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¹ 6, 2014

  Toxicology
   
Title:

AZITHRONIT DRUG SUBACUTE TOXICITY

   
Authors: 1Ovsyanina M.N. – postgraduate; 2Abramov V.E. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2Yemelyanova N.B.- Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Balyshev A.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 3Novikova S.V. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: 1Moscow State University of Feed Production (125080, Moscow, Volokolamskoye h/w 11, info@mgupp.ru).
2K.I. Skryabin All-Russian Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Animal and Herb Parasitology (117218, Moscow B.Cheremushkinskaya 28, vigis@ncport.ru).
3LLC "NITA-FARM" (410010, Saratov, Osipova V.I. 1).
   
Abstract: A new azitromicin-based type of macrolide antibiotics was developed by Nita-Pharm company, Saratov. This article provides the research results of Azithronit subacute toxicity in dosage of 100mg of azithromycin dihydrate per 1 ml drug. Azithronit subacute toxicity was determined by rats’ intramuscular injection. The rats from the experimental groups showed less food and water consumption at 5 days, thus statistically changing live weight, reliably confirmed by the 7th day comparing to the control group. The experiment results showed the influence of Azithronit drug on the rat organism. The results from subacute toxication study showed that doses of 930 and 465 mg/kg are toxic, 186 mg/kg maximum tolerance dosage.
   
Keywords: “Azithronit”, azithromicyn, toxic properties, rats, blood, biochemistry, hematology
   
References: 1.Belenkiy, M.D. Elementy kolichestvennoy otsenki farmakologicheskogo effkta [Quantity assessment  of pharmacological effect] / M.D. Belenkiy.- Leningrad.: Gosmedizdat, 1963
2.Goglidze, K.N. Etiologiya respiratornyh zabolevaniy telyat [Etiology of calves respiratory disease]/Aktualniye voprosy patologii i morfologii zhivotnyh: materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-proizvodstvennoy konferentsii [Current problems of animal pathology and morphology: proceedings from international conference] K.N. Goglidze
3.Kozlov, R.S. Makrolidy i ketolidy [Macrolids and Cetolids]. Vnebolnichniye infektsii dyhatelnyh putey: diagnostika i lecheniye [community-acquired respiratory infections: diagnostics and treatment]
4.Piralishvili, I.S. K metodike podscheta eozinofilov v perifericheskoy krovi [To the methods of eosinophil count in peripheral blood]/ I.S. Piralishvili //Laboratornoye delo.- 1962. -¹3.- p.20-22.
5. Prikaz MZ SSSR # 755 ot 12.08.77 "Pravila provedeniya rabot s ispolzovaniyem eksperimentalnyh zhivotnyh" [The USSR Ministry of Healthcare Order #755 of 12.08.77 "Rules for experimental animals handling"
6.Sinopalnikov, A.I. Makrolidy v lechenii vnebolnichnyh infektsiy nizhnih dyhatelnyh putey [Using macrolids in treatment of community-acquired infections lower respiratory ducts] / A.I.Sinopalnikov // Concilium medicum.- 2004. Addition.- Vol.6
7. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinichekomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veshchestv [Guidance for experimental (preclinical) study of novel pharmacological substances] - Moscow, 2000
8. Threadway, G. Padeatric savety of azithromicyn worldwide experience. / G.Threadway, D.Pontiani // J.Antimicrob Chemother.- 2006.- P.120.
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

STUDY OF BOVINE INFECTIOUS RHINOTRACHETIS VIRUS MORPHOLOGY USING ELECTRONIC AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

   
Authors: 1Krasochko P.A.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Chizhik S.A. - Doctor of Engineering, professor, corresponding member of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, vice-chairman of Presidium of National academy of Sciences of Belarus; 3Nadtochey G.A.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 4Krasochko P.P.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Drozd E.S.- Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences; 2Shahnovich A.A. – Master of Engineering.
   
Address: 1 Republican unitary enterprise "Vyshelessky Institute of Experimental Veterinary", Minsk, Republic of Belarus(E-mail: krasochko@mail.ru).
2Public scientific institution " A.V. Likov Research Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus ", Minsk, Republic of Belarus (E-mail: drozd.elizaveta@gmail.com).
3Public scientific institution " Y.R. Kovalenko Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences", Moscow, Russian Federation (E-mail: g_a_nadtochei@mail.ru).
4Vitebsk Order "Badge of Honor" State Academy of Veterinary Medicine", Vitebsk, Belarus (E-mail: 7696695@gmail.com).
   
Abstract: The aim of this research was a comparative study of bovine infectious rhinotrachetis (BIR) virus morphology using electronic and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The virus electronic microscopy preceded by enhancement with heavy metals showed that the BIR viral capsid is made up from host cell nuclear membrane. The virus is of a large spherical form with external protein and lipid capsid and superficial knobs. The virus has a complicated structure containing more than 20 structural proteins. Therefore, only the virus topographical data, size, number of nucleocapsids were possible to indicate. Atomic force microscopy allows investigation of viral particles without its additional enhancement with heavy metal atoms, evaluation of viral concentration, and study of viral particles morphology. At a low viral concentration the virions form a single layer on a template surface, while at a higher viral concentration the particles form clusters. The study of virion particles showed that their surface is uneven and plicate. Imaging of the samples with lower and higher concentration at contact mode allowed obtaining virion 2D and 3D topography images. The evaluation of particle surfaces showed that the BIR virus size is 98.0 nanometers. The IBR virus three-dimensional AFM with 0.76 ? 0.76 ?m2 imaging region clearly visualized cavities and knobs of various size that characterizes the virus morphology.
   
Keywords: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, nucleocapsid, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy
   
References: 1. Atomic force microscope NT-206: user manual. – Gomel: Department for document support Microtekstmashiny, 2004. – 66 p.
2. Kovalyov, N.A. Virusy i priony v patologii zhivotnyh i cheloveka: monografiya [Viruses and prions in human and animal pathology: manuscript] / N.A.Kovalyov, P.A.Krasochko. – Minsk, Belaruskaya navuka, 2012. - 426 p.
3. Krasochko, P.A. Biotehnologicheskiye osnovy konstruirovaniya i ispolzovaniya immunobiolicheskih preparatov dlya molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [Biotechnological basics of designing and using cattle immunobiological drugs]: abstract from diss. Doct. Biol.Sci.: 03.00.23 / P.A.Krasochko; All-Russian Research and Technological Institute of Biological Producton. - Scholkovo, 2009. - 46 p.
4.Morris, V.J. Atomic Force Microscopy for Biologists / V.J.Morris, A.R.Kirby, A.P.Gunning. – 2th ed. – London: Imperial College Press, 1999. – 332 p.
5. Vydeleniye virusa infektsionnogo rinotraheita na kulturah perevivayemyh kletok [Isolation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from passed cultures] / N.N.Kyukov, Ò.I.Kozyrenko, G.À. Nadtochey, À.À. Pozdnyakov // Veterinaria.-1977.-¹ 9.- p.46-48.
6. Schimmel, G In Methodensammlung der Elektronenmikroskopie / G. Schimmel and W. Vogel; translated into Russian by À.Ì.Rosenfeld, M.N. Spassky; edited by V.N. Rozhansky. – Moscow: Mir. – 1977. -300p.
7.Atomic Force Microscopy Examination of TMV and Virion RNA / Yaminsky I.V. [et al.] // FEBS letters. – 1998. – ¹ 425. – P. 217–221.
8.Atomic force microscopy visualization of RNA and ribonucleotides of the tobacco mosaic virus / Gallyamov M.O. [et al.] // Surface investigation. – 2000. – ¹ 15. – P. 1127–1134.
9.Atomic force microscopy as a tool of inspection of viral infection / Dubrovin E.V. [et al.] // Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. – 2007. – ¹ 3, 2. – P.128–131.
   
   
Title:

USING REINDEER ANTLERS FOR BRUCELLOSIS DETECTION

   
Authors: Kulikova E.V. – staff scientist; Gordienko L.N. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Scientific Institution “All-Russian Research Institute of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis”(Omsk, Lermontov st., 93, 644001, e-mail: vniibtg@rambler.ru, 8(3812) 56-32-60).
   
