suggest that calves gastrointestinal diseases, as a rule, are of infectious nature, caused by a wide spectrum of pathogens, like viruses and bacteria, and usually occur in the form of associated infections. In four farms (66%) the calves disease was caused by a combination of two viruses and bacteria. In three cases it was Rota - and coronaviruses (45 %), one corona- and pestivirus. In two farms (33%) a viral and bacterial association involved one virus. Most of associations included Escherichia, rarely, Salmonella and Pasteurella genera. Most frequently in young calves the structure of intestinal pathology causative agents was represented by associations of Rota - and coronaviruses along with Escherichia and Salmonella. Therefore, the results of our studies are consistent with the reference data of other authors indicating that most of the gastrointestinal tract diseases of young cattle herds are of polietiologic nature.
Keywords: cattle, calves, morbidity, bacteriological and virological diagnosis, mixed infections
References: 1. Andreev, E.V. Assotsiirovannoye vozdeystviye na organizm virusa i uslovno-patogennyh bakteriy [An associated influence of both virus and conditionally-pathogenic bacteria on animal body] / E.V.Andreev // Veterinariya.- 1984. Vol. 7. P. 25 26.
2. Konopatkin, A.A. Etiologicheskaya i epizootologicheskaya harakteristika faktorno-infektsionnyh bolezney zhivotnyh [Etiological and epidemiological characterization of factor-infectious animal diseases ]/ A.A.Konopatkin, A.A.Glushkov // Tezisy dokladov III Vsesoyuznoy konferentsii po epizootologii abstracts from III USSR conference on epidemiology.- Novosibirsk, 1991. P. 22 23.
3. Apatenko, V.M. Smeshannye infektsii selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Associated infections of farm animals ]/ V.M.Apatenko.- Kiev: Urozhay, 1990.-200 p.
4. Shahov, A.G. Etiologiya i profilaktika zheludochno-kishechnyh i respiratornyh bolezney telyat i porosyat[Etiology and prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and pigs] / A.G.Shahov // Aktualnye problemy bolezney molodnyaka v sovremennyh usloviyah: materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno prakticheskoy konferentsii Current issues of young animals diseases: proceedings from scientific conference.- Voronezh, 2002. P. 3 8..
5. Zaroza, V.G. Kolibakterioz novorozhdennyh telyat [Newborn calves kolibakteriosis]/ V.G.Zaroza, G.A.Burova, V.G.Burov // Veterinariya s.-h. zhivotnyh Livestock animals veterinary.- 2008. Vol. 4. - P. 10-17.
6. Voevodina, Yu.A. Etiologiya zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney telyat v hozyaystvah Vologodskoy oblasti [Etiology of calves gastro-intestinal diseases in farms of Vologda region]/ Yu.A.Voevodina, I.N.Simanova, V.N.Makarova // Innovatsionnye resheniya aktualnyh problem v APK: materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii Innovative solutions of current agrarian problems: proceedings from All-Russian scientific conference.- Ekaterinburg, 2013.-P. 29-33.
7. Rasprostranennost smeshannyh infektsiy u molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota v hozyaystvah Vologodskoy oblasti [Spread of associated infections in calves in farms of Vologda region]/ V.N.Makarova, Yu.A.Voevodina, I.N.Simanova, M.V.Orlova // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarnoy meditsiny: materialy XI Sibirskoy mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii Current issues of Veterinary Medicine: proceedings from XI Siberian International Conference - Novosibirsk, 2012.-P. 114-116.
  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: Ivanov V.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, director.
Address: "Solnyshko "Veterinary center, Kazan (e-mail: 902290@mail.ru).
Abstract: A single-port technology is the next step in the development of laparoscopic surgery. Methods of single-port cryptorchidectomy are described in the foreign references, but they are made unsuitable for cats and dogs as the tools are borrowed from human medicine. We investigated the efficacy of new methods of single port laparoscopy, which allow diagnostic (examination, biopsy) and operating activities (removal of testis-delayed from the abdomen) at cats and dogs cryptorchidectomy. Sparing surgical techniques are combined with friendly-to-use surgical procedures. Unlike the single-port technique "instrument channel" previously used in laparoscopic surgery of small animals now we can use a standard endoscopic instrument. A novel tool for pet single-port laparoscopy is a trocar with gas supply crane valve-free, sleeve tip sharpened at angle of 35 degrees. 2 silicone sleeves are inserted at angle of 35 degrees into the trocar cover. The surgery involves conventional laparoscopy tools (optical tools, manipulators, dissector-coagulator, etc.) This equipment was patented in the Russian Federation, 146326. Standard optics 5mm 30 degrees with standard length clamps can be used in work. The main advantages of the single-port methods are a tiny surgery area, minimal iatrogenic damage, and economic efficiency because it is more rapid, less traumatic (only one hole for trocar), preventing intra- and postoperative complications. A surgeons diagnostic and manual capabilities and using the "tool gap" method and a single-port access trocar are fairly high (90% freedom of manipulations, 95% of optic capability, surgeon trainability - 5 points).
