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¹ 3, 2014

  Toxicology
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF “CHLOROFITOVIT” TOXICITY ON LABORATORY ANIMALS

   
Authors: Zukhrabova L.M. –postgraduate; Alimov A.M.- doctor of veterinary sciences, professor.
   
Address: Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after Bauman N.E. (tel. +7(843)273 97 85, Å-mail: study@ksavm.senet.ru).
   
Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the "Hlorofitovit" as studies of the effect that has any chemical compound on animals and ecoosystem living organisms is extremely important. In the studies the state of art methods of toxicological, biochemical, hematologic, veterinary and sanitary and immunological analyses were used. Experiments were done using laboratory animals (white mice, rats, rabbits). The research showed that the "Hlorofitovit» preparation is a complex compound made of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, polysaccharides, amino acids, nucleinic acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements. Toxicological studies showed that the preparation does not have toxic effect both on chemicals classification and according to danger degree classification it belongs to the fourth class – slightly dangerous substances (State Standard Document # 12.007.76). Using "Hlorofitovit" in 2,0% and 3% dosage rate in animal diet has promoting effect on homopoesis (indicated by increase of erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin in blood) on a carbohydrate exchange as an increase glucose level in blood and promotes increase of live weight.
   
Keywords: toxicity, resistance, “Hlorofitovit”, beekeeping, rats, hematologic indicators, biochemical indicators, enzymes
   
References: 1. Andreeva V.M. Rod Clorella. Morfologia, sistematika, printsipy klassifikatsii [Clorella genus: morphology, systimatization, classification principals] - Leningrad: Nauka, 1975. - 100p.   
2. Bogdanov N.I. Suspenziya hlorelly v ratsione selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Using clorella suspensions in livestock ratio]. Volgograd, 2007. -55 p.
3. Muzafarov A.M., Taubayev T.T. Kultivirovaniye i primeneniye microvodorosley [Microalgae cultivation and implementation]. - Tashkent. Fan, 1984. -136 p.
4. Bezel V.S. Populyatsionnaya ekotoksikologiya [Population ecotoxicology]. - Moscow. Nauka, 1987, 529 p.
5. Luzhnikov E.A., Klinicheskaya toksikologiya [Clinical toxicology], Moscow - "Medicine".-  1999, 413 p.
6. Printsipy i metody otsenki toksichnosti himicheskih veshestv (1981); metody opredeleniya toksichnosti i opasnosti himicheskih veshestv (toksikometriya) [princips and methods of chemical substances toxicity evaluation (1981); toxicity and danger evaluation of chemical substances] - Moscow: "Medicine"1999
7. Sokolov V.D. Farmakologiya [Pharmacy]/ Sokolov V.D., Rabinovich M.I., Grshkov G.I. et al.// Moscow, Kolos, 1997. -543 p.
8. Shabunin S.V. Pespektivy napravleniya razvitiya veterinarnoy farmakologii Rossii [Prospective trends of pharmacy development in Russia] // - proceedings from the 1st Russian veterinary pharmacy meeting, June 21-23,2007, Voronezh , 2007. –p.3-10
   
   
Title:

BLOOD SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS FED T-2 TOXIN-CONTAMINATED DIETS AND USING HIGHLY DISPERSED KISELGURE

   
Authors: 1Papunidi K.H.- Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor; 1Biktashev R.U.- Doctor of Agricultural Science; 1Bulankova S.R.- candidate of Biological sciences.
   
Address: 1Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Tatar Republic Agricultural Center of Investments and Novations, Kazan (E-mail: agro@tatar.ru).
   
Abstract: In-vitro experiments revealed highdispersed kiselgure’s activity of T-2 toxin absorbtion. We ivestigated highdispersed kiselgure efficacy on dairy cows using the diets contaminated by T-2 toxin in dose 5 mg/head/day. Dispersion of sorbent was 1-6 mkm, and specific surface was 1774 m2/g. Biochemical tests of cow serum  indicated that exposure to T-2 toxin increases ?-amylase activity by 17,0% (P<0,01), ALT – by 8,6% (P<0,01), AST – by 3,6% (P>0,05)  and reduces alcaline phosphatase activity by 19,5% (P<0,001), and lactatdehydrogenase – by 28,7% (P<0,001) accoringly. Milk production decreased by 0,85 kg per day. The obtained results evident  about expressed affect of T-2 toxin on cows liver function. Introduction  of 1% sorbent per dry diet was established to defend animal organism and milk production. Milk production reduced only by 0,05 kg per day. Meanwhile all the investigated parameters remained within the physiological norm.
   
Keywords: dairy cows, diets, T-2 toxin, kiselgure
   
References: 1. Ivanov A.V., Fisinin V.I., Tremasov M.Y., Papunidi K.H. Micotoxicozy [Mycotoxicosis] – Moscow, 2010.- 392 p.
2. Tremasov M.Y., Smetov P.K., Sergeychev A.I. et al. Nauchnye osnovy razrabotki pharmacologicheskich sredstv profilaktiki i lecheniya mycotoxicozov zhivotnyh [Scientific basics of  developing pharmaceuticals for animal mycotoxicosis prevention and treatment] // Proceedings from the 5th  All-Russian conference, 14-17 of May, 1996. – P. 329.
3. Tremasov M.Y., Ravilov A.Z. et al. Sovershenstvovaniye meropriyatiy po snizheniyu vozdeystviya mycotoksinov na organizm zhivotnyh [ Improving the measures on reducing  mycotoxins affect on animal organizm] // Proceedings from International sci.-pract. conf. «Diagnostics, prevention and control measures on especially dangerous exotic zooanthroponos deseases of animals», 15-16  of August 2000. – Pokrov, 2000. – P. 301-303.
4. Manson Magna M. Chemoprevention of aflotoxin B1-induced carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol in rat liverpredicting the outcome using early biomarkers / Magna M. Manson, E.Hadson, Helen W. Ball et al.// Carcinogenesis. - 1988. – v. 19. - ¹ 10. – Ð. 1829-1836.
5. Niyo K.A. Pathologic, gematologic and serologic changes in rabbits given N-2 mycotoxin orally and exposed to aerosols of Aspergillus fumigates conidia / K.A.Niyo, J.L.Richard, Y.Niyo, L.H.Tiffany // Am. J. Vet. Res. – 1988. – v. 49. – P. 2151-2160.
6. Schiefer H. Pathology of mycotoxicosis possibilities and limits of diagnosis / H. Schiefer  // Pure and Appl. Chem. – 1986. – v. 58. - ¹ 2. – Ð. 351-356.
7. Smith R. Toxic responses of the blood / R.Smith // Casarett and Doulls toxicology. The basic science of poisons. Edited by M.A.Amdur, J.Doull, C.D.Klaasen. – New-York.. – 1991. – P. 257-281.
8. Vidal D. Proprients immunosupressives des mycotoxines du groupe des trichothecenes // Bull. Inst. Pasteur. 1990. – v. 88. – P. 159-182.
   
