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¹ 4, 2014

  Infectious pathology


Authors: Zakutsky N.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Shirokova T.G. - Process Engineer; Neverovskaya N.S. - Candidate of Biology Sciences; Yurkov S.G. - Doctor of Biology Sciences, professor.
Address: Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences Resarch «All-Russian National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology», Pokrov (tel/fax +7 (492) 43-62125, E-mail: patronn13@rambler.ru).

Abstract: The report is dedicated to a pressing problem of optimization of conditions for ASF virus growth in porcine bone marrow (PBM) and porcine leukocyte (PL) cells to develop a suspension technique using roller devices and/or automated bioreactors. The available literature can provide a very limited number of reports regarding African swine fever (ASF) virus production technology, in particular, methods for the virus culture. In addition, the choice of effective cell systems is limited here for the main cultures that found practical use in this regard were porcine bone marrow (PBM) and porcine leukocyte (PL) cells which are characterized as highly sensitive to ASF virus. Based on the analysis of the available literature data, it should be noted that the efforts of the researchers are aimed at the highest possible realization of cell potential through providing their growth conditions maximally close to those adequate in vivo.
To achieve this task, we studied some factors affecting African swine fever (ASF) virus accumulation in a hematopoietic cell suspension. In the course of the growth conditions optimization, the dependence of the virus accumulation on the cell type and the nutrient medium composition, as well as on the seed cell concentrations, the multiplicity and the methods of their infection, pH levels, the aeration mode and the suspension culture mixing rate applied, and also on the duration the growth to determine the highest yield of the final product was shown.
From the obtained data on evaluation of the main factors affecting ASF virus accumulation levels in hematopoietic cell suspensions and the results of the virus growth conditions optimization, the basic technological parameters ensuring maximal virus yield when cultured in PBM and/or PL cell suspensions using the roll-bottle method (7,00 to 7,25 lg HAU50/cm3) or bioreactors (7,50 to 8,00 lg TCID50/cm3) were determined as follows: the initial concentrations are 3.0 mln/cm3 for PBM cells and 6.0 mln/cm3 for PL cells; multiplicity of infection is 0.01 to 0.1 HAU50/cell (for PBM cells), and 0.0001 to 0.001 (for PL cells); the medium is 0.1% GLA with 5% of swine blood serum; pH 7.1 to 7.3, temperature 37oC; gas mixture aeration mode (95% air + 5% C02 = 2 L/hr per 1 liter of the suspension; roller bottle rotation speed = 12 r.p.m, and rotation speed in bioreactor = 100 to 120 r.p.m.); virus culture period is 4 to 5 days.
PBM and PL cells were found to have an equal reproduction potential (7.5 to 8.0 lg HAU50/cm3) at ASF virus growth using the suspension culture method. Furthermore, as compared to the roller method, the reactor method was shown to be more manufacturable and provided production of homogeneous virus materials having high viral infectivity rates, and is more promising for ASF virus culture in PBM or PL cell suspensions.
Thus, some laboratory methods for ASF virus growth in PBM and/or PL cell suspensions using roller units or bioreactors with the capacity up to 20 litres were developed. Implementation of these laboratory methods into virological practice provides their application as models with definite parametersin the development of experimental-industrial technology of ASF virus culture in hematopoietic cell suspensions.
Keywords: ASF virus, cell culture, virus growth, virus titer
References: 1.Anisimova L.I., Prilepskaya E.P., Yurkov S.G., Zakutsky N.I., Konakova L.D. Modifitsirovannaya pitatelnaya sreda dlya vyrashhivaniya kletok i virusov [Modified nutrient media for virus and cell cultures cultivation]// Aktualnye voprosy veterinarnoy virusolologii: materialy nauch.- prakt. konf.- Current problems of Veterinary Virology: proceedings from scientific conference VNIIVViM.- Pokrov,1992. P. 143.
2. Zakutsky N.I., Zhesterev V.I., Averina N.N. Optimizatsiya usloviy i metodov vyrashhivaniya virusa IRT KRS v perevivaemoy linii kletok MDVK [Improving conditions and methods of bovine viral rhinotracheitis virus in passed MDVK cell cultures]// Voprosy veterinarnoy virusologii, mikrobiologii i epizootologii: materialy nauch. konf. VNIIVViM - Issues of veterinary virology, microbiology, and epizootology: proceedings from scientific conference VNIIVViM.- Pokrov,1992.
3.Zakutsky N.I. - Razrabotka i sovershenstvovaniye tehnologii izgotovleniya inaktivirovannoy vakciny protiv infektsionnogo rinotraheita krupnogo rogatogo skota: [Developing and improving of inactivated vaccine against bovine viral rhinotracheitis] dis. … d-ra. vet. nauk.- dissertation for DVM. Pokrov, 1998. 311p.
4.Balysheva V.I., Zakutsky N.I., Lapteva O.G. et al. Effektivnost inaktivirovannoy vakciny protiv virusa blyutanga 9-go serotipa [Efficiency of inactivated vaccine against  bluetongue virus of serotype 9]//Veterinaria. 2008 .Vol.10 .P.20-22.
5.Morgunov Yu.P., Malogolovkin A.S., Kolbasova O.L., Kushnir S.D., Gazayev I.H., Tsybanov S.Zh.,Yurkov S.G., Kolbasov D.V. Adaptatsiya virusa afrikanskoy chumy sviney k perevivayemym liniyam kletok [Adaptation of ASF virus to passed cell lines] // Veterinaria. 2013. Vol. 11. P.58-62.
6.Vasilyev Yu.M. Optimizatsiya razmnozheniya virusov grippa ptits v razlichnyh substratah i sovershenstvovaniye inaktivirovannoy vakciny protiv virusov grippa ptits: [Optimization of avian influenza virus cultivation in various substrates and improvement of inactivated virus against avian influenza virus] avtoref. dis. … thesis abstract - Moscow,2010.
7.Nochevnaya T.V. Optimizatsiya usloviy kultivirovaniya shtammov virusa enterita norok i izucheniye yego biologicheskih svoystv [Optimization of conditions for mink enteritis virus strains cultivation] : avtoref. dis. …kand.biol. nauk.- thesis abstract for candidate of Biological Sciences. Moscow, 2005.-24 p.
8.Kapuskin E.V. Optimizatsiya usloviy kultivirovaniya virusa chumy melkih zhvachnyh dlya polucheniya vaktsinnyh i diagnosticheskih preparatov [Optimization of rodents fever virus cultivation for producing vaccines and diagnostic preparations]:avtoref. dis. thesis abstract. Vladimir, 2008.


