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¹ 2, 2014

  Editorial
   
Title:

INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY REGULATION

   
Authors: 1Vasilevich F.I. - Dr. of Vet. Sc., professor, academician of Russian Academy of Sc., rector; 2Ivanov A.A. - Dr. of Biol. Sc.; 1Vasilevsky N.M. - Dr. of Vet. Sc., professor; 3Shevkoplyas V.N. - Dr. of Vet. Sc., professor, head of Inner Vet. Survey Adminis
   
Address: 1. Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after Skryabin K.I., Moscow (tel. + 7 (495) 377-91-17).
2. Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
3. Federal Center for Animal and Plant Sanitation Control, Moscow (tel. + 7 (499)975-17-48)
   
Abstract: The national system of Animal Health practice organization cannot develop continuously without development of veterinary regulation which is a body of law covering the activities of veterinary experts, farmers, peasants and livestock breeders. Veterinary legislation consists of standard acts. Veterinary legislation is harmonized in consistence with such conceptual phenomena as systematization, standardization and compliance with international standards. Requirements of the international veterinary legislation governing relations associated with animals and food worldwide are set mainly in the publications of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex "Alimentarius" regulations (WTO / FAO). The article describes the main provisions of veterinary and sanitation codes of terrestrial and aquatic animal health and that of the "Alimentarius Code". Norms constituting Animal Health sanitation codes serve to improve animal health and welfare, veterinary public health in the world. For this purpose, they include standards and regulatory texts relating to the safety of international trade with terrestrial and aquatic animals and animal products. Control measures applied by veterinary authorities of importing and exporting countries for the early detection, declaration and destruction of pathogens in animals and humans (especially zoonotic), without creating unjustified sanitary barriers. Set of international food standards include standards and hygiene of meat, milk and dairy products, animal feed, rules and regulations with respect to fish and fish products.
   
Keywords: veterinary medicine, law, veterinary Code, Codex Alimentarius sanitary standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health
   
References: 1.Vasilevich F.I., Vasilevsky N.M., Shevkoplyas V.N., Veterinarnoye delo v kontekste vstupleniya Rossii v WTO [Veterinary practice in the context of Russia’s entry into the WTO // Analytical bulletin of Federation Council of the Russian Federation: Current Issues of providing food safety in the Russian Federation. 2012. Vol. 8 (451). P.60-65.
2.Kodeks Alimentarius: proizvodstvo produktov zhivotnovodstva [The Alimentarius Code: animal products production]. Moscow: Ves Mir. 2007. 118. - p.
3. Kodeks Alimentarius: normy i pravila otnositelno ryby i ryboproduktov [The Alimentarius Code:norms and terms concerning fish and fish products]. – Moscow: Ves Mir. 2007.– 81 p.
4. Kodeks zdorovya vodnyh zhivotnyh [Aquatic Animal Health Code] - World organization for animal health. - Paris, France, 2009. - 160 p.
5. Kodeks zdorovya nazemnyh zhivotnyh [Terrestrial Animal Health Code] - World organisation for animal health. - Paris, France, 2010 , Vol.  1. - 472 p.
6. Kodeks zdorovya nazemnyh zhivotnyh [Terrestrial Animal Health Code] - World organisation for animal health. - Paris, France, 2010 , Vol.  2. - 846 p.
7. O rekomendatsiyah po garmonizatsii zakonodatelstva gosudarst-chlenov YevAzEs v sfere gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya agropromyshlennogo kompleksa (na osnove sravnitelno-pravovogo analiza natsionalnyh zakonodatelstv i s uchetom polozheniy soglasheniy WTO). Postanovleniye Mezhparlamentskoy assamblei Yevraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soobshchestva ot 14 aprelya 2005g.[elektronny resurs]Recommendations on regulations harmonization in states-members of Eurasian Economic Community in the sphere of agroindustry regulation (basing on comparative and legal analysis of national legislations and considering the WTO terms and conditions). Resolution of Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of Eurasian Economic Community of April 14, 2005. [electronic resource, available on http://arc. pravoby. Info/
8. Pshenichnikov M.A.Garmonizatsiya Rossiyskogo zakonodatelstva (teoriya, praktika, tehnika) [Harmonization of Russian legislation (theory, practice, techniques)]: abstract from Doctor of Law dissertation thesis: 12.00.01 / Ì.À. Pshenichnikov; Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Russian federation Interior Ministry, 2011. - 58 p.
9. Soglasheniye po primeneniyu sanitarnyh i fitosanitarnyh mer [Agreement on Sanitation and phytosanitation measures] (Marrakesh April 15, 1994). Electronic resource. – available on: http: //www.fsvps.ru /fsvps /importExport /wto /trial /agreement. html.
  Toxicology
   
Title:

BENTONITE AND MODIFIED BENTONITE ADSORPTIVE PROPERTIES REGARDING HEAVY METALS AND MICROELEMENTS IN BULL DIETS

   
Authors: Yermakova E.I.-postgraduate; Papunidy K.Kh.- Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; Biktashev R.U.- Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, staff researcher.
   
Address: Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail:vnivi@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: The article provides a research of combined heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and microelements sorption in experiments in vivo. The bentonite and modified bentonite sorbents were studied at 1% dosage in bull diets. The research demonstrated that the microelements were mostly adsorbed in groups with animals that were introduced both main ration and modified bentonite enriched with zinc. Thus, in blood and liver total iron reduced by 39.13 mg/kg (45.1%) and by 51.1 mg/kg (38.6%) respectively in comparison with control data, total zinc reduced by 0.26 mg/kg (28.6%) in blood and  in liver by 25.01 mg/kg (22.3%), total cooper reduced by 1.12 mg/kg (65.0%) and 17.24 mg/kg (44.04%). Determining total manganese and cobalt in blood showed significant decrease (by 63.5% and by 42.4%) and liver (by 51.4 and 42.8%) in comparison with control data. Ration contamination with 2-fold MPC cadmium and lead reduced animal performance in comparison with control group. Using sorbents promoted a maintenance animal high performance. The obtained data can be used for correction of dosages norms of the studied sorbents in diets and mineral premixes composition for prolonged subclinical metallotoxicosis prevention in young cattle herds.
   