   
Title:

RABBIT BLOOD PARAMETERS AT USING "YANTAROS PLUS" DRUG AS A REHABILITATION MEANS AGAINST POISONING WITH AMMONIA VAPORS

   
Authors: Sofronova A.V. – candidate of biological sciences, Malanyev A.V. - candidate of biological sciences, Aslanov R.M. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The published data review shows that in man-induced disasters associated with ammonia more than 80 % of the animals survive. The "Yantaros plus" drug is known to promote normalization of protein, carbohydrate, mineral metabolism and stimulates hematopoiesis in various diseases and exposure to toxic substances. Therefore, experiments were aimed at studying the effect of " Yantaros plus" as rehabilitation means for animal exposed to ammonia vapors. The experiment involved rabbits of "Grey Giant" breed. Ten rabbits were challenged with ammonia vapors in a specially equipped camera and within 2 hours 2 rabbits died. The survived rabbits were divided into 2 groups. Animals from group 1 were fed with diet containing the "Yantaros plus" in 25 mg / kg ratio for 40 days. The rabbits from group 2 were fed their conventional diet and served as inoculums controls. Rabbits In group 3 were intact animals and used as biological controls. Blood from all the animals was taken before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 days and after the experiment for hematological studies. Animal treated with the "Yantaros plus" drug had significant decrease in erythrocyte number and hemoglobin in the first 10 days, and leukocytes and ESR level significantly reduced at 7 days. Normalization investigated parameters already leveled within 15 days as the experiment started. Therefore, according to the blood parameters, the experiments showed that the introduction of the "Yantaros plus" drug into rabbit diet results in more rapid recovery from ammonia poisoning.
   
Keywords: ammonia vapors, poisoning, "Yantaros plus", hematological parameters of blood
   
References: 1. Antonov V.Y. Laboratornye issledovaniya v veterinarii [Laboratory studies in Veterinary] V.Y.Antonov, P.N.Blinov.- M., 1971. – 648p.
2. Antonov V.Y. Spravochnik veterinarnogo laboranta [Reference book for Veterinary Laboratories] V.Y.Antonov. – M.: Kolos, 1991.-248p.
3. Condrahin I.P. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika v veterinarii[Clinical Laboratory diagnostics in Veterinary ] I.P.Condrakhin, N.V.Kurilov, A.G.Malahov et al.. – Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985. – 287 p.
4. Golikov S.N..Obshiye mechanizmy toksicheskogo deystviya [General mechanisms of toxic effect]  / S.N.Golikov. - Leningrad: Meditsina, 1986. – 278 ð.
5. Gilmytdinov R.Y. Fiziologiya krovi  [Blood physiology] / R.Y.Gilmutdinov, R.Z.Kurbanov.– Kazan: TGGI Publishing , 1999. – 184 p.
6. Savateev N.V. Harakteristika toksicheskogo deistviya veschestv, predstavlyayuschih opasnost pri razrushenii himicheskih obyektov[Characterization of toxic effect of substances presenting danger at destruction of chemical objects]/ N.V. Savateev, S.A. Kucenko. – L.: Voen.-med. akad., 1982. – 44 p.
7. Ivanov A.V. Obespechenye chimicheskoy bezopasnosty naselenya, zhivotnih i sredy ih obitanya [Providing chemical safety for human and animals and their habitat area] / A.V.Ivanov, K.H.Papunidi, M.Y.Tremasov // Sovremennye problem bezopasnosty giznedeyatelnosty: teorya i praktika: materialy 2-oy Megdunarodnoy nauchno – prakticheskoy konferencii.-Proceedings from 2nd International Scentific conference "Current problems of personal and social health and safety: theory and practice- Part 2.- Kazan: GU «NC BGD», 2012.- P.168-172
8. Evglevsky À.À. Primenenye yantarnogo biostimulatora dlya korrektsii immunometabolicheskogo statusa glubokostelnih korov [Using succinic bioinducer for remodeling immune and metabolic status of caws in late pregnancy] / À.À. Åvglevskiy, Î.Ì. Shvets, Å.P. Åvglevskaya, I.P. Àrutunova // Veterinarya. - 2011. – Vol.9. - P.41-43.
9. Papunidi K.H. Razrabotka sredstv zashchity zhivotnyh ot otravleniy paramy ammiaka [Developing animal defense means against poisoning with ammonia vapors]/ K.H.Papunidi, A.V.Malanyev. M.Y.Tremasov // 3rd Meeting of Russian toxicologists: article abstracts.-Ìoscow., 2008. – P.205-206.
10. Papunidi K.H. Sovremennye problemy veterinarnoy toksikologii [Current problems of veterinary toxicology]/ K.H.Papunidi, M.Y.Tremasov // Veterinarny vrach. - 2009. – Vol.3. - P.7-10.
   
   
Title:

SEASONAL MONITORING OF WATER BODIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

   
Authors: Ðaðunidi E.K. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Tremasov M.Ya. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Aslanov R.M. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; Makaeva A.R. – postgraduate; Konyukhova V.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Makaeva V.I. – staff engineer.
   
Address: 1Federal Centre for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
2Kazan Cooperative Institute.
   
Abstract: As urban areas continuously develop untreated or undertreated sewage waters inevitably enter water bodies. This cn cause not only water pollution, but also the death of aquatic life. The possible reasons of fish death in several areas of the Republic of Tatarstan have previously been analyzed. This article presents the results of analyzes of water samples from the water objects of the Republic of Tatarstan, where cases of fish mass death have previously been registered. Samples were taken from the Kama, Myosha, Volga, Zay, Irga rivers. In this study surface water were investigated. Totally, 667 assays have been performed. Tests and sampling were taken every season: winter, spring, summer and autumn, 2013. The analyses showed persistent exceeding of following ecotoxicants in the water: iron, copper, zinc, manganese, ammonium ions. Such pollutions of water objects cause significant damage to the hydrosphere, so society needs to take care of an effective treatment of wastewater entering water objects.
   
Keywords: water, ecology, fishes, toxicants, poisoning, maximum permissible concentration
   