Keywords: single-port, laparoscopy, cryptorchidectomy, biopsy, cats, dogs
References: 1. Bellah, J.R. Hemiprostatic urethral avulsion during cryptorchid orchiectomy in a dog / J.R.Bellah, C.P.Spencer, K.R.Salmeri // J.Am.Anim. Hosp. Ass.- 1989;25:553556.
2. Crane, S.W. Orchiectomy of retained and descended testes in the dog and cat / S.W.Crane // Bojrab M.J.Current techniques in small animal surgery.- 3rd ed.- Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1990.-. 416422.
3. Laproscopic castration for canine cryptorchidism / L.A.Gallagher, L.J.Freeman, S.Trenka-Benthin [et.al.] // Vet. Surg.- 1992; 21:411-412.
4. Mayhew, P.D. Laparoscopic and Laparoscopic-Assisted Cryptorchidectomy in Dogs and Cats / P.D. Mayhew // Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing veterinarians.- 2009, June.- 31: 274-281.
5. Miller, Nathan A., DVM. Use of laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy in dogs and cats / Nathan A. Miller, DVM; Stephen J.Van Lue, DVM, DACVS; Clarence A.Rawlings, DVM, PhD, DACVS // JAVMA.- 2004.- March 15.- No. 6; 224: 875-878.
6. Laparoscopic surgery in a clinical case of seminoma in a cryptorchid dog / F.J.Pena, L.Anel, J.C.Dominguez [et. al.]  // Vet. Rec.- 1998; 142:671672.
7. Runge, J.J, DVM. Introducing reduced Port Laparoscopic surgery / J.J.Runge, DVM // Todays Veterinary Practice.- 2012; January/February: 14-20.
8. Single-port laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in dogs and cats: 25 cases (20092014) / J.J.Runge, DVM; D. P. Mayhew, BVM&S; J.B. Case; DVM, MS [et. al.] // Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.- 2012.- December 1.- No. 11; 245: 1258-1265.
9. Inadvertent prostatectomy as a complication of cryptorchidectomy in four dogs / K.S. Schultz, D.R.Waldron, M.M. Smith [et. al.] // J.Am. Anim. Hosp. Ass.- 1996;32:211214.
10. Wallace, L.J. Canine cryptorchidism / L.J. Wallace, V.S. Cox // Kirk R.W. Current veterinary therapy VII-small animal practice.- Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co, 1980;12441246.


Authors: Malushko A.V. - postgraduate.
Address: Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Russia (Nizhny Novgorod, pr. Gagarina, 97,tel. +7 (831) 466-94-81, e-mail: antonmko88@mail.ru).
Abstract: The article presents the results of morphological and biochemical studies on the rat pups of the1st-3rd generations born from the white rats which during 6 months were fed with the grain, gamma-irradiated at a dose of 300 Gr. and stored for 1-10 days after irradiation, in ratio of 40% per diet weight. The fodder was irradiated every 10 days using an isotopic gamma-installation with 60Co as radiation source and fed to rats. The studies showed that in white rats of the 1st generation the number of leukocytes reduced, the percentage of neutrophils increased, especially young cells - immature ones 0,5% and stab ones - 4,2%, along with reduction of liver and spleen weight. Morphological and biochemical blood parameters in the descendants of the second and the third generations did not differ from the control peers and were within physiological norms.
Keywords: grain, gamma-irradiation, descendants, safety
References: 1. Thayer, D.W. Food irradiation : benefits and concern / D.W.Thayer - Journal of food quality. 1990. V.13. - P. 147-169.
2. Fokin, A.D. Selskohozyaystvennaya radiologiya [Agricultural radiobiology]/ A.D.Fokin, A.ALure, S.P.Torshin - handbook Saint Petersburg.: Lan. 2011. 416 p.
