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¹ 4, 2013

  Editorial
   
Title:

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS THE PLEDGE OF FOOD SAFETY

   
Authors: Ivanov A.V.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan.
   
Abstract:
   
   
  Toxicology
   
Title:

RESULTS OF PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH WHITE RAT POISONING SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS DURING TREATMENT WITH ANTIDOTES

   
Authors: Egorov V.I.; Khalikova K.F.; Gubeeva E.G.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan.
   
Abstract: Conducted a study of the effect of antidote VIK-1 on pathological changes in organs and tissues of animals with synthetic pyrethroid poisoning them in absolutely lethal dose. Histological examination of the rat poison in Fastak absolutely lethal dose revealed that the most pronounced effect of this synthetic pyrethroid effects on the liver, brain and kidneys, as manifested neyronadistrofical, neyronofagical and satellitical changes. Applying of antidote in case of poisoning pyrethroid dose LD100 cancels the toxic effects on the liver, blood vessels, reduces the toxic effect on the brain. The experiments revealed that the antidote for conventional code VIK-1 positive effect on the organs of animals.
   
Keywords: rat, synthetic pyrethroid, Fastak, antidote VIK-1, pathomorphological research
   
   
   
Title:

STUDY OF THE SORPTION PROPERTIES OF SORBENTS FOR LEAD ACETATE

   
Authors: Tremasova A.M.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan.
   
Abstract: To determine whether the binding of lead acetate used sorbents: bentonite, polisorb, zookarb, polisorbin, shungite.
Maximum sorption properties for lead acetate at 380 C. and a pH of 7 subjects sorbents exhibited the following sequence: 62%-shungite, zookarb - 60,2%, polisorbin – 59,4%, polysorb – 52,1%, bentonite – 48,5%. At pH 2 - shungite – 60,8%; zookarb – 59,2%; polisorbin – 59,1%; polisorb – 50,4%. bentonite – 48,5%.
In animal studies found that the most pronounced absorption properties of acute seed had the lead sorbents shungite,zookarband polisorbin- survival of rats in this case was - up to 90%, the rest of sorbents provided 83.4% survival rate at approximately the same length of life of the victims.
The histological study showed signs of toxic effects of lead in the form of a granular degeneration of the liver, impaired beam structure and focal necrosis with the manifestation of the reaction mikrofagalnyh cells. In the gastric wall inflammatory response observed with all layers polymorphocellular infiltration and dystrophic changes.
In histological preparations of rats treated aqueous lead and sorbents histological structure of the liver, kidney, spleen, stomach wall normally adequate. In preparations of liver beams of the structure was not broken, hepatocytes were stained eosinophiliccytoplasm, nuclei are located in the center and had a basophilic staining.
The results of these studies indicate that the introduction to the animals of lead acetate at a dose of 25 mg / kg has a negative effect on the blood-biochemical parameters and structure of the internal organs. High sorption properties for lead acetate sorbents haveshungite, zookarb and polisorbin.
   
Keywords: poisoning, heavy metals, sorbent, shungite, lead acetate
   
  Infectious pathology
   
Title:

ULTRASTRUCTURE AND MORPHOGENESIS OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS IN THE PROCESS OF ITS CULTURE IN A BHK-21 SUSPENSION CELL CULTURE

   
Authors: Zakutsky N.I.; Simonova E.G.; Balysheva V.I.; Anisimova L.I.
   
Address: All Russia Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Science (SRI NRIVVaMR).
   
Abstract: The ultrastructure and morphogenesis of  a Rift Valley fever virus strain “1974 VNIIVViM” in the process of its growth in a suspension cell culture BHK-21 was investigated for the first time ever, also the main stages of the virus morphogenesis starting from the time of its adsorption on cell membrane up to virion maturation and escaping the cell are described in detail. The obtained results confirm that taxonomically the virus belongs to the family Bunyaviridae.
   