References: 1. Novikov Y.V., Lastochkina K.O. Boldina Z.N. Metody issledovaniya kachestva vody vodoyomov [Methods of investigation of water quality of water bodies]. – Moscow: “Meditsina” – Medicine, 1990. 400 p.
2. Potrohov A.S. Raznorodnost vyzhivayemosti karpovyh ryb pri toksicheskom deystvii ammoniya [Heterogeneity of Survival of Fish of Cyprinidae Family under Toxic Impact of Ammonia] // Gidrobiologicheskiy zhurnal - Hydrobiological Journal. 2010. Vol. 4. P. 75-83.
3. Bedritskaya I.N. Vliyaniye tyazhelyh metallov na organizm ryb, vyrashivaemyh na sbrosnyh vodah elektrostantsiy [Influence of heavy metals on fish grown in waste water power stations]: - doctoral thesis for Candidate of Biological Sciences: 03.00.10 / Bedritskaya Irina Nikolayevna - St. Petersburg, 2000. 185 p.
4. Normativy kachestva vody vodnyh obyektov rybohozaystvennogo znacheniya, v tom chisle normativy predelno dopustimyh kontsentratsiy vrednyh veshestv v vodah vodnyh obyektov rybohozaystvennogo znacheniya [Water Quality Standards for Commercial Fishery Water Bodies, Including Standards for Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Harmful Substances in Waters of Commercial Fishery Water Bodies]: utverzhdeny Prikazom Rosrybolovstva ot 18.01.2010 ¹ 20 - RF Federal Fisheries Agency Order No. 20 of January 18, 2010.
5. Sanitation Epidemiological Norms Document 2.1.5.980-00 “Vodootvedeniye naselyonnyh mest, sanitarnaya ohrana vodnyh obyektov. Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya k ohrane poverhnostnyh vod” [Water disposal at inhabited points. sanitary protection of water bodies. Hygienic requirements to surface waters protection].
6. Metodika podchyota usherba, nanesyonnogo rybnomu hozaystvu v rezultate sbrosa v rybohozyaystvenniye vodoyemy stochnyh vod I drugih othodov [Method of calculation of damage to fisheries caused by the release in the fishery waters of sewage and other wastes]: utverzhdena Ministerstvom rybnogo hozyaystva SSSR 16.01.67 ¹ 30-1-11
7. Miklashevskiy N.V.,Korolkova S.V. Chistaya voda. Sistemy ochistki i bytovyye filtry [Pure water. Water purification systems and household filters. – Sankt-Peterburg: BNV, 2000. 240 p.
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

ANIMAL RABIES MONITORING IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC AREA

   
Authors: 1Burdov G.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, corresponding member Udmurt Republic Academy of Sciences, 2Marasinskaya E.I. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Chismatullina N.A. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, 3Yavkin S.G.
   
Address: 1Udmurt Republic Chief Veterinary Administration.
2Udmurt Veterinary Diagnostic Center.
3Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
4Izhevsk Station on Animal Diseases Control.
   
Abstract: The article provides a review of rabies epizootical situation and detection management including carnivals anti-rabies oral vaccination launched in 2008 in the Udmurt Republic. The region is registered to be infected with rabies of natural type spread by foxes. Of rabies microscopic detection methods the luminescent microscopy is the most precise and in combination with ELISA it provides the most reliable results. The mentioned immunochemical methods detect the infection within a shorter period – 5-6 hours- comparing to biotest using white rats – 30 days according to State Standards Document 26075-84.
A survey of wild carnivals oral vaccination performed in the Udmurt Republic demonstrated unsatisfactory results because either anti-rabies vaccination of targeted animals hadn’t cover the whole area or it had been terminated. According to OIE, WHO, EU recommendations the animal rabies elimination takes at least 5-6 years of animals continuous oral vaccination within the whole infected area. For successful rabies control in the Udmurt Republic we recommend to develop single inter-regional Program including a simultaneous large-scaled anti-rabies vaccination of wild carnivorous animals within Volga Region area.
   
Keywords: rabies, spread dynamics, foxes, cats, dogs, wildlife vaccination and detection efficiency
   
References: 1. Belchihina A.V., Durova M.V., Shibayeva M.A., et al. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya i prognoz po beshenstvu na territorii Vladimiskoy oblasti [Rabies epizootic situation and forecast in Vladimir region area]. Information bulletin of Federal State Budgetary Institution “Federal Center for Animal Health”, Vladimir. - 2012.
2. Gulyukin M.I., Vedernikov V.A. Situatsiya uzhe krizisnaya [The situation is already crucial]// Veterinarnaya zhizn.- 2008. – Vol. 12.- P. 6-8.
3. Ivanov A.V., Hismatullina N.A., Gulyukin A.M. Epizootologicheskiy I immunologicheskiy nadzor za beshenstvom [Rabies epizootic and immunological monitoring] //Veterinarny vrach.- 2010.-Vol 4 (17).- p. 3-6.
4. Ivanov A.V., Hismatullina N.A., Chernov A.N., Gulyukin A.M., Beshenstvo: etiologiya, epizootologiya, diagnostika [Rabies: etiology, epizootology, detection] illustrated manual. Moscow. Kolos. - 2010.- 54 p.
5. Samuylenko A.Ya., Solovyova b.V., Nepoklonov Ye.A. Infektsionnaya patologiya zhivotnyh [Animal infection pathology] ÒI., Ìoscow, «Akademkniga». 2006.
6. Hismatullina N.A., Chernov A.N., Yusupov R.H. et al. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya i profilaktika beshenstva lisits na territorii Tatarstana [Fox rabbies epizootology and control in Tatarstan] //Veterinarny vrach. - 2005.- Vol. 1.- p. 53-58.
7. Hismatullina N.A., Gulyukin A.M., Kulakova S.R., Amirova I.V. Sovershenstvovaniye mer borby s beshenstvom v Smolenskoy oblasti [Improvement of rabies control measures in Smolensk region].// Veterinaria. - 2011.- Vol. 4.- p. 24-27.
   
   
Title:

REVEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL VIRAL INFECTIONS IN YOUNG CALVES IN DAGESTAN FARMS

   
Authors: Musayeva M.N. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Budulov N. R. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: State Research Institution Caspian Area Research Veterinary Institute, Mahachkala (E-mail:mila-nazarova@mail.ru)
   
Abstract: The article provides the results of our researches on spreading of the bovine viral diarhea, rota- and coronaviral infections in Dagestan farms. The article is of practical importance as it provides a spread level of newborn calves gastrointestinal diseases of viral etiology within the republic area.
In the farms infected with viral gastrointestinal diseases we collected excrements from infected calves and intestine contents from euphonized and dead calves aged from 1 to 20 days old. The obtained results showed that along with bacteria and other etiologic factors viruses, in particular, virus of diarrhea, rota- and coronaviruses play their role in etiology of gastrointestinal diseases. Antigens to rota- coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus were detected in 51.7, 31.3, and 17.5% cases accordingly. Calves can have viral gastrointestinal infection in the type of monoinfection and in mixed variants. In association type antigens to BVD-Mucosa disease and rotavirus are registered in 18.4%, bovine viral diarrhea virus + coronaviruses in 10.2%, rota- and coroviruses in 19.1% and all three types of viruses in 8.5% cases.
To determine the spreading degree of viral gastrointestinal infection amongst cattle herds of all ages blood plasma was studied for the infection antibodies. The obtained results witness that in the republic farms these viral infections circulate in cattle herds of all ages. A larger affect by viral gastrointestinal infections is registered in adult cattle herds which do not develop clinical signs. It indicates a silent form of the infection, but these animals are the infection source.
   