3. Novikov, N.A. Osnovy veterinarnoy radiobiologii [Basics of veterinary radiobiology]/ N.A.Novikov, N.M.Ponamarev - Handbook. published by Altay State Agrarian University, Barnaul, 2010. - P.165.
4. Yarmonenko, S.P. Radiobiologiya cheloveka i zhivotnyih [Human and animal radiobiology]/ S.P. Yarmonenko, A.L. Vaynson - Uchebnoe posobie. Moscow:, Vysshaya shkola, 2004. 549 p.
5. Melki, M. Gamma irradiation effects on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) under various conditions / M. Melki, T. Dahmani - Pak. J. Biol. Sciences, Vol. 12, 2009. - P. 1531-1534.
6. Kondrahin, I.P. Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratornoy diagnostiki. spravochnik [Methods of laboratory-based veterinary clinical diagnostics. Reference book]/ I.P. Kondrahin, A.V. Arhipov, V.I. Levchenko, G.A. Talanov et al. Moscow: Kolos. 2004. 511 p.
7. Lebedev, P.T. Metody issledovaniya kormov, organov i tkaney zhivotnyih [Methods to investigate fodders, animal organs and tissues]/ P.T. Lebedev, A.T. Usovich Moscow: Rosselhozizdat. 1976. 389 p.
8. Koroleva, N.I. Rabochaya tetrad i metodicheskie ukazaniya po laboratornym metodam issledovaniya krovi selskohozyaystvennyih zhivotnyh [Workbook and methodological guidelines on laboratory test of livestock blood]/ N.I.Koroleva - Gorkiy Agrarian institute, Gorkiy, 1984. - P. 39.
9. Kudryavtsev, A.A. Klinicheskaya gematologiya zhivotnyh [Animal clinical hematology]/ A.A.Kudryavtsev, L.A.Kudryavtseva - Moscow: Kolos, 1974. - P. 399.
10. Malushko, A.V. Morfologicheskiye i biohimicheskiye pokazateli krovi belyh krys poluchavshih korma, podvergnutiye luchevoy obrabotke [Blood morphological and biochemical parameters of white rats fed with irradiated fodders]/ A.V.Malushko, G.V.Konyuhov, V.I.Velikanov, M.A. Parkina, Ya.M. Qurbangaleev // Veterinarnyiy vrach 2012. Vol.6. P. 18-19.


Authors: Sarukhanov V.J.- Candidate of Biological Sciences; Isamov N.N.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Epimahkov V.G. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Address: All-Russian Research Institute for Radiology and Agroecology (E-mail: riar@obninsk.org).
Abstract: The early forecast of radiation disease outcome is of primary value. The choice of parameters (or a number of parameters) is practically crucial, allowing a correct solution of the problem of an irradiated animal fate. The studies on sheep showed that decrease in  leukocytes number by 2.5*109c/l at 10 days after irradiation is an adverse sign at acute radiation sickness. At earlier period (5 days) after sheep exposure to irradiation at lethal dozes the leukocytar number in blood can be higher than this level while if abortions occur this parameter can remain within the physiological norm. The purpose of the research was to justify the selection of appropriate criteria evaluating consequences of radiation injury in sheep at early period (day 5) after external exposure to γ-irradiation. In this study we used the experimental data obtained from 5 sheep irradiated at a doze of 4 Gy, and also 4 nonirradiated sheep. The dependence of radiation injury outcome from the selected parameters of haemopoesis and immune system was evaluated basing on the data received from experiments with 28 sheep irradiated in range of dozes from 2.0 to 6.0 Gy (28 heads) using the TUG 24 installation with 137Cs as a source of radiation at rate of 1 and 2 Gy/hour. The irradiation unevenness did not exceed 15 % [4]. The leukocytes number in sheep blood was determined using a standard method, and β-lysine activity according to the O.V.Buharin et al. method. The correlation between blood leukocytes number and β-lysine activity studied on day 5 after irradiation has shown the presence of a border between the irradiated and intact groups of animals. We propose a formula, which with high probability allow forecast an animal survival rate, the received value can be considered as a lethality index:
LI is the lethality index; LC is leukocytes number in blood; β - β-lysine activity of blood of %.; 3.2 and 3.9 are the estimated factors.
At LI > 100 survive; at LI <100 die.