Abstract: Keeping reindeer breeding as an ethnos-forming and profitable agribusiness is essential for the Arctic regions of Russia. A brucellosis natural focus among wild deer populations is a constant danger of brucellosis agent introduction into the infection-free herds, its spread among susceptible livestock and a threat to human health. Specificity of reindeer nomadic breeding and availability of many objective factors do not allow having diagnostic tests with full coverage of livestock herds that complicates control of brucellosis epizootic situation, meat and endocrine products quality. The article shows using technological processes in reindeer breeding to improve veterinary measures efficiency in the areas of brucellosis natural foci. Also, data of brucellosis pathogen persistence in reindeer antlers is provided. The study showed the possibility of brucellosis in-vivo bacteriological detection using antlers as a biomaterial. Of adult animals of all the sex and age groups from 4% to 22% cases of Brucella carriers with latent infection were registered within the infection natural foci. The infection rate among male-reproducers was significantly higher than that of the female reindeers for 1.3 times and was slightly higher than among the males-castrate. Of 36 brucellosis-carriers registered in 2 herds, only 14 reindeers (38.8%) had brucella specific immunoglobulins in diagnostic titers. The study of reindeer antlers as a biomaterial additionally revealed 8.7% brucella-carrying animals with chronic and latent forms of infection, which improved diagnostic tests and endocrine products quality control.
   
Keywords: reindeer, antlers, brucellosis, infection rate, diagnosis, control, efficiency
   
References: 1. Zabrodin, V.A. Severnoye olenevodstvo RF: sostoyanie, perspektivy razvitiya, nauchnoye obespecheniye[Reindeer breeding in the Russian Federation: current state, further development prospects, scientific background] / V.A. Zabrodin, A.V. Komarov // Severnoye olenevodstvo: sovremennoe sostoyanie, perspektivy razvitiya, novaya koncepciya veterinarnogo obsluzhivaniya: Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii - Reindeer breeding: current state, further development prospects, a new concept of veterinary care: proceedings from scientific conference. - St. Petersburg, Pushkin, 2012.-P. 3-12.
2. Veterinarniye i zootekhnicheskiye problemy vosproizvodstva v severnom olenevodstve i puti ih resheniya [Veterinary and livestock reproduction problems in reindeer farming and ways of its solutions] / A.M. Samandas, A.V. Prokudin, T.M. Romanenko [et. al.]  // Dostizheniya nauki i tehniki APK [Implementation of science and technology achievements into agribusiness].- 2013.- Vol.11. -P. 42-44.
3. Nekotorye kliniko-epidemiologicheskiye osobennosti olenyego brucelleza u lyudey [Some clinical and epidemiological features of reindeer brucellosis in humans] / A.F. Pinigin, A.B. Kokaurov, A.I. Kalinowski, V.I. Lebedev // Kraevaya infektsionnaya patologiya v Irkutskoy oblasti [Regional Infectious pathology in Irkutsk Oblast]. – Irkutsk, 1971.- Vol. 102.- P. 24-28.
4. Gordienko, L.N. Brutsellez cheloveka i zhivotnyh v usloviyah Kraynego Severa [Human and animal brucellosis in the Far North] / L.N. Gordienko, E.V. Kulikova, O.V. Plotnikova  // Sovremennye problemy diagnostiki i profilaktiki hronicheskih zooantroponoznyh infektsiy: ìaterialy Vserossiyskoy nauch.-prakt. konferentsii [Modern problems of anthropozoonoses chronic infections diagnosis and prevention: Materials of the All-Russian scientific-practical conference]. – Omsk, 2009.-P. 34-39.
5. Zabrodin, V.A. Nekotorye dannye po brucellezu dikih severnyh oleney [Some data on wild reindeer brucellosis] / V.A. Zabrodin, E.F. Zabrodina  // Byul. nauch.-tekhn. inform./ NIISKH Kraynego Severa [ Bull. scientific-technical. Inf. / Agricultural Research Institute of the Far North].- 1976.- Vol. 12-13.- P. 9-10.
6. Laishev, K.A. Svoystva brucell, vydelennyh ot  razlichnyh vidov zhivotnyh na Taymyre [The properties of Brucella isolates from different species of animal in Taimyr] / K.A.Laishev, E.F.Zabrodina // Materialy soveshchaniya «Olenevodstvo Evropeyskogo Severa».- Arhangelsk, 1998 [Proceedings from the "Reindeer European North" meeting].- Arkhangelsk, 1998.
7. Gordienko, L.N. Sobaka domashnyaya (canis familiaris) – rezervuar vozbuditelya brucelleza severnyh oleney v prirodnyh ochagah infektsii [A domestic dog (canis familiaris) is a causative agent of reindeer brucellosis reservoir in the infection natural foci] / L.N. Gordienko, E.V. Kulikova, A.A. Anisimov // Veterinarnaya patologiya [Veterinary Pathology].- 2007.-¹ 3 (21).- P. 41-46.
8. Nastavlenie po diagnostike brucelleza zhivotnyh [The Manual on animal brucellosis  diagnosis / Àpproved. Veterinary Department of Agriculture Russia  29.09.2003)]. - Moscow, 2004.
9. FAO / WHO 2006 - Brucellosis in humans and animals. World Health Organization 2006/ M.J. Corbel.-2006.- 102p.
10. Shelepov, V.G. Severnoye olenevodstvo. Tehnologiya zagotovki i pererabotki pantov, endokrinno-fermentnogo i spetsialnogo syrya[The reindeer breeding. Technology of harvesting and processing of antlers, endocrine and enzyme and special raw materials] / V.G. Shelepov. - Moscow.: Polteks, 1998.- P. 29-32.
   
   
Title:

DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF INDIRECT HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST FOR BRUCELLA ANTIGEN DETECTION IN BIOMATERIAL

   
Authors: Yanikova E.A. – postgraduate; Hairov S.G. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; Yusupov O.Yu. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address: Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute (E-mail: elya_09@mail.ru)
   
Abstract: Development of methods detecting pathogen specific antigens is one of the promising directions in improving laboratory diagnostics of contagious diseases including brucellosis. This article presents the results of designing and trial of a red cell-linked-antigen test to identify brucellosis agent in various pathological material.
Our research resulted in developing original method of brucellosis antibody detection for indirect hemagglutination test by sensitization of sheep erythrocytes stabilized according to Weinbach with hyperimmune Brucella serum used as an amidol conjugate to detect Brucella antigen in biomaterial.
Also, we determined optimal parameters for erythrocytes sensitization using hyperimmune serum to provide highly active and specific antibody diagnosticum for indirect hemagglutination test.
The comparative trials showed that the antibody diagnosticum is more sensitive for 22 times. Also, indirect hemagglutination test based on antibody diagnosticum is more user-friendly while conventional antibody neutralization test is more complex with three-component reaction. Our studies of antibody diagnosticum efficacy showed a higher sensitivity of indirect hemagglutination test based on antibody diagnosticum in comparison with antibody neutralization test and bacteriological test, and suitability of using the diagnosticum for Brucella antigen indication in biomaterial, and also, the proposed test meets the requirements of rapid methods for antigen identification.
The diagnosticum production method is patented (No. 249387) September 27, 2013.
   
Keywords: Republic of Dagestan, cattle, brucella antibody diagnosticum, indirect hemagglutination test, biomaterial
   
References: 1. Abutalipov, A. Sravnitelnaya diagnosticheskaya effektivnost RIF i RNAt i bakteriologicheskogo metoda pri brutsellyoze [Comparative diagnostic efficiency of immunofluorescent test and antibodies neutralization test and bacteriological method for brucellosis]. / A.Abutalipov, M.Janbyrbayev // Bulletin of agricultural science of Kazakhstan.- 1982.- Vol. 5.-P. 75-77.
2. Janbyrbayev, M. Reaktsiya neytralizatsii antitel i reaktsiya nepryamoy gemagglyutinatsii pri indikatsii brutsell [Antibody neutralization test and indirect haemagglutination test for Brucella detection]. …Diss. Cand. vet. Sciences. / M. Janbirbaev.- Kazan, 1984.- 22 p.
3. Ispolzovaniye kommercheskih syvorotok i gamma-globulina dlya brutsellyoznogo antitelnogo diagnostikuma[Using commercial serum and gamma-globulin for antibody test to detect brucellosis] / V.I.Iglow, V.A.Shamardin, B.M.Nagmanov, N.J.Zhanuzakov // Journal of livestock science of Kazakhstan.- 1982.- Vol. 5.-P. 73-74.
4. Baramova, S.A. Izspytaniye antitelnogo brutsellyoznogo eritrotsitarnogo diagnostikuma v proizvodstvennyh usloviyah [Field trials of brucellosis antibody test]/ S.A.Baramova, A.A.Erbulatov // Works of science of KazNRVI.- Alma-Ata, 1986.-P. 102-105.
5. Karalnik, B.V. Eritrotsitarniye belkoviye diagnostikumy [Erythrocyte protein assays]/ B.V.Karalnik, Yu.P.Tsarevsky, V.A.Shamardin.- Alma-Ata : Nauka, 1982.- 150p.
6. Kuzmin, Y.A. Primeneniye amidola dlya polucheniya eritrotsitarnyh diagnostikumov [Using amidol to produce erythrocyte diagnosticums] / Y.A.Kuzmin, V.A.Shamardin, B.V.Karalnik // Laboratory work.- 1982.- Vol. 4.-P. 53-55.
7. Romanov, V.A. Razrabotka i sovershenstvovaniye sredstv, metodov diagnostiki i sistemy meropriyatiy po borbe s infektsionnym epididimitom baranov i brutsellyozom zhivotnyh [Developing and improving means, methods and measures to control sheep contagious epidydimitis and animal brucellosis]: dis.… Dr. Vet. Medicine / V.A.Romanov.- Moscow, 1992.- 50p.
8. Sadykov, S.G. Diagnosticheskaya effektivnost reaktsii neytralizatsii antitel i reaktsii nepryamoy gemagglyutinatsii pri brutsellyoze [Brucellosis diagnostic efficiency using antibody neutralization test and indirect hemagglutination test] / S.G.Sadykov // Veterinary medicine.- 1974.- Vol. 6.-P. 107-108.
9. Safronov, A.M. Polucheniye antitelnyh eritrotsitarnyh brutsellyoznyh diagnostikumov [Production of brucellosis antibody tests] / A.M.Safronov, A.P.Dzubak, B.E.Kosarevich // Veterinary medicine.- 1977.- Vol. 3.-P. 97-99.
10. Chernyshev, M.I. Sukhoy eritrotsitarniy diagnostikum dlya reaktsii passivnoy gemagglyutinatsii i raktsii neytralizatsii antitel pri brutsellyoze [Dry erythrocyte diagnosticum for passive hemagglutination test and antibody neutralization test at brucellosis] / M.I.Chernyshev, E.A.Drnanovskaya // Journal of Microbiology, epidemiology, and immunology- 1970.- Vol. 12.-P. 171-173.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