Keywords: cattle, calves, antigen, antibodies, excrements, blood serum, rotavirus, coronavirus, viral diarrhea, Dagestan Republic
   
References: 1. Avilov V.C., Gogolev V.V., Matyugina N. I. Infekcionnue enterity novorozhdennych telyat rota- i coronavirusnoy etiologii [Newborn calves infectious enteritis of rota- and coronaviral etiology]// Bulletin of All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary. 1982. Vol. 47. P. 9–12.
2. Budulov N.R. Respiratornye bolezni krupnogo rogatogo skota v Dagestane: avtoref. dis. doctora vet. nauk [Cattle respiratory diseases in Dagestan]:abstract from dissertation thesis for doctor of Veterinary Sciences//Krasnodar.2009. 37p.
3. Gaffarov Kh. Z., Ivanov A.I., Nepoklonov E.A., Ravilov A.Z., Mono- i smeshannye  infekcionnye diarei novorozhdennych  telyat  i  porosyat [Mono- and mixed viral diarrheas in newborn calves and  pigglets]//Kazan: FEN. 2002. 590 p.
4. Zhidkov S.A., Lebedev A.I., Gogolev V.V. et al. Rol virusnoi diarei v etiologii respiratornykh i zheludochno-kishechnykh boleznei   telyat [Role of viral diarrhea in etiology of calves respiratory and intestinal diseases]// Herald of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences 1995. Vol. 4. P. 50–53.
5. Zelenov A.T., Mogilniy Y.I., Astapov S.V. et al.  Profilaktika rota- i coronavirusnych enteritov novorozhdennykh  telyat. [ Prevention of rota- and coronaviral enteritises in newborn calves ]//Veterinarya. 2004. Vol.4. P. 8–9.
6. Koromyslov G.F., Avilov V.C., Lebedev A.I., Gogolev V.V. Rota- i coronavirusy i  ich rol v etiologii diarei novorozhdennykh telyat.//[Rota- and coronaviruses and their role in etiology of newborn calves viral diarrhea] Selskoe chozyaistvo za rubezyom. 1980. Vol. 6. P. 51–53.
7. Musayeva M. N Infekcionnye diarei novorozhdennyh telayt v usloviyah Dagestana [newborn calves viral  diarrhea in Dagestan (epizootology, prophylactic, treatment)]// abstract from dissertation thesis for Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, Krasnodar. 2010. 23 p.
8. Oleynik A.V. Rasstroystva zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta u telyat rannego vozrasta. [Indigestions of gastrointestinal tract in calves of early age]// Veterinariy. 2009. Vol. 1. P.6–8.
9. Sokolova N.A., Sattorov I.T., Mnikova L.A. Koronavirus – vozbuditel diarei novorozhdennyzh telayt. [Coronavirus – diarrhea causative agent in newborn calves]// Veterinariy. 1982. Vol. 11. P.26–27.
   
   
Title:

USE OF INDIRECT ELISA FOR DETECTION OF ANTIBODY LEVEL TO ACTINOBACILLUS PLEUROPNEUMONIAE ANATOXINE

   
Authors: Frolovtseva A.A. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Byadovskaya O.P. - Candidate of Biological Sciences; Potekhin A.V.- Candidate of Veterinary Science; Rusaleyev V.S.- Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor.
   
Address: FGBI «Federal Centre for Animal Health» (FGBI «ARRIAH»), (600901, Russia, Vladimir, Yuryevets microdistrict, (tel.: (4922) 26-06-14, e-mail: mail@arriah.ru).
   
Abstract: Results of using a test-system based on indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae anatoxin Apx I antibodies in porcine blood sera are presented in the paper. Five groups of pigs were used in the experiment. The preparation experimental samples contained anatoxin Apx I mixed with an oil adjuvant Montanide ISA-206. Animals were immunized by preparation samples with different anatox in concentrations: 100 µg, 30 µg, 10 µg, 3 µg in a dose. Porcine blood sera samples were tested using a developed test-system based on I-ELISA. All experimental animals were seronegative in reference to porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (titre <6.64). At day 7 of post-vaccination all the animals had the minimum antibody level. Later, the vaccinated animals had a gradual increase in antibody titer at day 14, 21 and 28, respectively.
The developed test-system against “CIVITEST suis App” specificity was  66,7% and sensitivity was 88,9%.
Test results showed that the developed test-system makes it possible to detect postvaccinal antitoxic antibodies in the immunized animals.
   
Keywords: actinobacillus pleuropneumonia, anatoxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
   
References: 1. Orlyankin B.G., Aliper T.I., Nepoklonov E.A. Infektsionnye respiratornye bolezni svinei [Porcine infectious respiratory diseases] // Veterinariya. - 2005. – Vol. 11. - P. 3-6.
2. Rusaleev V.S., Pruntova O.V., Gnevashev V.M. Rol bakterii semeistva Pasteurellaceae v respiratornoi patologii svinei [Role of bacteria of Pasteurellaceae family in porcine respiratory pathology] // RatsVet INFORM. - 2004. - Vol. 5. -  P. 15.
3. Taylor D.J. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae / B.E. Shaw [et. al.] // Deseases of Swine. - Oxford, 1999. - P. 343-354.
4. Oral immunization using formalin-inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigens entrapped in microsperes with aqueous dispersion polymers prepared using a co-spray drying process / C-W. Liao, H-Y. Chiou, K-C. Yoh [et. al.] // Prevent. Vet. Med. - 2003. - Vol. 61. - P. 1-15.
5. Teoriya i praktika immunofermentnogo analiza [Theory and practice of solid phase immunosorbent assay] / A.M. Egorov, A.P. Osipov, B.B. Dzantiev, E.M. Gavrilova. - Moskow: Vysshaya shkola publishing, 1991. - P. 288.
6. Devenish J., Rosendal S., Bosse J.T. Humoral antibody response and protective immunity in swine following immunization with the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae // Infect. Immun. - 1990. - Vol. 58 - P. 3829-3832.
7. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to the Apx toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae /R. Nielsen, J. F. van den Bosch, T. Plambeck [et. al.] // Vet. Microbiol. - 2000. - Vol. 71 - P. 81-87.
8. Ma J., Inzana T. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae // J. Clin. Microbiol. - 1990. - Vol. 28 - P. 1356-1361.
9. Prevalence of seroreactors to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine herds. / J. Devenish, S. Rosendal, J.T. Bosse [et. al.] // J. Clin. Microbiol. - 1990. - Vol.28 - P. 789-791.
   
   
Title:

MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATED FROM PIGEONS IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF UKRAINE

   
Authors: Harith Abdulla Altaher – Post-graduate student; B.T.Stegniy - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences; Denys V.Muzyka – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Vitaly I. Bolotin – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: State Zooveterinary Academy, Kharkov, Malaya Danilovka, Ukraine.
National Scientific Center “Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine”, Ukraine (61023, Kharkov, Pushhkinskaya Str., 83, phone +38057 707-10-90, dmuzyka77@gmail.com).

   
Abstract: To date, of 11 known avian paramyxovirus serotypes the 1st serotype of Newcastle disease virus is particularly dangerous for poultry farming. Since the 1980-ies the PMV serotype 1 isolated from pigeons became known as "pigeon paramixoviruses of serotype 1". In most cases they are not much different from other PMV -1, but the danger of this disease should be assessed in terms of the fact that pigeons are the main reservoir of highly virulent poultry PMV -1. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the molecular and biological properties of two field isolates of Newcastle disease virus isolated from infected pigeons in different regions of Ukraine. According to the results of molecular genetic studies the field isolates of Newcastle disease virus APMV-1/pigeon/Dnepropetrovsk/1-18-11/2011 and APMV-1/pigeon/Ukromnoye/3-26-11/2011 are velogenic viruses, and according to the studies results involving chick embryos and a day old chicks - lentogenic .
   