The presence of ambiguous results on number of blood leukocytes and β-lisayne activity in the proposed parameters yields a high (up to 90 %) increase in forecast accuracy of calculations at 5 days of the given complex parameter.
References: 1. Luchevaya bolezn selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Radiation sickness of livestock animals] / P.A. Kartashov, V.A. Kirshin, V.G. Ilyin [et al.] - Moscow: Kolos,1973.- 272 p.
2.Annenkov, B.N. Radiatsionniye katastrofy: posledstviya i kontrmery v selskom hozyaystve[Radiation accident: consequences and counter-measures in agriculture.] / B.N. Annenkov.- Moscow: Sanepidemiya, 2008.- 372 p.
3.Saruhanov, V.Ya. Beta-liticheskiye svoystva krovi pri deystvii ioniziruyuschih izlucheniy [Blood beta-lytic properties at ionizing radiation] / V.Ya. Saruhanov, N.N. Isamov // Selskohozyaystvennaya biologiya.- 2005.- Vol,2.- P. 116-118.
4.Kalugin, V.V. Ostraya luchevaya bolezn u ovets pri totalnom ?-obluchenii [Radiation sickness in sheep exposed to total ?-irradiation] / V.V. Kalugin // Veterinariya.- 1968.- Vol.2.- P. 80-82.
5.Kudryavtsev, A.A. Gematologiya zhivotnyh i ryb [Animal and fish hematology]/ A.A. Kudryavtsev, L.A. Kudryavtseva, T.I. Privolnev-Moscow: Kolos, 1969.- 320 p.
6.Buharin, O.V. Sistema ?-lizina i ee rol v klinicheskoy i eksperimentalnoy meditsine [The β-lysine system and its role in clinical and experimental medicine.]/ O.V. Buharin, N.V. Vasilyev .- Tomsk: published by the Tomsk university, 1977.- 187p.


Authors: Vasiliev R.O. postgraduate; Troshin E.I. - Doctor of Biology, professor.
Address: Izhevsk State Agrarian Academy, Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic (e-mail: veterenar4ik@mail.ru).
Abstract: "Monclavit -1" drug having been introduced to rats one day before and three days after exposure to radiation showed a pronounced radioprotective properties bringing to the norm of thyroid function in animals kept in endemic area with chronic iodine deficiency. At 10 days the level of thyroxine and triiodothyronine increased by 86.3% and 98.4% accordingly and at 30 days triiodothyronine level increased by 5.5% while the level of free thyroxine reduced by 23.5%. According to thyroid micromorphometric studies at 10 days rats treated with Monclavit -1 increased follicle diameter by 23.4% while follicular epithelium thickness remained the same. At 30 days follicular epithelium thickened by 11.4% while diameter of follicles decreased by 6.8%.
Keywords: Monclavit -1, potassium iodide, thyroid gland, radioprotective agents, gamma irradiation, endemic area, rats
References: 1. Rossiyskaia konferentsiya ostriye problemy razrabotki protivoluchevyh sredstv: konservatism ili modernizatsiya [Russian Conference "Acute problems of developing radioprotective agents: conservatism or modernization"] // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013. Vol. 53 Issue 2. P. 210-215.
2. Vasin M.V. Klassifikatsiya protivoluchevyh sredstv kak otrazheniye sovremennogo sostoyaniya i perspektivi razvitiya radiatsionnoy farmakologii [Classification of radioprotective means as a reflection of the current state and prospects for development of radiation pharmacology] / M.V.Vasin // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013 . Vol. 53. Issue 5.P. 459-467.
3. Drachyov I.S. Perspektivy premineniya soyedineniy selena v kachestve radioprotekterov [Prospects of using selenium compounds as radioprotective agents] / I.S.Drachyov, V.I.Legaza, Y.S.Turlak // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013. Vol. 53. Issue 5. P. 475.
4. Otsenka lechebnoy effektivnosti otechestvennyh preparatov G-KSF v opytah na obluchyonnyh sobakah [Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of G-KSF domestic drugs in experiments on irradiated dogs] / L.M. Christmas [et al.] // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013. Vol. 53. Issue 1. P 47.
5. Eksperementalnoye izucheniye lechebnoy effektivnosti  litiyevoy soli disulfida glutationa v usloviyah ostrogo vneshnego vozdeystviya gamma-izlucheniya [Experimental studies of therapeutic efficacy of glutathione disulfide lithium salt at severe external exposure to gamma irradiation] / A.A.Antushevich [et al.] // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013. Vol. 53. 5. P. 451.