Keywords: bentonite, modified bentonite, adsorption, microelements, heavy metals
   
References: 1.Metodicheskiye recomendatsii po primeneniyu enterosorbentov pri otravlenii zhivotnyh [Guidelines for using enterosorbents at animal toxication] – M., 2010. 5 p.
2.Biktashev R.U., Papunidi K.Kh., Bulankova S.R. Vliyaniye vysokodispersnyh zeolita, bentonita i vermikulitovoy rudy na usvoyeniye sinka, medi i margantsa v organizme krys [Influence of highly dispersed zeolite, bentonite and vermiculite on zinc, copper and manganese uptake in rat organism] // Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. “Aktualnye problemy sovremennoy veterinarii”, posvyashennye 65-letiyu veterinarnoy nayki Kubani [Proceedings of “Actual problems of modern veterinary” conference dedicated the 65th anniversary of Kuban veterinary science]. – Krasnodar, 2011.-part 1. P. 120-122.
3.Gertman A.M. Vlyaniye vermikulita na pokazateli soderzhimogo rubtsa korov v technogennoy provintsii yuzhnogo Urala [Vermiculite effect on cow rumen contents in technogenic province in South Urals] // Vozrastnaya fiziologiya i patologiya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh: Materialy naychnoy konferentsii, posvyashennoy 90-letiyu prof. V.R. Fillipova – Developmental physiology and pathology of livestock animals: Proceedings of scientific conference dedicated the 90th anniversary of professor V.R. Fillipov. Ulan-Ude, 2003. P.19-21.
4.Donnik I.M., Shkuratova I.A., Vereshyak N.A., Shusharin A.D. Primeneniye sorbentov krypnomu rogatomu skotu pri tehnogennom zagryaznenii [Using sorbents in cattle diets at technogenic pollution] // Veterinariya – Veterinary. Vol.9. Moscow, 2007. P.5-8.
5.Ivanov A.V., Tremasov M.Y., Papunidi K.Kh. O problemå micotoksikozov v zhivotnovodstve [On mycotoxicoses problem in animal breeding] // Aktualnye problemy veterinarnoy meditsiny - Current problems of veterinary medicine. Moscow, 2010. P. 194-202.
6.Rabinovich M.I., Popilov A.N., Daminov R.R. Novye enterosorbenty i farmakologicheski aktivnye veshestva i ih primeneniye v veterinarii i zhivotnovodstve [New enterosorbents  and pharmacologically active substances and their application in veterinary and animal breeding] // Chelyabinsk, 2003. 295p.
7.Rabinovich M.I., Gertman A.M. Pharmacotoksikologicheskaya kharakteristika ryada enterosorbentov i ih primenenie v zhivotnovodstve [Pharmacotoxicological characteristica of enterosorbents and their application in animal breeding] // Troitsk, 2006. 120 p.
   
   
Title:

UDC: 619:615.244
THE COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY HEPTRAL, LIPOTON AND GAMAVIT

   
Authors: Konovalova V.V. – postgraduate; Andreeva N.L. – Doctor of Biological Sciences, head of chair.
   
Address: Saint Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Saint Petersburg (E-mail: Akvetzoo@list.ru).
   
Abstract: Despite the wide range of hepatoprotective substances hepatopathy problem in veterinary medicine remains relevant. Apart from this known relationship liver and other organs and body systems, including the immune system. In this regard, there is a search for agents that have a common effect on the maintenance of homeostasis .
Evaluated hepatoprotective activity of immunostimulatory drugs lipoton and gamavit, containing in the structure elements of the placenta, compared with hepatoprotector geptral. For this purpose, simulated severe liver damage in white rats «Wistar» subcutaneous administration of carbon tetrachloride. As parameters evaluate the pharmacological effects of drugs used survival rates, the dynamics of body weight, the behavioral responses of rats in the test "open field" and blood biochemical parameters characterizing liver function. Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride was characterized by 40 % mortality, weight loss, reduction of motor activity of the animals and the development of cytolytic syndrome, hypoproteinemia and giperfermentemii. It was found that the administration of the study drugs to animals prevented mortality of rats to varying degrees normalized behavioral responses and biochemical parameters of blood led to the physiological norm. Lipoton drug in its pharmacological action was not inferior heptral. Of studies suggest that the investigated drugs have a beneficial effect on the recovery of liver function after its toxic lesion. Besides known immunostimulatory effects of drugs lipoton and gamavit on the body, which also has a positive effect on the homeostasis of the organism as a whole.
   
Keywords: hepatoprotector, severe liver damage, Heptral, Lipoton, Gamavit
   
References: 1. Arcimovich N.G., Nastojashhaja N.N., Kazanskij D.B. i dr. Pechen' kak organ immunobiologicheskoj sistemy gomeostaza [Liver as an organ by immunobiological system of homeostasis] // Uspehi sovremennoj biologii - Advances in modern biology. 1992. Vol. 112. issue 1. P. 88-99.
2. Vovk E.I., Tihonovskaja E.Ju., Komarovskij A.N. Zhirovaja bolezn' pecheni v praktike terapevta [Fatty liver disease in the practice of the therapist] // Terapevt - Therapist. 2010. Vol. 4. P. 4-23.
3. Gerasimenko I.I., Kartashov S.N., Butenkov A.I. i dr. Klinicheskaja citologija v veterinarnoj praktike melkih domashnih zhivotnyh: metod. rekom. [Clinical cytology in veterinary practice small pets (guidelines)] // Novocherkassk: JuRGTU, 2006. P. 62 .
4. Zhukov A.P., Mostovaja V.V. Inter'ernye pokazateli netelej raznyh genotipov [Interior performance of heifers of different genotypes] // Izvestija Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta - Proceedings of the Orenburg State Agrarian University. 2007. Vol. 1. P. 21-24.
5. Mashkovskij M.D. Lekarstvennye sredstva [Medicines]. 15- edition. Ì.: Novaya volna, 2005. P. 567.
6. Okovityj S.V., Gajvoronskaja V.V. Immunnye mehanizmy realizacii gepatoprotektornyh jeffektov jetomerzola i timogena [Immune mechanisms of implementation and hepatoprotective effects by etomerzol ang timogen] // Eksperimental'naja i klinicheskaja farmakologija - Experimental and clinical pharmacology. 2002. Vol. 3. P. 44-46.
7. Habriev R.U. Rukovodstvo po jeksperimental'nomu (doklinicheskomu) izucheniju novyh farmakologicheskih veshhestv [Manual on experimental (preclinical) study of new pharmacological substances]. Ì.: Medicinà, 2005. P. 832.
8. Ubasheev I.O., Lonshakova K.S, Bartonov A.I. i dr. Morfofunkcional'nye osnovy regeneracionnoj terapii prirodnymi lekarstvennymi sredstvami jeksperimental'nogo povrezhdenija pecheni [Morphological and functional bases regenerative therapy natural medicines experimental liver injury]. Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo BNC SO RAN, 2005. P. 224.
9. Adams D.H., Ju C., Ramaiah S.K. and others. Mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury // Toxicol Sci. 2010. ¹ 115(2). Ð. 307-321.
10. Dienes H.P., Drebber U. Pathology of immune-mediated liver injury // Digestive diseases Based Switzerland. 2010. Vol. 28. issue 1. Ð. 57-62.
11. Gocke D.J., Morris T.Q., Bradley S.E. Chronic hepatitis in the dog: the role of immune factors // Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1970. Jun 15. ¹ 156 (12). P. 1700-1705.
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