Authors: 1Vinokurov N.V. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 2Layshev K.A. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 1Reshetnikov A.D. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 1Sleptsov E.S. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Makarova L.I. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: 1Yakut Research Institute of Agriculture (E-mail: yniicx@mail.ru).
2North-Western Regional Research Center (E-mail: layshev@mail.ru).
Abstract: During these studies, current epizootic situation on reindeer brucellosis was investigated in Sakha Yakutia. A large factual material proved that despite all the complex of general and special brucellosis control veterinary measures, brucellosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is registered in 10 reindeer farms in the tundra and forest-tudra areas. A large number of small community-tribal farms is the cause of violence of veterinary and sanitation rules of reindeer transportation, import and export, uncontrolled movement of animals from the herd to herd, nonobservance of herds movement routes. Presence of natural foci of domestic and wild deer brucellosis, incomplete coverage of anti-brucellosis veterinary preventive measures in domestic reindeer herd, untimely slaughter of identified clinically sick animals and positively responding - all these factors maintain brucellosis epizootic tension in the republic. The article indicates the need for scientific basics of currently held anti-brucellosis measures. In the Republic particular attention should be paid not to the need of reindeer brucellosis constant monitoring, but to development and introduction of novel methods of brucellosis differential diagnosis and optimal schemes of alive and attenuated anti-brucellosis vaccines regarding the epizootic situation.
Keywords: reindeer breeding, brucellosis, epizootology, epidemiology, anti-brucellosis measures
References: 1. Vinokurov N.V. Osobennosti diagnosticheskoy tsennosti reaktsii nepryamoy gemagglyutinatsii pri brutsellyoze severnyh oleney [Pecularities of diagnostic value of indirect hemagglutination test at reindeer brucellosis] // Abstract thesis from Candidate of Veterinary Medicine dissertation. / Vinokurov N.V. - Yakutsk, 2010. - 18 p.
2. Davydov N.N., Sleptsov Ye.S. Brutsellyoz severnyh oleney i mery borby s nim [Reindeer brucellosis and its control measures] // Nauchnye osnovy olenevodstva – Scientific basics of deer breeding./ – Yakutsk, 1984. – P. 90-98.
3. Zabrodin V.A. Brutsellyoz oleney i nekotoryh dikih zhivotnyh na Yeneseyskom Severe [Deer and wildlife brucellosis in the Yenisei river region]: abstract from Docotor of Biol. Sci. Diss./ Zabrodin V.A. – Leningrad., 1973.- 33 p.
4. Layshev K.A. Spetsificheskaya profilaktika v sisteme protivobrutsellyoznyh meropriyatiy u severnyh oleney (teoreticheskoye, eksperimentalnoye i prakticheskoye obosnovaniye) [Specific prevention in the system of reindeer brucellosis control measures (theoretical, experimental, and practical basics): abstract from Doc. Vet. Sci. Diss./ K.A.Layshev. –Novosibirsk, 1998. – 35 p.
5. Layshev K.A., Samandas A.M., Prokudin A.V. Kontseptualnye modeli zaschity severnyh oleney ot osnovnyh infektsionnyh bolezney severnyh oleney na Kraynem Severe [Conceptual models of reindeer defense from major infections on the Extreme North]// Collection of manuscripts “Severnnoye olenevodstvo: sovremennoye sostoyaniye, perspektivy razvitiya, novaya kontseptsiya veterinarnogo obsluzhiviniya” – Northern deer breeding: current state, further development prospective, novel conception of veterinary service”./ Layshev K.A., Samandas A.M., Prokudin A.V. - 2012. - P. 108-114.
6. Pinigin A.F. Brutsellyoz severnyh oleney [reindeer brucellosis]./ Pinigin A.F. - Irkutsk, 1971.- 200p.
7. Khoch A.A. Optimizatsiya protivobrutselyoznyh meropriyatiy v usloviyah Yakutii [Brucellosis control measures optimization in Yakutiya]:a bstract from Doc. Vet. Sci. Diss./Khoch A.A.. – Novosibirks, 1996. – 50 p.


Authors: 1Zaremba A.V. - junior scientist; 1Stegniy B.T. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, academician NAAN; 1Gerilovich A.P. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; 2Balym Yu.P.- Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Address: 1National scientific center «Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine» (Ukraine, Kharkiv, Pushkinskaya str. 83, 61023, E-mail: admin@vet.kharkov.ua).
2 Îf Department the Kharkov State Zooveterinary Academy (Ukraine, Dergachy Region, Malaya Danilovka, 62341).