6. Vliyaniye preparatov B-190 i interleyikina-1 na dinamiku kolichestva kletok perifericheskoy krovi i funktsionalny status neytrofilov obluchyonnyh myshey [Influence of B-190 and IL- 1 drugs on number of peripheral blood cells and functional status of neutrophils in irradiated mice] / A.N.Grebenuk [et al.] // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013. Vol. 53. 3. P. 290.
7. Eksperimentalnaya otsenka protivoluchevoy effektivnosti alfa estradiola po pokazatelyam vyzhivayemosti  i kostnomozgovogo krovetvoreniya myshey, podvergnutyh vozdeystviyu rentgenovskogo izlucheniya [Experimental evaluation of alpha estradiol radioprotective efficacy regarding survival rate and bone marrow hematopoiesis in mice exposed to X-ray irradiation] / A.N. Grebenuk [et al.] // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2012. Vol. 52. 2. P. 175.
8. Osobennosti struktury yaichnika potomstva krys, razvivayushegosya v usloviyah udaleniya schitovidnoy zhelezy samki s zamestitelnoy terapiyey tiroksinom i vneshnego radiatsionnogo vozdeystviya in utero [Ovarian structure features in female rat offsprings exposed to thyroid ablation, thyroxine replacement therapy, and in utero external radiation] / E.F.Hemp, V.S.Pavlenko, N.V.Banetskaya, I.I.Krylova // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2011. Vol. 51. Issue 3. P. 345-351.
9. Yermakova O.V. Sravnitelniy morfologicheskiy analiz perifericheskih endokrinnyh zhelez melkih mlekopitayuschih iz rayonov s povishennym urovnem radioaktivnogo zagryzneniya i podvergnutyh hronicheskomu oblucheniyu v laboratornyh eksperimentah [Comparative morphological analysis of peripheral endocrine glands in small mammals both from areas with high level of radioactive contamination and exposed to chronic exposure in laboratory experiments] / O.V.Ermakova // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2010. Vol. 50. Issue 4. P. 391-397.
10. Nadolnik L.I. Issledovaniye metabolizma yodida v schitovidnoy zheleze krys v ranniye i otdlyonniye periody posle dlitelynogo vneshnego fraktsionirovannogo vozdeystviya gamma izlucheniya [Investigation of he iodide metabolism in rat thyroid gland at early and late periods of prolonged fractioned external exposure to gamma irradiation] / L.I.Nadolnik, Z.V.Netsetskaya // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2010. Vol. 50. Issue 1. P. 65-73.
11. Raskosha O.V. Tireoidniy status polevok-ekonomok, obitayuschih v usloviyah povyshennoy yestestvennoy radioaktivnosti [Thyroid status of root vole (Microtus oeconomus)living in areas with high natural radioactivity] / O.V.Raskosha, O.V.Ermakova // Radiatsionnaya Biologiya. Radioekologiya - Radiation Biology. Radioecology. 2013 . Vol. 53. Issue 3. P. 309.
12. Troshin E.I. Rezultaty monitoringa otdalyonnyh posledstviy radiatsionnogo vozdeystviya na selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Surveying long-term effects of radiation exposure at farm animals] / E.I. Troshin // Veterinarny vrach 2001. Vol. 1(5). P. 51-54.
13. Granulotsitarny koloniestimuliruyuschiy factor leykostim sredstvo patogeneticheskoy terapii postluchevogo kostnomozgovogo sindroma [Granulocytic colony-stimulating factor of Leukostim drug - a means of pathogenetic therapy of postradiation marrow syndrome] / V.I.Legaz, A.V.Popov, V.V.Saluhov, Y.S.Turlak // Vestnik Rossiyskoy voenno-meditsinskoy akademii - Bulletin of Russian Military Medical Academy. 2010. Vol. 2( 30). P. 135-139.


Authors: Akhmadiev G.M. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
Address: Naberezhnye Chelny State Institute of Trade and Technology, Republic of Tatarstan, (e-mail: ahmadievgm@mail.ru).
Abstract: A life develops from a single cell - a zygote - formed by a confluence of male and female germ cells. This cell produces stem cells, which serve as a source of development for trillions of parent-cells of more than 250 varieties. One can say that in the very early stages of its development the embryo consists of stem cells only. The stem cells provide longevity of our lives and a constant renovation of all the organs and tissues (physiological regeneration). The stem cells are present in all the organs and tissues, but their number is not large.