Keywords: RVF, virus, virions, cells, strain 1974 VNIVViM, cell culture BHK-21
   
   
   
Title:

STUDY OF THE BOND OF MASTITIS COWS' AND TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS OF NEWBORN CALVES IN DAGESTAN

   
Authors: Musaeva M.N.; Aliev A.U.
   
Address: Caspian Zonal Research Veterinary Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Mahachcala.
   
Abstract: The important role in arising of gastrointestinal diseases of newborn calves belongs to Staphilococcus. In this article is shown the role of staphylococcus enterotoxines in the etiology of this pathology. Two ways of the penetration of staphylococcus enterotoxines are possible: exogenous– with colostrum and milk of cows, sick by subclinical mastitis, and endogenous - syntheses of toxines directly in intestine of calves.
   
Keywords: mastitis, staphylococcus, enterotoxines, newborn calves, Dagestan Republice
   
   
   
Title:

CONDITION OF T- AND B-IMMUNITY IN CHICKS AT MONO- AND MIXNEMATODOSIS

   
Authors: 1 Shilkina L.V.; 1 Kozyrenko O.V.; 2 Kolobov E.A.; 3 Ibragimov Sh.N.; 1 Å.H.Daugalieva; 1 Sochnev V.V.; 4 Filippov N.V.; 5 Jezlova N.V.
   
Address: 1 Federal State Educational Establishment High Professional Education Nizhniy Novgorod State Agricultural Academy.
2 Committee of State Veterinary Control of Nizhniy Novgorod Region.
3 Management of Veterinary Medicine of West Region Kazakhstan Republic.
4 Volgograd Regional Veterinary Laboratory.
5 Management of Veterinary Medicine of Nizhniy Novgorod.
   
Abstract: Parasites and their larvae have antigen differences. Changes of quantity indexes of T- and B-lymphocytes in organism of birds with invasive diseases connect with stages of life cycle of parasites. The various manifestation of immunological reaction of birds may be explained so: causative agent, penetrating into organism later (second), finds immunity system of the organism in conditions of activity or suppression (inhibition).
   
Keywords: T- and B-immunity, nematodosis, mixinvasions, antigens variety of helminthosis
   
   
   
Title:

PREVALENCE OF A CHLAMIDIOSIS OF LIVESTOCK IN A ZONE OF THE AVERAGE VOLGA REGION, PREDURALJA AND SPECIFIC PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

   
Authors: Khusainov F.M.; Evstifeev V.V.; Âàrbarova L.A.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan.
   
Abstract: The analysis clinico-epizootologic situations on a clamidiosis of agricultural animals in a zone of the Average Volga region and Preduralja on has confirmed an etiological role of chlamydias in disease of a horned cattle and sheep with clinically expressed abortions, a birth of dead and weak calfs and lambs. Preventive vaccination in a current of 6-7 years against a clamidiosis livestock and a small cattle in a combination to medical and veterinarno-sanitary measures led to depression of a case rate and destruction of animals from an infection and promoted to stabilisation epizootologic to a situation.
   
Keywords: the ñlamidiosis of a cattle and sheep in a zone of the Average Volga region and Preduralja, specific preventive a livestock of clamidiosis
   
   
   
Title:

COMPARATIVE STUDY IMMUNOGENIC PROPERTIES LIVE AND INACTIVATED ANTIBRUCELLOSIS VACCINES AT REVACTINATION OF SHEEPS

   
Authors: Salmakov K.M.; Fomin A.M.; Safina G.M.; Kosarev M.A.; Fyodorova N.Y.; Chabibullin R.R.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan.
   
Abstract:
   
   
   
   
Title:

MICROBIAL QUAIL EMBRYOS OF CONTAMINATION AND THE SENSITIVITY OF ISOLATED MICROORGANISMS TO ANTIBIOTICS

   
Authors: Efanova L.I.; Manzhurina O.A.; Taran N.A.
   