Abstract: The article presents data on post-vaccination complications in chicken during Marek's disease prophylaxis using the NSC “IECVM” bivalent cultural vaccine which was successfully certified by control tests. The 3-years of experience of using this vaccine in different poultryfarms didn't have negative consequents for chicken health: it was harmless, non-toxic and highly efficient.
 4,5-5 months after vaccination against Marek's disease about 8,4% chickens were infected and part of them died or slaughtered. Clinical signs in some infected birds were like to Marek's disease: falling from their feet, dropped wings. Autopsy of slaughtered poultry showed changes in the form of arthritis and gout only. Autopsy of dead poultry revealed changes in the form hydropericarditis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enlargement of the spleen, curvature of carina. No inclusions in the liver or other organs, thickening of the walls of the sciatic nerve and glandular stomach, increased bursa of Fabricius, characteristic of Marek's disease was detected. Laboratory studies were conducted using virus isolation test, PCR, ID and ELISA. The chicken adenovirus infection was detected, which caused mortality among vaccinated against Marek's disease poultry.
Keywords: Marek's disease, vaccination, vaccine against of Marek's disease, immunity
References: 1. Gusev, A. Sovety po rabote s vaktsinoy protiv bolezny Mareka [Text] / A. Gusev, Sh Kulayshbekova // [Councils of work with a vaccine against of Marek's disease] // Ptitsevodstvo - Poultry farming. – 2001. – Vol.4. – P. 40-42
2. Sovremennye strategii vaktsinoprofilaktiki infektsionnyh bolezney ptits v rossiyskom ptitsevodstve. Tendencyy i perspectivy [Text] / V.N. Irza et al. // Actualnye problemy infektsyonnoy patologii zhivotnyh: materyaly Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii, posvayschonnoy 45-letyu FGU VNIIZZ -  [Modern strategies of vakcinoprophylaxis of infectious diseases of birds are in the Russian poultry farming. Tendencies and prospects // Issues of the day of infectious pathology of zoons: materials of the International scientific conference, devoted the 45year of FGU VSIRDS]. - Vladimir. – 2003. – P. 277-284.
3. Kononenko, A.B. Vyzyvayemost virusa bolezny Mareka vo vneshney srede i ustoychivost ego k himicheskim dezynfitsiruyuschim veschestvam [Text] // [Survivability of virus of of Marek's disease in an external environment and stability of him to the chemical disinfectant matters] // Avtoreferat dyssertatsii kandidata biologicheskih nauk - Abstract of thesis of dissertation of candidate of biological sciences / A.B. Kononenko. M. – 1987. – P. 26.
4. Korovin, R.N. Osnovy profilaktiki bolezny Mareka [Text] / [Bases of prophylaxis of  Marek's disease] / R.N. Korovin, N. Prydybaylo // Tezisy dokladov konferentsii po ptithevodstvu - Theses of lectures of conference on the poultry farming. – Sergiev-Posad. 1995. – P. 26.
5. Friedman, A. Marek's disease vaccines cause temporary B - lymphocyte dysfunction and reduced resistance to infection in chicks [Text ]/ A. Friedman, E. Shalem - Meilin, ED Heller// Avian Pathol. - 1992. -¹ 21. - P.621- 631.
6. Pathogenesis of Marek's disease ( MD ) and possible mechanisms of immunity induced by MD vaccine [Text ] / T. Morimura [ et al . ]// J of Veterinary Medical Science. - 1998. - ¹ 60:1. - P.1-8.
7. Schat, K.A. Immune responses to Marek's disease virus infection [Text ] : review/ KA Schat, C.J. Markowski - Grimsrud// Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. - 2001. - ¹ 255. - P.91-120.
8. Sharma, J.M. Introduction to poultry vaccines and immunity [Text ]/ JM Sharma// Adv. Vet . Med. - 1999. - ¹ 41. - P.481- 494.
9. Witter, R.L. Control strategies for Marek's disease: a perspective for the future [Text ]/ RL Witter // Poultry Science. - 1998. - ¹ 77:8. - P.1197-1203.
10. Genetics and vaccines for the future control of Marek's disease [Text ]/ RL Witter [ et al . ]// Proc . Annual nat., Beepers round table. S.1. - 1994. - P.90-96.
11. Witter , R.L. Marek's disease [Text ]/ R.L. Witter, K.A. Schat// Disease of poultry. - Eleventh Edition. - Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 2003. - P.405-465.


Authors: Sytiuk M.Ð. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: Institute of Veterinary Medicine of NAAS of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine (E-mail: snp1978@ukr.net).

Abstract: The article presents data on detection of DNA circovirus type 2 in biological material from wild boars hunted in Poltava region. Studies were conducted using polymerase chain reaction in real time and reagent kit production State Scientific Organization “All-Russian Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology” RAAS. All-Russian Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology laboratory investigated 78 samples of biological material suspensions from the 78 wild pigs that shot within hunting areas in 10 districts of Poltava region. Each animal was sampled for biological material - the lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) to prepare suspensions. Each boar was sampled once - a mixture of suspensions of spleen and lymph nodes in equal ratio.
The results of molecular genetic studies of biological material from wild pigs using PCR revealed that circovirus DNA of the second type in 65 suspension samples. Samples were positive in 100% of cases in Dikansky, Zinkovsky, Lokhvitsky, Kotelevsky and Mirgorodsky areas. On the territory Velykobagachansky, Lubensky, and Globinsky, Kozelschinsky districts virus DNA was detected respectively in 61,11%, 92,31%, 40,0% and 80,0% of the number of research samples. General indicator of the number of positive samples was studied 83,33%.
The obtained preliminary results indicate that the wild boar population in 10 regions Poltava region of Ukraine, circulates Circovirus second type.
Keywords: circovirus type 2, wild boars, molecular genetic studies
References: 1. Malogolovkin A.S. Problema tsirkovirusnykh infektsii v patologii zhivotnykh i cheloveka [Problem circovirus infection in animal and human pathology] // Vetkorm - Veterinary and feeding. 2008. ¹ 2. P. 30–31.
2. Monitoring infektsionnykh boleznei sredi dikikh kabanov [Monitoring of infectious diseases among wild boars] / A.V.Shcherbakov, S.A.Kukushkin, A.M.Timina [et al.] // Voprosy virusologii - Problems of Virology. 2007. Vol.52, ¹3. P.29–33.
3. Orliankin B.G., Aliper T.I., Nepoklonov E.A. Tsirkovirusnaia infektsiia svinei [Circovirus infection of pigs] // Veterinariia selskokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh - Veterinary farm animals. 2006. ¹ 12. P. 17–21.
4. Orliankin B.G Tsirkovirusnaia infektsiia svinei i mery borby s nei [Circovirus infection of pigs and the response to it] // Veterinariia selskokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh - Veterinary farm animals. 2005. ¹ 2. P. 18–20.
5. Tsirkovirusnye bolezni svinei (TsVBS) [Porcine circovirus disease (PCVD)] / V.I.Sementsov, I.A.Bolotskii, A.K.Vasilev, S.V.Prutsakov // Veterinariia Kubani - Veterinary Kuban. 2009. ¹5. P.8–10.
6. Immunogenicity and pathogenicity of chimeric infectious DNA clones of pathogenic porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and nonpathogenic PCV 1 in weanling pigs / M.Fenaux, T.Opriessing, P.G.Halbur, X.J.Meng // J. Virol. 2003. Vol.77. P.11232–11234.
7. The Circoviridae / P.Lukert, D.F. de Boer, J.L.Dale [et al.] // Virus taxonomy. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy  of Viruses / F.A.Murphy, C.M.Fauquet, DNL Bishop [et al.] Vienna and New York: Springer Verlag, 1995. P.166–168.