WOUNDS ETIOPATHOGENETIC THERAPY IN DOGS

   
Authors: Persayeva N.S.- postgraduate; Chekhodaridi F.N. - Doctor of Veterinary, professor; Gugkayeva M.S. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: Highlands State Agrarian University (tel.: 8 (867-2) 53-10-65; e-mail: ggau.vet@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: An open mechanical damage of soft tissues is quite common in animals. Wounds etiology varies. During our three-year survey, cases of animal non-contagious diseases were registered in 430 dogs, including 178 dogs with surgical pathology. This kind of pathology occurred as a result of dogs bad care and housing. There are many ways and methods of wounds treatment but none of them completely meets surgeon needs. Naturally, the flow of new proposals does not decrease and the issues of wounds and wound infections treatment in human and animals still remains a challenge for physicians and scientists. It is necessary to apply the methods of complex therapy that is able to influence on microbial factors, increase drugs efficiency, enhance protective and adaptive strength of sick animal organism, and reduce the period of wounds healing in animals. The associated or complex therapy was found to accelerate organism recovery, wound detersion from the dead substrate and formation of tissue granulation with further epithelialization and cicatrization. In dogs from the 1st experimental group wounds complete clinical healing occurred at 20 days, in the second experimental group - at 22 days, while the control group at 28 days after their treatment began; normalization of hematologic, biochemical and immunologic parameters in the experimental groups was registered at 10 days, while in animals from the control group it was registered at 15 days or more.
   
Keywords: dogs, wounds, Cordyceps Sinensis, magnetic infrared laser radiation, the "Vityaz" apparatus, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, surgical pathology, etiopathogenetic therapy, combined therapy
   
References: 1.Plotvinov A.P. Primeneniye mazi anikol pri lechenii ran u sobak [Using anikol ointment for wounds treatment in dogs]. / A.P.Plotvinov; L.R.Plotvinova; I.V.Alekseeva; V.I.Poschukin // Veterinariya.- Vol.12. - 2002. – p.54-56.
2.Kolisnichenko I.S. Primeneniye lazernogo izlucheniya v posleoperatsionniy period u sobak [Using laser irradiation in post-operation period in dogs]. / I.S.Kolisnichenko, S.V.Timofeeva, T.V.Suprukova // Veterinaria. – Vol.7. – 2002. – p.53-54.
3.Streltsov I.Ì. Opyt primeneniya lazera dlya lecheniya zhivotnyh [An experience of using laser-based treatment in animals]. / I.Ì.Strelstov, N.A.Mamonov, S.N.Yershov, V.I.Yuryev, A.I.Magomedov, V.P.Zhirohov // Veterinaria. – Vol.2. – 2001. – p.33-35.
4.Chehodarididi F.N. Patogeneticheskaya terapiya infitsirovannyh vospalivshihsya ran u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Pathogenetic therapy of cattle infected and inflamed wounds]. / F.N.Chehodarididi, S.G.Gadzaonov, M.S.Gugkaeva // Vestnik veterinarii. – 2008. – Vol.46. – p.45-48.
5.Gadzaonov S.G. Patogeneticheskaya terapiya infetsirovannyh ran u sobak [Pathogenetic therapy of infected wounds in dogs]/ S.G.Gadzaonov, F.N.Chehodarididi, M.S. Gugkaeva // International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Highlands State Agrarian University "Scientific basics of abgribusiness in highlands and piedmont areas".
6.Gadzaonov S.G. Sravnitelnaya effektivnost lecheniya infetsirovannyh ran u sobak [Comparative studies of infected wounds efficient treatment in dogs]. / S.G.Gadzaonov// Vladikavkaz Regional scientific and practical conference "Current agrarian science achievements for industry". – 2009. p.82-84.3.
   
   
Title:

USING YARROW AND SUCCORY EXTRACTS FOR ANIMAL DIARRHEA TREATMENT

   
Authors: Davydenko V.V. – postgraduate; Antipov V.A. –Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
   
Address: Federal public budgetary scientific institution "Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute" (1, 1-Liniya St., Krasnodar, 350004, knivi@list.ru).
   
Abstract: The article provides results of pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of spirit tinctures from yarrow and succory, their therapeutic and prevention efficacy. The tinctures application for stomach diseases prevention and treatment showed a favorable effect on blood parameters. Inducing of erythropoiesis and hemopoiesis processes was the most characteristic feature. Some series of experiments showed an increased number of total protein and ?-globulin fractions in blood serum, and also strengthening of microbe cells phagocytosis by neutrophils and an increased number of leukocytes. Clinical trials confirmed the drug efficiency in treatment of young livestock gastrointestinal diseases. According to the above mentioned parameters the drug prevention and treatment efficiency made 84-91%. Therefore using these medical herbs spirit tinctures containing tannins in combination with antimicrobic drugs proved its usefulness at calves dyspepsia. Application of this drug prevents or rapidly terminates the disease further progression, improves animal general condition, increases their appetite, normalizes functioning of digestive system. A proper choice of antimicrobic drugs has a considerable influence on tinctures efficacy. Using a tincture only has a therapeutic action; however, it is less than using the both tinctures together. Therefore the tinctures can be recommended at stomach diseases with mild development. The drugs industrial production is arranged in a laboratory of Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute and regional laboratories in Rostov region. The drug production is neither labor-consuming nor costly. The drug is widely used in livestock farms of Krasnodar and Rostov regions. The medical herbs tinctures are economically reasonable. 
   
