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¹ 5, 2014

  Toxicology
   
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME PCR TO DETET BOVINE LEUKEMIA

   
Authors: Semenova M.E. – postgraduate; Faizov T.Kh. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Usoltsev K.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Aleeva Z.Z. - research assistant; Khammadov N.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (+7(843)239-53-20; E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis is a cattle contagious disease which remains the most widely spread among dairy herds for recent decades in the Russian Federation. An important condition for leukemia prevention and control is the disease timely and reliable detection and isolation of infected and suspected animals. Due to the lack of early detection, treatment and effective prevention the leukemia elimination is a task of high priority. The aim of this work was to develop a real-time PCR method (RT-PCR) to indicate bovine leukemia virus (BLV). To develop a test system more than 700 cows blood samples were used, the BLV gp51 glycoprotein gene site was used for the disease identification. Oligonucleotides (primers and probe) were designed basing on the data provided by the EMBL (Germany) and GenBank (USA) databases and K02120 was selected as a reference sequence for the BLV genotype. The fragment length specific to gp51 site was 150 bp. The article provides sequences of primers and probe complementary to BLV glycoprotein gp51 gene site, also experiments on selection of RT-PCR optimal reaction conditions are described, the proposed test system sensitivity and specificity is evaluated, primers were checked for homology with sequences of other viruses and the human genome as well. Upon the research results the test-system sensitivity, specificity was established to be efficient for BLV identification.
   
Keywords: âovine leukemia virus (BLV), Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), FLK-BLV cell culture
   
References: 1.House J.A., Glover F.L., House C. Current aspect of bovine leukemia. // Proc Annu Conv Am Assoc Bovine Pract 8. –1975. – P. 147-150.
2.Faizov T.H., Usoltsev K.V., Ivanov A.V., Yusupov R.H. Diagnostika leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota metodom PCR [Bovine leukosis detection using PCR method]. // Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno- prakticheskoy konferentsii. – Saratov, 2012. – p. 335-338.
3.Roberts D.H., Lucas M.H., Wibberley G., Chasey D. An investigation into susceptibility of cattle to bovine leukosis virus following inoculation by various routes. // Vet Rec. – 1982. – P. 110:222-224.
4. Kuzmak J., Skorupska A., Moussa A., Grundboeck J. Application of non-radioactive method of DNA detection in the diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection. // Bull Vet InstPulawy. – 1993. – P. 37:3-8.
5.Murtaugh M.P., Lin G.F., Haggard D.L. (1991). Detection of bovine leukemia virus by the polymerase chain reaction. // J Virol Methods. – 1991. – P. 33:73-85.
6.Naif H.M., Brandon R.B., Daniel R.C., Lavin M.F. Bovine leukaemia proviral DNA detection in cattle using the polymerase chain reaction. // Vet Microbiol. – 1990. – P. 117-129.
7.Naif H.M., Daniel R.C., Cougle W.G., Lavin M.F. Early detection of bovine leukemia virus by using an enzyme-linked assay for polymerase chain reaction-amplified proviral DNA in experimentally infected cattle. // J Clin Microbiol. – 1992. – P. 675-679.
8.Faizov T.H., Usoltsev K.V. Razrabotka test-sistemy dlya obnaruzheniya uchastka gena TAX provirusnoy DNK leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [Development of a test system detecting the TAX gene site of bovine leukemia proviral DNA ]. // Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno- prakticheskoy konferentsii. // Saratov, 2012. – p. 332-335.
9.Hassan M. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukaemia virus gag gene in Iranian isolate. // African J. Microbiol. Res. – 2010. – ¹4(3). – P. 218-221.
10.http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
   
   
Title:

SUBACUTE TOXICITY OF TILORONE-BASED DRUG AT ITS ORAL APPLICATION IN RATS

   
Authors: 1Kozlov S.V.- graduate student; 1Usha B.V.- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 2 Violin B.V.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address:
1Moscow University of Food Production, Moscow (tel: +7 (499) 750-01-11; e-mail: ksv-17@mail.ru).
2The All-Russian State Center of Quality and Standardization of Medicines for Animals and Feed, Moscow.
   
Abstract:
Tilorone toxic effects were investigated in subacute study in rats. The study was conducted on 78 male rats which were divided in 6 groups of 13 animals in each. Tilorone was administered orally in form of 10% solution in the following doses:  1660, 830, 415, 166 and 83 mg/kg. The duration of treatment was 21 days. The next day after the last administration 10 animals from each group were decapitated and blood samples and internal organs were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses and for determination of internal organs weights. For evaluation of renal function diuresis and urine were analyzed from 3 rats of each group. Treatment at high dose regimens 1660, 830, 415 mg/kg resulted in significant toxic effects such as death of some animals in the highest dose group; reduced body weight (75,83±2,57; 90,87±3,34 è 92,24±4,34% related to initial), alteration of internal organs weights: in I group (the highest dose regimen) there were significant changes of heart, lungs, liver, kidney and spleen weights (4,93±0,45; 8,92±0,59; 55,37±0,48; 7,64±0,22 and 2,74±0,18 corresponding to control group 3,70±0,05; 5,89±0,18; 29,82±0,53; 6,59±0,07 and 3,76±0,23); in II and III group (dosed 830 and 415 mg/kg) weights of lungs (8,74±0,99 and 8,20±0,29), liver (38,48±1,25 and 37,58±0,97) and kidneys (7,97±0,22 and 7,57±0,37) were altered related to control values. In groups dosed 1660 and 830 mg/kg there were some changes in hematological parameters (increase of relative quantity of segmented neutrophils 57,00±3,58 and 49,40±3,94, decrease of relative quantity of lymphocytes 37,00±3,29 and 45,90±4,07 versus 32,30±4,54 and 63,00±4,36 % in control; in I group hemoglobin level was reduced 118,25±7,90 g/l corresponding to control value 137,00±5,03 g/l) and biochemical parameters (increase of AstAT/SGOT level 293,00±46,12 and 219,80±46,30 U/l corresponding to  87,70±0,70 U/l in control). Lowest observed effect level was 166 mg/kg and the no effect level was 83 mg/kg.
   
Keywords: tilorone, immunopotentiator, subacutetoxicity, rats
   
References:
1.Habriyev R.U. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veshchestv [Manual on experimental (preclinical) study of new pharmacological substances] / under the editorship of professor Habriev R.U., corresponding member of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences – 2nd edition added and revised. - Moscow.: «Medicina».- 2005. P.832.
2.Antonovich E.A. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po gigiyenicheskoy otsenke novyh pestitsidov.[Guidelines on hygienic evaluation of new pesticides.] /Antonovich E.A., Kagan Ju.S., Spynu E.I. // Kiev,- 1988. P.212.
3.Elizarova O.N. Opredelenie porogovyh doz promyshlennyh yadov pri peroralnom vvedenii. [Determination of threshold doses of industrial poisons for oral administration] //Moscow.: «Medicina»,- 1971.P.163-168.
4.Andronaty S. A. Peroralniy induktor åndogennogo interferona «Amyksyn» i yego analogi [Oral inducer of "Amiksin" endogenous interferon and its analogues] / Andronaty S.A., Lytvynova L.A., Golovenko N.Ja. // Zhurnal Akad. med. nauk Ukrainy.- 1999.-Vol. 5, ¹1.P. 53–66.
5.Filippova T.O., GolovenkoN.Ja. Tiloron: Profyl byologycheskoy aktyvnosti. Farmakokinetika, toksychnost, mehanyzmi deystviya [Tilorone: Profile of biological activity. Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, mechanism of action]//Integrativna Antropologiya.- 2006.- Vol. 2 (8) - P. 36-41.
6.Prikaz MZ SSSR ¹ 755 ot 12.08.77 g. «Pravila provedeniya rabot s ispolzovaniyem eksperimentalnyh zhivotnyh» [Order of the USSR Ministry of Healthcare ¹ 755 of 12.08.77  "Rules of work with experimental animals"].
7.Chanda P., Wright G.J. Tilorone hydrochloride: the drug profile//Top. Curr. Chem. 1977. -Vol. 72.- ¹ 1. - P. 125-148.
   
   
Title:

AN OPTIMAL SCHEME OF CARBOHYDRATE HISTOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONS OF SOME CARBOHYDRATE COMPUNDS

   
Authors: Siraziev R.Z. - Doctor of Biology; Garmaev B.Ts. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: East Siberian Research Veterinary Institute, Chita, the Russian Federation (e-mail: vetlnst@mall.ru).
   