Authors: Klinovitskaya I.M .- Candidate of Economics Sciences; Gulenkin V.M. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: FGBI «Federal Centre for Animal Health» (FGBI “ARRIAH”), Russia (600901, Vladimir, microrayon Yur’evets; E-mail: klinovitskaya@arriah.ru; gulenkin@arriah.ru).

Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious, viral disease which, above all, poses an economic threat as it results in stamping out of the whole domestic swine population both inside the affected area and the first containment zone, implementation of quarantine and animal health measures which account for heavy direct and indirect economic losses. The Krasnodarsk krai is one of the most affected regions of the Russian Federation.
The study was conducted to estimate the economic losses induced by the ASF outbreak in this region in 2008 - 2012.
The calculation of direct economic losses presented in the article alongside with the calculation of indirect economic losses was based on evaluating the following factors: mortality, emergency slaughter, the decrease in natality, monitoring expenses, the cost of veterinary and quarantine measures, the loss and destruction of wild boar. For this purpose approved home and foreign methods of the calculation of losses caused by animal diseases were used. The official data provided by the OIE served as the main source of figures regarding the number of dead, destroyed and culled animals.
According to the study results the total amount of direct and in direct losses inflicted over the past 5 years was worth 3.4 billion rubles in the Krasnodar krai.
Keywords: African Swine Fever, epizootic, economic losses, pig farming
References: 1.Dzhailidi G.A., Krivonos R.A. et al. Obespechenie epizooticheskogo blagopoluchiya – osnovnaya zadacha gosudarstvennoy veterinarnoy sluzhby Kubani [Providing epizootic wellfare - the main task of state veterinary service] //Veterinaria Kubani. 2014. Vol. 1. URL: http://vetkuban.com/num1_201401.html.
2.Federal Service of State Statistics URL:http://www.gks.ru/.
(application date: 13.02.2013).
4.Metodika opredeleniya ekonomicheskoy effektivnosti veterinarnyh meropriyatiy [methodology of economical efficiency evaluation of veterinary measures]//P.A. Chulkov, I.N. Nikitin et al.- Moscow. 1982. 55p.
5.Metodicheskoye rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu ekonomicheskogo ushcherba i effektivnosti protivoepizooticheskih meropriyatiy pri osobo opasnyh boleznyah zhivotnyh (gruppa A) [Guidelines on eveluation of ecolnomic loss and antiepizootic measures efficiency at animals eminently danerous diseases (group A)// V.M. Gulenkin et al.- Vladimir, ARRIAH. 1996. 86 p.  
6.The OIE Official website:  http://www.oie.int
7.Caspari C. et al. Economic analysis - Prevention versus outbreak costs//OIE, Agra CEAS Consulting Ltd. 2007.186 p. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Support_to_OIE_Members/docs/pdf/OIE_-_Cost-Benefit_Analysis__Part_I_.pdf
8.Kostenko S. Tehnologiya soderzhaniya svinomatok i ih produktivnost [saw housing technology and their welfare ]//Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii - Animall Breeding in Russia. 2011.Aprel. p.11-12.
9.Gulenkin V.M., Bardina N.S., Shevtsov A.A. Otsenka ekonomicheskogo ushcherba ot afrikanskoy chumy sviney [Evaluation of economic loss from ASF]// Veterinaria. 2011. Vol. 10. p. 10-13.
10.URL: http://www.dg-yug.ru/a/2013/01/25/Tkacheva_prosjat_izjat_dik (application date: 15.04.2013).
11.URL: http://do.gendocs.ru/docs/index-159032.htm1?page=17#4478305 (application date: 08.08.2013).
12.URL:http://vk.com/away.php?to=http%3A%2F%2Fred.gklforum.ru%2Ftkachev_provotsiruet_ekologicheskuyu_katastrofu_na_severnom_kavkaze&post=5368190_762  (application date: 15.05.2013).
13.URL: http://kuban.rbc.ru/krasnodar_topnews/06/11/2013/887069.shtml (application date: 13.02.2013).
  Non-transmittable diseases


Authors: Barinov N.D. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, professor, Kalyuzhniy I.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Address: Saratov State Agricultural University name of N.I.Vavilov (Tel. +7 (8452) 69-24-25).