Keywords: pharmacology, toxicology, tincture, yarrow, chicory
   
References: 1. Antipov V.A. Otchet o nauchno-issledovatelskoy rabote VNII nezaraznyh bolezne [Report on scientific work of All-Russian Research Veterinary Institute of Non-Contagious Diseases]/ V.A.Antipov/ - Voronezh, 1982.
2. Antipov V.A. Voprosy razvitya veterinarnoy farmatsii [Issues of further development of veterinary pharmacy]/ V.A.Antipov, A.N.Troshin / Veterinaria Kubani. 2010. Vol. 6. p. 21-22.
3. Gusynin, I.A. Fitoterapya v veterinarnoy praktike [Using phytotherapy in veterinary practice]/ I.A. Gusynin// - Veterinaria. – 1947.- Vol.7. –p.37.
4. Gusynin, I.A. Osnovy rastitelnoy terapii v zhivotnovodstve [Basics of phytotherapy in animal breeding]/ I.A.Gusynin// - Veterinarija. – 1958.- Vol.9. –p.73.
5. Lebedev, V.V. Znachenie lekarstvennyh rasteniy v sheme lechenya telyat pri dispepsii [Significance of medical herbs in calves indigestion treatment]/ V.V.Lebedev//- Veterinarya.- 1983.- Vol.7.- p.83
6. Mozgov, I.E. Farmakologya [Pharmacology]/I.E. Mozgov/ -Moscow – Kolos.- 1979.
7. Rabdil O.S. Farmakologicheskie osnovy lechenya bolezney organov pishhevarenya [Pharmacological basics of treatment of digestion system diseases]/O.S. Rabdil/-Moscow –Meditsina.- 1976.
8. Troshin, A.N. Ratsionalnoe primenenie veterinarnyh preparatov na Kubani v 2014 godu [Rational application of veterinary drugs in Kuban in 2014]/A.N. Troshin/ - Krasnodar. - Vetfarm, NPVP, - 2014, 28p.
9. TroshinN.A. Preparat dlya lechenya zheludochno-kishechnyh zabolevanij i rasstrojstv molodnjaka selskohozyjstvennyh zhivotnyh i ptits [Drugs used to treat gastrointestinal disease and disorders in younf livestockand poultry] / N.A. Troshin, A.N. Troshin, A.A. Chernovskaja / patent na izobretenie RUS 2252762 08.12.2003
10. ChervyakovD.K. Lekarstvennye sredstva v veterinarii [Treatment drugs used in veterinary]/ D.K. Chervjakov/- Moscow. –Kolos. -1977.
11. ChervyakovD.K. Primenenie lekarstvennyh rastenij v veterinarii [Using medical herbs in veterinary] / D.K. Chervjakov I.I. Rabinovich// - Veterinaria. -1981.- Vol.7.-p.56.
12. ShiganovV.I. Primeneniye spirta i chaya dlya lecheniya ponosov u telyat [Using alcohol and tea in calves diarrhea treatment] / V.I. Shiganov//- Veterinariya. -1957.- Vol.1.- p.70.
   
   
Title:

MODIFICATION OF VITAMIN A DETECTION METHOD IN RABBIT BLOOD AND LIVER USING HPLC ANALYSIS

   
Authors: Muharlyamova A.Z. – staff ingineer; Chasov V.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Matveeva E.L. – Doctor of Biology; Tremasov M.Y. – Doctor of Biology, professor.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety. Kazan (e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Human and animal body contains different micro- and - and vitamins. The latter refers to organic compounds that enforce the vital functions of living organisms, regulating metabolism process. Vitamins are a part of enzymes, accelerating and guiding chemical processes taking part in animal organism. To monitor if an animal is supplied with necessary vitamins the timely hypovitaminosis detection supposes not only diet evaluation for vitamins but also tests of animal blood, colostrum, milk, liver and other tissues for vitamin content. The vitamin content in biological substrates is often determined using colorimetric, spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric and gas chromatographic methods. The requirements for methods of vitamins routine monitoring are strict enough.  They should be simple, reliable, to provide high sensitivity and selectivity. The tool selection to determine water-and fat-soluble vitamins in food is specified by a number of general considerations, such as method detection limits depending on sample concentration, permissible error, time limits and cost of analysis. Naturally, more rapid, user-friendly, and informative analysis are preferred. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) meets most of the requirements. Modern development of the HPLC method expanded its analytical capabilities to evaluate vitamins content in enriched foods. Necessary sample preparation is simplier than that of other methods that is primarily associated with the analysis exceptional flexibility, high separation efficiency, and favorable conditions. The paper describes the technique to determine vitamin A in rabbit blood and liver using HPLC analysis. To provide optimal parameters we modified the technique introduced by Hosotani, Kitagawa (2003) and selected proper conditions for chromatographic analysis.
   
Keywords: retinol, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), blood, liver
   
References: 1.Hohrin, S.N. Kormleniye KRS, ovets, koz i loshadey: spravochnoye posobiye [Feeding cattle, sheep, goats and horses: a handbook] / S.N.Hohrin.- Saint Petersburg: Profiks, 2003.- 452 p.
2.Morozkina, T.S. Vitaminy [Vitamins] / T.S.Morozkina, A.G.Moyseenok.- Minsk: Asar, 2002.- 58p.
3.Shmanenkov, N.A. Primenenie himicheskih veshhestv v zhivotnovodstve [The use of chemicals in animal husbandry] / N.A. Shmanenkov.- Moskva:Kolos, 1964.-p.103-126.
4.Kuznetsov, A.S. Vliyaniye beta-karotina na reproduktivniye kachestva zhivotnyh [Effect of beta-carotene on reproductive qualities of animals] / A.S. Kuznetsov, P.P. Kundyshev // Zootehnia.- 2010.- Vol.10.- p.21-22.
5.Moreno, P. Determination of eight water and fat-soluble vitamins in multivitamin pharmaceutical formulations by high performance liquid chromatography / P.Moreno, P.Salvado // J.Chromatogr. A.- 2000.- V.870.- P.207 – 215.
6.Determination of fat-soluble vitamins in yogurt by HPLC with electrochemical detection // M.M. Delgado Zamarreno, A. Sanchez Perez, M. Sanchez Rodriguez [et. al.] // Talanta.- 1996.- V.43.- P.1555 – 1563.
7.Al-Babili, S. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rise endosperm / S.Al-Babili, X.Ye, À.Kloti // Science.- 2000.- Vol. 287.- P.303-305.
8.Parkinson, C.E. Factors affecting the laboratory management of human serum and liver vitamin A analyses / C.E. Parkinson, I. Gal // Clin. Chim. A.- 1972.- V.40.- P.83 – 90.
9.The determination of vitamin A and carotene in small quantities of blood serum / O.A.Bessey, O.H. Lowry, M.J. Brooks, J.A. Lopez // J. Biol. Chem.- 1946.- V.166.- P.177-188.
10.Hosotani, K.  Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver / K. Hosotani, M. Kitagawa // J. Chrom. B..- 2003.- V.791.- P.305-313.
   
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF A NOVEL DRUG TO PREVENT AND TREAT NEWBORN CALVES WITH GASTROENTERIC DISEASES PROCEEDING WITH DIARRHEA SIGNS

   
Authors: 1Ozdemirov A.A.- Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Kabardiev S.SH.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 1Budulov N.R.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 1Anaev M.S.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Karsakov N.T.- Doctor of Biology Sciences; 1Ramazanova D.M.- postgraduate; 1Aygubova S.A.- postgraduate; 1Karpushenco K.A.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: 1Caspian Regional Research Veterinary Institute, Mahachkala (88 ulitsa Dahayeva, Mahachkala, Dagestan, 307000; e-mail: pznivi05@mail.ru).
2Dagestan Republic Veterinary Laboratory (88 ulitsa Dahayeva, Mahachkala, Dagestan, 307000, tel.+7 (8722) 67-96-65).
   
Abstract: The paper presents results from evaluation study of drugs used to treat newborn calves from diseases proceeding with clinical signs of diarrhea. Blood serum analyses showed that all the newborn calves from all the groups had a reduced colostrums immunity. Although, calves from the experimental group which were exposed to preventive and therapeutic measures had higher immunoglobulin number than control and infected animals its level remained below the physiological norm (15g/l) that is apparently connected with newborns unduly housing and feeding conditions (animals untimely feeding with colostrum and housing insanitary conditions). The proposed drug was determined to be effective to prevent and treat newborn calves dyspepsia. Using the drug as a preventive means slightly increased magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and calcium level, while lower levels of sodium and potassium reached the limits of physiological norm. Comparing to the controls animals from the experimental group showed more rapid recovery and less cases of animal death; the evaluated drug has higher preventive efficiency than the analogue. By the end of experiment the bactericidal activity of blood serum from the experimental calves increased for 11.7%, lysozyme and ?-lysine activity for 1.6 and 4.6 % than basic parameters accordingly. All this data testifies the activation of exchange processes in animal organism. The proposed drug is tolerable and in recommended doses is nontoxical.
   