A new laboratory technique allows increasing a number of blood stem cells, which can be used for bone marrow transplantation in future. During a continuous fasting a body actively cleanses, disposes of old and diseased cells. The stem cells replace them. That is why fasting cures many diseases and leads to a body rejuvenation and health promotion.
Keywords: evaluation, livability, development, method, prolongation, stem cells, neurons, brain, human, animal, transplantation, fastening
References: 1. Ahmadiev, G.. Immunobiologicheskiye aspekty otsenki i prognozirovaniya zhiznesposobnosti novorozhdyonnyh zhivotnyh [Immune and biological aspects of evaluation and forecast of newborn animals livability] / G.M. Akhmadiev. Kazan: Ruten, 2005. 168 p.:
2. Ahmadiev, G.. Immunobiologicheskiye osnovy i printsipy otsenki sovmestimosti zhivotnyh pri translantatsii embrionov [Immune and biological basics and evaluation principle of animal match at animal embryo transplantation]/ G.M. Akhmadiev // Sovremenniye napravleniya teoreticheskih i prikladnyh issledovaniy 2013 - Current prospects of theoretical and applied investigations 2013:[collection of scientific articles SWorld], proceedings of Int. Sci. Conf. - Odessa: KUPRIENKO, 2013 .- Vol. 36, Issue 2.- p.34-44.
3. Ahmadiev, G.. Immunobiologicheskiye osnovy otsenki, prognozirovaniya i povysheniya zhiznesposobnosti embriona, ploda, potomstva zhivotnyh i cheloveka [Immune and biological basics of evaluation, forecast, and viability enhancement of embryo, fetus, human and animal posterity] / G.M. Akhmadiev // Aktualniye issledovaniya gumanitarnyh, yestestvennyh, tochnyh i obschestvennyh nauk Current investigations in Humanities, Engineering, Natural, and Social sciences: proceedings from the III Int. Sci. Conf., Novosibirsk, Nov.25, 2013 - Novosibirsk: LLC TSRNI, 2013. p.59-71.
4. Ahmadiev, G.. Otsenka i prognozirovaniye zhiznesposobnosti novorozhdyonnyh telyat v zavisimosti ot temperatury tela pri rozhdenii [Evaluation and forecast of newborn calves viability depending on body temperature at birth] / G.M. Akhmadiev // Veterinarny vrach- 2014.-Vol.1.- p.4.
5. The Russian Federation Patent 2050130, MPK 6 01 67/02, G 01 N 33/53. A method to identify newborn animals viability / Dmitriev .F., Bulashev, .., Shenzhanov ..; applicant and patent owner: Stavropol Agrarian Institute, Tselinograd Agrarian Institute. 5043633/15; accepted 31.03.92; published 20.12.95, Bulletin 31.
6. Prognozirovaniye zhiznesposobnosti novorozhdyonnyh yagnyat [Forecast of newborn lambs viability] / .F.Dmitriyev, .I.Postnikov, .U.Ediyev [et al.] // Ovtsy, kozy, sherstyanoye delo. 2001. Vol. 4. P. 2629.
7. SALL4 is a robust stimulator for the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells. / J.R.Aguila, W.Liao, J.Yang [et. al.] // Blood.- 2011; DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-01-333641).


Authors: 1Semin O.V. - postgraduate; 1Papunidi K.Kh - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 1Idiyatov I.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Khaziev R.Sh. - Candidate of Biological- Sciences; 2Petrova D.N. - postgraduate; 2Nizamudinov R.M.
Address: 1Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, (tel.: (843) 239-53-19, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Kazan State Medical University, Kazan.
Abstract: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Extrafit feed additives and its derivatives produced from amaranth on the intensity of white rats growth and immunobiollogical blood parameters. The flavonoids isolated from amaranth leaves were represented by 87% of rutin and 13% hyperoside. The experimental rats feeding containing Extrafit in the dose of 2.0% per dry fodder and biologically active additives (flavonoids, residual fraction and squalene) in 2% per body weight, ratio increased the animals growth rate. Moreover, the greatest difference between the absolute and average daily gain in live weight of white rats from control and experimental groups was registered at the beginning of the experiment. The blood sera immunological studies showed that using "Extrafit" drug, flavonoid, its residual fractions, and squalene significantly increases bactericidal (4.8-12.1%), phagocytic (3.4-11.9%) and lysozime (12.9-41.6%) activity of blood serum, phagocytic number (up to 14.9%) and phagocytic index (3.5%), promotes animal nonspecific response and resistance to environmental negative factors.