Abstract: The article provides studies of Butafosfan and vitamin B12 effect on body and their possible associates application in highly productive animals to prevent metabolic disorders. Approved and proposed scheme using Butafosfan in combination with vitamin B12 helps to prevent and suppress further ketosis development in milk cows and prolong their lactation operation. We provided experiment results about the effect of these substances on animal blood parameters. Basing on the reference data and the results obtained in studies we suggest interpreting milk cow ketosis as one of the manifestations of metabolic disorders. Clinical studies results, animal ethnology, morphological studies of blood, rumen contents, urine, milk from control animals showed changes indicating metabolic disorders and liver functional disorders in animals. Studies indicate the development of pre-ketosis state and ketosis disease in dairy cows and heifers after calving. An associated using of Butafosfan and vitamin B12 on the proposed scheme allows stabilization of acid-base balance inhibiting further ketosis development or prevent its development in cows and heifers. Using the proposed scheme improves performance parameters (increase in cow milk production, increases surviving rate of produced offspring and reduces cow service period). Additionally the obtained milk from using  vitamin B12 and Butafosfan has economic benefit.
Keywords: metabolic diseases, Butafosfan, cyanocobalamin, dairy cows, Ketosis, industrial complex, acid-base status, the extension operation lactation cows, diagnostics
References: 1. Dementyev S.V. Vliyaniye probiotikov, toniziruyushchih preparatov, mineralnyh dobavok i sredstv prirodnogo proishozhdeniya na molochnuyu produktivnost korov [Effect of probiotics, toning preparations, mineral supplements and means of natural origin on dairy cow productivity.] // Herald Orel State Agrarian University. 2010. Vol.. 24. Vol. 3. p. 95.
2. Zharov A.V. Zharov Yu.P. Patologiya obmena veshchestv u vysokoproduktivnyh zhivotnyh [Pathology of metabolism in highly productive animals.] // Veterinaria Vol.9 2012. p. 46-50.
3. Zharov A.V., Kondrakhin I.P. Ketoz vysokoproduktivnyh korov [Ketosis in high yielding cows.] - Moscow: 1983. 103p.
4. Zhukov N.N. Sidorkin V.A., Toropov A.A. Botofan or – novaya kormovaya dobavka dlya selskohozyaystvennoy ptitsy [Butofan rp - new feed additive for poultry.] // Effektivnoye zhivotnovodstvo Vol.9 (95) September 2013 s. 53-54.
5. Kalyuzhny I.I., Barinov N.D. Zdorovye importnyh zhivotnyh: spustya pyat mesyatsev posle zavoza [Health imported animals: five months after delivery.] // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii Vol. ¹ 3 March, 2008, p. 6-8. ; Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii special issue 2009, p. 2-4.
6. Kalyuzhny I.I., Barinov N.D. Porazheniye pecheni u vysokoproduktivnyh korov pri narushenii obmena veshchestv [Liver damage in high yielding cows with metabolic disorders.] //  Herald of Saratov State Agricultural University named after N.I. Vavilov, Vol. 08, 2013, p. 7-11.
7. Kalyuzhny I.I., Barinov N.D., Korobov A.V. metabolicheskiye narusheniya u vysokoproduktivnyh korov [Metabolic disorders in high yielding cows] //  Textbook / Saratov State Agrarian University . - Saratov, 2010. - 104 p.
8. Kalyuzhny I.I., Barinov N.D., Ryabov E.V. Adipozno-gepaticheskiy zhirovoy sindrom [Adipose - hepatic fat syndrome.] // Veterinary Medicine : Proceedings from the International Scientific and Practical Symposium / Editted by A.A. Volkova - Saratov State Agrarian University - Saratov: "Science ", 2011, p. 231-228 .
9. Kalyuzhny I.I., Barinov N.D., Smolyaninov A.G. Patologiya obmena veshchestv u importnogo molochnogo skota [Metabolism pathology in imported dairy cattle.] // Herald of Saratov State Agricultural University named after N.I. Vavilov, Vol. 01, 2012, pp.23 -26.
10. Panfilova M.N., Zhukov N.N. Primeneniye preparata na osnove Butafosfana dlya profilaktiki zabolevaniy u selskohozyaystvennoy ptitsy[Use of Butafosfan- based drug to prevent poultry diseases.] Proceedings from III  International Scientific Conference "Agrarian science and education at the present stage of development: experience, problems and solutions " - Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy, Vol.. II p. 151.
11. Shakirov O.F. katozal 10% kak sredstvo profilaktiki ketoza u korov[Katozal 10% as a means of prevention of cows ketosis] // Journal "Veterinariya Kubani". 2007. Veterinary Vol.5. pp. 1-2.
12. Bashkirov E.V., Putin S.N., Volkov A.A., et al. Konstruirovaniye inyektsionnoy formy na osnove silimarina I izucheniye yeyo biodinamicheskih i toksikologicheskih svoystv [Construction of the injection form, based on the study of silymarin and its biodynamic and toxicological properties] // Bulletin of the Saratov State Agrarian University, 2013. Vol. 08. p. 4-6. - Access mode: URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=20253696.
13. Engashev S.V., Staroverov S.A., Volkov A.A., et al. Sravnitelnaya harakteristika biodinamiki helatnogo i dekstranovogo kompleksov zheleza [Comparative characteristics of biodynamics and chelate complexes of iron dextran.] // Veterinary Medicine . 2013. Vol. 6. Pp. 50-52. - Access mode : URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=19393579.
14. P.A.Parshin, A.V. Vostroilov , N.I. Kuznetsov, I.A., Nikulin , V.I. Parshin Ðroduktivniye kachestva korov i telyat pri vklyuchenii v ratsion kompleksa biologicheski aktivnyh veshchestv [Productive qualities of cows and calves for inclusion in the diet of the biologically active substances] // / Veterinary Pathology - Vol. 2 (21) . - 2007. - P200 -2002.
15. Nikulin I.A. metabolicheskaya funktsiya pecheni u krupnogo rogatogo skota pri kontsetratsionnom tipe kormleniya I yeyo korrektsiya gepatotropnym veshchestvami[Metabolic liver function in cattle with silage and type of concentrate feeding and its correction using hepatotropic drugs] // Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Science Voronezh . - 2002. - 368p.
16. Nikulin I.A., G.E.Kopytina, M.N.Kochura Sindromny printsip diagnostiki bolezney pecheni u krupnogo rogatogo skota [Syndromic principle diagnosis of liver diseases in cattle] / / Veterinary Medicine . – Vol. 1. - 2008. - P.41-43.