Keywords: preventive maintenance of gastroenteric illnesses, a preparation, diarrheas, a fodder diet
   
References: 1.Alikayev, V.A. Osnovy profilaktiki nezaraznyh bolezney molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Basics of non-contagious diseases prevention in young livestock] / V.A.Alikaev, M.H.Shayhamanov.- Ìoscow: Kolos,1968.- p.77-97.
2.Anohin,  B.N. Profilaktika bolezney telyat [Canves diseases prevention] / B.N.Anohin.- Voronezh: Central- Chernozhyom publishing house, 1980.- 68 p.
3.Afonsky, S.I. Biohimiya zhivotnyh [Animal biochemistry] / S.I. Aphonskiy.- Ìoscow: Vysshaya shkola, 1964.-630 p.
4.Guseynov, S.I. Gorsky skot Dagestana i puti yego preobrazovaniya [Livestock beeding in Dagestan highlands. Ways of improvement] / S.I.Guseynov.- Mahachkala: Dagestanskoye knizhnoye izdatelstvo, 1961.- 270 p.
5.Vliyaniye biologicheski aktivnyh dobavok na fiziologo-biohimicheskiy status i  produktivnost molodnyaka KRS v usloviyah razlichnyh zon prikaspiyskogo regiona Rossii [Biological additives effect on calves physiological, biochemical status and production rate in different areas of Caspian region, Russia] / I.N.Djamaludinova, N.H.Mamayev R.A.Abdulayev, M.S.Anayev // Agricultural science of Mordovia Republic: achievements, trends of development: proceedings from All-Russian scientific conference, July 6-8, 2005.-  Saransk, 2005. - P. 310-312.
6.K etiologii bolezney metabolizma molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota Predgornoy zony yuga  Rossii [To the etiology of calves metabolism diseases in piedmont area in the south of Russia / N.H.Mamayev, I.N.Djamaludinova, M.S.Anayev [et. al.] // Agricultural science of Mordovia Republic: achievements, trends of development: proceedings from All-Russian scientific conference, July 6-8, 2005.- Saransk, 2005.- P.348-350.
7.Porohov, F.R.  Profilaktika vnutrennih nezaraznyh bolezney i lecheniye krupnogo rogatogo skota v promyshlennyh zonah [Prevention and treatment of cattle inner noncontagious diseases  in large industrial farms] /A.N. Bazhenov, V.U. Davydov, A.A. Ephimov [et. al.] - Leningrad.: VO «Agropromizdat», 1987.- 160 p.
8.Slonim, A.D. Osnovy obshey ekologicheskoy fiziologii mlekopitayuschih [Basics of mammals general ecological physiology] / A.D. Slonim.- Ìoscow-Leningrad: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1961.-432 p.
9.Sokolov, V.D.  Dioksin i preparaty na yego osnove v veterinarii [Using dioxidine and dioxidine-based drugs in veterinary science] / V.D.Sokolov // Veterinaria.- 2010.-¹ 11. –P.44-47.
10.Sharabrin, I.G., Danilevskiy V.M. Vnutrenniye nezarazniye bolezni selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Livestock internal noncontagious diseases]/ I.G.Sharabrin, V.M.Danilevskiy.- Ìoscow: «Agropromizdat», 1986.- 527 p.
11.Patent 2516969 , MPK À61 Ê31/165, À61 Ê31/18, À61 Ê31/185, À61 Ê31/375, À61 Ê31/70, À61Ê33/14, À61 Ê33/26, À61 Ð1/00. Preparat dlya profilaktiki i lecheniya zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney novorozhdyonnyh telyat, protekayuschih a priznakami diarei [Drud for prevention and treatment of newborn calves gastro-enteric diseases proceeding with signs of diarrhea] /Ozdemirov A.A., Kabardiev S.Sh., Budulov N.R., applicant and a patentee: Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute.- ¹ 2013103385/15; appl.24.01.2013.,publ. 20.05.2014,Bul. ¹14.- 6p.
12.Patent 2105548, MPK À61 Ê31/00. Preparat "diarin" dlya lecheniya i profilaktiki zheludochno-kishechnyh bolezney molodnyaka zhivotnyh [“Diarin” drug for prevention and treatment of young livestock gastro-enteric diseases]/Sokolov V.D., Sokolov A.V., Voytenko V.D., Andreeva N.L., Shutov E.E., Rybakov U.N., an applicant and a patentee Sokolov V.D., Sokolov A.V., Voytenko V.D., Andreeva N.L., Shutov E.E., Rybakov U.N. - ¹ 94023800/13; appl. 24.06.1994., publ. 27.02.1998, Bul. ¹13.- 6 p.
   
   
Title:

A COMBINED PROGRESSION OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS AND ACUTE POSTNATAL ENDOMETRITIS IN COWS

   
Authors: 1Pavlenko O.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Suleymanov S.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Churina Z.G. - postgraduate.
   
Address: 1The Emperor Peter I Voronezh State Agrarian University, department of anatomy and surgery, Voronezh, (e-mail: Suleimanov@List.ru).
2Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety. Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article provides the results of hematologic and biochemical blood tests of cows with combined course of subclinical mastitis and acute postnatal endometritis. It was established that hematologic, biochemical and immunological blood parameters in cows having both subclinical mastitis and endometritis deviated from the physiological standard, and the animals had lower immune responses. The cows with acute postnatal mastitis had lower number of erythrocytes than the cows having subclinical mastitis. Animals with the combined pathology had an increased number of leukocytes,eosinophils and monocytes, while the number of stab cells and lymphocytes decreased. During the study of protein metabolism showed lower level of total protein in blood serum and albumines in protein fractions. At the same time the number of ?-and ?-globulins increased. An increased level of the latter parameters indicates an inflammatory process. Also, the studies showed an increased activity of AP and ALT plasma enzymes, AspAT of mitochondrial enzyme in blood serum. These deviations indicate essential organic changes in liver cellular function and indirectly point on organism developing D hypoavitaminosis. Also, cows had lower cholesterol and increased level of glucose that evidences a reduced level of carbohydrate metabolism and bioenergetic processes accordingly. Also we observed decrease of phosphorus and calcium increased by 1.5 times that was a consequence of their lack in fodder for a long time, bad calcium intake because of lack of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone.
   
Keywords: subclinical mastitis, postnatal endometritis, hematology, biochemistry, calves diseases, diagnostics
   
References: 1.Gudimova T.E. Bolezni genitaliy i mastit. [Genitals Diseases and mastitis ] // Veterinaria. – 1986. - ¹ 8. - p. 62.
2.Popov JI.K. Lecheniye skrytogo mastita u korov. [Treatment of cow latent mastitis] // Zootehniya. – 1995. - ¹ 5. - p. 26 – 27.
3.Borisova T.V. Korrelyativnaja vzaimosvyaz i kompleksnaya terapiya poslerodovyh endometrita i mastita korov [Correlation and complex therapy of cows postnatal endometritis and mastitis]: Abstract from dissertation for Candidate of Vet.Sci.– Voronezh, 1994.- 22 ð.
4.Varganov A.I. Kompleksny preparat penosept pri mastite i endometrite korov. [Using the Penosept complex preparation at cows mastitis and endometritis] //Veterinaria.- 2003.- ¹11.-Ð.37-38.
5.Ponomarev V.K. Vzaimosvyaz mastitov i ginekologicheskih bolezney u korov .[Correlation of mastitis and gynecologic diseases in cows] // proceedings from International Scientific Conference of All-Russian Research Institute of veterinary Pathology, Pharmacy, and Therapy.- Voronezh, 2002.-Ð. 496-497.
6.Roman L.G. Patomorfologicheskie izmeneniya v parenhime molochnoy zhelezy korov pri mastite postlaktatsionnogo perioda. [Pathological and morphological changes in mammary gland parenchyma of cows having mastitis at post-lactation period] // manuscripts of Kuban State Agrarian University. – Series: Veterinarnye nauki.- 2009.- ¹1 (part 2.).-Ð. 214-216.
7.Smertina E.Yu. Rasprostraneniye i etiologiya mastitov i endometritov u korov pri assotsiativnom techenii .[Distribution and etiology of cows mastitis and endometritis at associative course]//Aktualnye problemy bolezney organov razmnozheniya i molochnoy zhelezy u zhivotnyh - Current issues of animal diseases of reproductive organs and mammary glands .- Voronezh, 2005.-Ð. 194-197.
8.Hilkevich N.M. Primeneniye antimikrobnyh preparatov v sochetanii s kislorodom pri mastite i nekotoryh boleznyah matki u korov. [Using antimicrobial preparations in combination with oxygen at cows mastitis and some diseases of uterus] //Veterinarija.- 1994. - ¹3. -Ð. 37-39.
9.Zilaitis V. A practical value of cows whole milk active acidity. / V.Zilaitis, A.Banys, R.Maruska; Lietuvos veterinarijos akad. // Veterinarija ir zootechnika.- Kaunas, 2005.-T. 32.- ¹ 54. - P. 40 - 44.
  Parasitology
   
Title:

ANTIHELMINTHIC EFFICACY OF «GELMINTAL S» AND «GELMINTAL K» «SPOT-ON» DRUGS: MYTH OR REALITY

   
Authors: 1Arisov M.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; 2Indyukhova E.N.- postgraduate; Stepanov V.A.- veterinarian, postgraduate.
   
Address: 1K.I.Skryabin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology in Animal and Plant, Moscow, Russia (117218, Moscow, B.Cheremushkinskaya, 28., e-mail: arisov@vniigis.ru).
2K.I.Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and biotechnology Russia, Moscow (109472, Moscow, street Academician Skryabin, 23; e-mail: zxcv33980@yandex.ru).
   