Abstract: The article provides a review of the results of long-standing histochemical analysis of carbohydrate compounds produced by Russian and foreign researchers. Carbohydrate biopolymers are regarded according to the modern international classification. The best fixing fluid for carbohydrates histochemical analyses is the one proposed by Shabadash. The available references propose a rational scheme of histochemistry-based detection of carbohydrate compounds in the structure of cells, intercellular substance, cellular and fibrous elements of organism tissues. The most optimal, specific, and informative methods were used. Successive stages of histochemical identification of glycogen, neutral and acid sulfated and carboxylated glycoproteins, sialoglycoproteins, proteoglycans, hyalurate were trialed and proposed using periodic acid Schiff reaction with Alcian blue, Bismarck brown, and toluidine blue. Fermentation and chemical control modes (ptyalin, diastase, phenylhydrazine, hyaluronidase, hard methylation and demethylation, soft acidic hydrolisis) were proposed for histochemical differentiation of PAS-positive and PAS-negative carbohydrate polymer groups. The obtained data on sequence of histochemical reactions are provided in schematic form. Also, the article provides references determining a biological significance of glycogen and heteropolysaccharides of wide range in organism morphological and functional organization.
   
Keywords: histochemistry, carbohydrates, glycogen, neutral and acid sulfated glycoproteins, sialoglycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronates
   
References: 1.Boronihina T.V., Yatskovsky A.N. Vozrastniye izmeneniya sostava glikoproteinov v bulbouretralnih zhelezah cheloveka //Morfologiya. 2007.- ¹ 1.- p. 63-67
2.Vavilova T.P. Biohimiya tkaney i zhidkostey polosti rta: uchebnoye posobiye [Biochemistry of mouth cavity tissues and fluids: manual]. 2012.- 203 p.;
3.Vinogradov V.V., Potapova V.B. Skrytaya metahromaziya – noviy metod gistohimicheskogo viyavleniya sialomucinov [Latent metachromasia. A novel histochemistry-based method of sialomucin detection] //Arhiv anatomii, gistologii i embriologii. 1964.- Vol. 47.- Issue 11.- P. 69-75.
4.Igumnov G.A. Nekotoriye gistomorfologicheskiye i gistohimicheskiye pokazateli polovogo trakta korov [Some histomorphological and histochemical parameters of calves genital duct]. Dissertation of Candidate of Vet.Sci. Ulan-Ude. 1968.- 167 p.
5.Jan Koolman, Klaus-Heinrich Rohm and Jurgen. Wirth Taschenatlas der Biochemie, 1st Russian translated edition under editorship of Reshetov P.D., Sorkina T.I., translated from German by Kozlov L.V., Levina Ye.S., Reshetov P.D., Moscow, Mir. 2000.- 469 p.
6.Kononsky A.I. Gistohimiya [Histochemistry]. Kiev, Vischa shkola. 1976.- 278 p.
7.E.Pearse Histochemistry. Theoretical and applied.  Translated from 2nd English edition by Ambrosimova N.A. et al. under editorship of Portugalova V.V. Moscow, Inostrannaya literatura. 1962.- 962 p.
8.Popov A.P. Strukturno-funktsionalniye osnovy veterinarnoy andrologii [Structural and functional basics of veterinary andrology]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat State Agrarian Academy. 2004.- 288 p.
9.Ryadinskaya N.I., Siraziyev R.Z. Gistologicheskaya i gistohimicheskaya harakteristika podzheludochnoy zhelezy olenevyh Altaya [Pancreas histological and histochemical characterization in deer family from Altay] //Tsitologiya. 2008.- Vol. 50.- ¹ 8.- P. 719-724
10.Silkin I.I. Vozrastniye i sezonniye strukturno-funktsionalniye perestroyki nekotoryh polovyh, endokrinnyh i muskusnyh prepustialnyh zhelez samtsov ondatry [Age-related and seasonal structural and functional changes in sexual, endocrine, musk, and preputial glands muskrat males]  Dissertation of Doctor of Bio.Sci. Irkutsk. 2013.- 300 p.
11.Siraziev R.Z. Morfofunktsionalniye izmeneniya v matke sviney pri razlichnyh fiziologicheskih sostoyaniyah i v eksperimente [Morphological and structural changes in sows uterus at various physiological states and in experiment]. Dissertation of Doctor of Bio.Sci. Ulan-Ude. 1999.- 350 p.
12.Siraziev R.Z., Igumnov G.A., Chernyh V.G. Gistofiziologiya matki i platsenty sviney [Histophysiology of sow uterus and placenta] Ulan-Ude, Buryat State Agrarian Academy. 2004.- 226 p.
13.Chernyh V.G., Igumnov G.A., Siraziev R.Z. Endometralniye chashi – spetsificheskiye struktury matki kobyl [Endometrial cups – specific structures of mare uterus]. Novosibirsk, 2004.- 152 p.
14.Shabadash A.L. Ratsionalnaya metodika gistohimicheskogo obnaruzheniya glikogena i yeyo teoreticheskoye obosnovaniye [Rational method of histochemical detection of glycogen and its theoretical justification] // Newsletter from the USSR Academy of Sciences: Biological series. 1947.- ¹ 6.- p. 745-760.
15.Shubich M.G. Metod elektivnoy okraski kislyh (sulfatirovannyh) mukopolisaharidov osnovnym korichnevym]Method of elective staining of acidic (sulphated) mucopolysaccharides with basic brown] // Bull. Eksp. Biol. i Med.- Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1961.- ¹ 2.- Ð.116-120.
16.Shubich M.G. Glikoproteiny i proteoglikany. Printsipy ih gistohimicheskogo analiza [Glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Principles of their histochemical analyses]// Arhiv anatomii, gistologii i embriologii. 1979.- Vol. 77.- Issue 8.- Ð. 92-99.
17.Iozzo R.V. Basement membrane proteoglycans: From cellar to ceiling // Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2005.- ¹ 6.- P.646–656
18.Kiernan J.A. Carbohydrate histochemistry //Connection (Dako Inc. Scientific Magazine). 2010.- Vol.14.- P.68-78.
19.Kolset S.O. Prydz K., Pejler G. Intracellular proteoglycans // Biochem. 2004.- Vol. 379.- P.217–227.
20.Lev R., Spicer S.S. Specific staining of sulfate groups with alcian blue at low pH //Histochem. and Cytochem. 1964.- Vol. 12.- ¹ 14.- P. 305-311.
21.Linhardt R.J. Toida T. Role of glycosaminoglycans in cellular communication //Accounts of Chemical Research. 2004.- Vol. 37.- ¹ 7.- P. 431–438.
22.Mowry R.W. Alcian blue techniques for the histochemical study of acidic carbohydrates //Histochem. and Cytochem. 1956.- Vol. 4.- ¹ 5.- P. 407-413
23.Quintarelli G. Histochemical identification of salivary mucins //Ann. N.Y. Academ. Sci. 1963.- Vol.106.- ¹ 2.- P. 339-363
24.Spicer S.S., Henson J.G. Methods for localizing mucosubstances in epithelial and connective tissues //Meth. Archiv. Exp. Pathol. 1967.- ¹ 2.- P. 78-112
25.Varki A., Cummings R.D., Esko J.D., Freeze H., Stanley P., Bertozzi C., Hart G., Etzler M. Essentials of Glycobiology. New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2009.- 784 p.
   
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF NOVEL BETULIN DERIVATIVE AND ITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

   
Authors: Ismagilova A.F. – Doctor of Biology, professor; Sharipov A.R. – postgraduate; Chudov I.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: Bashkir State Agrarian University, Ufa (e-mail: IsmagilovaAF@rambler.ru).
   
Abstract: The article presents results of PASS C&T computer-based analysis characterizing possibility of betulin pharmacological activity optimization, by including into its chemical compound structure two pharmacophoric groups presented by nicotinic acid residuals with formation of a new derivative – betulin bisizonicotinoate. The analysis showed that betulin bisizonicotinoate is capable to manifest more expressed activity in liver pathologies, in combination with possible increase of erythrocytes synthesis, and anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with initial chemical structure of betulin. The first series of laboratory studies showed that according to the State Standard 12.1.007.76 betulin bisizonicotinoate refers to the fourth class of chemical hazard, and to low-toxic compounds on the hygienic classification. The subsequent four series of experiments using models of acute inflammations caused by silver nitrate, formalin, carragheenin and egg albumen showed that betulin bisizonicotinoate has an expressed anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with a reference NSAID – Diclofenac, and defined its most optimum dose mode. The presented investigation results make a sufficient basis to suggest using betulin bisizonicotinoate in veterinary medicine as a treatment means for diseases accompanied with inflammation reaction.
   