Authors: 1Raginov I.S. - Doctor of Medical Sciences; 2Egorov V.I.- Candidate of Biological Sciences; 3Valiullin L.R. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 1Zinnurov R.R.- student.
Address: 1Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, (òåë. +7(843) 236-09-92, E-mail: raginovi@mail.ru).
2Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan, (òåë. +7(843)239-53-13, E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
3Research Institute «Bionanoteh», Kazan, (òåë. (843)239-71-24).

Abstract: Xenotransplantation of human tissue fragments into the anterior eyeball chamber of laboratory animals is a promising method to study the effects of pharmacological agents, allowing to predict the effects of these substances on the human body with a very high probability. In order to develop this method we conducted xeno- and auto- transplantation of mouse and rat sciatic nerve fragment into the anterior chamber of the rat eye. Choosing of transplant type conditioned by the possibility to assess the quantitative changes of Schwann cells, neural tissue support cells, after transplantation. In 7 days after the transplantation the fragment of sciatic nerve was isolated from the anterior chamber and fixed in formalin. On the transverse paraffin sections of these fragments and of intact nerves of rats and mice, Schwann cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, wherein the antibodies to S100, biomarker of these cells, were used. The result revealed that at neither auto- nor xeno- transplantation the amount of Schwann cells in the transplanted rat and mouse sciatic nerve is not changed in comparison with the values of the intact nerve, indicating the absence of immune response to the transplanted material. The results obtained indicate the adequacy of the model we used to further test the influence of pharmacological agents.
Keywords: transplantation of tissues, culture of animal cells, anti-tumor drugs, cultivation of tumor cells in the organism
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Authors: Shabunin S.V. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, member of the RAAS; Mikhalev V.I. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Morgunova V.I. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: State Scientific Institution All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Voronezh (Voronezh, Lomonosova st., 114-b, tel.: 8-473-253-92-81, E-mail: vnivipat@mail.ru)

Abstract: Highly effective methods of therapy and prophylaxis of postnatal subinvolution of uterus in cows were offered for the production and can be considered as a practical significance of the article.
The first run of the experiments showed that the usage of vitamin-mineral premix, tribasic calcium phosphate for dry cows and their preparation with selemag drug promoted normalization of metabolic processes and reduction of morbidity cases of cows with acute subinvolution of uterus by 1,88 times.
The second run of the experiments proved that complex pharmacological prophylaxis during labor and early postnatal periods, presupposing the usage of myotropic and general tonic drugs, provided the enchancement of retraction processes, acceleration of subinvolution of uterus, decrease of morbidity by 3,7 times and decrease of infertility duration by 1,59 times.
The third run of the experiments showed that treatment of cows with acute subinvolution of uterus with the usage of general-stimulating (ASD-2F, PDE), myotropic (synoestrol, oxytocin) and antimicrobial drugs was attended by recovery of 96% of animals at reduction of the period from calving to insemination to 10,5-18,5 days in comparison with the known methods.
Keywords: cows, subinvolution, uterus, prophylaxis, therapy
References: 1. Vayntraub A.M. Subinvolyutsiya matki i yeye znacheniye v vozniknovenii besplodiya u korov: Avtoref. dis. … kand. vet. Nauk [Subinvolution of uterus and its significance in cows’ infertility appearance: abstract of a thesis] - L, 1954. 34p.
2. Shipilov V.S., Chirkov V.A. Poslerodovaya stimulyatsiya polovoy funktsii korov [Postnatal stimulation of sexual function in cows]. – Kiyev: Urozhay - Harvest, 1987. 187p.
3. Nezhdanov A.G., Misaylov V.D. Poslerodovaya involyutsiya matki u korov [Postnatal involution of uterus in cows] // Veterinariya - Veterinary science. 1996. ¹12. P.37-43.
4. Nezhdanov A.G. Fiziologicheskiye osnovy profilaktiki simptomaticheskogo besplodiya korov: Avtoref. dis. … dokt. vet. nauk [Physiological bases for prophylaxis of cows’ symptomatic infertility: abstract of a thesis] – Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatelskiy institut nezaraznykh bolezney zhivotnykh. Voronezh - All-Soviet Union research institute of non-contagious animal diseases, 1987. 40 p.
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6. Buzlama V.S. Obshchaya rezistentnost zhivotnykh pri stresse i yeye regulyatsiya adaptogenami [General resistance of animals at stress and its regulation by adaptogens] // Doklady Rossiyskoy akademii selskokhozyaystvennykh nauk – Reports of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. 1996. ¹1. P.36-38.
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8. Buzlama V.S., Shabunin S.V. Struktura i biologicheskaya aktivnost guminovykh veshchestv [The structure and biological activity of humic substances] // Veterinariya - Veterinary science. 2007. ¹6. P.48-49.
9. Stekolnikov A.A., Plemyashov K.V., Korochkina Ye.A. Opyt primeneniya vitaminno-mineralnykh preparatov prolongirovannogo deystviya v molochnom skotovodstve [The experience of application of mineral drugs with durable action in dairy husbandry] // Voprosy normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya v veterinarii – The quetions of normative-legal regulation in veterinary medicine. 2013. ¹1. P.137-142.
10. Moiseyev O.N., Klimenko A.I., Vasilenko V.N., Pogodayev V.A., Ponomarev O.V. Sposob lecheniya poslerodovykh zabolevaniy korov [Method of treatment of postnatal diseases in cows]. Patent na izobreteniye – Patent for invention RUS 2312669 21.09.2005.
11. Usha B.V., Dyulger G.P., Burov V.G. i dr. Lekarstvennyye sredstva, primenyayemyye v veterinarnom akusherstve, ginekologii, andrologii i sovremennykh reproduktivnykh tekhnologiyakh: Sprav. posobiye dlya samostoyat. raboty studentov spetsialnosti 310800[Medicinal agents used in obstetrics, gynecology, andrology and modern reproductive technologies. Handbook for a self-work of the students. Speciality - 310800] – Veterinariya – Veterinary medicine. Moscow, 2003.