Abstract: We studied the efficacy of anthelminthic «Gelmintal S» and «Gelmintal K» drugs on spontaneously infected dogs and cats with intestinal helminthosis. This study confirms the theoretical aspects in carnivores parasitic diseases treatment by transdermal administration of the drugs based on moxidectin and praziquantel. An active carrier of active substances through the skin was dimethylsulfoxide, which has a high penetration property through biological membranes and quickly gets into the blood system. The «Gelmintal S» and «Gelmintal K» drugs were used dropwise («spot-on») onto dry intact skin at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg animal weight i.e. for cats 4 mg/kg praziquantel and 1 mg/kg moxidectin; for dogs - 4 mg/kg praziquantel and 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin.  The «Gelmintal S» and «Gelmintal K» drugs refer to combined drugs for veterinary use. The combination of moxidectin and praziquantel included into the formulations provides broad-spectrum antiparasitic action against nematodes and cestodes. According to level of effect on organism at cutaneous application,  the studied drugs refer to the substances of  little danger(hazard class 4), have mild cumulative properties; in recommended doses causes no local irritation, embryotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects.
All the animals that participated in this study were free of intestinal worms, that were confirmed by two negative results of helminthological research. During the dogs and cats survey no side effects or complications were registered after using drugs.
   
Keywords: moxidectin, praziquantel, dimethylsulfoxide, «spot-on», cestodes, nematodes
   
References: 1.Praktikum po diagnostike invazionnyh bolezney zhivotnyh [Workshop on animal invasive diseases detection]/ M.Sh.Akbaev, F.I.Vasilevich, V.G.Men'shikov [et. al.] - Moscow: KolosS, 2006. – 536p.
2.Arhipov, I.A. Zooparazitozy, peredavaemye cheloveku ot sobak i koshek [Animal parasitoses transmitted to human from cats and dogs] / I.A.Arhipov, E.N.Borzunov, V.I. Shajkin // Materialy IX mezhdunarodnogo veterinarnogo Kongressa po boleznjam melkih domashnih zhivotnyh- Proceedings from the IX Int. Vet.Congr. on Pet animals diseases.. - Moscow, 2001. -p. 230 - 231.
3.Barsuk, A.P. metod transdermalnogo perenosa glyukozamina sulfata [Method of transdermal transport of glucosamine sulfate]/A.P.Barsuk //Neurology and Rheumatology. Appendix to the magazine Consilium Medicum.- 2013. - ¹2.- P.15-19.
4.Bespalova, N.S. Epizootologiya ryada gelmintozov sobak v usloviyah goroda [Epizootology of cats and dogs helminthoses in urban conditions] / N.S.Bespalova // Veterinaria. - 2003. - ¹1. -p. 31 - 32.
5.Vasilevich, F.I. Parasitarniye bolezni plotoyadnyh zhivotnyh [Carnivores parasitic diseases] /F.I.Vasilevich,N.V.Esaulova, R.M.Akbaev. - Moscow:Monograph, 2010.-150p.
6.Plumb,D. C.Pharmacological agents in veterinary medicine/D.C.Plumb: Translated from English / Ed.E.I.Osipova. - Moscow.: «Aquarium LTD», 2002. -856p.
7.Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations / J.A.Bouwstra, P.L.Honeywell-Nguyen, G.S. Gooris, M. Ponec // Prog Lipid Res. – 2003. - ¹ 42 (1). – P.1-36.
  Zootechny
   
Title:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ZOO-HYGIENIC ASPECTS OF USING BIOPREPARATIONS IN PIGS REGARDING THEIR REGIONAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL PECULIARITIES

   
Authors: 1Ivanov A.V. - Doctor of Biology, professor, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 2Lezhnina M.N.– Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1 Mullakayev A.O.– Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Shukanov A.A.– Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address: 1 Federal State Institution «Federal Centre of Toxicological, Radiological and Biological Safety» (FÑTRB-ARRVI, Russia, Kazan).
2 Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education «St.- Petersburg State Economic University», Cheboksary affiliation (e-mail: merinochek2@ramble.ru).
   
Abstract: The current development of pig production is based on using scientific and technical achievements and highly productive animals in this field, accompanied by the impact of both abiotic and biotic environmental factors on organism physiological state during the various periods of postnatal ontogenesis. Under these circumstances a successful realization of the genetic potential of swine resistance and productivity remains a very important issue.
Therefore, development, trial, and scientific justification of using domestic biogenic compounds of a new generation having high prophylactic and therapeutic efficiency, and environmental harmlessness to human body is a current problem of modern biology and biotechnology. The goalof theresearch was to determine microclimate parameters in sow house, fattening house and evaluate hog meat quality at associated application of «Combiolax» and «Selenopyran» (Prisurya), «Trepel» (Alatyr, Secure of Chuvashia) biopreparations regarding biogeochemical characteristics peculiar to a region. We had two series of scientific and economic experiments and laboratory experiments using 40 physiologically mature 2-days old pigs selected according to the principle of analogues with regard to clinical and physiological state, age, sex, breed, body weight with 10 animals in each of the four groups (control and experiment). Physiological maturity was determined by their body weight, appearance, body type, body condition, skin condition, color of visible mucous membranes, the number of deciduous teeth, and reaction to external stimuli, behavior, time of standing on feet after birth, appearance of suckling and defensive reflexes. In pig houses the microclimate was determined according to generally accepted methods of animal hygiene. During the experiment the decapitated piglets (60-, 210-, 300 days of age) were studied for organoleptic, biochemical and spectroscopic parameters using conventional veterinary methods. The both series of experiments showed that microclimate parameters generally met zoohygienic norms. In both experimental and intact animals meat organoleptic, biochemical and physical and chemical parameters were almost identical, indicating the environmental safety of the investigated additives and indifference of meat carcasses to them.
   
Keywords: pigs, microclimate, bioactive additives, «Combiolax», «Selenopyran», «Trepel», the quality of the meat
   
References: 1.Mitin, S.S. Rossiyskoye zhivotnovodstvo: itogi i perspektivy [Russian farming: results and prospects] / S.S.Mitin // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii.- 2007.- ¹ 1.- p. 4
2.Myisik, A.T., Sovremennoe sostoyanie proizvodstva i potrebleniya produktsii zhivotnovodstva v mire [Current state of livestock products production and consumption in the world] / A.T.Myisik // Misik, A.T., / A.T.Misik // Zootechnics.- 2008.-¹. 1.- P. 41-43.
3.Permyakov, A.G. Aktualnyie innovatsionnyie resheniya v svinovodstve [The Actual innovative solutions in swine breeding] / A.G.Permyakov // Perspektivnoe svinovodstvo: teoriya i praktika.- Promising pig breeding: theory and practice.- 2012.-¹. 2.- P. 16-17.
4.Tehnologiya proizvodstva produktsii zhivotnovodstva [Technology of livestock production] / F.S.Sibagatullin, G.S.Sharafutdinov, G.F.Kabirov [et al.].- Kazan: Publishing house of «Idel-Press», 2010.- 672 p.
5.Munsterhjelm, C. Housing, stress and productivity: studies in growing and reproducing pigs / C. Munsterhjelm.- Helsinki, 2009.- 59 p.
6.Svini: soderzhanie, kormlenie i bolezni: uchebnoe posobie [Pigs: housing, nutrition and disease: a textbook] / A.F.Kuznetsov, I.D.Alemaykin, G.M.Andreev [et. al.].- St.-Petersburg: «Lan», 2007. -544 p..
7.Normyi i ratsionyi kormleniya selskohozyaystvennyih zhivotnyih: spravochnoe posobie [Norms and diets of farm animals: Handbook] / A.P.Kalashnikov, V.I.Ficin, V.V.Shcheglova, N.I.Kleimenov.- Moscow, 2003.- 456 p.
8.Praktikum po zoogigiene [Workshop on animal hygiene] / A.F.Kuznetsov, A.A.Shukanov, V. I. Bulanin [et. al.].- Moskow: Kolos, 1999.- 208 p.
9.Pravila veterinarno-sanitarnoy ekspertizyi myasa i myasnyih produktov [Rules on the veterinary-sanitary examination of meat and meat products].- Moscow, 1988.- 64 p.
   
   
Title:

EFFECT OF BIOLOGICAL FEED ADDITIVES ON WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN BROILER CHIKENS

   
Authors: 1Portnov O.V. – postgraduate; 2Papunidi A.K. – Doctor of Biology Sciences; 1Idiyatov I.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Zakirova G.Sh.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: 1Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (tel.: (843) 239-53-19, e-mail: vnivi@mail.ru.
1N.E. Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (tel.: (843) 273-97-05).
   