Keywords: triterpenoids, betulin bisizonicotinoate, pharmacology, toxicology, biological activity
   
References: 1.Kazakova, O.B. Synthesis, structure, and pharmacological activity of (7R,8S)-epoxy-(13R, 17R)-trioxolane abietic acid / O.B., Kazakova, I.E. Smirnova, I.V. Chudov, A.F. Ismagilova et al. // Bioorganic Chemistry, 2013. –Vol. 39. –¹ 2. –P. 202-210.
2.Buzlama, V.S. Perspektivy i puti razvitiya sovremennoy ehksperimentalnoy i klinicheskoy veterinarnoy farmakologii [Perspectives and paths of development of the modern experimental and clinical veterinary pharmacology] / V.S.Buzlama // Sovremennnye problemy veterinarnoy farmakologii i toksikologii: mat-ly II syezda veterinarnykh farmakologov i toksikologov Rossii - Current issues of veterinary pharmacy and toxicology: proceedings from II Meeting of Russian pharmacologists and toxicologists. – Kazan: FGBI FCTRBS ARRVI. – 2009. – P. 580-582.
3.Dorozhkin V.I. Opredeleniye soderzhaniya ekotoksikantov v selskohozyastvennoy produktsii rastitelnogo proishozhdeniya, vyrashhennyh na polyah posle vneseniya osadkov stochnyh vod s ochistnyh sooruzheniy [Detemining the level of ecotoxicant agents in agricultural production from plants grown in fields after introduction of sewage waters from treatment facilities] / V.I. Dorozhkin / Biotekhnologiya: toksikologicheskaya, radiatsionnaya i biologicheskaya bezopasnost: materialy Mezhdunar. nauch.-praktich. konf. - Biotechnology: toxicological, radiation, and biological safety: proceedings from International scientific and practice conference –Kazan: FGBI FCTRBS ARRVI, 2010. –P. 45-46.
4.Kazakova, O.B.Sintez i protivovospalitelnaya aktivnost proizvodnyh hinopimarovo kisloty [Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of derivates of quinopimaric acid] / O.B. Kazakova, I.V. CHudov, À.F. Ismagilova i dr. // Bioorganicheskaya himiya, 2010. –Vol. 36. –¹ 2. –P.277-282.
5.Trinus, F.P. Nesteroidnye protivovospalitelnye sredstva [Nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs] / F.P. Trinus, N.F. Mokhort, B.M. Klebanov – Kiev, 1975 – P. 204-231.
6.Usha, B.V. Perspektivnost razlichnyh napravleniy nanobiotehnologii dlya veterinarii [Potential of various directions of nanobiotechnology for veterinary medicine] / B.V.Usha, À.À.Kontsevova, À.M.Smirnov et al. // Veterinariya. – 2012. – ¹ 2, – P. 53-55.
7.Flekhter, O.B. Sintez, prognoz i izucheniye gepatoprotektornoy aktivnosti proizvodnyh triterpenoidov [Synthesis, prognosis and study of hepatoprotection activity of triterpenoids derivatives ] / O.B.Flekhter, V.V.Porojkov, L.T.Karachurina [et al.] // Organicheskiy sintez i kombinatornaya himiya: Tez. dokl. Mezhdunar. nauch. konf.  Organic synthesis and combinatorial chemistry: abstract reports from Intrenational Scientific Conference– Moscow-Zvenigorod. – 1999. – P. 21.
8.Khabriev, R.U. Rukovodstvo po eksperimentalnomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniyu novyh farmakologicheskih veschestv [Guidelines on experimental (preclinical) studying of new pharmacological substances] / R.U.Khabriev, E.V.Àrzamastsev, E.À.Babayan [et al.] – Moscow: Research Center of Expertise Means for Medical Use, 2005. – 829 p.
9.Pharma expert predictive services «PASS online» [Electronic resource]: FSBI «Research Institute of biomedical chemistry named after V.N.Orekhovich» The Russian Academy of medical Sciences. – availiable on: URL: http://pharmaexpert.ru/PASSOnline (date of requirement: 14.02.2014).
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

A SURVEY OF BOVINE LEUCOSIS EPIZOOTY IN VOLOGDA IN 2014

   
Authors: Timoshina S.V. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Badeeva O.B. – applicant.
   
Address: 1 Vologda filial of the State Scientific Institution Russian Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine named Ya.R.Kovalenko Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (E-mail: nivs35@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Vologda region is one of few regions of the Russian Federation successfully fighting bovine leukemia. In Vologda affiliation of the Ya.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine the research staff developed "Improved system for bovine leukemia control" which lately was approved by the Russian Federation academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2000 and successfully implemented in farms. Within the period from 1990 to 2014 469 infected farms were recovered. In the region the number of farms infected with bovine leukemia reduced from 38 to 1, and the number of annually isolated virus carriers decreased 15 times over the past decade. During this period, milk yield per cow increased by 1.8 times. This indicates a high economic efficiency of anti-leukemic activities. The article presents the results of a planned control measures against the disease. The proposed system priority and originality is protected by the actual results, scientific papers, a thesis for candidate of veterinary sciences and two patents. We had single cases of seropositive animals detection in the recovered farms. Also, we have previously studied some of the causes of this phenomenon (non-specific reactions, effect of routine vaccination and sickness rate of non-contagious diseases. These animals must be timely removed from herd. The researchers constantly monitor epizootic state among livestock in Vologda region.
   
Keywords: leukemia cattle, serological diagnosis, recovery
   
References: 1. Amironov M.A., Hramtsov V.V. Kompleksnaya sistema ozdorovleniya i profilaktiki leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota v Novosibirskoy oblasti (Teoreticheskiye i prakticheskiye aspekty)[Comprehensive system of bovine leukemia recovery and prevention in Novosibirsk region (Theoretical and practical aspects)] // Nauchnye osnovy profilaktiki i lecheniya bolezney zhivotnyh - Scientific basics of animal diseases treatment and prevention: Collection of scientific manuscripts / Ur.NIVI.-2005.-p.10-17.
2. Gulyukin M.I et al. Epizootologicheskaya otsenka metodov prizhiznennoy diagnostiki leykoza [Epidemiological evaluation of methods used for leukemia in vivo detection]// Newsletter of the Russian Academy of Sciences.-2000.- Vol. 3.-p.60-62.
3. Kuznetsov A.P., Marinin E.A., Semina L.K., Timoshina S.V. Sistema ozdorovitelnyh meropriyatii pri leykoze krupnogo rogatogo skota v hozyaystvah Vologodskoy oblasti [System of recreational activities for leukemia cattle farms in the Vologda region ]// «Kontseptsiya nauchnogo obespecheniya veterinarnoy mediciny Severo-Vostochnogo regiona NZ RF» - A concept of scientific supply for veterinary medicine in North-Eastern region of the Russian Federation.- Nizhniy Novgorod, 1999.-p.34-36.
4. Gorbunov A.P., Kuznetsov A.P., Semina L.K., Timoshina S.V. Opyt ozdorovleniya hozyaystv Vologodskoy oblasti ot leykoza krupnogo rogatogo skota [An experience of  farms recovery from bovine leukemia in Vologda region] // Veterinarnaya gazeta.- 2000.- ¹ 13.- p.2.
5. Gorbunov A.P., Kuznetsov A.P., Timoshina S.V. Usovershenstvovannaya sistema meropriyatiy po borbe s leykozom krupnogo rogatogo skota. [Improved system of measures against bovine leukemia]//Metod.rekomendacii.- Moskva, 2004.-18p.
6. Timoshina S.V. Meropriyatiya po profilaktike i borbe s leykozom  krupnogo rogatogo skota v hozyaystvah Severo-Zapadnogo regiona RF [Bovine leukemia control measures in cattle farms of North-West region of Russia]: abstract from dis. Candidate of vet.sci. - Moscow, 2004.-22p.
7. Timoshina S.V. Vliyaniye virusonositelstva pri leykoze krupnogo rogatogo skota na molochnuyu produktivnost korov [Influence of BLV infection for milk yield in cows ] // Nauchnye osnovy profilaktiki i lecheniya bolezney zhivotnyh: Sb.nauch.trudov - .- Ekaterinburg, 2005.-p.158-162.
8. Gulyukin M.I., Ivanova L.A., Timoshina S.V., Badeeva O.B. Usovershenstvovannaya sistema borby s leykozom krupnogo rogatogo skota [An improved system of bovine leukemia control] // Scientific manuscripts of Ya.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine. 100th year jubilee of academician  A.H.Sarkisov / Ya.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine .- 2009.-Vol.75.-p.199-203.
9. Gulyukin M.I., Ivanova L.A., Timoshina S.V., Badeeva O.B. Usovershenstvovannaya sistema borby s leykozom krupnogo rogatogo skota [An improved system of bovine leukemia control]// Scientific manuscripts of Ya.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine. 100th year jubilee of academician  A.H.Sarkisov / Ya.R.Kovalenko All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine .- 2009.-Vol.75.-p.199-203.
10. Timoshina S.V., Badeeva O.B., Sorokin V.A. Monitoring epizooticheskogo sostoyaniya po leykozu krupnogo rogatogo skota v hozyaystvah Vologodskoy oblasti za 2000-2009. [Monitoring epizootic state on bovine leukemia in farms of Vologda region for 2000-2009.] // Proceedings from Siberian Veterinary Congress.- Novosibirsk.- February 25-26, 2010.- p. 368-370.
11. Timoshina S.V., Badeeva O.B. Sistema protivoleykoznyh meropriyatii v Vologodskoy oblasti [System of antileukemicmeasures in Vologda region] // Voprosy normativno - pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii - Regulation Issues in Veterinary Medicine, Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. – 2011. –¹ 4. –p.11.
12. Timoshina S.V., Badeeva O.B. Vliyaniye zabolevayemosti korov nekotorymi nezaraznymi zabolevaniyami  na dostovernost rezultatov  serologicheskih issledovaniy pri leykoze KRS [Influence of some cows non-contagious diseases on reliability of results of serological tests for bovine leukemia] // International Journal of Veterinary Medicine,  Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. - 2012. –¹ 4. – p.17-20.
13. Timoshina S.V., Badeeva O.B. Uspeshnaya borba s leykozom krupnogo rogatogo skota v Vologodskoy oblasti [A successful fight with bovine leukemia in Vologda region ] // «Veterinariya i kormlenie». –2012. –¹ 4. –p. 6-7.
   