Authors: Mkrtchyan M.E. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Troshin E.I.- Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
Address: The Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk (E-mail: laulilitik@yandex.ru).

Abstract: An important condition for food security of our country is the production of sufficient volume, benign, environmentally friendly and full of food of animal origin. Therefore, studying the effect of parasites on the quality of milk in connection with the entry into force of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "On the safety of milk and dairy products" (TR TC 033/2013) is still relevant. The aim of our research was to determine the chemical composition and biochemical parameters of samples of raw cow's milk obtained from animals aged 4-5 years, infected F.hepatica, D.lanceatum and their association with an average degree of infestation.
Object of study are cows that on the results scatological research were divided into 4 groups. Animals in the first group (n = 19) to infected fasciolosis, group 2 (n = 22) - dicroceliosis, group 3 (n = 23) - their association and group 4 (n = 17) - is the control (intact)
According to information data, the infested animals had veraciously ( P <0.001) decrease in percent of dry matter content on 0,98-1,91 %, which of course is accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of all main components ( fat , protein, lactose , etc.) and density of the milk during infection F.hepatica, D. lanceatum and their association on the 0,80±0,270À; 0,65±0,430À and 0,39±0,39 0À respectively.
Results of our researches showed a significant decrease in level of protein , casein and nitrogenous substances in milk with maximum at association the investigated trematodes 0,32 ± 0,05%; 0,26 ± 0,04% and 0,34 ± 0,05% respectively.
These studies indicate that trematodes and their association cause a significant damage not only to the health of animals, but also lead to economic problems connected with the short-reception of qualitive dairy products from cows.
Keywords: milk, chemical composition, cow, trematodes association
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13. Tehnicheskiy reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza «O bezopasnosti moloka i molochnoy produktsii» (TR TS 033/2013)// El. resursyi: http://www.eurasiancommission.org/,http://www.consultant.ru/document
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Authors: Pozov S.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Porublev V.A. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Orlova N.E. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, associate professor; Aziev S.A. - graduate student; ?Yashchenko E.A. – student.
Address: 1Stavropolsk State Agrarian University (tel. +7 (8652) 28-67-38, E.mail: fvm-fvm@yandex.ru).
2Smolensk State Agricultural Academy.
Abstract: Feeding of experimental cows with microelements contributed to the increase in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and had a positive effect on the clinical parameters. Experiment cows finished their wool molting early, myxedema signs disappeared, milk production increased (in the first group for 290 kg, in the second - 300 kg per cow), cows delivered newborns normally in comparison with the controls. Feeding with microelements showed that experimental animas had higher reserves of alkaline in blood than cows from the control group, indicating positive effect of micronutrients, especially iodine, on oxidation - reduction processes in animals. As a set of trace elements (iodine, copper, cobalt) as well as single iodine in the period of relatively poor feeding in dairy cows contribute to a better absorption of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) from the intestine, their deposition in bones and economical use, and the use of carotene by cows.
Keywords: trace elements, erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, prevention, hypothyroidism, osteodystrophy, dressing, etiology
References: 1. KovalskiyV.V. Znachenie geohimicheskoy ekologii v opredelenii potrebnosti selskohozyaystvennyih zhivotnyih v mikroelementah [Ifnluence of geochemical ecology in evaluation of livestock animals demand in microelements]// Mikro-elementy v zhivotnovodstve - Microelements in animal breeding. – Moscow: 1962. – P.5-22.
2. Pozov S. A., Komarova L. N. Vliyanie razlichnyh doz medi na nekotorye biohimicheskiye pokazateli syvorotki krovi telyat [Influence of various dosages of copper on some calves blood serum bochemical parameters] // Sb. nauch. tr.: Diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyih - Saint Petersburg scientific bulletin: "Detection, treatment, and prevention of livestock diseases / Stavropol State Agrarian Academy, 2000. - 3 p.
3. Pozov S. A., Beliy Yu. V., Orlova N. E. Vliyaniye podkormok mikroelementami i fitobiostimulyatorom (FBS) na produktivnost ovets [[Influence of feeding with microelemets and phytobiostimulators on sheep wellfare]/ Nauchno-proizvodstvenny zhurnal «Ovtsy, kozy i sherstnoye delo» - Scientific journal "Sheep, goats, and wooling",Vol. 3 2008. - 3 p.
4. Pozov S. A., Shalygina V. A. Vliyanie podkormki mikroelementami i fitobiostimulyatora (FBS) na dinamiku gematologicheskih pokazateley u yagnyat [[Influence of feeding with microelemets and phybiotostimulators on lambs hematological parameters dynamics] // Sbornik nauchnyh statey «Diagnostika, lecheniye i profilaktika zabolevaniy s/h zhivotnyih - Scientific bulletin: "Detection, treatment, and prevention of livestock diseases  / Stavropol «AGRUS», 2008. - 3 p.
5. Pozov S. A., Shalygina V. A. Vliyanie mikroelementov i fitobiostimulyatora(FBS) na pokazateli ovets [Influence of feeding with microelemets and phytostimulators on sheep physiological parameters] / Veterinariya Vol. 9 2008. - 4p.
6. Pozov S. A., Orlova N. E., Shalygina V. A. Biogeohimicheskie provintsii i svyazannyie s nimi mikroelementozy zhivotnyh [Biogeochemical areas and the associated animal microelementoses // Manuscript. / Stavropol publishing house «AGRUS», 2008. – P. 132.