Abstract: The article provides the results of comparative studies of the following fodder additives efficacy: sodium succinate, calcium fumarate both in dosage of 25 mg/kg live mass, “Extrafit” and “Vita-force” drugs introduced in 2% diet ratio.  The preparations efficacy was evaluated according to chicken growth and weight values and blood serum biochemical parameters. During the studies all the preparations showed their promoting effect, however, the most efficient were sodium succinate and “Extrafit” drug. Their additional introduction into animals ration provided better numbers of absolute values in weight gain (higher for 18.3 and 15.6% than controls accordingly), daily weight gain (for 21.0 è 18.0%), feed-gain relationship (for 15.7 and 13.9% fodder per 1 kg of weight gain less than controls), chicken livability (for 4.3 è 7.6% accordingly). The chickens from this group showed higher level of total protein for 11.0 and 14.6% and ?-globulins for 12.9 and 13.4% than controls accordingly.
   
Keywords: broiler chickens, feed additive, Extravit, Vita-force, sodium succinate, calcium fumarate, live weight gain, blood serum total protein, protein fractions
   
References: 1.Gudin V.A. Fiziologiya i etiologiya selskohozyaystvennyh ptits [Poultry Physiology and etiology] / V.A.Gudin, V.F.Lysov, V.I.Maksimov /. – St.-Peterburg: Lan, 2010.- 336 p.
2.Å.À. Êlinicheskaya biohimiya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Livestock clinical biochemistry] /Å.À. Vasilyeva /.- Ìoscow.: Agroproizdat, 1982. - 254 p.
3.Zelenkov V.N. Amaranth. Biochimicheskiy i himicheskiy portret v ontogeneze [Amaranth. A portrait of biochemical and chemical ontogenesis] /V.N.Zelenkov, V.A.Gulshina, A.A.Lapin /. - Moscow: Academy of Natural Sciences, 2011.- 106 p.
4.Metody veterinarnoy klinicheskoy laboratonoy diagnostiki: spravochnik [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory detection: A Handbook]. /I.P.Kondrakhin, A.V.Arkhipov, V.I.Levchenko [I dr.]– Moscow: KolosS, 2004.- 520 p.
5.Kochayev A.G. Ispolzovaniye v ptitsevodstve funktsionalnih pischevih dobavok iz rastitelnogo sirya [Using functional feed additives from plants in poultry breeding] / A.G.Kochaeyv / Veterinariya Kubani.- 2013.- ¹5.- P. 20-23.
6.Shilov V.N. Vliyaniye ispolzovaniya gidrolizata amaranta na effektivnost vrachivaniya porosyat – otemyshey [Effect of using amaranth hydrolyzate on piglet weaners doctoring efficiency] / V.N.Shilov, A.P. Zharkovsky / Doklady RASKHN.- 2012.- ¹ 2.- P. 41-44.
7.Shilov V.N. Amaranth – perspektivnaya kormovaya kyltura [Amaranth is a promising fodder crop] / V.N.Shilov, G.H. Sergeeva/ Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya agrarnogo proizvodstva: materialy mezhdynarodnoy naychnoy konferentsii - Problems and prospects of agricultural production: Proceedings of the International Conference. - Smolensk, 2007.- P. 73-74.
8.Nauchnaya biblioteka dissertatsiy i avtoreferatov disserCat.- Regim dostupa [On-line scientific library of dissertation and thesis abstracts: available on  http://www.dissercat.com/content/produktivnye-i-plemennye-kachestva-kur-myasnykh-linii-i-krossov-effektivnost-ikh-ispolzovani#ixzz3JsKSYYss.
   
   
Title:

BREEDING SOWS GENOTYPING FOR THE FARM-VALUABLE DNA MARKERS

   
Authors: 1 Zudina A.V.– postgraduate; 1 Alimov A.M.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 2 Zinnatova F.F. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2 Shakirov S.K.- Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; 2 Ulmeteva U.R.- Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: 1N.E. Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (35,Sibirsky trakt, 420074, alexandra_19@bk.ru).
2Tatar Research Agricultural Institute, Republic of Tatarstan (48, Orenburgsky trakt street, Kazan, 420100, faridafffz@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Polymorphic variants of ryanodine receptor (RYR1), estrogen receptor (ESR), alpha-1-fucosyltransferase (ECRF18 / FUC1) genes and their complex combinations were studied in 113 sows of large white breed using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Position) analysis. The research revealed association variants of the studied genes with piglet reproductive capacity and livability.
On ESR gene-marker 81 sows (71.6%) belonged to WW genotype, 29 sows (25.6%) had MW genotype and 3 sows (2.6) had MM genotype; on RYR 1 gene marker 100% sows belonged to NN genotype; on ECR F18 5 sows (4.4) had AG genotype, 108 sows (95.5) had GG. The highest fertility on estrogen receptor gene was observed in animals with WW genotype (13.9 piglets). According to the number of live-born piglets the sows with this genotype also had an advantage over peers carrying MW and MM genotypes, this difference made 1.3 and 1.7 pig accordingly. However, on piglets livability by the weaning period the sows with MM and MW genotypes (93.3 and 91.5%) had the best parameters.
On ryanodine receptor gene all the sows had preferable NN genotype.
On alpha-1-fucosyltransferase gene the animals with preferable AG genotype (13.5) were the most productive. According to the number of live-born piglets no significant difference between the genotypes was registered. Also, the analysis revealed a significant variation between AG and GG genotypes on piglet livability, which made up to 11.9% in favor of the first genotype.
Considering the effect of genotypes complex associations on sows reproductive quality the best performance parameters were registered in sows with combinations of NN/MW/AG and NN/WW/AG genotypes, which made up to 14.3 and 13.5 herds. However, on  piglet livability by the weaning period these sows gave way to the species with a complex combination of NN / MM / GG genotypes by 2% than the first group and by 4.6% than the second group of animals accordingly.
Therefore, molecular genetic analysis of large white breed sows revealed that the both ESR and RYR1 genes frequently occur with preferable ESRWW and RYR1NN genotypes, indicating sows good multiple pregnancy, and high resistance to stress. However, because of polygenic formation of specific useful feature, the breeding and selection work should include the sows with the best complex genotypes, such as RYR1NN/ESRMM/FUT1GG, RYR1NN/ESRMW/FUT1AG, RYR1NN/ESRWW/FUT1AG.
   
Keywords: sows, genotype, combination of genotips, reproduction, safety of piglets
   
References: 1.Stefanon, B. A new approach in association study of singlenucleotide polymorphism of genes for carcass and meat quality traits in commercial pigs / B. Stefanon, R. Floris // Ital. J. Anim. Sci.- 2004.- Vol. 3.- P. 177-189.
2.Goncharenko G.M. Geneticheskie markery i ih znachenie dlay selectionno-plemennoi raboti [Genetic markers and their implications for selection and breeding]//Sibrsky vestnic selscohozaystvennoi nauki - Siberian Herald of Agricultural Sciences.2008. V. 6. P. 47-54.
3.Terman, À. Estrogen receptor gene (ESR) and semen characteristics of boars / À. Terman, M. Kmieñ, D. Polasik // Arch. Tierz.- Dummerstorf, 2006.- Vol. 49 (1).-P. 71–76.
4.Loban, N. A. Vliaynie polimorphizma gena estrogenovogo receptora (ESR) na plodovitost sviney crupnoy beloy porodi [Effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphism (ESR) on fertility of Large White pigs] / N. A. Loban, O.Ya. Wasiluk// Vestnic belorusskoy gosudarstvennoy selscochozaystvennoy academii- Bulletin of the Belarusian State Agricultural Academy- 2004.- Vol. 3.-P. 68-71.
5.Effect of estrogen receptor, follicle stimulating hormone and myogenin genes on the performance of Large White sows  / P. Humpolíèek, T. Urban V. Matoušek, Z. Tvrdoò // Czech J. Anim. Sci.- 2007.- Vol. 52 (10).-P. 334-340.
6.Drushlyak, N. G. Ispolzovanie DNK markerov v selekcii sviney [Using DNA markers in pig breeding]/ N. G Drushlyak// Vestnic Orol.- Bulletin of the Oryol.- 2011.- Vol. 13.- P.36-39.
7.Kamiñski, S. Simultaneous identification of ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and estrogene receptor (ESR) genotypes with the multiplex PCR-RFLP method in Polish Large White and Polish Landrace pigs / S. Kamiñski, À. Rusc, Ê. Wojtasik//   J. Appl. Genet.- 2002.- Vol. 43 (3).-P. 331–335.
8.Association between the polymorphism in FUT1 Gene and the resistance to PWD and ED in three pig breeds / Y. Luo, X. Qiu, H. Li & Q. Zhang   //Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.-  2010. - Vol. 23.-P. 1268-1275.
   