   
Title:

CATTLE HOOVES DISORDER: PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

   
Authors: 1Khuzin D.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Gainutdinov T.R. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Khusniev F.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Latfullin D.N. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Mukhammetshin N.A.; 1Khuzin R.D.
   
Address: 1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Health department, Moscow (e-mail: d.latfullin@mcõ.ru).
   
Abstract: Practical significance of this paper is that it presents the results of clinical and epizootological examination, differential diagnosis, therapeutic and preventive measures of hooves disorder registered in five farms in the Republic of Tatarstan with a total livestock number more than 3,225 dairy herds. The aim was to determine the nature and prevalence of hooves disorder in the farms of the Republic of Tatarstan under stanchion and loose housing of cows of different breeds, to establish their causes and to develop treatments and preventive measures of this pathology. The main cause of emergence and wide spread of these disorders is a large concentration of animals within a limited area. An overcrowding housing of dairy herds violating cow physiological characteristics strognly affects their health, and the possibility of hooves lesions significantly increases. These findings suggest imbalanced feeding of cows and metabolic disturbances occurring in the animal body that affect cows health at the end of the dry and early postnatal period of housing. The disease clinical manifestation in each investigated farm depended on pecliarities of animal breeding. Lack of timely prevention and treatment of noncontagious diseases result in complication by necrobacteriosis in 100% of cases. In this connection, it is crucial at provide the disease timely and effective diagnosis, prevention and treatment for herds recovery. This requires a comprehensive approach based on the differential diagnosis of these diseases, among which the biggest danger is necrobacteriosis. In this paper we propose an algorithm of hooves disorder treatment and complex of measures allowing cardinally improving the situation for these diseases in dairy farming. Overall economic effect from the therapeutic and preventive measures in five farms is: 8,913,275 rubles.
   
Keywords: diseases of fingers and hooves, necrobacillosis, etiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, prevention
   
References: 1. Timofeev S.V. Etiologia, klinika, diagnostika i profilaktika boleznei v oblasti paltsev u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and prevention of hooves disease in cattle] / S.V.Timofeev, V.V.Gimranov - Ufa: Bashkir State Agrarian University, 2008 -104p.
2. Samolovov A.A. Bolezni kopitets i paltsa krupnogo rogatogo skota [Cattle hooves disease] / A.A.Samolovov, S.V.Lopatin; Siberia Department of Russian Academy of Ararian Sciences Siberia and Far East Insiture of Experimental Veterinary. - Novosibirsk, 2010- 204p.
3. Veremey E.I. Lechenie korov pri gnoino-nekroticheskih protsessah v oblasti kopitets i paltsa [Treatment of cows at necrotic processes inhooves disease] / E.I.Veremei, V.A.Jurba. // Veterinarya, 2002 Vol. 3 - 41-43 p.
4.Lukyanovsky, V.A. Profilaktika i lechenie zabolevaniy kopitets u korov [Prevention and treatment of cow hooves disrders]. - Moskov, 1985. - 128p .
5. Ivanov , A.V. Diagnostika, lechenie i provilaktika boleznei paltsev i nekrobakterioza visokoproduktivnih korov [Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of hooves diseases and nekrobaceriosis in dairy cows] : Textbook / A.V.Ivanov, H.N.Makaev, D.A.Khuzin, S.V.Chabounine , Y.N.Alekhine. - Voronezh ed. "Origins", 2013. - 132p.
6. Melnik, N.V. Nekrobakterioz jhivotnih. Meropriyatiya po ozdorovleniyu zhivotnovodcheskih khozaistv [Animals nekrobacteriosis. Measures torecover livestock] / N.V.Melnik, Yu.D.Karavaev, I.N.Semenov, A.A.Plohova, D.A.Khuzin // Guidelines FGU "Center for Veterinary Medicine " RF Ministry of Agriculture, "Institute of Biotechnology of veterinary medicine," FSI" FTSTRB-ARRVI." - Moscow, 2009 - 36 p.
7. Maslov M.V. Etiologia i haracter zabolevaniy kopitets u korov v usloviach Tamani [Etiology and nature of cow hooves disease in Taman] / M.V.Maslov, S.V.Maradulina // Proc. Kuban State Agricultural University. MY. 406 (434). Krasnodar - 2004. - P. 131.
8. Molokanov, V.A. Prognozirovaniye i profilaktika boleznei kopitets u korov [Prediction and prevention of cow hooves disease] / V.A.Molokanov, V.M.Scheglov, M.T.Baykenov // Veterinary Medicine. 2001 - Vol. 7 pp. 38-40.
9. Brizzi, A. Description and terminology for claw capsule lesions (Workshop report) / A.Brizzi, Ch. Bergsten, R. Blowey et al. // Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Lameness in Ruminants. - Lucerne, Switzerland, 1998. - P. 98-127.
10.Iteb, R. Boiteries et fertilite: un couple infernal. / R.Iteb. // Bull techn. Insem. artif. 1989. T.51. - P.29- 31.
11.Collick, DWAssociations betwween types of lameness and fertility. / D.W.Collik, W.R.Ward, H.Dobson // Veter.Rec.1989.T.125. ¹ 5.-p.103- 108.
12. Nikitin, I.N. Organizatsiya i ekomika veterinarnogo dela; Uchebnik dla stud. vuzov [Organization and economics of veterinary affairs: Textbook for stud. Universities] / I.N.Nikitin, V.F.Voskoboynik. - 4th ed., rev. and add. - Moscow: humanity. Publishing center VLADOS, 1999. - 382p .
13.Islyaev, V.I. Ustroistvo dla fixatsii nog zhivotnich [Machine for fixing animal limbs] // V.I.Islyaev, I.I.Kutlukaev / RF patent. ¹ 23039 of 2005.
   
   
Title:

STUDY OF CULTURAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF M.PARATUBERCULOSIS ISOLATED CULTURES

   
Authors: Zavgorodniy A.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Pozmogova. S.À. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Girka M.A.
   