BACTERIOSTATIC AND DISINFECTING PROPERTIES OF VETERINARY DRUG “DEZKONTEN-VDM”, WATER-DISPERSION PAINTS (FOR WALLS, CEILING, FLOOR) AS A DISINFECTANT FOR OBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION VETERINARY SURVEY FOR BROILER CHICKENS INUSTRIAL BREEDING

   
Authors: 1Melnik R.N. - postgraduate; 1Bogachev U.V. – postgraduate; 1Samuylenko A.Y. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, academician Russian Academy of Sciences; 2Dmitrieva M.E. - Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, 2Dzhavadov E.D. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; corresponding member of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 3Smolenskiy V.I. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 4Melnik N.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor; 5Belousov V.I. - Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; 6Shedrov I.N.- Candidate of Veterinary Sciences; 7Sorokin N.U.-director.
   
Address: 1All-Russian Research Technological Institute of Bioindustry (t.+7 (496) 567 32 63; E-mail: vnitibp@mail.ru).
2All-Russian Research Poultry Breeding Veterinary Institute (t.+7 (812) 422-0669; E-mail: vnivip10@yandex.ru).
3All-Russian State Center for Animal Drugs and Forage Quality Control and Standardization (t.+7 (812) 422-0669; E-mail: vnivip10@yandex.ru).
4National Association of Veterinary and Biological Industrial Organizations  (E-mail: a-vbp@mail.ru)
5Central Scientific and Methodical Veterinary Laboratory.
6LLC "Kurinoye tsarstvo" Cherkizovo group.
7LLC "Prima-BIZ".
   
Abstract: Disinfection measures have been and will remain in the nearest future as the cheapest, available, relatively simple and, the most important, a reliable means of preventing infectious diseases. An increased using of disinfectants should not be accompanied by increased ussuance of hazardous chemicals into the environment. Proper sanitary and epidemic, epizootic condition is impossible without using modern disinfectants to secure animal an poultry breeding farms from from infections.
We studied a possibility of increased using of water dispersion-based paints containing disinfectants as a finishing material at veterinary facilities of the Russian Federation.
Bacterial contamination level of surfaces painted with paint "Dezkonten" disinfection means and the air in the painted rooms (experiment and control pens) were determined.
Also, persistance of painted surfaces bactericidal (bacteriostatic) effect with increased exposure disinfectant properties was determined.
The findings evidence a prolonged action of the drug "Dezkonten -VDM", a water dispersion paint, against microflora air and surfaces within 1 year. The  "Deskonten -VDM" drug has a strong bactericidal action against different microorganisms and can be recommended for painting surfaces of livestock, poultry and fur breeding farms as a disinfectant destroying animals and bird pathogens of animals and birds, as disinfectant for objects being under the Russian Federation veterinary survey.
   
Keywords: drug "Dezkonten -VDM", paint, disinfectant, flora, culture media, disease, bactericidal effect
   
References: 1. Spravochnik.Desinfitsiruyushchiye sredstva [Disinfection means reference book] - Moscow. Bingo - Grand, 2004.
2. Panteleyeva L.G. Sovremenniye antimikrobniye dezinfektanty. Osnovniye itogi i perspektivy razrabotki novyh sredstv [Current bactericidal disinfectants. Major results an prospectives of developing novel means]// Dezinfektsionnoye delo, 2005, Vol.2 p 49-56
3. Tarasova I.I., Kochetov A.I. et al. Dezinfetsiruyushchiye srestva na osnove chetvertichnyh ammoniyevyh soyedineniy [Disinfection means based on quatenary ammonium compounds]// Vetkorm. 2012 Vol. 6. p 49.
4. Shandala M.G. Perspektivy i problemy sovremennoy dezinfektologii [Modern disinfectology prospektives and problems] // Mikrobiologiya. 2003/ Vol.3 115-125 p.
5. Kushnir A.T., Khripunov E.M. Epizootologicheskiye aspekty massovoy profilaktiki infektsionnyh bolezney selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Epizootological aspects of  livestock infection diseases mass prevention] // abstract report. Moscow, 1999 123-124 p.
6. Portable gas turbine disinfection device "Aist - 2M": technical specifications and guideline. Moscow, 2003.
7. Vetkina I.F., Komarinskaya L.V., Ilin I.U. et al. Sovremenny podhod k vyboru dezinfitsituyushchih sredstv v sisteme profilaktiki vnutribolnichnyh infektsiy [Current approach in choosing disinfection means in hospital-acquired infection prevention] // FARMindex-Praktik. 2005. Vol.7 13-20 p.
8. Sanitarno-epiemiologicheskiye pravila SP1.3.2322-08. Bezopasnost raboty s mikroorganizmami III-IV gruppy patogennosti (opasnosti) i vozbuitelyami parazitarnyh bolezney [Sanitation and epidemiological regulationsSP1.3.2322-08. Safe handling of III-IV patogenicity group microorganisms and parasitic diseases causative agents.
   
   
Title:

DIAGNOSTIC LEUKEMIC SERUM PRODUCTION AND STANDARDIZATION

   
Authors: Gorbatenko S.K - Candidate of Vet. Sc., head of laboratory; Shapovalova O.V. - Candidate of Biol. Sc., staff scientist; Stegniy M.Yu. - Candidate of Biol. Sc., head of department; Korneykov A.N. - research assistant.
   
Address: NCS «Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine» (83,Pushkinskaya Str., Kharkiv, 61023, Ukraine, laylab@vet.kharkov.ua, +38(057) 707-20-37).