   
Title:

B- CAROTENE EFFECT ON PIG WELFARE

   
Authors: Gorodilova L.I.-postgraduate; Krysenko U.G.-Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor.
   
Address: Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk (e-mail: info@izhgsha.ru).
   
Abstract: The article describes a favorable effect of two feed additives: LipoKar and Kuksavit that contain beta-carotene. The difference of the first additive from the second one is that the active ingredient is encapsulated into liposome membrane. During 30 days the experimental pigs of fattening stage increased their average daily live weight gain by 166.9 and 133.8%, which in absolute numbers was for 8.7 and 4.4 kg higher than in the control animals. Piglet livability increased under the influence of the feed additives. In the experimental groups this parameter reached 94.9 and 93.8%, which is higher than that of the controls by 9.5 and 8.4%. Results indicate a significant increase of feed conversion after introduction of the studied feed additives 14.9 and 8.1%, accordingly. Blood biochemical analyses showed a significant intensification of animal metabolism in the experimental groups: total protein, vitamin A, ALT and AST enzymes values increased. Using beta-carotene sources in pig diet promoted animal production and LipoKarom additive had better results than Kuksavit. As for practical significance, the study results will help correct diet norms of the feed additives to improve swine production parameters.
   
Keywords: diet, average increase, feed additives, pig fattening groups rearing, economic efficiency
   
References: 1.Biologicheski aktivniye dobavki v kombikormah dlya porosyat [Biological supplements in mixed pig feed] /S. Volodin, V. Geynel, V. Dobrynyn, V. Engovatov // Svinovodstvo.- 2007. – Vol.1.- p. 10-13.
2.Sposoby povysheniya effektivnosti proizvodstva svininy i uluchsheniya ee kachestv [Methods of improving swine production and quality]/ I.F.Gorlov, V.I.Vodyannikov, A.I.Sivko [et al..- Moscow: Gerald of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 2005.- 25 p.
3.Kabanov, V.D. Svinovodstvo [Swine breeding]/ V.D.Kabanov.- Moscow: KolosS, 2001.- 431 p.
4.Lyubina, E.N. Izmenenie fiziologicheskih pokazateley organizma porosyat v posleotelniy period pod vliyaniem preparatov vitamina A i beta-karotina [Vitamin A and B-carotene effect on swine physiological parameters during post-operation period] / E.N.Lyubina // Bulletin of N.E. Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. -Kazan, 2010.- Vol. 204.- p. 140-148.
5.Muhina, N.V. Korma i biologicheski kormovyie dobavki dlya zhivotnyih [Animal feeds and biological feed additives]/ N.V.Muhina.- Moscow: KolosS, 2008.- 271 p.
6.Purich, N.K. Rol vitamina A i karotina v pitanii sviney [The impact of vitamin A and carotene in swine feed]/N.K.Purich //Zhivotnovodstvo.- 1982.- Vol.¹1.- p. 41-42.
7.Normy i ratsiony kormleniya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyih: spravochnoe posobiye {Livestock feeds and feeding rations]/ under editorship of A.P. Kalashnikov, I.V. Fisinin, V.V. Scheglov, N.I. Kleymenov.- 3rd edition added and revised.- Moscow, 2003.- 456 p.
8.Pres, J. The effect of carotene and vitamins A and E supplementation on reproduction of sows / J.Pres, B.Fuchs, A.Schleicher // Archivum Veterinarium Polonicum.- 1993.- ¹ 33.- p. 55–64.
  Physiology
   
Title:

MORPHOLOGY OF SECRETORY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN GOAT MAMMARY GLAND

   
Authors: Remizova E.V.
   
Address: Ya.R. Kovalenko State Scientific Institution All-Russian Institute of Experimental Veterinary, Vologda affiliation (E-mail: nivs35@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The paper practical and theoretical significance is that it provides first detailed cytomorphometric characteristics of goat mammary gland epithelial cells regarding the animals physiological state.
The results of histological, cytomorphometric and statistical analysis of the obtained data showed that the goat mammary gland alveoli are lined with flat, cubic and cylindrical cells. The difference of lactocyte types depends on glands physiological state, level of alveoli fillness with secret. Non-pregnant and non-lactating goats have a prevailing number of cubic cells (55%), pregnant lactating – cylindrical (42%), pregnant non-lactating – cubic (46.7%), non-pregnant lactating goats – cylindrical (38.3%).
In non-pregnant non-lactating goats the area of flat lactocytes is 18.0±0.32 µm2 and nuclei – 4.6±0.18 µm2, cytoplasm-nuclear relation (CNR) is 2.9±0.04:1. Cubic epithelium (4,6±0.52 µm2) is closely attached to each other, has nuclei average area of 1.6±0.23 µm2 and CNR 2.3±0.02:1. Cells of cylindrical form are extremely rare, nuclei size is 5.2±0.09 µm2, the entire cell is 13.6±0.27 µm2, CNR – 1.7±0.02:1.
Pregnant lactating goats have alveoli also lined with all kinds of cells. However, their morphometric parameters vary compared with non-pregnant non-lactating animals. So, the area of flat lactation and their nuclei decreases respectively to 4.6 and 19.2%, and CNR is higher for 12%; cubic for 10.4 and 19.5%, cylindrical increased for 7.4% and 2%, CNR remains unchanged. In pregnant non-lactating goat the flat cells parameters is lower for 1.6-2.9 times than in pregnant lactating goats. Parameters of cubic cells decrease by 1.1-3.4 times. Parameters of cylindrical lactacytes and their nuclei decreases by1.9-8.5 times in average. During the lactation period the cells size is larger for 1.1-4.2 times than in pregnant non-lactating goats. The nuclei inner and outer diameters significantly increase for 1.2-2.4 times, and nuclei area for 2.4-8.5 times. CNR reduced from 3.4±0.07 in the flat lactocytes to 2.4±0.08 in cylindrical epithelium.
   
Keywords: goat, mammary gland, alveoli, secretory epithelial, lactose
   
References: 1. Abramova, L.L. Vremennaya organizatsiya gistostruktur alveolyarnogo otdela molochnoy zhelezy koz v perviye troye sutok posle rodov [Temporal arrangement of alveolar  histostructure in goat mammary gland during the first three days after delivery] / L.L.Abramova // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarii: ìateriali nauchnoy konferentsii OGAU [Current problems of veterinary science: proceedings from scientific conference Orenburg State Agrarian University]. – Orenburg, 1997. –p. 22-24.
2. Abramova, L.L. Gistogenez strukturnyh elementov alveolyarnogo otdela molochnih zhelez  troh-, pyatiletnih koz [Histogenesis of structural elements of mammary glands alveolar part in three-, five-year old goats] / L.L. Abramova // Aktualniye voprosy vidovoy i vozrastnoy morfologii zhivotnyh:  ìateriali mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii veterinarnih morfologov [Current problems of animals species- and age-related morphology : proceedings from international conference of veterinary morphologists]. – Ulan-Ude, 1998. –p. 5-7.
3. Abramova, L.L. Zakonomernosti gistogenesa molochnoy zhelezy  koz pri smene phiziologicheskih sostoyaniy [Regularities of goat mammary glands histogenesis at change of animal physiological state] / L.L.Abramova, A.A.Antipov // Vestnik veterinarii (Journal of veterinary medicine). – Orenburg: PMG VNIIMSa, 2000. – V. III. –p. 11-13.
4. Avtandilov G.G. Meditsinskaya morphometriya [Medical morphometry] / G.G.Avtandilov. – Moscow: Meditsina, 1990. – 384p.
5. Gorbunova N.P. Microstruktura molochnoy zhelezy laktiruyuchshih ovtsematok romanovskoy porody v norme i pri patologii [Mammary gland microstructure in lactating ewes of Romanovsky breed at normal and pathological state] / N.P.Gorbunova, O.O.Gafurova // Sbornik statey mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii Kostromskoy GSHA [Collection of articles from international scientific and practical conference in Kostroma state agricultural Academy]. – 2013. – Vol.. 1. –p. 33-36.
6. Moskalenko, L.P. Kozovodstvo : uchebnoe posobie [Goat breeding: manual] / L.P.Moskalenko, O.V. Philinskaja. – Saint Petersburg: Izdatelstvo “Lan”, 2012. – 272p.
7. Sizova, O.O. Tsiometriya zhelezistogo epiteliya molochnoy zhelezy korov kostromskoy porody pri lactatsii [Glandular epithelium cytometry in cows of Kostroma breed during lactation period] / O.O.Sizova, L.P.Solovyova // Trudy Kostromskoy gosudarstvennoy selskohozyaystvennoy akademii [Articles of Kostroma state agricultural academy]. – Kostroma: KGSHA, 2006. – V. 65. –p.75-80.