Address: National Scientific Center «Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine» (83, Pushkinskaya street, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 61023, E-mail: nikita-h7@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article presents the results of comparative study of cultural and morphological, biochemical and biological properties of isolates. Cultural research resulted in isolation of two slowly growing cultures of mycobacteria isolated from bovine mesenteric lymph nodes. The isolates culture grew at 37 - 380C, but failed at temperatures of 25 and 450C. Straight, sometimes curved acid-fast rods with different lengths and with 1-2 grains at the poles were observed in the smears stained by Ziehl-Nielsen after 2-3 passages. The study of the isolated cultures enzymatic peculiarities showed that the isolated cultures and the reference strain were characterized by lower catalytic activity. Isolated cultures restored potassium tellurite at 14 days, hydrolyzed Tween-80 at 10 days, but the reference strain – at 5 days. Basing on the study results we found that the isolated culture and the M.Johnei 738.V.83 reference strain have similar biochemical characteristics. The biological properties of the isolates and the reference strain were compared in the experiment using rabbits. As experimental animals the biological test involved one-month old rabbits with intravenous contamination.
   
Keywords: paratuberculosis , laboratory animals , biomaterial , culturing
   
References: 1.Schurevsky V.E. Paratuberkulyoz selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [ Paratuberculosis of farm animals]. – Moscow: Kolos, 1971. – 128 Ð.
2.Nigmatullin T.G. Mineralny sostav syvorotki krovi krupnogo rogatogo skota v dinamike paratuberkulyoznogo protsessa [Mineral composition of blood serum of cattle in dynamics of paratuberculosis process]. // Proceedings from All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary. –  Moscow, 1962. – Vol. 26. – P. 107-114.1.
3.Collins M.T. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: A Potential Food-Borne Pathogen.  / M.T. Collins // Dairy Sei. – 1997. – Vol. 80. – P. 3445-3448.
4.Cocito C. Gilot P., Coene  M., Kesel M., Poupart P., Vannuffel P. Paratuberculosis. // Clin. Microb. Rev. – 1994. –  Vol. 7. – P. 328-345.
5.Gilmour N.J.L. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of Johne's disease. / Gilmour N.J.L. // Vet. Rec. – 1976. –Vol. 99. – P. 433-434.
6.Golovchenko M.V. Adaptatsiya i vyrascivaniye kultur Mycobacterium paratuberculosis na pitatelnyh sredah [Adaptation and cultivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cultures on nutrient media]. / M.V.Golovchenko // Veterinarnaya Patologiya. - 2006. - ¹ 2. -Ð. 114-116.
7.Harris B, Barletta R. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Madicine. // Clin. Microb. Rev. – 2001. –Vol. 14. – P. 489-512.
   
   
Title:

EFFECT OF DIPEPTIDE THYMOGEN AND ITS COMBINATION WITH LEUCOPOIESIS STIMULATOR ON ABSORPTION OF IMMUNE GLOBULINS AND FORMATION OF NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN NEONATAL CALVES

   
Authors: 2Kharitonov L.V. – Doctor of Biology; 1Moseyeva A.I. - postgraduate, 1Velikanov V.I. - Doctor of Biology, professor; 2Kharitonova O.V.- Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Kaurkina E.V. – postgraduate.
   
Address: 1State Agricultural Academy, Nizniy Novgorod, Russia (Tel. (831) 462-78-17, e-mail: ngsha-kancel-1@bk.ru).
2Institute of Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Nutrition, Borovsk, Kaluga oblast (e-mail: bifip@yandex.ru).
   
Abstract: Three trials were performed on newborn calves and milky calves with parenteral injection of dipeptide thymogen (T, glu-trp) aimed to stimulate absorption of colostral immune globulins and formation of nonspecific resistance. In trial I, 10 calves were injected T twofold at first hour and at 4-5 hours after birth, blood probes were taken at 1 and 10 days after birth. In trial II, the 20-30-days-calves were injected with a prolonged form of T twofold with interval 6 days at the dose 500 mg (group II, n=10), in group III (n=10) at 8 days before T injection, derinate (D, sodium deoxyribonucleinate) was injected at the dose of 500 mg. All calves of this trial were housed outdoor (cold method of growing). Third trial was performed according the same scheme as in trial II, the calves were weighted at the end of first and second month of trial. The blood probes were taken at 15 days after injection of T. In trial I, in treatment group the increased blood level of immune globulins was indicated vs control (P<0.05). In trial II, any significant shifts in biochemical and morphological indices of blood were not indicated. In trial III after second injection of T, the increases were indicated in blood level of leucocytes (P<0.05), mainly at the expense of segmented neutrophyles (P<0.05), and in bactericidal activity of serum (P<0.05). The action of D combined with T, was accompanied by tendency to increases in number of erhytrocytes and leucocytes, total number of neutrophyles, and in blood hemoglobin level. The amelioration of nonspecific resistance of calves in treatment groups was accompanied by increases in their live weight.
   
Keywords: milky calves, bioactive substances, thymogen, derinate, nonspecific resistance, growth performance
   
References: 1. Asatiani V.S. Noviye metody biohimicheskoy fotometrii [Novel methods of biochemical photometry]. – Ìoscow, 1965. - p. 543.
2. Belokrylov G.A., Molchanova I.M., Sorochinskaya Ye.I. Aminokisloty ka stimulyatory immunogeneza [Aminoacids as a immunogenesis promotors]// Doklady AN SSR - reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1986, 2. – p. 289-293.
3. Belokrylov G.A., Popova O.Ya, Sorochinskaya Ye.I., Derevina Î.Ì., Korovin R.N. Detoksikatsiya aminokislotami i peptidnymi preparatami benzola i aflatoksina B1 u tsiplyat [Chicken detoxicationwith aminoacids and peptide preparations from bensole and aflatoxin B1] // Doklady  RASHN - reports of the Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 2001, 2. – p. 2, 51-52.
4. VelikanovV.I., Shumov I.S., Maslova Ì.À., Kharitonov L.V. Sostoyaniye nespetsifichesky rezistentnosti novorozhdyennyh telyat pod vozdeystviyem preparatov aminokislot [Non-specific resistance of newly born calves exposed to aminoacid-based preparations]// Proceedings from XVIII Int. Conf.: Novel pharmacological drugs in Animal Health. – Saint Petersburg, 2006. – p. 49-50.
5. Vorobyov À.À., Lyaschenko V.À. Immunobiologicheskiye preparaty: nastoyascheye i buduscheye [Immonobiological preparations: the present and the future]. – Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and immunobiology, 1995, 6. – p. 105-111.
6. Karput I.Ì., Pivovar L.Ì. Immunologiya laktatsii  pri autoimmunnyh zabolevaniyah i yeyo rol v etiopatogeneze dispepsii novorozhdyennyh telyat [Lactation immunology at autoimmune diseases and their influence on etiopathogenesis of dyspeptic disorder in newly born calves]// Journal of the BSSR Academy of Agrarian Sciences. – 1982, 4. p. 108-110.
7. Kovalenko Ya.R. Formirovaniye immunobiologicheskogo statusa u molodnyaka selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Formationof immune and biological status in young livestock]  // Vestnik S/H Nauki - Journal of Agrarian Sciences. – 1979, 2. p. 50-58.
8. Kondrrakhin I.P. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika v veterinarii [Clinical laboratory diagnostics in Veterinary] // A reference edition. –Ìoscow, Agropromizdat, 1985. – p. 287.
9. Metody biohimicheskogo analiza. Sravochnoye posobiye [Methods of biochemical analysis. Reference book] (under editorship of Kaltsenitsky B.D.). – Borovsk, 1997. – p. 357.
10. Smirnov V.S. Timogen v zhivotnovodstve i veterinarii [Using the Thymogen drug in animal breeding and veterinary]. – Saint Petersburg, 2005. –p. 36.
11. Havinson V.H., Anisimov v.N. Peptidniye bioregulyatory i stareniye [Petide bioregulators and aging]. – Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 2003. – p. 223.

 

12. Kharitonov L.V. Kuznetsov I.L., Pronkina Ye.A., VelikanovV.I., Vliyaniye preparatov aminokislot na funktsionalnoye sostoyaniye i nespetsificheskuyu rezistentnost telyat [Influence of aminoacid-based preparations on calves functional state and non-specific resistance]// Manuscripts of All-Russian Research Institute for Animal Phisiology, Biochemistry, and Feeding, 2002, 41. – p. 83-96.
13. Kharitonov L.V. Matveev V.À., VelikanovV.I., Pronkin D.Ye. Uchastiye aminokislot v regulyatsii protsessov pitaniya i rezistentnosti molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [Involvment of aminoacids in regulation of digestion and resistance in young catlle herds]// Proceedings from III Int. Conf.: Current issues of Biology in animal breeding. – Borovsk, 2001. – p. 177-188.
14. Goldstein A.L., Cohen G.H., Zatz M.M. Purification and biological activity of thymosin, a hormone of thymus gland. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 1972, 69. – P. 1800-1803.
15. Miller J.F. Immunologic function of thymus, Lancet, 1961, 2. – P. 748-749.
16. Morozov V.G., Khavinson V.K. Natural and synthetic thymus peptides as therapeutics for immune dysfunction. Int. Immunopharmacol., 1997, 19. – P. 501-505.
   