   
Abstract: In order to obtain the bovine blood serum with high-titer antibodies against bovine leukemia virus a method of producing animals hyperimmunization with inactivated cultural and leukocytic preparations was developed.
The cultural preparation was obtained from a FLK - BLV cell line culture fluid concentrated by PEG-6000 and inactivated by 0.1% formaldehyde solution, mixed with immuno-sorbent prepared from healthy cattle erythrocytes and adjuvant. The leukocytic preparation was obtained from leukocytes of a calf having chronic lymphocytic leukemiathe; the leukocytes were short-term cultured in the presence of sodium valproate and adsorbed by adjuvant .
The hyperimmunization cycle methodology includes three consecutive challenge of two drugs with subsequent double reimmunization by cultural preparation in experimental doses. Subsequently, the stimulation of animal immune response was conducted by introduction of leukocytes produced from the cow with lymphocytic leukemia.
We found that the maximum titer of anti-BLV antibodies in obtained serum was 1:64 in the AGID. The serum was calibrated with international reference positive serum E05, A2, and P9. The obtained positive serum activity and specificity meet international positive serum reference for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis  by AGID and ELISA. This serum can be used for bovine leukemia serological diagnostic test systems quality control.
   
Keywords: bovine leukemia, FLK-BLV cell culture, leukocytes, serum
   
References: 1. Instrukcia z profilaktiki ta ozdorovlennja VRH vid leykozu/ Zatverdgeno nakazom Dergavnogo komitetu veterinarnoi medicine Ukraini 21.12.2007 N 21. Zareestrovano v Ministerstvi justicii Ukraini 11.01.2008 r. za N 12/14703 [Instructions for bovine leukemia prevention and sanitation. State Committee of Veterinary Medicine of Ukraine # 21.12.2007 ] // Kiev., 2008. – 8 p.
2. OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. – 2008. – ñh. 2.4.11 Enzootic Bovine Leukosis. – Ð. 729-738.
3. Patent Ukraini na korisnu model N 67726 ÌPÊ À61Ê 35/76, À61Ê 39/395. Sposib odergennja referentnoi pozitivnoi sirovatki dlja diagnostiki leykozu velikoi rogatoi hudobi v reakcii imunodifuzii (RID) ta imunofermentnomu analizi (IFA) / S.K. Gorbatenko, O.V. Shapovalova, B.T. Stegniy ta in.; zajavnik ta pravovlasnik Nac. nauk. centr “In-t eksper. i klinich. vet. medicini” [Patent of Ukraine ¹ 67726 IPC A61K 35/76 A61K 39/395. The method for positive reference serum for the bovine leukemia diagnostic in immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) producing] - ¹ u201106822; appl. 31.05.11, publ. 12.03.2012, Bull. N 5. - 4 p.
4. Valproate activates bovine leukemia virus gene expression, triggers apoptosis, and induces leukemia/lymphoma regression in vivo / A. Achachi [et al.]// Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. - 2005. - Vol. 102. - No. 29. – Ð. 10309-10314.
5. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Induces Bovine Leukemia Virus Expression In Vitro and In Vivo / C. Merezak Achachi [et al.]// J. of Virol. -  2002. - Vol. 76. - N 10. – P. 5034–5042.
6. DSTU 4483:2005. Preparati veterinarni imunobiologichni. Metod viznachennja bakterialnoi i gribnoi kontaminacii [The veterinary immunobiological preparations. The methods for detection of bacterial and fungal contaminathion]
7. DSTU 4613:2006 Preparati biologichni dlja veterinarnoi medicine. Metod viznachennja kontaminacii mikoplazmami [The veterinary biological preparations. The test method of mycoplasma contaminathion].
   
   
Title:

ON CAUSES OF NON-SPECIFIC REACTION TO TUBERCULIN

   
Authors: 1Baratov M.O. - Candidate of Vet. Sc., staff scientist; 2Ahmedov M.M. - Dr. of Vet. Sc., professor; 2Sakidibirov O.P. - Candidate of Vet. Sc., Associate Professor, head of chair.
   
Address: 1Caspian Area Research Veterinary Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
 (e-mail. alama500@rambler.ru).
2Dagestan State Agrarian University named after Dzhambulatov M.M.
   
Abstract: The main method of bovine tuberculosis in-vivo diagnosis has been and remains the subcutaneous tuberculin test using dry or liquid PPD - mammalian tuberculin. Meanwhile, the identification of animals with para-allergic reaction to tuberculin makes the sampling results approximate in non-infected farms and in the infected ones these reactions make interference preventing from having two consecutive negative results for tuberculosis. The proposed simultaneous assay with CWA has little differentiation capacity only 60%.
Mostly, animals responding to tuberculin were identified to have atypical mycobacteria, nocardia, Rhodococcus, having specific signs common to mycobacteria group too, and according to numerous data it results in microorganism non-specific sensitization to tuberculin.
In this respect, widespread Corynebacterium having general physical, chemical, and biological properties with Mycobacterium that possibly may cause organism sensitization is of great interest. This situation requires a thorough study of these taxons in order to determine the allergy specificity that can result in increased efficiency of using allergic test in animal tuberculosis detection.
   
Keywords: Corynebacterium , tuberculin sensitization, allergen threshold sensitivity , simultaneous sample
   