Keywords: avian paramyxoviruses, Newcastle disease virus, pigeon paramixovirusesof serotype 1
   
References: 1. Barrett T, Blixenkrone-Moller M, Di GG, et al. Morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion. Vet Microbiol 1995;44:261-5.
2. Biancifiori F, Fioroni A. An occurrence of Newcastle disease in pigeons: virological and serological studies on the isolates. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 1983;6:247-52.
3. Briand FX, Henry A, Massin P, et al. Complete genome sequence of a novel avian paramyxovirus. J Virol 2012;86:7710.
4. Briand FX, Henry A, Massin P, et al. Complete genome sequence of a novel avian paramyxovirus. J Virol 2012;86:7710.
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6. Clark HF, Lief FS, Lunger PD, et al. Fer de Lance virus (FDLV): a probable paramyxovirus isolated from a reptile. J Gen Virol 1979;44:405-18.
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9. Jack PJ, Boyle DB, Eaton BT, et al. The complete genome sequence of J virus reveals a unique genome structure in the family Paramyxoviridae. J Virol 2005;79:10690-700.
10. Kusagawa S, Komada H, Mao X, et al. Antigenic and molecular properties of Murayama virus isolated from cynomolgus monkeys: the virus is closely related to avian paramyxovirus type 2. Virology 1993;194:828-32.
11. Lee KE, Umapathi T, Tan CB, et al. The neurological manifestations of Nipah virus encephalitis, a novel paramyxovirus. Ann Neurol 1999;46:428-32.
12. Li Z, Yu M, Zhang H, et al. Beilong virus, a novel paramyxovirus with the largest genome of non-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. Virology 2006;346:219-28.
13. Mamaev LV, Denikina NN, Belikov SI, et al. Characterisation of morbilliviruses isolated from Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica). Vet Microbiol 1995;44:251-9.
14. Miller PJ, Afonso CL, Spackman E, et al. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 detected in rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands. J Virol 2010;84:11496-504.
15. Miller PJ, Boyle DB, Eaton BT, et al. Full-length genome sequence of Mossman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from rodents in Australia. Virology 2003;317:330-44.
16. Osterhaus AD, de Swart RL, Vos HW, et al. Morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus. Vet Microbiol 1995;44:219-27.
17. Philbey AW, Kirkland PD, Ross AD, et al. An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats. Emerg Infect Dis 1998;4:269-71.
18. Renshaw RW, Glaser AL, Van CH, et al. Identification and phylogenetic comparison of Salem virus, a novel paramyxovirus of horses. Virology 2000;270:417-29.
19. Shi LY, Li M, Yuan LJ, et al. A new paramyxovirus, Tianjin strain, isolated from common cotton-eared marmoset: genome characterization and structural protein sequence analysis. Arch Virol 2008;153:1715-23.
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24. Wild TF. Henipaviruses: a new family of emerging Paramyxoviruses. Pathol Biol (Paris) 2009;57:188-96.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

EVALUATION OF GEPAVET PREMIX EFFICIENCY TO PREVENT POSTWEANED PIGLETS HEPATOZES

   
Authors: Ivanasova E.V. -applicant.
   
Address: Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (E-mail:krasnodarnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: In modern agriculture the liver diseases in productive livestock take an important place among the reasons livestock welfare decrease and mortality. An original hepatoprotective premix containing a number of biologically active substances from natural raw materials was developed for pharmacocorrection of livestock liver pathology. The major active substance of the gepavet premix is lecithin.
The aim research was to study the effect of hepatoprotective premix on postweaning piglets. The scientific experiment was held on four groups of piglets. The gepavet premix was fed to the experimental groups at 1% and 3% dosage ratio. Sodium selenite was used at a dose of 0,1 mg/kg for comparison.
The experiment results showed that the premix using had a favorable effect on the piglets. No mortality cases were registered in these groups. The average daily gain exceeded the controls for 12.7% and 33.4% respectively. Evaluation of the drug effect on piglets blood biochemical parameters showed that the premix stabilizes indicators of protein fractions and normalizes liver enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (decrease by 54.9% and 57.4% respectively)and aspartate aminotransferase (decrease by 50.6% and 51.2% respectively) was registered.
Therefore, using the gepavet premix in piglet diet reduces mortality and sickness rate, increases live weight gain and normalizes blood biochemical parameters, and has prophylactic and therapeutic effect at hepatosis.
   
Keywords: liver, phospholipids, hepatosis, piglets
   
References: 1. Baymatov V.N. Etiologiya i patogenez zabolevaniy pecheni [Liver diseases etiology and pathogenesis]//Uralskie nivyi.1986.Vol.9. P.50
2. Belyakov I.M. Diagnostika vnutrennih nezaraznyih bolezney selskohozyaystvennyih zhivotnyih [Diagnosis of livestock inner non-transmittable diseases]. Moscow: Kolos,1975. p.287
3. Blyuger A.F. Pechen [Liver]/A.F. Blyuger, V.A. Valuk.//Comprehensive Medical Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, 1982.Vol.19.p.153-159.
4. Gigichev S.U. Pechen: adaptatsiya, ekologiya [Liver: adaptation, ecology]/ edited by G.S. Yakobson. Rossiyskaya akademiya meditsinskih nauk - Russian Academy f Medical Sciences. Novosibirsk:Nauka, 1993. p.345-367.
5. Zvyagina O.P. Vliyanie ratsionov s razlichnyim soderzhaniyem zhira na aktivnost fosfolipaz A1 i A2 i holinesterazy pecheni krys [Influence of ration with fat various level on A1 and A2 phospolipases activity of rat liver choline esterase] //Voprosyi pitaniya. 1980. Vol.1. p52-54.
6. Samohin V.T. Profilaktika narusheniy obmena mikroelementov u zhivotnyih [Prevention of microelements metabolism disorders in animals. Moscow: Kolos, 1981. p.19.
7. Usha B.V. Veterinarnaya gepatologiya [Animal hepatology]. Moscow. :Kolos, 1979. p.263.
8. Kesanimi A., Grundy S.M. Effects of dietary polyenylphosphatidylcholine and tridlycerides in hypertriglycerdemic. Patients// Amer. J. Chin. Natr.  1986. V.43. ? 1.  P.98-101.
   
   
Title:

DISELEMENTOSIS – ETIOLOGY, PROPHYLAXIS, TREATMENT

   
Authors: Shabunin S.V. - PhD in veterinary sciences, professor, academician of the RAAS; Belyayev V.I. - PhD in biological sciences, professor; Papin N.E. - PhD in biological sciences.
   