Keywords: amaranth, biologically active additives, flavonoids, squalene, growth rate, immunology, white rats
References: 1. Shilov V.N. Amaranth perspektivnaya kormovaya kultura [Amaranth is a promising fodder crop] / V.N.Shilov, G.H. Sergeeva/ Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya agrarnogo proizvodstva: materialy mezhdynarodnoy naychnoy konferentsii - Problems and prospects of agricultural production: Proceedings from the International Conference. - Smolensk, 2007.- P. 73-74.
2 Zelenkov V.N. Amaranth. Biochimicheskiy i himicheskiy portret v ontogeneze [Amaranth. A portrait of biochemical and chemical ontogenesis] /V.N.Zelenkov, V.A.Gulshina, A.A.Lapin /. - Moscow: Academy of Natural Sciences, 2011.- 106 p.
3 Gins, V.., marant ictochnik biologicheski aktivnyh soyedineniy [Amaranth is a source of biologically active compounds] / V..Gins, P.F.nonkov, V..nshov et al.// Megdunarodny simpozium Noviye netradicionniye rasteniya i perspectivy ih ispolzovaniya. - International Symposium "New and nontraditional plants and prospects of their use". Puchino, 1997. P.153-154.
4 Chaziev, R.Sh., Soderzhaniye rutina v Amaranthus cruentus L., vyraschivayemom v Tatarstane [Rutin-containing Amaranthus cruentus L. planted in Tatarstan] / R.Sh.Chaziev, .V.Garusov, E.N.fitserov/ Rastitelniye resursy.-1992.- Vol. 2, P. 6366.
5. Shilov, V.N. Vliyaniye ispolzovaniya gidrolizata amaranta na effektivnost vrachivaniya porosyat otemyshey [Effect of using amaranth hydrolyzate on piglet weaners doctoring efficiency] / V.N.Shilov, A.P. Zharkovsky / Doklady RASKHN.- 2012.- 2.- P. 41-44.
6. Vyshtakaluk, .B. Pokazateli productivnosti tsyplyat-broilerov, vipaivayemyh v perviye dni zhizni vodnym extractom amaranta vmesto vody [The productivity of broiler chickens watered during the first days of life with aqueous extract of amaranth instead of water] / .B. Vyshtakaluk, L.F.Gumarova, S.S.Chirug, .P.Garkovsky, I.U.Portnov // Problemy i perspectivy razvitiya agrarnogo proizvodstva - Problems and prospects of developing agrarian production. Smolensk, 2007. P. 308-310.
7.  Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratonoy diagnostiki: spravochnik [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory detection: A Handbook]. /I.P.Kondrakhin, A.V.Arkhipov, V.I.Levchenko [I dr.] Moscow: KolosS, 2004.- 520 p.


Authors: Portnov O.V.
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (420075, Kazan, 2-Nauchny gorodok, tel.: (843) 239-53-19, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
Abstract: The article provides the results of comparative studies of feeding broiler chickens with biologically active feed additives: succinic acid, calcium succinate, calcium fumarate, in dosage of 25 mg/kg live mass, Extrafit and Vita-force drugs introduced in 2% diet ratio. The experimental chickens looked healthy, had a good appetite, neither death cases nor any abnormalities in chicken clinical status and behavior were registered. Feeding the experimental chickens with diet supplements enhanced their meat production in average by 7.3-21.1%, the effect of using these drugs at different ages was not the same. The effect of the drugs was evaluated on immune and biological blood parameters: phagocytal activity of neutrophils, serum lysozymic activity, the number of T- and B- lymphocytes. The studies showed that all the additives tested had favorable effect on animal body, but succinic acid, "Extrafit" and Vita-force" drugs were the most effective. An additional introduction of these drugs into the chicken diet was characterized by high values of phagocytic activity (which were 16.7, 19.9 and 11.2% of control values), the phagocytic capacity (29.5, 35.4 and 29.2%), lysozyme activity (11.6, 19.0 and 11.7% higher than the controls). The chicken from these groups showed considerable increase of T- lymphocytes (19.4, 22.7 and 17.4%, respectively) and B- lymphocytes (13.3, 19.6 and 11.4%) than the controls.
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