References: 1. Baratov M.O., Ahmedov M.M., Sakidibirov O.P. Tsirkulyatsiya  korinebakterii v obyektah vneshney sredy v usloviyah Dagestana [Corinebacterium circulation in the environment within Dagestan area] // Achievements of Veterinary Science and Practice for Agricultural Proceedings from International Scientific and Practical Conference dedicated to 70th Anniversary of Veterinary Medicine Department «Dostizhenija vet. nauki i praktiki s/h proizvodstvu».- Mahachkala. 2008.
2. Zhurnakova M.A., M.A. Zhurnakova., V.I. Malygin., Borisenkova A.N. Paraallergicheskiye reaktsii na tuberkulin u krupnogo rogatogo skota zarazhennogo ptichim tipom mikobakteriy [Paraallergic reactions to tuberculin in cattle herds infected with mycobacteria of avian type. // Veterinariya , 1964. Vol.3. P. 23-25.
3. Kassich Yu.Ya. Izucheniya sensibiliziruyushhih i patogennyh svoystv atipichnyh mikobakteriy [Study of sensitizing and pathogenic features of atypical mycobacteria // Veterinariya. 1989. Vol.4. P. 13-15.
4. Martma O.V., Tyahnas K.K., Paraallergicheskiye reaktsii na tuberkulin i ih differentsiatsiya [Paraallergic responses to tuberculin and their differentiation]// Veterinariya. 1978. Vol.4. P. 35-38.
5. Martma O.V., Ovdiyenko N.P., Tkachev – Kuz'min A.V. // Tuberkulez selskohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Livestock tuberculosis] - Moscow: «Agropromizdat», 1991. P.28-32.
6. Nesterenko O.A., Nogina T.M., Kvasnikov E. I. Hemotaksonomicheskiye priznaki nekotoryh korinepodobnyh bakteriy i gruppy « rhodochrous» [ Hematotaxonomic features of some Corinebacterium-like bacteria and Rhodochrous genus bacteria]. // Mikrobiologiya - Microbiology. 1978. 47. Vol.6. P. 1055-1062.
7. Nesterenko O.A. Nokardopodobnye i korinepodobnye bakterii [Nocardobacterium – like and Corinebacterium – like bacteria]. -Kiev: Naukovo dumka. 1975. 333p.
8. Novak D.D. Tuberkulez selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Livestock tuberculosis]. - Alma-Ata: Kainer, 1977. P.143.
9. Nuratinov R.A. Tuberkulez  KRS v respublikah Severnogo Kavkaza i Kalmykii (epizootologiya, problemy differentsialnoy diagnostiki i mery borby) [Cattle tuberculosis in the republics of Northern Caucasus and Kalmyk Republic[ epizootiology, problem of differential detection, control measures]. // Abstract from thesis of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. - Moscow; 1998. 37p.
10. Ovdiyenko N.P. Epizootologiya i diagnostika tuberkuleza KRS v usloviyah intensifikatsii zhivotnovodstva [Cattle tuberculosis epizootology and diagnostics in cattle breeding intensification] // Abstract from thesis of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine - Moscow, 1990. –49p.
11. Rotov V.I. Tuberkulez selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotnyh [Livestock tuberculosis]. - Kiev: «Urozhay» 1978. – P.237.
12. Urban V.P. O spetsificheskoy tuberkulinovoy probe pri diagnostike tuberkuleza KRS [Using specific tuberculin test for cattle tuberculosis detection]. // Proceedings from scientific conference. – 1971. Vol. 5. P 28-29.
13. Shchurevskiy V.E., Shmarov A.N., Kassich Yu.Ya., Martma O.V. Tuberkulez zhivotnyh i mery borby s nim [Animal tuberculosis and its control measures]. // Diagnostika tuberkuleza – Tuberculosis diagnostics. Moscow; 1990. P.76-145.
   
   
Title:

“OPTIÑELL” VETERINARY PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY AND SAFETY OF CHICKENS-BROILERS

   
Authors: 1Melnik R.N. - postgraduate; 1Bogachev U.V. – postgraduate; 2Dmitrieva M.E. - Candidate of Vet. Sc.; 3Shedrov I.N. - Candidate of Vet. Sc.; 4Belousov V.I. - Dr. of Biol. Sc., professor; 5Ivanov A.A. - Dr. of Biol. Sc.
   
Address: 1All-Russian Research Technological Institute of Bioindustry (t+7 (496) 567 32 63; E-mail: vnitibp@mail.ru).
2All-Russian Research Poultry Breeding Veterinary Institute (t+7 (812) 422-0669; E-mail: vnivip10@yandex.ru).
3LLC "Kurinoye tsarstvo" Cherkizovo group.
4Central Scientific and Methodical Veterinary Laboratory.
5Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan (E-mail: vnivi@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The article provides the"OptiÑell" drug effect on broiler chicken performance,  including their gastrointestinal tract microbiocenosis. The use of the"OptiÑell" drug  helps to reduce total E. coli and coccal microflora in the intestine, reduces the risk of infection with avian pathogenic and epizootic dangerous microflora.
Chickens from experimental group that received "OptiÑell" had a higher body weight than the chickens from the control group .
These data indicate the  "OptiÑell" drug   efficiency during chicken experimental challenge with Escherichia coli cultures and Salmonella enteritidis. The chickens that were inoculated with these cultures and treated with the drug remained alive and clinically healthy within the observation period (14 days) , by the slaughter date they had higher body weight. At autopsy no pathological signs were found, no  infecting strain culture was isolated. Meanwhile, lethal cases were registered in the control group, pathological signs of bacterial disease at autopsy, isolated cultures of infecting strains in internal organs.
To study chiken intestinal microflora cloacal swabs and samples of group expcrements were taken every week both in control and experimental groups. uring the first week of experiment cultures of Escherichia coli, Proteus, coccal microflora were detected  both in control and experimental groups. By the end of the experiment E. coli and the coccal flora significantly decreased in samples of chickens from  experimental group. The" OptiÑell " drug  can be recommended as an alternative antibacterial drug.
   
Keywords: drug "OptiÑell", intestinal microflora , nutrient medium
   
References: 1. Panin A.N. Obespecheniye bezopasnosti produktsii ptitsevostva kak vazhnaya sostavlyayushchaya proizvostvennoy bezopasnosti [ Poultry breeding safety as a crucial component of inustrial safety]  // Veterinarnaya zhizn - Veterinary life. 2013. Vol.5. p.4-5.
2. Fisinin V.I. Obshchiye problemy ptitsevodstva [Poultry breeing shared problems] // Proceeding from II International Veterinary Congress n Poultry Breeding, 21-23 March, 2006 - Moscow, P. 5- 19.
3. Sergeev S.G., Alekseev I.A., Primeneniye probioticheskih kormovyh dobavok  prolam i batsell pri vyrashchivanii molonyaka kur v usloviyah ptsitsefabriki [ Using prolam and bacellus probiotic fodder additives in chiken growing at poultry-breeing farms] // Veterinarny vrach. 2013. Vol.4. P.51-54.
4.Bessarabov B.F., Bondarev E.I., Stollyar T.A. Ptitsevodstvo i tehnologiya proizvodstva yaits i myasa ptits [Poutry-breeding and technology of egg and meat production] //  Manual. 2nd edition S.Petersburg "Lan", 2005. 352p.
5. Vlasov N.A. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu probioticheskoy kormovoy dobavki Prolam [Guielines on using Prolam probiotic foder additive]. - Timashevsk: LLC "Biotehagro", 2010.
6. Deblik A.G., Malikova A.R., Vliyaniye probiotikov na morfologiyu organov tsiplyat [Probiotics effect of chicken organs morphology] // Russiysky veterinarny zhurnal - Russian Veterinary Journal. 2007. Vol.2 P. 14-16.
7. Yegorov E.I. Probiotiki i kormleniye tsiplyat broylerov. Peredovoy nauchno-proizvostvenny pyr v ptitsevostve [Probiotics and broiler chiken feeding. An advanced scientific an production experience in poultry breeding] // Experimentalnaya informatsiya - Experimantal information. 2001 Vol.2. P.35-37.
8. Djavadov E.D. Innovatsionniye napravleniya v veterinarnoy meditsine - zalog uspeshnogo razvitiya promyshlannogo ptitsevodstva [Innovative fields in veterinary medicine is a pledge of industrial poultry breeding successful development // Veterinaria.2013.Vol. 7. P. 3-9.
9. Perespektivniye napravleniya sozdaniya produktov funktsionalnogo naznacheniya na osnove zhivotnogo syrya: nauchny analitichesky obzor [ Propective fields of food production based on animal raw: scientific analytical review // the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture - Moscow. Rosinformagroteh, 2012. P 3,4,17.
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

USING SINGLE-PORT LAPAROSCOPY TECHNOLOGY ON SMALL PETS SURGERY

   
Authors: Ivanov V.V.- candidate of veterinary sciences, director.
   