   
Title:

NUTRIENT MEDIA FOR CORYNEBACTERIUM CULTIVATION

   
Authors: 1Baratov M.O. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Ahmadov M.Ì. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; 3Sakidibirov O.P. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: 1State Research Institute " Caspian Area Research Veterinary Institute " (367000, R.Dagestan, Makhachkala, Str. Dakhadaeva, 88; e-mail. alama500@rambler.ru).
2 M.M.Dzhambulatov Dagestan State Agrarian University (tel.+7 (8722) 69-35-25; E.mail: daggau@list.ru).
   
Abstract: Contagious diseases detection and microorganism isolation largely depends on full value of nutrient media primarily used as a construction plastic material and an energy source for microbial cells. For normal development microorganisms need micro- and macroelements that are involved in formation of coenzymes, using them proteins, fats and carbohydrates hydrolyze to more element and soluble compounds assimilating for microbial cell. Also, nonorganic compounds are a part of microbial cells, cytoplasm and they are necessary for micro-organisms to form physical and chemical conditions in a nutrient medium. Of a large number of culture media suggested for Corynebacterium cultivation only a few of them have a practical application. The available media have weak growth and lower inhibitory properties, also time-consuming manufacturing, impracticality of use, low inoculation for taxons isolation. Therefore, the task of creating a universal, effective and at the same time simple and affordable nutrient medium for Corynebacterium culturing remains important. Using the geothermal water instead of the distilled one enriches medium with micro- and macroelements as an additional source of growth characteristics for corynebacteria, also, it is available in many regions of Russia, including the territory of Dagestan.
   
Keywords: corynebacterium, culture media, culture, geothermal water, passing, growth properties, distilled water
   
References: 1. Baratov M.O., Akhmedov M.M., Sakidibirov O.P. Sravnitelnoye izucheniye naiboleye chasto ispolzuemyh sred dlya vydeleniya korinebakteriy [Comparative studies of the most widely used media for Corinebacteria isolation]. // Proceedings from All-Russian Scientific conference "Enhancing livestock and poultry production basing on innovative achievements"– Novocherkassk, 2009.
2. Birger M.O., Vedmina Ye.A., Vlodavets V.V. et al. Spravochnik po mikrobiologicheskim i virusologicheskim metodam issledovaniya [A reference book on microbiological and virological methods of investigation]. –Moscow: « Meditsina», 1982.
3. Vysotskiy V.V., Mazurova I.K., Shmeleva Ye.A. Sravnitelnoe elektronno-mikroskopicheskoe izuchenie 8 predstaviteley roda Corynebacterium, vyrashchennykh na tverdoy pitatelnoy srede v statsionarnoy faze  razvitiya [Comparative electronic-microscopy based studies of the eight Corynebacterium genus species cultivated in solid nutrient medium in stationary growth phase]. // Mikrobiologiya. –1976. –¹7. –p. 121-125.
4. Medzhidov M.M. et al. Sukhie mikrobiologicheskie pitatelnye sredy [Dry microbiological nutrient media]. // Catalogue. Makhachkala, 1998.5. Shapeleva R.G., Andreeva Z.M., Sokolnikova G.P. et al. Sravnitelnoe izuchenie pitatelnykh sred dlya vydeleniya  korinebakteriy [Comparative studies of nutrient media for Corinebacteria isolation]. //Zhurnal mikrobiologiya. –1989. – ¹ 5. –p. 62-64.6. Minnikin D.E., Goodfellow M., Collins M.D. In: Coryneforn bacteria London - New-York - Son Francisco: Aced. Press. 1978. p. 85.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

REDUCTION OF COMPLICATION CASES FROM OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY IN CATS AND DOGS BY USING NEW TECHNIQUES OF VIDEO-ASSISTED LAPARASCOPY

   
Authors: Ivanov V.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: Solnyshko Veterinary Center, Kazan (e-mail: 902290@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Ovariohysterectomy is one of the most frequent and common operations in pets veterinary clinics. New ovariohysterectomy single-port laparoscopic technique is widely used in Russia. Statistical analysis of single-port technology implementation results was studied and methods reducing complication cases in dogs and cats were developed. During the study of intraoperative complications character of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy surgery the predominant group was bleeding. At trocar introduction, blood vessels damage in abdominal wall was registered in 6.7/1000-13,5/1000 cases, they were resolved by the electric coagulation method. The most common complication registered during laparoscopic operations (up to 30.8/1000 cases) was intraoperative bleeding at homeostasis step. The obtained data are consistent with the references suggesting the greatest risk of bleeding is presented by large vessels homeostasis. The reason, as a rule, is inadequate homeostasis of cervix uteri or ovaries vessel. A large part of detected complications can be eliminated during a laparoscopic surgery and does not require transition to laparotomy (conversion). Careful preoperative preparation of an animal, surgeon’s adequate experience meeting the complexity of operative intervention, availability of adequate endoscopic equipment, justified use of ovariohysterectomy laparoscopic method, standardization of methods at different stages of laparoscopic surgery reduces the frequency of complication cases to as much as two fold. The proposed methods of small animals single-port ovariohysterectomy simplify endoscopic surgery, provide a safer entry into abdominal cavity, their use reduces the frequency of complication and conversion cases.
   
Keywords: laparoscopy, ovariohysterectomy, cats, dogs
   
References: 1.Vankov V.A. Laparoskopicheskaya vizualizatsiya [Laparoscopic visualization]. // Russian veterinary journal. – 2009. – Vol. 4. – Ð. 46-49.
2.Ivanov V.V. Odnoportovye tehnologii v laparoskopii melkih domashnih zhivotnih [Single-port technology in laparoscopy small pets]. // The Veterinarny vrach. – 2014. – Vol.2. – Ð.47-54.
3.Chernov A.V. Endoskopicheskiye metody sterilizatsii sobak [Endoscopic methods of dogs sterilization]. // The Veterinarny vrach. – 2010. –Vol. 12. –P. 20-23.
4.Todd R. Tams, Clarence A. «Small Animal Endoscopy». – 3rd edition. – Rawlings. – Copyright ©, 2011, 1999, 1990 byMosby, Inc. – An affiliate of Elsevier Inc. – 466 ð.
5.Ferreira M.P.A Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in domestic cats: Two portals technique. // Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. – 2011. –Vol. 39 (4). – art. no. 997.
6.Mayhew P.D., Brown DC. Comparison of three techniques for ovarian pedicle hemostasis during laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy. // Vet Surg. – 2007. – Aug. –36(6).–541-7.
7.Ohlund, M. Hoglund, O. Olsson U.and Lagerstedt A.-S. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs: a comparison of the LigaSureTM and the SonoSurgTM systems. // Journal of Small Animal Practice. – 2011. –Vol/ 52. –P.290–294.
8.Wildt D.E., Lavler D.F. Laparoscopic sterilization of the bitch and queen by uterine horn occlusion. //Am.J. Vet.Res. – 1985. –Vol.46. –P.864-869.
   
   
Title:

MAMMARY GLAND STRUCTURE AT COW SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS

   
Authors: Suleymanov S.M. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor; Pavlenko O.B. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: The Emperor Peter I Voronezh State Agrarian University, department of anatomy and surgery, Voronezh, (e-mail: opm@adm.vsau.ru).
   
Abstract: Morphological and functional characterization of mammary gland structure in cows with subclinical mastitis is described in this article. At this pathology, mammary gland structure develops an increased parenchyma microvasculature, dystrophy of alveolar secretory cells and also integrity damage of alveolar lining. Mammary ducts and alveola were filled with serous and cellular exudate containing both epithelial and somatic cells. Clinical trials showed that in cows with subclinical mastitis a mammary gland was of tough consistence, supramammary lymph node was slightly increased. Histological study demostrated that alveoli are predominantly polymorphic with varying size and contain serous liquid with abundance of fat and dairy impurities. Epithelial and somatic cells with ultrastructure within a normal range were found in some alveoli lumen. In the alveoli, serous fluid contained plenty of fat impurities.
   