Address: All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy RAAS, Voronezh.
   
Abstract: Studied the level of contamination of 392 quail eggs in the final incubation period (12-17 days), the species composition of microbial contaminants and their sensitivity to antibiotics in a particular sector. Established infection of embryos in 23,2% of cases of potential pathogens factor infection of quail in the first days of their lives, including staphylococci in 70,3%, 46,2% in enterococci, enterobacteria in 1,1% of the isolates. Among the isolates dominated by gram-positive 6 species (Staph.gallinarum, Staph.aureus, Staph.epidermidis, Staph saprophyticus, Ent.faecalis, Ent.faecium), in 81,3% of cases presented with monocultures, at 18,7% - of the associations two kinds of microorganisms. The changes in contaminant sensitivity to antibiotics in the last 2 years, permanent change it. Of the 10 tested different groups of antibiotics effective against most isolates were fluoroquinolone group.
   
Keywords: quail embryos, germ of contamination, embriotoksikoz, sensitivity to antibiotics
   
  Non-transmittable diseases
   
Title:

CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL JUSTIFICATION OF PHARMACOLOGICAL OPTIMIZATION REPARATIVE OSTEOGENESIS IN DOGS AFTER OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF TUBULAR BONES

   
Authors: Rublenko M.V.; Yeroshenko O.V.
   
Address: Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine.
   
Abstract: The the article presents data on the efficacy of tranexamic acid and acelysin after osteosynthesis of a tubular bones in dogs.
   
Keywords: osteosynthesis, tranexamic acid, acelysin, acute phase proteins
   
   
   
Title:

HISTOMORPHOLOGY THE MAMMARY GLAND OF PREGNANT SOWS

   
Authors: Kotzarev V.N.; Suleimanov S.M.; Tolkachev I.S.; Skrilnikov O.N.; Sotnikov A.A.
   
Address: All Russia Veterinary Research Institute of Pathology, Pharmacology and Therapy, Voronezh.
   
Abstract: Lactation malfunctions are a limiting factor in pig reproduction. A significant losses of newborn piglets are observed due to hypo- and agalactia in sows. Subclinical mastitis is one among reasons of agalactia in sows. In sows its identified during parturition and within first hours after farrowInvestigations of morphological status of sows mammary gland during pregnancy and revelation of its structural changes typical for subclinical mastits are realized. Samples of 19 sows mammary gland tissues euthanased at 19-23, 35-48, 57, 65-76, 88-91, 101-105, 110, 114 days of gestation and 2 hours after farrow were subjects of our study. Sample were developed by conventional methods. Histological specimens were evaluated by a 7-power microscope with 10x, 40x and 90x eye-glasses.
It is established that in mammary gland of sows during first 1.5 months of gestation processes of tissue dystrophy, dissolution and resorption are dominant. From the end of second month of gestation till the parturition occurs formation of new glandular tissue of mammary gland. Regions of mammary gland with patterns typical for subclinical mastitis could uncovered since 88-91 days of gestation, growing progressively worse till parturition.
   
Keywords: pregnant sows, the morphology of breast glands, subclinical mastitis
   
  Zootechny
   
Title:

USE OF PROBIOTIC FEED ADDITIVES STRAIT AND BATSELL FOR GROWING CHICKENS IN POULTRY FARMS

   
Authors: Sergeev S.G.; Alekseev I.A.
   
Address: «Chuvash State Agricultural Academy».
   