Address: Veterinary center "Solnyshko", Kazan (E-mail: 902290@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: A novel endoscopic technique of SILS laparoscopy allows having diagnostic and operational activities in feline and canine abdominal cavity. Feline laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy has a patent in the Russian Federation ¹ 2503419.
A single port laparoscopy, methodology proposed by the author, is a promising direction in Veterinary Endosurgery. Its main advantages are a tiny operative field, one puncture (one port), minimizing iatrogenic injury and increased economic efficiency as it is a rapid operation process and less traumatic (only one hole for trocar), it does not require a large dose of anesthesia that allows a short rehabilitation period taking 3 hours at average, that reduces operation costs and eliminates a need to maintain the animal at hospital, prevents postsurgical complications ( leakage of carbon dioxide into the subcutaneous tissue, and complications caused by high gas pressure in abdominal cavity). The operation is sparing, combines easy surgical procedures and cosmetic effects (operative field no more than 2?2 cm). Unlike two - port laparoscopy techniques used in small animal surgery the proposed laparoscopy offered by the author supposes the use of conventional endoscopic instrument.
“The Ivanov’s trocar “, a new tool for single-port technology, has a conventional trocar design with valve-free gas supply crane and the trocar sleeve head stitched by the angle of 35 degrees. The two sleeves are inserted into the conventional trocar lid by the angle of 35 degrees. Conventional trocar of 5 mm with magnetic (solenoid) valve are reseated into the sleeves. Also there is an option of the trocar lid with silicone insert, where the divergence angle of instruments and lenses is more flexible.
Analysis of surgical procedures shows that the single-port technique is less iatrogenic, less time-consuming (12,3 ± 2,3 min) at feline and canine ovariohysterectomy. Diagnostic procedure with liver biopsy is also less iatrogenic, eliminates postoperative hernias. Unlike the double port technique the proposed method has a good cosmetic effect and is much easier for surgeons to learn.
The developed single-port laparoscopy has been tested and applied practical veterinarians in Kazan, Ufa , Moscow, St. Petersburg and other Russian cities.
   
Keywords: SILS, laparoscopy, ovariohysterectomy, biopsy, small pets allowed
   
References: 1. Vankov V.A. Laparoskopicheskaya vizualizatsiya [Laparoscopic visualization], p.46-49. Rossiyskiy veterinarny zhurnal – Russian Veterinary Journal, 2009, Vol. 4.
2. Ivanov V.V., Usmanov R.A., Mikhaylov S.P. Preimushchestva odnoportovoy laparoskopicheskoy ovariogisterektomii suk [Advantages of bitches single-port laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy]. Proceedings of 19th Moscow international Veterinary congress. April 16-18 2011.
3.Lapshin A.N., Lapshin M.N., Tekhnika odnoportovoy laparoskopicheskoy biopsii pecheni s isoplzovaniyem Glove-porta [Liver biopsy single-port laparoscopy using Glove-port]. Rossiyskiy veterinarny zhurnal – Russian Veterinary Journal. Vol.4, 2012, p.38-42.
4. Sposob ovariogisterektomii u koshek, horkov s videoendoskopicheskim kontrolem [Cats and polecat ovariohysterectomy with video-endoscopic control]. The Russian Federation patent ¹ 2593419, 26.09.2012.
5. Hosgood J. et al. Small animal paediatric medicine and surgery. Translated into Russian by Makhiyanova E.- Moscow LLC «AQUARIUM PRINT», 2000., p.343-353.
6. Chernov A.V. Endoscopicheskiye metody sterelizatsii sobak [Endoscopic approach of dogs sterilization]. – Veterinarny Doktor, 2010, Vol. 12, p.20-23.
7.Kala Z., Hanke I., Neumann C. //A modified technic in laparoscopy-assisted appendectomy – a transumbilical approach through a single port// Rozhl Chir. 1996. Vol. 75, ¹1. P. 15-18.
8.Kagaya T. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy via two ports, using the «Twin-Port» system. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2001; 8: 76-80.
9.Todd R. Tams, Clarence A. «SmallAnimalEndoscopy» 3rd edition, Rawlings, Copyright © 2011, 1999, 1990 byMosby, Inc., Anaffiliate of Elsevier Inc, Ð.466.
10.Ferreira M.P.A Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in domestic cats: Two portals technique 2011 Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 39 (4), art. no. 997.
   
   
Title:

DOG LIVER FUNCTIONAL CHANGES AT ACUTE HEPATIC FAILURE

   
Authors: Osyanina M.N. - postgraduate; Ysha B.V. - doctor of Veterinary Science, professor, academician of RAS, director.
   
Address: (Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State University of Food Production Technology»)
   
Abstract: The paper describes the results of investigating functional changes in dogs’ liver at acute hepatic failure. The aim of this research was to detect early development of liver failure in animals. The experiment involved thirty dogs through the introduction of carbon tetrachloride caused acute liver failure. Using a "MARS" automatic biochemical analyzer and reagent kits manufactured by JSC "Deacon-Dia SMS» and «Vital-Europe» we studied blood biochemical parameters at acute liver failure. The biochemical studies indicated an increased level of the following parameters in blood: total protein, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, a-Amylase, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDH, GGTP. Currently, acute liver failure is one of the core problems in veterinary medicine and this study allows early identification of liver failure development that contributes a lot into veterinary practice.
   