Keywords: mammary gland, subclinical mastitis, cows, visible clinical changes, gistostruktura, ultrastructure, serous and catarrhal inflammation
   
References: 1. Lozhkin Je.F., Skarzhinskaja G.M. Produktivnye kachestva korov kostromskoj porody v svjazi s osobennostjami morfologii zhelezistoj cisterny vymeni.[Productive qualities of cows of the Kostroma breed in connection with features of morphology of the ferruterous tank of an udder] // Anatomija molochnoj zhelezy s.-h. zhivotnyh v sostojanii normy i pri patologii.- Perm', 1985.-Ð. 11-14.
2. Sapozhnikova N.A.. Immunobiologicheskoe sostojanie organizma korov pri subklinicheskom mastite: Diss. kand. biol. nauk. [Immunobiological condition of an organism of cows at subclinical mastitis]. — Voronezh, 1995.-164 ð .
3. Skarzhinskaja G.M. Stroenie vyvodnoj sistemy vymeni korov kostromskoj porody s raznoj produktivnost'ju: Diss. kand. biol. nauk. [Structure of output system of an udder of cows of the Kostroma breed with different efficiency]. — M., 1987.-15ð.
4. Skarzhinskaja G.M., Lozhkin Je.F. Struktura molochnoj cisterny vymeni polnovozrastnyh korov kostromskoj porody.  [Structure of the dairy tank of an udder of full-age cows of the Kostroma breed ]// Jekol. aspekty funkc. morfol. v zhivotnovodstve.- M., 1986. -Ð. 32-35.
5. Solomatin A.A. Morfofunkcional'nye izmenenija v molochnoj zheleze korov pri vospalitel'nyh processah i ocenka jeffektivnosti lechenija:  Diss. kand. vet. nauk. [Morfofunktsionalny changes in a mammary gland of cows at inflammatory processes and an assessment of efficiency of treatment] .— M., 2008.- 15 ð.
 6. Sulejmanov S.M. Gistostruktura molochnoj zhelezy bol'nyh mastitom korov, poluchavshih jendobakterin. [Gistostruktura of a mammary gland of patients with mastitis of the cows who were receiving endobakterin]  // Mater. Vserossijskoj konfer. ðo akusherstvu, posvjashh. 85-letiju prof. V.A.Akatova.- Voronezh, 1994, ð. 243-244.
7. Kunkel J il. Subclinical mastitis and effect of environmental organisms. // Proc.89 Annu. Meet. US Anim.- Assn.- 1989.- P. 222-225.
8. Robinson G., Gray T. Electron microscopy 2: Tissue preparation, sectioning and staining.// Theory and practice of histological techniques.- (eds. Bancroft JD, Stevens A.).- New York: Churchill livingstone, 1990.- P. 525-562.
9. Bozzola J.J. and Russell L.D. Electron Microscopy. Principles and Techniques for Biologists.- Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992.
10. Dabbs D. Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry.- 2nd edit.- Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, 2006.
11. Potts M.A. Method for location specific histological features for electron microscopy.//J. Roy. Micr. Soc.- 1965.- V. 85.- ¹ 1.- Ð. 97-102.
12. Genoud Ch., G.W.Knott, K.Sakata, B.Lu, E.Welker. Altered synapse formation in the adult somatosensory cortex of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor heterozygote mice.//J.Neurosci.-  2004.-V. 24.-¹ 10.-Ð.2394-2400.
  Parasitology
   
Title:

QUALITY EVALUATION OF RAWHIDES AFFECTED BY CATTLE DEMODICOSIS

   
Authors: Burmistrova M.I. – postgraduate student; Vasilevich F.I. – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, professor, academician of Russian Academy of Sciences,; Gordienko I.M. – Candidate of Engineering Sciences.
   
Address: K.I.Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology (tel: (495)377-49-39, å-mail: rector@mgavm.ru).
   
Abstract: In the Russian Federation a considerable part of scientific investigations is dedicated to improvement of cattle feeding and breeding technologies. As a rule, the main attention is paid to quantity and quality of meat and dairy products while the problem of produced raw hides which is widely used in the National economy mostly remains neglected. Meanwhile, skin quantity and quality is of greatest importance among cattle by-products. Rawhides production volume and qualitative characteristics are determined by slaughter contingent. Skin size, evenness, deficiency are known to largely depend on animal sex, age, live weight, breed and other factors including the ones of parasitical etiology (ox warble fly, itch mite and etc.). Therefore, the influence of various factors including itch mite on comprehensive evaluation of cattle hide productive qualities has an important economic significance. The aim of our scientific work was a detailed study and description of the nature of cattle skin (derma) lesions caused by follicular cattle mange. The studies involved 60 pieces of wet salted skins, 30 pieces of which were studied after cattle skin liming and dehairing (pelt) and 30 pieces were studied after chromic tanning (chromic semi- product). The level of skin lesions and exposure rate to follicular cattle mange was determined organoleptically that is by external examination and palpation. Raw hide damage from cattle demodicosis is accompanied by deep pathological changes in derma involving the surrounding tissues, formation of infiltrates in the exposed loci that undoubtedly affect skin commercial value.
   
Keywords: demodicosis, derma, cattle skin, ticks
   
References: 1. Ryan K. Holes and flaws in medieval Irish manuscripts // Peritia. – 1987. – Vol. 6. – ¹. 1. – P.243-264.
2. Sertse T., Wossene A. Effect of ectoparasites on quality of pickled skins and their impact on the tanning industries in Amhara regional state, Ethiopia //Small ruminant research. – 2007. – Vol. 69. – ¹ 1. – P.55-61.
3. State Standard 28425-90: Syryo kozhevennoye. Tehnicheskiye spetsifikatsii [Rawhides. Technical specifications].
4. Kebede N., Fetene T. Population dynamics of cattle ectoparasites in Western Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia //Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. – 2012. – Vol. 4. – ¹. 4. – p. 22-26.
5. Vasilyevich F.I. O patogeneze i vidah povrezhdeniy kozhi i vnutrennih organov zhivotnyh pri demodekoze [On pathogenesis and variations of animal skin and inner organs damage at demodecosis]. – Veterinaria. – 2004.- Vol.7. –P.26-29.
6. Vasilyevich F.I. O patogeneze demadekoza i vidah povrezhdeniy kozhi u krupnogo rogatogo skota [On follicular cattle mange pathogenesis and variations of cattle skin damage]. // Aktualniye voprosy infektsionnyh i invasivnyh bolezney zhivotnyh - Current issues of animal contagious and invasive diseases: Collection of scientific manuscripts from K.I.Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology. – Ìoscow, 1995. – P.30-33.
7. Polyakov D.K. Demadekoz krupnogo rogatogo skota [Follicular cattle mange] // Veterinaria. – 1956. –¹ 8. – P.74-77.
8. Skosyrkih L.N. Demadekoz krupnogo rogatogo skota [Follicular cattle mange] // Veterinaria. – 1991. – P.12-14.
9. Larionov S.V. Morfologicheskiye osobennosti kleschey roda Demodex, profilaktika i mery borby pri demodekoze [Morphological peculiarities of Demodex mites, demodocosis prevention, and control measures]: Abstract from Thesis for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine - Ìoscow, 1991.
   
   
Title:

OPERATING OF SOME ANTIHELMINTHIC DRUGS ON INVASION PROPERTIES OF ASCARIS SUUM EGGS

   
Authors: 1Temniy N.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Sumakova N.V. - research assistant; 1Poleschuk N.G. – veterinarian; 2Bogach N.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
   
Address: 1 National Scientific Center «Research Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine», Ukraine (61023, Kharkov, Pushkinskaya, 83, e-mail: admin@vet.kharkov.ua, inform@vet.kharkov.ua).
2 National Scientific Center Odessa Experimental Station «Research Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine», Ukraine, Odessa (tel. +38-067-997-49-25; e-mail: bogach_nv@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: It was found out that of all the A.suum eggs, 34,6% survived after pigs anti-helminthes treatment using “Vermal” medication, while 78,5% of eggs remained alive after treatment using “Levamizol” drug. The analysis of ovocide action of the anti-helminthes preparations demonstrated that the “Vermal” caused deformation of the cell membranes, blackening and vacuolization of protoplasts at 65,4% while “Levamizol” at 21,5% of all the helminthes eggs. The cell membranes of the rest 30% of the eggs, which still remained alive, developed a “crown” at the third day of observation. In eggs of A.suum intestinal nematodes after application of anti-helminthes drugs in combination with lower environmental temperature (-3°Ñ) larva developed at 5th to 11th day in comparison to the controls which developed the ones at 9-16th day. The percentage of invasive larva in culture was 24,6±1,21% after using “Vermal” and 58,5±2,14% after “Levamizol”. The embryo development in the test group was 96,7% while the percentage of the eggs with invasive larva made up 95,8% by the end of the experiment. After rats in-vitro inoculation with invasive egg culture a hemorrhagic inflammation and bleeding in small intestine walls, blood exudation in the abdomen, edema and blood overflow of liver and heart were observed. During the compressor research of small intestine, liver and lungs parenchyma walls as well as microscopic examination of sediment after digestion of organ tissue of the test animals in artificial digestive juice there could still be found living larva of A.suum.
   