Abstract: During the whole period of the test the amount of red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood of chickens in the experimental group, treated with probiotic feed additives Strait and Batsell, were 2,54, 1,12, 5,06% (P < 0.05) higher over against the same characteristics of the control group.
Analysis of the numerical values shown that these probiotic feed additives increased the number of total protein in the serum of young chickens by 5,13% and 6,36% (P <0,01). It was found that the drug caused the increase of the serum of experimental chickens comparing to control of the level of globulin fractions, especially gamma globulin, on the average of  2,43% (P <0,01). Blood glucose levels of all groups of chicks varied between 4,42 ± 0,22 - 4,87 ± 0,29 mmol / l.
Under equal conditions of feeding and alimentation these drugs by the end of test allowed to increase average daily weight gain in chickens experimental groups over against control counterparts by an average of 9.01% and 9,38% (P <0,01).
Survival of the chickens in the experimental group compared with the one in the control group was on the average 2.28% and 3,09% (P <0,05) higher, indicating the positive effect of probiotic feed additives Batsell and Strait on the body of young chickens.
   
Keywords: chickens, probiotic feed additives Strait and Batsell, average daily gain, sugar beet molasses, sunflower meal
   
  Radiobiology
   
Title:

RADIOPROTECTIVE COMPOSITIONS ON THE BASE OF METABOLIC PRODUCTS OF E.COLI

   
Authors: Nizamov R.N.; Konjukhov G.V.; Titov A.S.; Sharifullina D.T.; Rakhmatullina G.I.
   
Address: Federal Center of Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan.
   
Abstract: On the basis of products of a metabolism of test microbes, as which were used by E. coli («PL-6» strain) in a combination with natural minerals (hydrosilicate of aluminum and an aluminum hydroxide) it is developed a manufacturing techniques and the scheme of application of radio protective preparations at the sharp radiation sickness (SRS), which provided 80 %-ny survival at preventive (for 1 days before lethal radiation) and 60 %-ny survival at medical (in 1 days after radiation) application of preparations.
   
Keywords: E.coli, products of a metabolism of an intestinal stick, aluminum hydrosilicate, aluminum hydroxide, cultural liquid (CL), radiation sickness, mice, rats
   
  Physiology
   
Title:

STUDY THE MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL REACTION OF THE PIGS ORGANISM ON INFLUENCE OF BIOGENIC SUBSTANCES OF THE DOMESTIC PRODUCTION

   
Authors: Lezhnina M.N.; Mullakaev A.O.; Blinova A.D.; Efimova L.N.
   
Address: I. Yakovlev Chuvash State Pedagogical University, Cheboksary.
   
Abstract: The modern stage of development of the pig breeding is based on the use of the achievements in scientific-technical progress and highly productive animals in the industry, which is accompanied by the complexity of the impact of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment on the physiological condition of the organism in different periods of postnatal ontogenesis. In these conditions the very actual is remained by the problem of the successful implementation of the genetic potential of the resistance and productivity of pigs.
Therefore, development, testing and scientific justification of the use of domestic biogenic matter of new generation, characterized by high of prevention and medical treatment efficiency, as well as ecological harmlessness for an organism, is the actual problem of modern biology and biotechnology.
The objective is to assess ontogenetic specificity of growth of the body, biochemical, and immunological profile in boars and hogs, contained in the combined to prescribe a «Trepel» and «Suvar» with the account of the biogeochemical features of the Chuvash Center.
A series of scientific and laboratory experiments with use of 20 suckling pigs is carried out. The boars both groups with 2 - to 59-day-old grew together with suckling sows. Then after castration hogs of the first group (the control), with a 60 - up to 300 days of age (the duration of the observations) contained on the main diet (MD); the second group of animals against the background of the MD daily fed «Trepel» in the dose of 1.25 g/kg body weight until the end of the studies and «Suvar» at a rate of  25-50 mg/kg body weight in every period of 20 days with a 10-day intervals of up to 240 days old. In the course of experiments with 5 animals from each group in 2-, 15-, 60-, 240 - and 300-th day of  life (respectively periods of the date of birth, milk feeding type, puberty, physiological maturation) studied the growth of the body, biochemical and immunological parameters of blood according to generally accepted in the physiology of the modern tests.
Revealed ontogenetic specificity of the dynamics of biochemical and immunological parameters in the control animals in whole corresponded to that of experimental animals, but on a higher exchange level caused by the joint appointment of biopreparations «Trepel» and «Suvar».
Set ontogenetic peculiarities of growth, biochemical, and immunological profile of the blood of the boars and hogs with the combined appointment of biopreparations «Trepel» and «Suvar» with the account of biogeochemical specificity of the Center of the Chuvash Republic.
   