Keywords: dogs, liver, protein, albumine, globulin, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, ASAT, ALAT, ALP, a-Amilazy, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDH, GGTP
   
References: 1. Abdullayev N.H. Patologiya i patogeneticheskaya terapiya khronicheskih gepatitov i tsirroza pecheni[Pathology and pathogenetic therapy of chronic hepatitis and hepatocirrosis] . – Tashkent. 2008. P. 237.
2. Andreyma L.A. Puti povysheniya effektivnosti sorbtsionnyh metodov pri lechenii pechyonochnoy nedostatochnosti [Ways of improving sorption methods at liver failure therapy]//Abstract from Doctor of Medicine thesis.- Moscow. 2004. P. 42.
3. Radchenko V.G, Shabrov A.V., Zinovyeva E.N., Sitkin S.I. Zabolevaniya pecheni i zhelchevyvodyashchih putey [Liver and biliary tracs diseases. Moscow. 2011. P.14-15.
4. Usha B.V. Veterinarnaya gepatologiya [Animal hepatology]. - Moscow: Kolos, 1979. P. 241.
5. Usha B.V., Belyakov I.M., Pushkaryov R.P. Klinicheskaya diagnostika vnutrennih nezaraznyh bolezney zhivotnyh [Clinical diagnostics of animal internal non-transmittable diseases]. - Moscow: Kolos. 2003. P. 47.
6. Usha B.V., Gladskih L.V. Peritonealny dializ u sobak kak sposob lecheniya pechenechnoy nedostatochnosti [Canine peritoneal dialysis as a liver failure therapy method]. Collection of scientific articles of All-Russian State Institute of Veterinary Drugs Control, Standardization, and Certification. - Moscow. 1994. Vol.56.P. 87-89.
7. Ukolova M.V. Gepatopatii sobak: klassifikatsiya, patogenez, etiologiya, lecheniye [Canine hepatopathy: classification, pathogenesis, etiology, therapy]. //Vestnik veterinarnoy meditsiny – The Veterinary Medicine bulletin. - Moscow. 2012. Vol. 3. - P. 15-17.
8. Schebits H., Brass W. Operativnaya hirurgiya sobak i koshek. Prakticheskoye rukovodstvo dlya veterinarnyh vrachey [Operationen an Hund und Katze. Broschiert].- Moscow: «Aquarium LLC». 2001. P. 298.
9.Howard R.B., Lee Y.C., Persoh L.A. The fine structure, potassium content and respiratori activity of isolated rad liver parenchymal cells prepared by improved ensymatic techniques. Y. Cell. Biol. 2003. vol. 57, P. 642.
10. Kaltenbach Y.P. The preparation of whole cell suspensions obtained from solid mammalian tissues. Exp. Cell. Res. 2004. vol. 7, P. 569.
   
   
Title:

DIAGNOSTICS, COMPLEX THERAPY OF CANINE ACUTE AND CHRONIC ECZEMA AND DERMATITIS

   
Authors: Karpov S.A. – postgraduate; Chekhodaridi F.N. - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, head of chair.
   
Address: Highlands State Agrarian University (tel.: +7 (867-2) 53-10-65; E-mail: ggau.vet@mail.ru).

   
Abstract: A proposed non-transmittable eczema and dermatitis therapy scheme is very effective. Pathogenetic therapy of acute and chronic forms of eczema, traumatic and allergic dermatitis promotes the healing process with complete clinical recovery, skin physiology restoration and increase of organism immune and biochemical response in the first and second experimental groups of animals in the average, took place at 16,5±0,58 days and 18,5±0,65 days, respectively, while the control group dogs needed 22,5±0,82 days after therapy started. During the research the smear prints microscopy detected 105,5±6,0 colony /cm2, that 2,52 times higher than in healthy animals. Blood morphological studies showed that prior to treatment the animals in all experimental groups showed a decrease of erythrocytes number, hemoglobin level, and increased number of leukocytes, percentage of stab and segmented neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Dogs with acute form of eczema and traumatic dermatitis had a significant increase of AST while herds with allergic dermatitis had lesser extent.
Biochemical and immunological blood sera studies determined that complex therapy accelerates metabolism and reduction and oxidation processes, as well as immunobiological response in dogs from the first and second experimental groups compared to the control ones.
   
Keywords: Cordyceps-korol, Novocain blockade, eczema, dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, dogs, skin, fish oil
   
References: 1.Matveev O.A. Vozrastniye izmeneniya morfologicheskih pokazateley pochek besporodnyh sobak [Age alterations of morphological parameters in mongrel dogs kidney]. Assotsiatsiya praktikuyushih vrachey – Association of veterinary practitioners. Kazan, 2010.
2.Donnik I.M. Immunogramma zhivotnyh v klinicheskoy praktike [Animal immunography in clinical practice] // Aktualniye voprosy veterinarnoy meditsiny melkih domashnih zhivotnyh – Current issues of pet veterinary medicine – Volume 2. – Yekaterinburg, 1997.
3. Donnik I.M. Sostoyaniye zdorovya selskohozyaystvennyh zhivotyh v industrialnyh territoriyah [Livestock animal health in industrial areas] // Prodovolstvennaya bezopasnost - XXI vek– Food safety – XXI century: Collection of scientific articles, 2000, p. 114-130.
4. Novikov D.K. Klinicheskaya allergologiya [Clinical allergology] / Novikov D.K. – Minsk: Vysheysha shkola, 1991 – 510 p.
5. Lebedev A.V., Starchenkov S.V., Khokhrin S.P., Shcherbakov G.G. Nezarazniye bolezni sobak I koshek [Canine and feline non-transmittable diseases]. – St. Petersburg: «GIORD», 2000. – p. 174
6. Sazonova N.V. Sravnitelniye shemy lecheniya sobak, bolnyh ekzemoy [Comparative therapy schema of dogs having eczema]. – Dissertation thesis for Candidate of Vet. Sciences.– St. Petersburg. – 2003.-165p.
7. Smirnov P.N. Teoreticheskiye i prakticheskiye aspekty problem ekologii i adaptatsii zhivotnyh [Theoretical and practical aspects of ecology and animal adaptation issues] // Nauchnoye obespecheniye veterinarnyh problem v zhivotnovodstve – Scientific basics of veterinary problems in animal breeding. – Novosibirsk, 1999. – P. 36-48.
8. Larskiy E.I. Laboratornoye delo [Laboratory practice]. 1981.
   
   
Title:

CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF EQUINE PAPILLOMATOSIS

   
Authors: L.I.Biryukova - postgraduate; L.F.Sotnikova - Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, professor, head of chair.
   
Address: Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education «Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after Skryabin K.I.», Department of biology and pathology of pets, laboratory and exotic animals (E-mail: bastet2602@rambler.ru).