Authors: Orobchenko A.L. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
Address: National Scientific Center «Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine» (83, Pushkinskaya street, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 61023, E-mail: orobchenko1983@mail.ru).

Abstract: The article presents the results of monitoring of forage and its components on the total iron content. 232 samples of feed, including 144 samples of poultry feed, 15 – for cattle and 73 – for pigs have been studied on the iron content by XRF analysis. There has been determined the excess of MRLs in 73,6% of fodder samples for birds (and in 16,0% of cases, the iron level exceeded the maximum tolerable level) at an average content of 337,53±14,46 mg/kg, in 13,3% of fodder for cattle (130,88±14,55 mg/kg) and in 54,8% of samples of fodder for pigs (328,64±34,60 mg/kg).
In animal feed components (197 samples) exceeding of iron MRLs has been determined in 25,0% of samples of soybean and premixes (average value in this case was 95,37±8,46 and 7769,74±2333,08 mg/kg, respectively), 27,3% of the samples of grain mixtures (114,40±16,72 mg/kg), 29,5% of coarse and succulent fodder (130,65±31,23 mg/kg), 33,3% of samples of bran (111,14±12,01 mg/kg), 54,2% of samples of mineral additives and 70,4% of the samples of oilcake and meal (6281,17±1937,33 and 132,18±7,61 mg/kg, respectively), while wheat, barley, corn and peas conformed MRLs.
Keywords: feed, mixed fodder, iron, monitoring
References: 1. Markin Yu., Klimenko A., Antoshin V. Predstarternye korma dlya sviney [Enriched feed for pigs] // Kombikorma. - Mixed fodders 2009. Vol. 6. P. 75-76.
2. Shaw D.T. Impact of vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion on finishing pig growth performance, fecal mineral concentration, carcass characteristics, and the nutrient content and oxidative stability of pork // J. Anim. Sci. 2002. Vol. 80 (11). P. 2920-2930.
3. Metreveli T.V. Biohimiya zhivotnyh [Animal biochemistry]. Saint Petersburg: Lan, 2005. 296 p.
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6. Maksimalno dopustimy uroven (MDU) soderzhaniya nekotoryh himicheskih elementov v kormah i kormovyh dobavkah dlya zhivotnyh [Maximum allowable level (MAL) content of some chemical elements in feed and feed additives for animals]: approved and implemented by Ukraine State Department of veterinary medicine ¹ 15-14/155 of 8 August, 2000 / State Research Control Institute of veterinary preparations and feeding additives, CSLVM; developed by G.A. Hmelnitsky, Yu.M. Kosenko, T.R. Levitsky, D.V. Yanovich, Yu.M. Novozhitskaya, D.A. Zasekin. Moscow. Mir, 2000. 4 p.
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Authors: Borisov D.R - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Tarnuev Yu.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
Address: The Buryat State Academy of Agriculture named after V.R.Philippov, Ulan-Ude (tel. +7(3012) 44-26-11; E-mail: bgsha@bgsha.ru).

Abstract: During the study of patterns of animal growth and development first of all it is necessary to explore all sides of metabolism and protein metabolism in particular. The qualitative composition of blood undergoes significant changes throughout the life of animal. For this we studied morphology and protein composition of lamb blood from neonatal period up to 6 months. These parameters were found to alter both in qualitative and quantitative level because of peculirities of animal postnathal ontogenesis. As such, colostric feeding period is characterized by significant changes in blood total protein and its fractions. We noticed that most of animals that recieved maternal colostrum had serum proteins reaching maximum level which reetains during the first days. Once colostrum recieved blood test showed gamma- globulin in large concentrations (mean 2.43 g %) that is immunocompetent protens. Blood morphology of newborn lambs is characterized by level of red blood cells and hemoglobin, which tends to reduce with the age of  animals. According to our data, stabilization of lambs blood  immunomorphological parameters accomplishes by 6 months.
Keywords: lambs, morphology, ontogeny, embryonic and postembryonic periods, blood, blood cells, protein fraction
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Authors: 1Okulova I.I. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 1Kokorina A.E. – scientist; 1Skopin A.E. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; 2Kovalchik R. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Director.
Address: 1GNU All-Russian Research Institute of Hunting and Animal Breeding named after prof. B.M.Zhitkova RAAS Russia, Kirov (Preobrazhenskaya ulitsa, 79, e-mail: Labvet@mail.ru).
2Institute of Mammals Research, Poland Academy of Sciences, Bialowieza Poland, ul. Waszkiewicza 1, 17-230.

Abstract: Morphology and physiology of the excretory system of bison not been adequately studied so far. Nephron is a basic functional unit of the kidney. In the kidney there are several types of functioning nephrons: surface, intracortical, and juxtaglomerular ones. The paper presents the study of vascular histometrical kidney glomerules in bison of different age. The material was collected in the territory of the Bialowieza National Park of Poland during the planned breeding and veterinary work. 6 animals (3 males and 3 females) aged from 7 months to 16 years were sudied in postmortem research. Kidney samples were fixed in 70% ethanol. On paraffin sections stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin, the area of renal corpuscles, glomerular vascular and urinary space were determined within surface, intracortical and juxtamedullary region. Morphometry of renal cells was carried out according to G.G.Avtandilov's method. Based on homogeneity of the objects diameter of 10 renal corpuscles and 10 vascular glomerules was measured in each zone of kidneys. The studies showed structural features of bison kidney, manifested in areas with low severity, nephrons heterogeneous structure even within one kidney area, which differ in size and shape of renal corpuscles, glomerular and vascular area of the urinary space, capillary glomeruli with lobular structure, wrinkled renal corpuscles formed sections degraded tissue. In young animals morphometric area of renal cells in the juxtaglomerular region was significantly higher than in the surface one. In adult bison renal corpuscles in surface region are larger in area, and the erased zoning of considered morphological indicators are like cattle.
Keywords: kidney, renal corpuscles, vascular glomerulus, urinary space, the bison
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