Keywords: boars, hogs, blood, «Trepel», «Suvar», postnatal ontogenesis
   
   
   
Title:

THE IMPACT OF EARLY INSEMINATION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION OF MARES

   
Authors: Onegov A.V.; Chirgin E.D.; Ulyanets E.V.
   
Address: «Mari State University», Ioshkar Ola.
   
Abstract: Basis of increase of rates of realization of genetic potential of horses in dairy horse breeding is intensity of reproduction of herd. In the conditions of stationary kumysny farms at the konyushenny maintenance of a horse of tyazhelovozny breeds local breeds are earlier, than. Problem of our researches was studying of possibility of insemination repair a kobylok before three-year age, and also influence of early insemination of horses on their growth and development, reproductive function and dairy efficiency. Researches were conducted on a livestock of the Russian tyazhelovozny mares containing on a breeding kumysny complex of JSC PZ Semenovsky of the Republic of Mari El. As material of researches data of the primary zootechnical and breeding account for the 20-year period served. The conducted researches showed that intensively grown up repair a kobylok of the Russian tyazhelovozny breed, received from milch mares in the conditions of intensive technology it is possible to inseminate at the age of 11 - 15 months. However the best results are yielded by the first insemination in 22-29 months (2-2,5 years) at achievement of live weight in 560 kg. Besides, it is experimentally proved that early insemination increases reproductive abilities of mares.
   
Keywords: horses, early insemination, reproduction, dairy horse breeding, precocity
   
   
   
Title:

MINERAL METABOLISM OF LAYING HENS IN ACTIVATED CARBON ADDITIVE APPLYING

   
Authors: Zenkin A.S.; Letkin A.I.; Chinayeva A.Yu.
   
Address: «Mordovia State University named after N.P.Ogarev», Saransk.
   
Abstract: On the basis of Veterinary Hospital of Agrarian Institute of Mordovia Ogarev State University experimental studies of 24 laying hens at the age of 16 months have been carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the activated carbon additive on the mineral metabolism of laying hens. After comprehensive study, the population was divided into 4 experimental groups and their diet was added with activated carbon additive in different doses. The test results are taken into account on the 15th and 30th day, the data is summarized and tabulated.
Activated carbon additive, besides the ability to absorb large amounts of gas, has the property of absorbing bacteria and thus prevents their spread in the organism. It also absorbs bacterial poisons and other toxic substances entering or forming into intestine.
The study revealed that the activated carbon additive at 200 and 400 g/t of feed results in stabilization of the calcium-phosphorus, magnesium and potassium metabolism in laying hens.
   
Keywords: mineral metabolism, laying hens activated carbon additive, poisoning, biochemical analysis
   
   
   
Title:

NONSPECIFIC FACTORS OF RESISTANCE OF ANIMALS

   
Authors: 1 Reshetnikov O.V.; 2 Sleeping A.S.
   
Address: 1 Luga Biotechnology Institute (branch) AOS VPO «Leningrad State University named after A.S.Pushkin», Luga.
2 Karelian State Agricultural Experiment Station.
   
Abstract: Susceptibility of animals to disease and the degree of their manifestation largely driven state natural resistance. Under the resistance is a state body's defenses are able to withstand the effects of various environmental factors, including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Although nonspecific resistance is genetic, but its level is different depending on the age of the animal, the season, feeding and. Established indicators total resistance of Ayrshire cattle: total blood protein level bactericidal, lysozyme and complement activity, depending on the age of the animals and the seasons.
   
Keywords: cattle, nonspecific resistance, cellular factors, humoral factors