   
Abstract: The article presents data on study of papillomatosis clinical picture  in 28 horses of trotter breed. It was revealed that the disease mainly occurs in two forms: papillomatosis of the hairy skin surface and papillomatosis of auricle inner surface. It was registered that the age of animals having papillomatosis wasn’t homogeneous. The first form of the disease most often registered in the horses aged 1-1.5 year old, while the second form of papillomatosis occurs only in horses older 5 years. Papillomatosis of the hairy skin surface was not registered in horses older 2.5 years. Also, we studied quantitative characteristics of hair and skin alterations in lesion loci. Some clinical signs of equine papillomatosis were determined to be pathognomonic. This can refer to limited alopecias, lack of hair sections, cutaneous pain, itching and increased body temperature in lesion loci as well as lack of skin smell which is nonspecific for the investigated animal species. The article also provides distinctive clinical signs of the investigated papillomatosis forms, e. g. skin colour, moisture content and elasticity, firmness of hair coat, hair ruffling and thickness.
   
Keywords: papillomatosis of hairy skin surface, papillomatosis of auricle inner surface, horses
   
References: 1.Pascoe R., Knottenbelt D. Rukovodstvo po dermatologii loshadey [Manual of equine dermatology] // Moscow, publishing house Sofion.- 2008.
2.Robinson E. Bolezni loshadey i sovremenniye metody ih llecheniya [Current therapy of equine medicine (Current veterinary therapy)] // Moscow: Aquaruim publishing house- 2007.
3.Voronin Å. Ñ. Klinicheskaya diagnostika s rentgenologiyey [Clinical diagnostics and roetgenology] // Moscow: Kolos publishing house. 2006.
4.Anderson K. Viral Warts // Western Horse Breeders Annual. 2010.-¹ 5. Ñ.116-119.
5.Ball M., Dealing with warts // The horse. 2004. ¹ 8.Ñ. 11-14.
6.Falah K., Odeh F, Nabil K. Cutaneous papillomatosis in horses: response of horses to autogeneous wart vaccine // Pakistan Vet. J. 2000.- ¹ 20 (4). Ñ. 163-165.
7.Kocheryaga A.I., Zhukova M.V. Proceedings from the Third scientific conference on equine diseases // Ìoscow. 2002. P. 13-14.
  Parasitology
   
Title:

THE NATURE OF EPIZOOTIC MANIFESTATION OF DOGS’ ECTOPARASITOSIS IN NIZHNY NOVGOROD

   
Authors: Pashkin A.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor, head of chair; Pashkina Yu.V. - Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor; Elizarov A.P. - postgraduate, Vedeneev S.A. - Doctor of Veterinary Science, professor; Gorin M.A. – postgraduate; Karelkin D.V. – postgraduate.
   
Address: FGBI HPE «Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy», Nizhniy Novgorod (E-mail: kafedra30@mail.ru).
   
Abstract: The ectoparasitosises (and particularly demodecosis) are known to be one of the permanent components of dogs' nosological profile, and, especially, in cities.
In comparative aspect and in dynamics to investigate epizootic manifestation peculiarities of one of the most significant parasitosises (demodecosis)actively involving dog population in its functioning system in order to make the base for correction of antiepizootic and treatment measure systems in Nizhniy Novgorod.
During the research, the main regional particularities of epizootic manifestation of canine demodecosis in Nizhniy Novgorod were determined to be the indicators of territorial, temporal, population and subpopulation borders, annual sickness rate and seasonal epizootic supplements including formation of causative agent specific transmission mechanism.
Of shorthair breeds the young animals were more susceptible to disease (56,7% of total number of infected animals), predominantly males from 6 to 12 months old (39,5 per cents cases). The disease has been recorded all year round, but with expressive seasonal epizootic increase exceeding average annual level in summer and spring.
Mainly, demodecosis was determined to transmit from the sick (infected) animal to the intact one through contact including the cases when mother infects its puppies, or dogs are kept together, or after accidental contact of sick and healthy dogs during walking, exhibitions, mating and when visiting hospitals.
The main peculiarity of demodecosis clinical manifestations is its distinguished staging. As a rule, the disease usually first starts with scaly form and then develops papules (papular form) and pustules (pustular form).
During the first stage the disease has a local process characterized by limited areas of skin lesions which widen and develop general form if no special control measures were taken or the disease was misdiagnosed.
   
Keywords: ectoparasitosis, demodecosis, epizootic manifestation, transmission mechanism.
   
References: References.
1. Antipov V.A., Erpelova T.N. Raspostraneniye zabolevaniy kozhi u sobak v Krasnodare [Widespread canine skin diseases in Krasnodar]//Veterinariya. 2011. Vol. 10. P.58-59.
2. Vedeneyev S.A. Raspostraneniye parazitov sobak v Nizhnem povolzhye [Widespread canine parasites in Lowland Volga region ]// Teoriya i praktika borby s parazitarnymi boleznyami – Theory and practice of parasitic diseases control: works of VIGIS. 2004. Vol.5. P. 102-104.
3. Vereta L.E. Gelminty i gelmintosy pishevaritelnogo trakta sobak v Moskve i ih sanitarno-epidemiologicheskoye znacheniye [Helminthes and helmithoses of canine digestion system in Moscow and their sanitation and epidemiologic significance]//Bulletin of All-Russian Institute of Helmintology. 1986. Vol. 43. P.25-30.
4. Ignatova D.J., Pashkin A.V., Shilkina L.V. Domashniye i dikiye zhivotnye – soaktanty parazitarnyh sistem v usloviyah Povolzhskogo regiona [Domestic and wild animals are the co-actors of parasitic system in Volga region area]//Veterinarnaya praktika. 2007. Vol. 3 (38). P.25-27.
5. Makarov V.V., Svyatkovsky A.V., Kuzmin V.A. Epizootologicheskiy method issledovaniya [Epizootological method of investigation]: manual.- Saint Petersburg: "Lan", 2009. 224 p.
6. Petrov Yu.F., Zubov A.V., Rogozina I.E. Alyarioz plotoyadnyh [Carnivorous alariosis]//Veterinarnaya patologiya - Veterinary pathology. 2007. Vol. 3 (22). P.115-117.
7. Sochnev V.V. Epizootologicheskaya diagnostika, kak metod opredeleniya territorialnyh, vremennyh i populyatsionnyh granits [Epizootological diagnostics as a method of determining territorial, time and population borders of the epizooty//veterinaya i biologicheskaya nauka po selhoz.proizvodstvu - Veterinary and biological science on agriculture. Proceedings from science and practice conference, Volgograd, Volgograd 24-25.07.1995. N.Novgorod 2-3.07.1996. - N.Novgorod, 1997. P. 133-136