Address: State Scientific Institution All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy of the RAAS, Voronezh (E-mail: vnivipat@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: Diselementosis is an abnormality of the mineral substances metabolism at their deficit, excess or imbalance in animals. That is why the aim of our research was to determine bioelements and heavy metal toxicants in soil, water, plants (feed) and blood of ruminants and pigs. The material for analyses was obtained from Voronezh, Belgorod, Kursk, Lipetsk, Orel, Rostov, Tambov, and Yaroslavl regions. Fodders in the Central Chernozem region are short of copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, magnesium and sometimes of iodine. The level of iron, cadmium and nickel in the fodders is normal, only sometimes it is slightly increased. In cattle herds concentration of copper, zinc and manganese is 30-70% lower than physiological parameters.  Having normal level of iron and phosphorus sow showed lower values of manganese, copper, magnesium, calcium and zinc by 24,0-43,3%, 13,5-23,0%, 6,0-20,0%, 10,0-13,5% and 3,6-11,5%, respectively. The imbalance of microelements is harmful, because of the deficit and excess of one of them or more. Heavy metals and other ecotoxicants introduction even within maximum allowable concentration result in diselementosis, various animal diseases, welfare decrease (and other negative consequences). To solve the problem of diselementosis it is reasonable to add the deficient bioelements into soils. It will promote plants enrichment with bioelements, stimulation of physiological-biochemical processes and increase of plant production with the necessary set and number of microelements and other useful substances (vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, bioactive substances, lipids, etc.).
   
Keywords: macro-, microelements, deficit, excess, diselemetosis, soil, water, plants, feed, blood, farming animals, prophylaxis, treatment
   
References: 1.Samokhin V.T. Profilaktika narusheniy obmena mikroelementov u zhivotnykh [Prevention of microelement metabolism disorders in animals]/ V.T. Samokhin// Dubrovitsy, 2007, 136 p.
2.Sazonov N.N. Disbalans yoda i ftora kak faktor ekologicheski obuslovlennykh patologiy[Iodine and fluorine imbalance as a factor of ecologically conditioned pathology]/ N.N. Sazonov, I.S. Tretyakov // Aktualnyye problemy veterinarnoy patologii i morfologii zhivotnykh – Current problems of animal pathology and morphology. Proceedings from scientific conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of professor A.A. Avrorov’s birthday, Voronezh, 2006, p. 541-544.
3.Tretyakov I.S. Osobennosti narusheniy obmena veshchestv korov ot khimicheskogo sostava merzlotnykh pochv i kormov [Cow metabolism disorders from chemical content  of frozen subsoil and fodders]/ I.S. Tretyakov, N.N. Sazonov// Aktualnyye problemy veterinarnoy patologii i morfologii zhivotnykh – Current problems of animal pathology and morphology. Proceedings from scientific conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of professor A.A. Avrorov’s birthday, Voronezh, 2006, p. 541-544.
4.Peyve Ya.V. Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu miroudobreniy [Manual on using microfertilizers]/ Ya.V. Peyve// Moscow, 1963, 150 p.
5.Protasova N.A. Mikroelementy: biologicheskaya rol, raspredeleniye v pochvakh, vliyaniye na rasprostraneniye zabolevaniy cheloveka i zhivotnykh [Microelements: biological role, distribution in soils, effect on spreading of animal and human diseases]/ N.A. Protasova// Sorovskiy obrazovatelnyy zhurnal. 1998, Vol.12, p.32-37
6.Kovalskiy V.V. Mikroelementy v rasteniyakh i kormakh [Microelements in plants and fodders]/ V.V. Kovalskiy, Yu.I. Rayetskaya, T.I. Gracheva.// Moscow, Kolos. 1971, 232 p.
7.Ivanov A.V. Patologii obmena veshchestv i puti ikh korrektsii [metabolism pathology and its treatment ways]/ A.V. Ivanov, K.H. Papunidi, M.G. Zukhrabov// Veterinarnyy vrach, Kazan, 2000, Vol.1, p. 32-34.
8.Kuchinsky M.P. Bioelementy - faktory zdorovya i produktivnosti zhivotnykh: monografiya [Bioelements – animal health and welfare factors] Manuscript/ M.P. Kuchinskiy.// Minsk, Biznesofset, 2007, 372 p.
9.Ivanov A.V. Rekomendatsii po diagnostike, lecheniyu i profilaktike ketozov selskokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Recommendations on livestock ketosis detection, treatment and prevention]/ A.V. Ivanov, K.H. Papunidi, M. Ya. Tremasov et al.// M. FGNU “Rosinformagrotekh”, 2007, 95 p.
   
   
Title:

DYNAMICS OF ACUTE-PHASE PROTEINS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF COATED IMPLANTS BASED ON SUPERHARD COMPOUNDS IN EXPERIMENT

   
Authors: 1Baklanova D.A. – postgraduate, 1Shakirova F.V. - doctor of veterinary science, professor; 1Valeeva A.N. - candidate of veterinary science, docent; 2Achtyamov I.F. - Doctor Medical Sciences, professor; 2Gatina E.B. - candidate medical sciences.
   
Address: 1Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan (Å-mail: study@ksavm.senet.ru).
2Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (E-mail: yalta60@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Alteration dynamics of blood serum protein fractions at intramedullary osteosynthesis with implants coated with titanium and hafnium nitrides was studied experimentally using rabbits. Blood serum was collected and examined before surgery and at 5-180 days of postoperation period. At a constant level of total protein after trauma and during the phase of osteoregeneration process, a characteristic response to inflammatory process such as dysproteinemia was observed. The revealed changes went in two "waves" response. The first reaction wave could be observed by the 5th day after surgery and was characterized by a decrease of albumin level and increase of ? - and ?2 – globulins. The attenuation of this reaction in the experimental group occurred at an earlier stages than in the other group; the second reaction wave reached its maximum by the 180th day after the experiment and was characterized by an increase in  ?2 - and ? - globulin. The less severe reactive changes in the protein fractions of blood serum in animals of the experimental group, as opposed to the comparison group, have showed that implants coated with titanium and hafnium nitrides cause less pronounced damaging effects on experimental rabbits.
   
Keywords: internal fixation, dysproteinemia, serum proteins, rabbits
   
References: 1. Muhametov F.F., Vagapova V.S., Latysh V.V., et al. Experimentalno-morfologichescoe issledovanye effectivnosti primeneniya titana s nanostructuroi v kachestve implantatov dlya ortopedii i travmatologii [Experimental and morphological study of the effectiveness of titanium nanostructure as implants for orthopedics and traumatology]//Vestnik travmatologii i ortopedii im. N.N. Priorova, 2008, Vol. 4, P. 78-83.
2. Shevtsov V.I. et al. Vozrastnye izmeneniya massy myshechnoy, soyedinitelnoy i zhirovoy tkaney u zdorovyh ludey [Age-related changes in muscle mass, connective and adipose tissue in healthy people]// Geniy ortopedii, 2005, Vol. 1, p. 58-66.
3. Nemchenko N.S., Eryuhin I.A., Shanin V.Yu. Postagressionny obmen veshchestv pri tyazheloy mehanicheskoy travme [Postagression metabolism in severe mechanical trauma]// Vestnik hirurgii, 1991, Vol., p. 53-57.
4. Plecko M., Sievert C., Andermatt D. et al. Osseointegration and biocompatibility of different metal implants - a comparative experimental investigation in sheep// BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012, The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/13/32
5. Efremov A.P., Martynov P.N. Interyernye razlichiya krolchat raznogo vozrasta [Interior differences rabbits of different ages]// Biologicheskiye nauki. Fundamentalnye issledovaniya, 2012, Vol.5, p 138-142.
6. Zilva Dzh.F., Pennell P.R., Berezov T.T. Klinicheskaya himiya v diagnostike i lechenii [Clinical chemistry in diagnosis and treatment]// Moscow. Meditsina. - 1988. - 528 p.
7. Toussaint MJM. Acute phase protein in different species measured as a tool to assess animal health. EuropeanColloquiumReport. – 2000,1. – P. 1–3.
  Parasitology
   
Title:

IXODOFAUNA IN SUBZONE OF NORTHERN TRANSURALS SUBTAIGA

   
Authors: 1Glazunov Y.V. - Ñandidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor; 2Glazunova L.A. - Ñandidate of Veterinary Sciences, associate professor.
   