Keywords: eggs Àscarissuum, cultures A.suum, vermal, levamisole
   
References: 1. Nikitina L. Deystviye nekotoryh proizvodnyh Benzimidazola na vyzhivayemost yaits askarid [The effect of some benzimidazol derivative substances on ascaride eggs]// Materialy IX konferentsii Ukrainskogo parasitologicheskogo obshchestva - Proceedings from IX Conference of the Ukraine parasitological society. (Kiev 1980).-Kiev, 1980. – Part.5. – p: 60-61.
2. Cherepanov À., Karmaliyev R. Rezistentnost gelmintov k antgelmintikam i metody ih testirovaniya [Helminth resistance to anthelmith substances and methods of their evaluation]// Veterinaria. 1992. Vol.9-12. P.31-34.
3. Cherepanov À. Ustoychivost parazitov k nekotorym lekarstvennum veshchestvam i puti yejo preodoleniya [Parasite resistance to some medical substances and ways to overcome it]// Veterinaria. 1998. Vol.2. P.29-32.
4. Nikitin V., Karmaliyev P. Novy sposob opredeleniya angelmintnoy rezistentnosti u strongilyat in vitro [New ways of  in vitro determining strongilids resistance to anthelmith substances]//Problemy zooinzhenerii i veterinarnoy meditsiny, aktualnye problemy zaraznoy patologii, parazitotsenologii– Problems of zooengineering and Veterinary Medicine, current issues of contagious pathology, parasitology, Kharkov, 2006. – Vol. 13 (38). P.83-84.
5. T.À. Kuzmina [et. al]  Rezistentnost tsiastomin loshadey k benzimidazolnym preparatam [Resistance of equine cyastomin to benzimidazole substances]/T.À. Kuzmina [et. al] // Manuscripts from K.I. Skryabin All-Russian Research Institute of Helminthology./ – 2002. Vol.38. P. 189-194.
6. Kuzmina T.À. Biologichni osnovy integrovanogo kontrolju strongilid (nematoda-strongilida) – parazytiv koney v umovach Ukrainy [Biological fundamentals of equine parasites in Ukraine] Synopsis of PhD Thesis – Kyiv, 2004. – 20 p.
7. Sekretaryuk K.V., Sobolta À.G. Tsenogenetichnye adaptatsii i ih rol v resistentnosti fasciol i fasciolidov [Genetic adaptation and its role in fascio and fasciolids resistance] // Parazitologiya i sovremennost 2005. Vol. 19. Part.1. Vestnik zoologii: Proceedings of scientific conference of Parasitological community.– Êiev., 2005. – P. 286-289.
8. Malahova E.I. Vliyaniye antigelmintikov na yaytsa i lichinki paraziticheskih chervey vydelyaemuch zhivotnymi posle degelmintizatsii [The effect of anthelmithic drug on parasites eggs and larvas, excreted by animals after deworming]// Tezisy dokladov nauch. konf. Vsesoyuznogo obshchestva gelmintologov, posvyaschennoy 40 godovshchine Velikoy oktyabrskoy sotsialisticheskoy revolyutsii - Abstracts from scientic conference of the USSR society of helminthologists dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution (Moscow 11-15 December, 1957 ). – Moscow, 1957. Part. 1. P. 183-186.
9. Arhipov V., Musayev Ì. Vybor antgelmintika dlya lecheniya zhivotnyh [Choosing antihelminthic drug for animal treatment]//Veterinaria.2004. -Vol.2.- P.28-33.
  Physiology
   
Title:

HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PIGLETS FED WITH «LAKTUMIN», «LAKTOFIT» AND «LAKTOFLEKS» BIOLOGICAL SUPPLEMENTS

   
Authors: 1Shkalenko V.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Komarova Z.B. - Doctor of Agriculture.
   
Address: 1Volgograd State Agricultural University (26, Universitetsky Prospect, Volgograd, 400002, Russia; e-mail:vera.shkalenko@mail.ru).
2The Volga Region Research Institute of Milk and Dairy Products Production and Processing (6, Rokossovskogo ulitsa, Volgograd, 400131, Russia; e-mail: way_kom@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article presents the results of n article results of hematological parameters investigation in piglets fed with «laktumin», «laktofit» and «laktofleks» biological supplements which contain lactulose – the most widespread prebiotic in the world. The tested preparations were found to have a favorable effect on blood morphological and biochemical composition. The additives increased blood hemoglobin and erythrocytes number thus improving the blood transportation function. Also, the animals production parameters improved. Biologically active feeding additives promoted metabolism processes in experiment piglets which was approved by increased number of total protein and albumins. Also, the correlation coefficient of total protein and its fractions with animal performance was positive. The blood serum had an increased level of urea (an ultimate product of protein metabolism) and a higher activity of aminotransferase particularly AAT that testifies to increase of protein metabolism. Using the lactulose-based feeding additives in piglet diet promoted activation of metabolism process particularly the protein one along with increase of animals cellular and humoral immunity that is demonstrated by an increased relative number of lymphocytes in young piglets blood. Of the studied feeding additives «Laktofleks» was the most efficient.
   
Keywords: piglets, ration, lactulose-containing drugs, feed supplement, blood morphological and biochemical parameters
   
References: 1.Vodyannikov,V.I. Biologicheskiye aspekty intensifikatsii proizvodstva svininy na promyshlennoi osnove [The biological aspects of swine industry intensification]: muscript/ V.I.Vodiannikov, V.NSharnin, V.V. Shkalenko. 2-nd added and revised edition Volgograd. Volgogradskoe nauchnoe izdatelstvo. 2012. 263p.
2.Vodyannikov, V.I. Intensifikatsiya proizvodstva produktsii svinovodstva – kak put resheniya problemy i prodovolstvennoy bezopasnosti regiona / [Intensification of swine industry – as a way to solve the problem and food safety in the region] V.I.Vodyannikov, V.V.Shkalenko, F.V.Ruzheynikov// Integratsionnyie protsessyi v nauke, obrazovanii i agrarnom proizvodstve zalog uspeshnogo razvitiya APK: mat. mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. 25-27 yanvarya 2011 – Integration processes in science, education, and agricultural production as a pledge of a successful development of agrarian production: proceedings from international scientific conference on January 25-27, 2011. – Volgograd, 2011. – P.169-172
3.Vodyannikov, V.I Antistressoviye preparatyi i ih vliyanie na myasnuyu produktivnost [Stress-relieving drugs and their influence on meat production]/ V.I.Vodyannikov., V.V.Shkalenko., F.V.Ruzheynikov – Svinovodstvo. 2013. ¹ 2. p. 26-29
4.Gorbacheva, E.S. Sovremennye tendentsii otbora i identifikatsii proizvodstvenno-tsennyh shtammov, sbrazhivayuschih laktozu [modern tendencies of selection and identification of valuable and production lactose-fermenting strains] / E.S.Gorbacheva // The «Prodovolstvie» series / Northern Caucasus State Technical University, 2006. – ¹ 2. – p. 24.
5.Maksimyuk, N.N. Fiziologiya kormleniya zhivotnyh: Teorii pitaniya, priyom korma, osobennosti pischevareniya [Animal feeding physiology: feeding, uptake, and digestion theory] / N.N.Maksimyuk, V.G. Skopichev. – Saint Petersburg: Lan, 2004 – 256 p.
6.Kannan M. Influence of prebiotics supplementation on lipid profile of broilers /, R.Karunakaran, V.Balakrishnan, T.G.Prabhakar // International Journal of Poultry Science. – 2005. – 4 (12). – Ð. 994-997.
7.Nasrollah, V. Probiotic in quail nutrition: a review / V.Nasrollah // International Journal of Poultry Science. – 2009. –8 (12). – Ð.1218-1222.