Address: 1State Scientific Institution All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology (625041, Tyumen, Institutskayaskaya ulitsa, 2 (tel: +7 (3452) 62-57-08, E-mail: vniivea@mail.ru).
2Federal State Research Institution of Higher Professional Education State Agrarian University of Northern Transurals (625001, Tyumen, Ulitsa Respubliki, 7 (tel: +7 (3452) 62-57-19, E-mail: IBVM.veterinarya@yandex.ru).
   
Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the ixodic ticks fauna and ecology in North Transurals subtaiga zone. The tick fauna was studied during the period from 2001 to 2014. To determine the species composition the ticks were collected from large mammals, as well as individual sections territories, considering the mosaic principle of their distribution. Totally, within the research period 8.851 ixodic ticks were collected: from domestic and farm animals - 4965 ticks, from plants - 3886 ticks were collected, and 142 trap/hour were processed in Northern Transurals subtaiga zone.
Index dominance collected in natural habitats of ticks was as follows: Ixodes persulcatus - 51.6%, D.reticulatus - 41.9%, D.marginatus - 6.5%. Among host animals also three types of ticks dominated I. persulcatus - 54.4%, D.reticulatus - 38.3% and only a minor part was represented by D.marginatus - 7.3%, maximum number of ticks found on one dog was - 28 ticks, on a horse - 24  ixodid ticks, on a cattle herd - 21 ticks. Index of abundance in dogs was – 8.5 ticks, horses – 6.9 ticks, cattle – 2.1 ticks. Index of occurrence (BPI) ticks vary slightly and was 90.8 % in cattle, 89.7% in horses, and 96.3% in dogs.
In general, in North Transurals subtaiga zone most common ixodic ticks type was Ixodes. persulcatus with dominance index (of total collection) 53.0+2,0%, D. reticulates 40.1+2,5%, the smallest part was taken by D . marginatus 6.9+0.6%.
   
Keywords: ticks, fauna, subtaiga subarea index of dominance
   
References: 1. Tyumenskaya oblast Vikipedia [Tyumen region] // URL: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tyumenskaya oblast (application date 26.03.2014)
2. Popov V.M. Iksodovye kleshhi Zapadnoy Sibiri [Ixodid ticks in Western Siberia] - Tomsk: -  TGU, 1962. - 258 p.
3. Grigor G.G.,. Zemtsov A.A. Prirodnoye rayonirovanite Zapadnoy Sibiri [Natural zoning of Western Siberia] // Voprosy geografii /  - Moscow:  published by USSR Academy of Sciences, 1961. – Collection,55.
4. Karetin L.N. Pochvy Tyumenskoy oblasti [Soils of Tyumen region]. - Novosibirsk.: – Nauka., 1990. – 281 p.
5. Agroklimaticheskiye resursy Tyumenskoy oblasti [Agroclimatic resources of Tyumen region]. D.: Gidrometeoizdat,1972.-151 p.
6. Beklemishev V.N. Terminy i ponyatiya, neobhodimye pri kolichestvennom izuchenii populyatsii ektoparazitov  i nidikolov [Terms and concepts necessary for the quantitative study of the population of ectoparasites and nidicolous] // Zoologichesky zhurnal. - 1961. – Vol. 40. – Issue. 2. – p. 149-158.
7. Getta G.I. Ob iksodovyh kleshchah i gemosporidiznoyj situatsii Sibiri [On ixodid ticks and haemosporidians situation in Siberia] // Scientific Bulletin./ SIBNIVI. – Omsk, 1957. – Issue 7. – p. 33-47.
8. Stolbov N.M. Raspredeleniye iksodovyh kleshhey po landshaftnym zonam Tyumenskoy oblasti [Ticks distribution within Tyumen region areal landscape] / Stolbov N.M., Malyushina E.P., Belan A.A., Galimov V.R./ Abstracts from 1st Acarological workshop. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. - 1966. –p. 205.
9. Glazunov Ju.V., Glazunova L.A. Rol dikih mlekopitayushchih v prokormlenii preimaginalnyh faz iksodovyh kleshhey v Tyumenskoy oblasti [The role of wild mammals in ticks preimaginal phases in Tyumen region] // Fundamental'nye issledovanija. - 2013. - Vol. 4 (part. 2). - p. 371-374.
10. Stolbov N.M. Obnaruzheniye kleshchey Ixodes plumbeum Leach  v Tyumenskoy oblasti [Detection of Ixodes plumbeum Leach in Tyumen region] / Sb. nauchn. rabot Tyumenskogo NII kraevoj infekcionnoj patologii. – Tyumen, 1965. – p. 163-164.
11. Alifanov V.I., Bogdanov I.I., Neckij G.I., Mal'kov G.V. Tipy naseleniya iksodovyh kleshhey (Ixodidae Murr.) i ih zarazhennost vozbuditelyami prirodnoochagovyh bolezney na territorii Zapadnoy Sibiri [The types of ixodid ticks population (Ixodidae Murr.) and their contamination with pathogens of natural focal diseases in Western Siberia area] // Epidemiologicheskaya geografiya kleshhevogo encefalita, Omskoy gemorragicheskoy lihoradki i kleshchevogo rikketsioza Azii v Zapadnoy Sibiri - Epidemological geography of tick-borne enciphalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Asian tick-borne rikketsiosis. - Omsk, 1973. - p. 15-26.
12. Glazunov Yu.V. Nekotorye aspekty fenologii iksodovyh kleshhey na jyge Tyumenskoy oblasti [Some aspects of ticks phenology in South Tyumen area] // Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovanija - Current problems of Science and Education. – 2013. – Vol. 6; URL: www.science-education.ru/113-11689 (application date: 04.04.2014).
  Zootechny
   
Title:

USING AEROSOL FORM OF MICROBIAL PRODUCT IN GROWING BROILER CHICKENS

   
Authors: Lysko S.B.– Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; Krasikov A.P. – Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor.
   
Address: GNU Siberia Poultry-Breeding Research Institute Rosselthoozakademii, Russia, Omsk (644555, st. 60 Years of Victory, 1, tel. +7(3812) 93-61-47,
Å-mail: sibniip@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: Bacterial diseases are at the forefront in infectious disease of birds. Abuse, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and disinfectants results in microorganisms higher resistance and therefore it became important to investigate alternative means of bacterial diseases prophylaxis. One of such methods is a microbiological agent «Organics». The aim of our research was to develop and test a new scheme of using «Organics» probiotic detergent in growing broiler chickens. In the experiment, daily broiler cross «Siberian 2C» were divided into two groups, placed on floor of two isolated from each other rooms. The experimental room was treated with «Organic» 20% -solution in aerosol form for four days before placing and subsequently twice a week with birds placed in the room. The control room was once processed with formaldehyde the day before chicken were placed in. During the experiment period chicken surviving rate, clinical status and welfare were taken into consideration, bacteriological tests of air samples, litter, scrapings from larynx mucous membrane, and washouts from feeders, drinkers, and walls were done. As a result, using «Organics» aerosol drug on developed scheme was determined to reduce total microbial background in poultry facilities and have favorable effect on facility microclimate parameters, chicken physiological condition, and welfare: increases broiler chickens survival rate by 2.8%  by reducing  death rate from infectious diseases in case no antibacterial drugs are used, increases body weight by 4.2%, reduces feed cost to 3% live weight gain per 1 kg fodder, increases profitability of broiler meat production by 4,5%.
   
Keywords: broilers, bacterial diseases, microflora, microclimate, washing probiotic, safety, live weight
   
References: 1. Apalkin V. Antibiotiki zaveli nas v tupik. Pora vozvrashatsya k prirode [Antibiotics have led us to a dead end. It is time to get back to nature] (www. vetom.ru/content/view/378/40/).
2. Alyamkin U. Probiotiki vmesto antibiotikov – eto realno [Probiotics instead of antibiotics - it's real] // Ptitsevodstvo. 2005. Vol. 2. P. 17-18.
3. Bessarabov B., Krykanov A. Probiotiki efektivniy i bezvredniy [Probiotics are effective and harmless] // Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii . 2006. Vol. 2. P. 28-29.
4. Mailyan E.S. Mikroklimat v broilernom ptitsevodstve [Microclimate in broiler poultry facility] // Bio. 2007. Vol.5. P. 4–9.
5. Malik N.I., Panin A.N. Probiotiki teoriticheskiye i prakticheskiye aspektiy [Probiotics: theoretical and practical aspects] // Bio. 2002. Vol. 3. Ñ. 1-8.
6. Panin A.N., Malik N.I., Malik E.V. Probiotiki v promyshlennom ptitsevodstve [Probiotics in the poultry industry] // proceedings from the 1st International Veterinary Congress on Poultry Breeding. – Ìoscow, 2005. P. 239-242.
7. Seliverstov V., Dydnitsky I., Popov N. Dezinfektsiya v sisteme veterinarno-sanitarnyh meropriyatiy [Disinfection system in animal health measures] // Veterenariya . 1999. Vol. 2. P.3–8.
   
   
Title:

HYGIENIC JUSTIFICATION OF RAISING BROILERS USING "GIMIZIM" MULTIENZYME PREPARATION

   
Authors: Sofronov V.G. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Danilov N.I. - Doctor of Biological Sciences; Kuznetsov E.L. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences.
   
Address: Federal Public Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after N.E.Bauman", Kazan, (tel. (843)273-96-17, E-mail: danai58@yandex.ru).
   
Abstract: The article describes an experiment in Ak Bars of Pestretsy poultry farm, Pestrechinsky district, the Republic of Tatarstan, on broilers placed in two hen houses under the same conditions. The experimental group was fed with mixed fodder added "GIMIZIM" multienzyme preparation, containing complex of proteolytic, amylolytic, lypolytic, cellulolytic, pectolytic, and xylanase enzymes and having phytase activity. Since the third week of raising the chickens the facility air the number of microbes decreases by 6,4% and ammonia 5,4% due to reduction of droppings number in the experimental chickens for 6,1% and decrease of nitrogen for 4,4% and humidity for 8,8% in it comparing to the control groups because of increased  forage digestibility. Introduction of  "GIMIZIM" multienzyme preparation into chicken diet promotes increase in average daily gain of live weight, in comparison with the first control group  which didn’t get the preparation for 2,14%. Meanwhile, forage cost per 1 kg weight gain reduced by 2,5% in the second experimental group comparing the control one, and the chicken preservation increased by 2,6% accordingly. Digestion trial of chicken aged 36-42 days old revealed increase of protein uptake for 1,08%, fat - 10,66%, celluloses - 2,6% and nitrogen-free extractive substances - 3,6% accordingly, and also promoted  nitrogen uptake for 2,46%, calcium - 4,81% and phosphorus - 2,33%. In experiment chicken droppings the NMR- relaxometry revealed molecular structures with higher local mobility that testifies a better digestion of forage nutrients by experiment chicken. Reduction in forage cost and increase in livestock livability promoted cost value cheapening for 6,1% and profitability increase for 6,6% in the experiment group comparing to the control ones.
   
Keywords: sanitation inspection of facility, broilers, hen house microclimate parameters, multienzyme preparation, digestibility and uptake of forage nutrients, operational performance
   
References: 1. Kuznetsov A.F. Gigiyena soderzhaniya zhivotnyh: spravochnik [Hygiene and animal keeping conditions: reference book] 2nd edition, reprinted. – S.Petersburg.: «Lan» Publishing, 2004. – 640 p. ISBN 5-8114-0423-9.
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  Physiology
   
Title:

THE CLINICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TURKEYS AT USING «EXTRAFIT» FODDER ADDITIVE

   
Authors: Semina O.V. – postgraduate; Aimaletdinov A.M. – Candidate of Biological Sciences; Idiyatov I.I. - Candidate of Biological Sciences.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (tel.: +7(843) 239-53-19, E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article describes the influence of «EXTRAFIT»  feed additive «EXTRAFIT» (hydrolysis product of grass flour amaranth) at doses of 1; 2 and 4 % of the diet on turkey clinical, growth rate and hematological blood parameters. For this reason we had clinical researches and defined the level of erythrocytes, leucocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and calculated different forms of leucocytes. The studies showed that feeding turkeys fodder containing the above mentioned drug did not affect negatively the overall condition, strengthened the growth rate and increased feed conversion. The highest average daily growth weight was registered with «EXTRAFIT» additive at the level of 2% of the fodder exceeding the control for 12.5%, feed consumption reduced by 11.1 %. The turkey blood tests showed that the birds fed with diet added «EXTRAFIT» tended to have increased level of red and white blood cells, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate reduction, and the change in blood cell counts directly depended on the concentration of «EXTRAFIT» additive in the ration. Leucogram analysis showed that using the enriched ration turkeys diet had an effect on percentage level of leucocytes various forms that is an increased level of eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. This tendency was registered in birds of all age; the observed changes were within the physiological norm.
   
Keywords: turkeys, feed additive, Extrafit, growth weight, blood, blood cells
   
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